Docstoc

42

Document Sample
42 Powered By Docstoc
					College English Integrated Course 4

    Unit Two: Smart Cars


                              Part I     Part II


                              Part III   Part IV



                                              next
Unit 2: Smart Cars                          NCE-B4




                     Part I:
                     Pre-Reading Tasks

                      A Song:

                         In the year 2525

                      Task One: The Questions

                        1. 2. 3. 4


                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                  NCE-B4

       Part II: Text A
          Vocabulary to Read
           p1. Even the automobile…       P8. As a satellite passes…
           P2. The automobile…            P9. In Japan there are already…
           p3. The car, and the roads…    p10. With the price of microchips…
           p4. Approximately40,000…       P11. GPS is actually but part of…
           p5. Smart cars have already…   P12. On an eight-mile stretch of…
           p6. At the MIT Media Lab, …    P13. Promoters of this…
           p7. Two of the most
           frustrating…




                                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                 NCE-B4


      Language Points
         words & expressions            cultural notes

       Language Sense Enhancement
         Poetry      Quotations     Humorous story       Movie         Web-links

       Comprehension
         Content questions           Points for Discussion
         Text Organization
      Language Focus
          1.Vocabulary

           Words to Drill    Gaps Filling       Phrasal Verbs             Rewriting

              Completing          Word Formation           Usage

                                                next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                               NCE-B4


          2. Structure
               Sentence Completion    Translation
       Comprehensive Exercises
              Cloze             Translation

       Chinese Version of Text A
      Part III:
           Words & Phrases to Learn     Comprehension Check

           Translation      Language Practice

      Part IV:
           Essay Writing    Model paper




                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                  NCE-B4




              Part I: Pre-reading Task


                                    script




                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                        NCE-B4



       What will the world be like in five hundred
 years’time? A thousand years’time? Or more? Some
 people are optimistic, looking forward to a better
 world.Others are pessimistic, and fear that things can
 only get worse. The writer of the song you are about to
 listen to takes the pessimistic view. Looking further and
 further into the future things seem to him get worse and


                                       next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                            NCE-B4



       worse. By 3535, he foresees all our thoughts and
       feelings will be shaped by drugs. Looking
       further still into the future he foretells that all
       bodies will waste away as machines do
       everything for us. Family life as we know it will
       fade away as children are bred artificially,
       chosen, in the words of the song, ―from the


                                           next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4




   bottom of a long black tube.‖ Given that man seems
   to pay so little attention to taking care of the planet
   and avoiding using up all its resources, he ends by
   wondering whether man will be around in the future.
   It’s enough , as he says , to make even God shake his
   head.



                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                      NCE-B4




                     next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars
                                                                NCE-B4




                                         Zager & Evans
         In the year 2525

         If man is still alive

         If woman can survive

         They may find

         In the year 3535

         Ain’t gonna need to tell the truth, tell no lies

                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                     NCE-B4


Everything you think , do, or say

Is in the pill you took today

In the year4545

Aint’gonna need your teeth, Won’t
need your eyes

You won’t find a thing to do

Nobody’s gonna look at you


                                    next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4


      In the year 5555
      Your arms are hanging limp at your sides
      Your legs not nothing to do
      Some machine is doing that for you
      In the year 6565
      Ain’t gonna need no husband,won’t need no wife
      You’ll pick your son, pick your daughter too
      From the bottom of a long black tube


                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4



In the year 7510
If God’s a-comin’he ought to make it by then
Maybe he’ll look around himself and say
Guess it’s time for the Judgement Day
In the year 8510
God’s gonna shake his might head
He’ll either say I’m pleased where man has been
Or tear it down and start again

                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4



 In the year 9595
 I’m kinda wondering if man’s gonna be alive
 He’s taken everything this old earth can give
 And he ain’t put back nothing
 Now it’s been 10,000 years
 Man has cried a billion tears
 For what he never knew
 Now man’s reign is through

                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                 NCE-B4



But through the eternal night
The twinkling of starlight
So very far away
Maybe it’s only yesterday




                                next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                        NCE-B4




              Part I: Pre-reading Task


    1.According to the song, will the world be a better or a
    worse place in a few hundred years’ time?

    2. Will the use of drugs to change the way we think
    and feel be common in the future?



                                       next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                           NCE-B4




                 Part I: Pre-reading Task

     3. What does the song writer feel about the future? Is he
     optimistic or not?
                          4. Do you share the views of the song
                          writer about the effects of modern
                          science and technology on man in
                          future?

                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                             NCE-B4




                     Part II:Text A

       Smart cars that can see, hear, feel , smell,
       and talk? And drive on their own? This may
       sound like a dream, but the computer
       revolution is set to turn it into a reality.




                                                 next   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                            NCE-B4


                        Smart Cars
                                           Michio Kaku
    1 Even the automobile industry, which has
         remained largely unchanged for the last seventy
         years, is about to feel the effects of the
         computer revolution.

    2 The automobile industry ranks as among the
         most lucrative and powerful industries of the
         twentieth century.

                                        next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                               NCE-B4




      There are presently 500 millon cars on earth, or
      one car for ten people. Sales of the automobile
      industry stand at about a trillion dollars, making
      it the world’s biggest manufacturing industry.

      3 The car, and the roads it travels on, will be
      revolutionized in the twenty first century. The key
      to tomorrow’s ―smart cars‖ will be sensors.


                                     next   previous   Chinese    index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                              NCE-B4



       ―We’ll see vehicles and roads that see and hear
       and feel and smell and talk and act,‖ predicts Bill
       Spreitzer, technical director of General Motors
       Corporation’s ITS program, which is designing
       the smart car and road of the future.

   4 Approximately 40,000 people are killed each year
       in the United States in traffic accidents.



                                          next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                            NCE-B4




       The number of people that are killed or badly
       injured in car accidents is so vast that we don’t
       even bother to mention them in the newspaper
       anymore. Fully half of these fatalities come from
       drunk drivers, and many others from carelessness.
       A smart car could eliminate most of these car
       accidents. It can sense if a diver is drunk via
       electronic sensors that can pick up alcohol vapor
       in the air, and refuse to start up the engine. The
       car could also alert the police and provide its
       precise location if it is stolen.

                                        next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                              NCE-B4


      5 Smart cars have already been built which can
           monitor one’s driving and the driving conditions
           nearby. Small radars hidden in the bumpers can
           scan for nearby cars. Should you make a serious
           driving mistakes(e.g. change lanes when there is a
           car in your ―blind spot‖)the computer would
           sound an immediate warning.



                                          next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                            NCE-B4


      6 At the MIT Media Lab, a prototype is already
      being built which will determine how sleep you
      are as you drive, which is specially important for
      long-distance truck drivers. The monotonous,
      almost hypnotic process of staring at the divider
      for long hours is a grossly underestimated, life-
      threatening hazard.To estimated this, a tiny
      camera hidden in the dashboard can be trained
      on a driver’s face and eyes.

                                        next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                            NCE-B4




       If the driver’s eyelids close for a certain length of
       time and his or her driving becomes erratic, a
       computer in the dashboard could alert the driver.
       7 Two of the most frustrating things about
       driving a car are getting lost and getting stuck in
       traffic. While the computer revolution is unlikely
       to cure these problems, it will have a positive
       impact. Sensors in your car tuned to radio signals
       from orbiting satellites can locate your car
       precisely at any moment and warn of traffic jams.


                                          next     previous
                                                 previous Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                           NCE-B4



      We already have twenty-four Navstar satellites
      orbiting the earth, making up what is called the
      Global Positioning System. They make it possible to
      determine your location on the earth to within
      about a hundred feet. At any given time, there are
      several GPS satellites orbiting overhead at a
      distance of about 11,000 miles. Each satellite
      contains four ―atomic clocks,‖ which vibrate at a
      precise frequency, according to the laws of the
      quantum theory.



                                       next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                             NCE-B4


       8 As a satellite passes overhead, it sends out a
       radio signal that can be detected by a receiver in
       a car’s computer. The car’s computer can then
       calculate how far the satellite is by measuring
       how long it took for the signal to arrive. Since
       the speed of light is well known, any delay in
       receiving the satellite’s signal can be converted
       into distance.



                                         next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4


   9 In Japan there are already over a million cars with
     some type of navigational capability.(Some of them
     locate a car’s position by correlating the rotations in
     the steering wheel to its position on a map.)

   10 With the price of microchips dropping so
      drastically, future applications of GPS are virtually
      limitless. ―The commercial industry is poised to
      explode,‖ says Randy Hoffman of Magellan System
      Corp., which manufactures navigational systems.


                                        next   previous Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                              NCE-B4



       Blind individuals could use GPS sensors in
       walking sticks, airplanes could land by remote
       control, hikers will be able to locate their position
       in the woods---the list of potential uses is endless.

   11 GPS is actually but part of a larger movement,
      called ―telematics,‖ which will eventually attempt
      to put smart cars on smart highways.




                                          next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                          NCE-B4




     Prototypes of such highways already exist in
     Europe, and experiments are being made in
     California to mount computer chips, sensors, and
     radio Transmitters on highways to alert cars to
     traffic jams and obstructions.
     12 On an eight-mile stretch of Interstate 15 ten
     miles north of San Diego,traffic engineers are
     installing an MIT-designed system which will
     introduce the ―automated driver.‖



                                      next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                           NCE-B4



     The plan calls for computers, aided by thousands
     of three-inch magnetic spikes buried in the
     Highway, to take complete control of the driving
     of the cars on heavily trafficked roads. Cars will
     be bunched into groups of ten to twelve vehicles,
     only six feet apart, traveling in unison, and
     controlled by computer.
     13 Promoters of this computerized highway have
     great hopes for its future.


                                       next   previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                        NCE-B4


    By 2010, telematics may well be incorporated into
    one of the major highways in the United States. If
    successful, by 2020, as the price of micro-chips
    drops to below a penny a piece, telematics could be
    adopted in thousands of miles of highways in the
    United States.This could prove to be an
    environmental boons as well, saving fuel, reducing
    traffic jams, decreasing air pollution, and serving as
    an alternative to highway expansion.


                                           previous   Chinese index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4



                  turn sth. into/
                                          (使)成为现实
                 become a reality
        e.g, 1. Her dream of being a college student
        has tuned into a reality.
              2. His dream for a BMW has become a reality.

      Translate:
         经过几十年的努力,他成为老板的梦想终于成为现实。

           After decades of hard work, his dream to be a
           boss turned into a reality eventually.


                                                           back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                       NCE-B4



                                 Producing wealth; profitable;
                     lucrative
                                 获利的产生财富的;有利润的

       e.g.1.We made a lucrative business deal with the
             American company on rice imports.
           2.Many ex-army officers have found lucrative
             jobs in private security firms.

   Translate
   : 我们公司正在实行一套赢利的市场策略。
       Our company is implementing a lucrative
       marketing strategy.
                                                  back   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                       NCE-B4


                               in a short time; soon: now
                 presently     不久,一会儿; 现在,目前:

       e.g..
       She will arrive presently.
       She is presently writing a book.

    Translate:
       现在他正和我们大家在一起。
        He is presently staying with us.



                                                  back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                       NCE-B4



                                      to make or process goods,
                     manufacture      especially in large quantities

          e.g. Ford has been manufacturing cars for nearly a
          hundred years.

      Translate:
        我国应大力发展制造业。
        Our country should develop the manufacturing
        industry greatly.
        这家公司生产卡车有悠久的历史。
         This company has long history in manufacturing
         trucks .
                                                         back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                              NCE-B4


                     approximately   adv.fairly correct or accurate
                                     but not completely so近似地, 大约


             e.g.Approximately $150 million is to be spent on
                 improvements on school building.


       Translate
       :车祸大约发生在上午七点。
          The car accident happened at approximately 7:00 a.m.




                                                         back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4




                     eliminate    To get rid of; remove:
                                  消灭;消除;淘汰

            e.g. The Chinese government approved a new
            plan to eliminate illiteracy nationwide by 2006.

    Translate:
       考试前消除紧张的情绪是必要的。
       It is necessary to eliminate the nervousness before exam.
       她已被取消了游泳比赛,因为她在训练比赛中没有得到名次。
       She has been eliminated from the swimming
       race because she did not win any of the practice
       races.
                                                           back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                             NCE-B4



                               v. warn sb. that there
                     alert     may be danger警告

        e.g.The manger alerted the staff to the crisis facing
            the company.

   Translate
   : 医生警告我注意吸烟的危险。

       The doctor alerted me to the dangers of smoking..

        on the alert 警戒着


                                                        back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                           NCE-B4


                               n. a division of road, street,
                     lane
                               or highway小路;车道

         e.g. The newly-built highways have two lanes for
         each direction of travel.
   Translate:
            我们沿着小路向农场走去。
           We walked down the lane to the farm.

             快车道;               发生故障的行车道。
           an express lane;     a breakdown lane


                                                      back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                   NCE-B4




                                The first model or design
                 prototype
                                of sth. 原型,模型;

     e.g. Bell uttered to his assistant the words, ―Mr.
     Waltson, come here; I want you,‖ using a prototype
     telephone.

   Translate:
        这是智能车的样车。
       This is a prototype of the smart car .



                                                     back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4




                                         a.dull and never changing,
                     monotonous
                                           constant and boring
           e.g. Robots are used in repetitive, monotonous
           tasks in which human performance might degrade
           over time.

      Translate:
           我在汽车工厂装配线上的工作颇为单调乏味。
           My job at the assembly line of the car factory is rather
           monotonous.



                                                          back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                      NCE-B4


                                     a danger or risk
                      hazard
                                        意外,冒险

        e.g. The research has confirmed that tobacco smoke
             presents a hazard to health.

  Translate:
        太空旅行充满危险。
         Space travel is full of hazards.

         穿越非洲的旅行有许多危险。
       There are many hazards in a journey across
       Africa.

                                                        back index   break   over
                                                          NCE-B4
Unit 2: Smart cars

                                 n. a celestial body that orbits
                     satellite
                                          a planet;卫星

        e.g. Engineer have developed many kinds of satellites,
            each design to serve a specific mission.
   Translate:
        月球是地球的卫星。
       The moon is a satellite of the earth.
       1957年发射了第一颗人造卫星。
       The first man-made satellite was launched in 1957.



                                                         back index   break   over
                                                          NCE-B4
Unit 2: Smart cars


                                    to cause to move back and
                     vibrate        forth rapidly;shake震动

     e.g.The whole house vibrates whenever a heavy truck passes.

    Translate:
          她嘴唇颤动。
          Her lips vibrated.
          他们的心随着演说者激动人心的呼吁而激烈跳动。
         Their hearts vibrated to the speaker's stirring appeal.



                                                         back index   break   over
                                                     NCE-B4
Unit 2: Smart cars



                     frequency    n.频率, 周率, 发生次数


       e.g. My computer broke down with increasing frequency.


   Translate
   : 那条道路交通事故频繁,为此市议会决定降低那
        里的车速限制。
       The frequency of accidents on that road made the
       council lower the speed limit.


                                                     back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                     NCE-B4




                     send out   v.发送, 派遣, 放出

       e.g. The yacht游艇 sent out a distress signal which was
            picked up by a passing steamer.


    Phrases:
            send after 派人去追。

           send for 派人去叫派人去取 要求送货.

           send up 使...上升 向上级呈报[提出]


                                                      back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                       NCE-B4



                                    vt. to change
                     convert        使转变, 转换...,
                                    使...改变信仰

     e.g. Solar cooking requires a dark pot to absorb the
          sun’s rays and convert them into heat energy.

   Translate
   : 那座楼房改成学校了。
       That building has been converted into a school.




                                                         back index   break   over
                                                        NCE-B4
Unit 2: Smart cars



                                   v. to have a correlation
                     correlate
                                      相互关联,和...相关

         We should correlate the theory with practice.

     Translate:
           研究人员发现很难使这两组数字互相关连。

           Research workers find it hard to correlate the
           two sets of figures.



                                                       back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                    NCE-B4


                                    n. the act of applying.
                     application    应用,申请应用,

     e.g. They have made a new invention which will have
     a variety of applications in industry.
       Translate
       : 新发明的应用将给公司带来很大的利
             益。
             The application of the new invention will bring
             great profits to the company.




                                                      back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                      NCE-B4



                                         be ready to do
                     be poised to
                                         随时准备着(做)
        e.g The automobile company is poised to launch
        its new advertising campaign.


    Translate:
           据报道美军准备袭击伊拉克。
           It is reported that US forces are poised to attack
           Iraq.



                                                       back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4


                                 to place or fix on or in the
                     mount       appropriate support or
                                 setting for display or study

           e.g. Some automobiles were designed with a
           transmission mounted on the real axle.

    Translate:
            工程师正在把引擎固定于汽车内。
            The engineer is mounting an engine in a car.




                                                           back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                          NCE-B4


                                    adj. of or relating to magnetism
                     magnetic         or magnets磁的, 有磁性的,
                                               有吸引力的

         e.g. I have a magnetic strip ID card.


       Translate
       :
       她有一双迷人的眼睛。
         She has magnetic eyes.




                                                           back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                      NCE-B4



                                v. to gather or form
                     bunch
                                into a cluster:捆成一束

           e.g. They bunched together to allow others
           to squeeze into the crowded elevator.

     Translate
     : 我把我的手握成拳头。
          I bunched my fingers into a fist.
          起跑线上聚在一起的赛跑者。
          Runners are bunching up at the starting line.


                                                       back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                     NCE-B4



                                   make (sth.) part of a whole
                     incorporate              合并

        e.g.His newly published book incorporates his
        earlier essay.

    Translate:
        去年史密斯公司与别家合并了。
         Mr. Smith's firm incorporated with others last year.
        她把这封信写到了她的日记里。
         She incorporated the letter into her diary.


                                                       back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                         NCE-B4




   Automobile industry:
   The automobile industry is one of the
   most important industries in the
   world, affecting not only economies but
   also cultures. It provides jobs for millions
   of people, generated billons of dollars in
   worldwide revenues, and provides the
   basis for a multitude of related service
   and support industries. Automobiles
   revolutionized transportation in the 20th
   century, changing forever the way people
   live, travel, and do business.
                                                  more   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                NCE-B4



        The automobile has enabled people to travel and
        transport goods farther and faster, and has opened
        wider market areas for business and commerce. The
        auto industry has also reduced the overall cost of
        transportation by using methods such as mass
        production(making several products at once, rather
        than one at a time), mass marketing (selling products
        nationally and globally wide). Between 1886 and
        1986,about 300 automobiles were built, but there was
        no real established industry.


                                              more   previous   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                          NCE-B4




 A century later, with automakers
 and auto buyers expanding globally,
 auto-making became the world’s
 largest manufacturing activity, with
 more than 53 million new vehicles
 built each year worldwide.
   Automobile manufactures are
 among the largest companies in the
 world. These corporations are often
 multinational. These companies
 often share parts, or use parts made
 on foreign factories.
                                        more   previous   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                               NCE-B4




      The U.S. automobile industry produced 16.8 million
      vehicles in 1999. The three major automobile
      manufacturers in the United States--- General Motors
      Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and Daimler
      Chrysler AG (戴姆勒-克莱斯勒)---provide three-
      fourths of the industry’s total direct employment in
      the United States.




                                             more   previous   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                             NCE-B4




           At the start of the 21st century,the trends of global
          trade and manufacturing flexibility continue.
          Computerization continues to be a major part of
          auto design and manufacture, as do the search for
          alternative fuels and more efficient automobile
          design.




                                                       back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                  NCE-B4




    Global Positioning System(GPS):
    space-based        radio-navigation
    system, consisting of 24 satellites
    and       ground   support,   GPS
    provides users with accurate
    information about their position
    and velocity, as well as the time,
    anywhere in the world and in all
    weather conditions.
                                          more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars
                                                                     NCE-B4




        GPS determines location by computing the
        difference between the time that a signal is sent
        and the time it is received. GPS satellites carry
        atomic clocks that provide extremely accurate time.
        The time information is placed in the codes
        broadcast by the satellite so that a receiver can
        continuously determine the time the signal was
        broadcast.


                                           next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars
                                                                     NCE-B4




    The signal contains data that a receiver uses to
    compute the locations of the satellites and to make
    other adjustments needed for accurate positioning.
    The receiver uses the time difference between the time
    of signal reception and the broadcast time to compute
    the distance, or decreases in the signal’s speed caused
    by the ionosphere and the troposphere.


                                           next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                  NCE-B4




       With information about the
       ranges to three satellites and
       the location of the satellite
       when the signal was sent , the

                                 The receiver can compute its
                                 own three-dimensional position.




                                          more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                          NCE-B4




 As of March 1994,24 GPS
 satellites were in operation.
 Replenishment satellites are
 ready for launch, and
 contracts have been awarded
 to provide satellites into the
 21st century. GPS applications
 continue to grow in land, sea,
 air, and space navigation.


                                  next   previous back   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                   NCE-B4




    The ability to enhance safety and to decrease fuel
    consumption will make GPS an important component of
    travel in the international airspace system. Airplanes will
    use GPS for landing at fogbound airports. Automobiles
    will use GPS as part of intelligent transportation systems.
    Emerging technologies will enable GPS to determine not
    only the position of a vehicle but also its altitude.



                                                 back   previous   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                               NCE-B4




  Intelligence Transportation Systems(ITS): advanced
  electronics, communications, and computer systems
  that increase the efficiency and safety of highway
  transportation. Originally known as Intelligent
  Vehicle/Highway Systems(IVHS),these technologies
  can provide real-time information exchange between
  the drivers and the roads, giving rise to the terms
  ―smart cars‖ and ―smart highways.‖




                                       next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                    NCE-B4




           As the technologies gave expanded to include
           public    transportation      and        commercial
           vehicles, this range of technologies has become
           known as th Intelligent Transportation System.
           Increasingly, drivers will have access to up-to –
           the-minute      information         on           traffic
           conditions, alternate routed, and directions to
           unfamiliar   destinations.   Ultimately,        vehicle
           control may be automated.
                                                    back previous   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars
                                                               NCE-B4




                     1. Read aloud the following poem;

                     2. Read the following quotations, and
                        learn them by heart if you can.




                                                             next   index   break   over
laugh              smile loudly
                    Debbe Jo Ramsey

  Most do not understand

  The life of a Truck Driver

   Once in their blood

   It’s usually there forever




                         next   previous back index   break   over
                                more previous index   break   over
They stay on the road

Always on the go

Where they end up

Only their dispatcher knows

Their family waits patiently

For their safe return home

To see how much their child

Or grandchild has grown
                        next   previous back index   break   over
                               next previous index   break   over
      They delver your loads

      With a smile that glows

I shall Then they’re off again
        be telling this with a sigh
        Down the and they go
Somewhere ages roadages hence:
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I—
        They travel all the hours
I took the one less traveled by,
        Of the day and the difference.
And that has made all night
      Making sure you’re happy

      And everything’s just right
                          next   previous back index break   over
                          more   previous back index break   over
                                 next previous index break   over
laugh             smile loudly
                   Debbe Jo Ramsey


   So the next time

   Should happen to cross

   Tell a Truck Driver

   “You are the Boss”




                         next   previous back index   break   over
                                more previous index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                  NCE-B4




                     The car has become an article of
                     dress without which we feel
                     uncertain, unclad, and incomplete.
                                       Marshall Mcluhan


                     Everything in life is somewhere else,
                     and you get there in a car.
                                        Elwyn Brooks White



                                                             next    index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                               NCE-B4




                     The real problem is not whether machine
                     think, but whether men do.
                                           B. F. Skinner

                     If there is technological advance without
                     social advance, there is, almost
                     automatically, an increase in human
                     misery.
                                         Michael Harrinqton


                                                      next   previous   index   break   over
Read the humorous
story for fun. You might
need to look up new
words in a dictionary.




               next   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                           NCE-B4




   Bill Gates is hanging out with the chairman of General
   Motors.
     ―If automotive technology had kept pace with
   computer technology over the past few decades,‖
   boasts Gates, ―you would now be driving a V-32
   instead of a V-8, and it would have a top speed of
   10,000 miles per hour.




                                         more   previous   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                              NCE-B4




    Or, you could have an economy car that weighs 30
    pounds and gets a thousand miles to a gallon of gas. In
    either case, the sticker price of a new car would be less
    than $50.‖
       ―Sure,‖ says the GM chairman. ―But would you
    really want to drive a car that crashes four times a
    day?‖




                                            next   previous   index   break   over
The Movie   NCE-B4




              index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars
                                                           NCE-B4




                           I Content Questions
                     Pair work: One of you asks the first six
                     questions and the other answers. Starting
                     from question 7, change roles. When you
                     have finished, the teacher may want to put
                     some of the questions to you to check your
                     progress.




                                                         next   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart cars                                                          NCE-B4




             1. How important was the automobile
                     industry in the twentieth century

             2. What will happen to cars and roads in the
                     twenty-first century

             3. Why does the author say the key to
                     tomorrow’s ―smart cars‖ will be sensors




                                                         next   previous index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4




               4. How would sensors help reduce traffic
                     fatalities

               5. What is the function of the radars
                     hidden in the bumpers

               6. How will a smart car alert a drover
                     who feels drowsy



                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




            7. What makes it possible for smart cars to
            determine their approximate location

            8. What are the prospects for applications of
            GPS

            9. What is ―telematics‖ expected to achieve in
            increasing the efficiency and safety of highway
            transportation


                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4



             10. What are traffic engineers doing on Internet
             15 close to San Diego

             11. What hopes do promoters of the smart
             highway have for its future

             12. What are the advantages of smart highways




                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars
                                                                NCE-B4




                        II   Points for Discussion
                     Group work: break into small groups
                     and discuss the following questions.
                     Later the teacher may want to ask
                     some of you to report the answers of
                     your group to the class.



                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




          1. What hopes do you have for the future of smart
               cars?

          2. If you were asked to help design a smart car?

          3. Would you like to drive a smart car? Why or
               why not?




                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




                          1. The text can be divided into
                     four parts. The paragraph numbers
                     of each paragraph have been given
                     to you. Now write down their main
                     ideas




                                            next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                  NCE-B4




                                 New technology will have
                                 a dramatic impact on
         Part One    Paras 1-3   cars and highways in the
                                 21st century.

                               Will the aid of advanced
                               technology, smart cars will
                               be so designed that they
         Part Two    Paras 4-9 can help eliminate traffic
                               accidents, determine their
                               own precise locations and
                               warn of traffic jams.

                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                 NCE-B4




                                  GPS and ―telematics‖
         Part Three   Paras 10-13 will make it possible to
                                  build smart
                                  highways, which will
                                  benefit us in more
                                  than one way.




                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                       NCE-B4




             2. Smart cars are superior to ordinary cars in many
             ways. Write a list of the features of smart cars as
             mentioned in the text.




                                               next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4




       1) Smart cars can see, hear, feel, smell, talk, and act.

       2) They can eliminate most car accidents;

       3)they can alert the police and provide precise
       location of stolen;

      4)They can monitor one’s driving conditions nearly;

      5)They can alert the driver who feels drowsy;
      6)They can locate your car precisely and warn of
      traffic jams.
                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




                       You need to study carefully all
                     the key words and phrases in the
                     box. We have a number of exercises
                     to help you learn how to use them.




                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4




                       I. 1. Fill in the gaps with
                     words or phrases chosen from
                     the box. Change the form where
                     necessary.




                                              next   previous   back index   break
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4



        1) Before Anglo-American westward______________,
                                            expansion
        North America had been shaped by many other cultures.

        2) After the United States entered World War II in 1941,

        General Motors(GM) ceased civilian automobiles

                               manufacturing
        Production and started _______________ tanks,airplanes,

        Weapons, and other war supplies for the Allied forces.

                                                   vapor
        3) Warmer air is able to hold more water _________ than

        Cold air and so has a higher humidity.

                                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4


         4) In most communities in the United States, the local
         American Red Cross chapter has been authorized to

      take control ofcertain local public buildings in times of
        __________
         emergency.

         5) Traffic control establish a set of rules and instructions
         that drivers, pilots, train engineers, and ship captains
                                                hazard
         rely on to avoid collision and other_____________.




                                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4



        6) Since the launching of the first artificial ___________
                                                        satellite
            in 1957, thousands of ―man-made moons‖ have been
             rocked into the Earth’s orbit, each designed to serve a
             specific purpose or mission.

        7) Telecommunications devices ____________ different
                                         convert
             types of information, such as sound and video, into
             electronic signals.




                                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                          NCE-B4



        8) Radio telescopes have provided valuable information
             about other stars and about the_________,fields of
                                             magnetic
             other planets in our solar system, especially Jupiter’s.

        9) At the beginning of the race, the runners were
             ____________ together on the track, but later some
                bunched
             of them got ahead and left the others behind.

        10) from the control tower, air traffic controllers
             coordinate aircraft movement both __________ and
                                                 in the air
             on the ground.

                                                  next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                        NCE-B4



        11) Further troubles developed in October 1995 when
                                                      was stuck in
             the tape recorder in the orbiter Galileo ___________
             the ―rewind‖ position for 15 hours, wearing out a
             section of the tape.

        12) In 1978, at the beginning of the reform
            period,    ____________ 11,000 Chinese students
           approximately
             went abroad to pursue further studies.




                                                next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4



        13) The development of a new tool for detecting
             infections diseases is another step in commercial
             _____________ of the growing science of
               application
             nanotechonology.

        14) ―Our routine on Mir(和平空间站) rarely changed,
             but the days were not ________________ at all. I was
                                     monotonous
             living every scientist’s dream,‖ said one Russian
             astronaut.



                                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                        NCE-B4




       15) In 1885 the German engineer Gottlieb Daimler and
            the German inventor Wihelm Maybach ___________
                                                mounted
            a gasoline-powered engine onto a bicycle, creating a
            motorcycle.




                                                next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4




             2. Use the verb in brackets to form an
             appropriate phrasal verb you have learned and
             complete the sentence with it:




                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




          Model: We’ve been able to make up the difference in
          income by             without appreciably lowering our
          standard of living. (cut)

          We’ve been able to make up the difference in income
          by cutting back without appreciably lowering our
          standard of living.

                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                        NCE-B4


               send out
    1) Bats _____________ sound waves and makes sense of
          their environment from the echoes they receive.(send)

    2) Dealing with difficult people is a part of everyday life,
                                     stand up for
       and there are ways you can ___________ yourself
          without starting an argument.(stand)

    3) Scientists issued reports on the severe climate
                            result from
       changes that could ___________ the greenhouse
          effect,saying that average global temperatures could
          start to rise noticeably within a few decades.(result)

    4) I didn’t travel much when I was younger, but I’m
                  making up for
       certainly _____________ lost time now.(make)
                                                next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4



      5) Catherine waited until the children went inside the
                        starting up
      building before _____________ the car and driving
      off.(start)

      6) ―When you go for that job interview,‖ my mum
      said, ―remember to be confident and ____________ your
                                        play up
      experience in teaching in Japan.‖(play)
                                      give up
      7) Black Americans will never ___________ the freedom
      that they have won.(give)

      8) Thank you for asking me, but I’m afraid I just can’t
         take on
      __________ any more work at the moment.(take)
                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                       NCE-B4




                         I. 3. Rewrite each sentence
                     with the word or phrase in brackets,
                     keeping the same meaning. The first
                     part has been written for you.




                                               next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                              NCE-B4




      1) With regard to the recent flood of corporate
         scandals, some professors from Stanford and
         Harvard say that Enron’s real-world lesson
         will be included in their classroom work.
         With regard to the recent flood of corporate
         scandals, some professors from Stanford and
         Harvard say that they__________________
                                  will incorporate
        Enron’s real-world lessons into their classroom
      ______________________________________.
         work.
                      (incorporate)

                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                NCE-B4




           2) Our vacation was a disaster: not only was
           the food terrible but the weather was awful.

             Our vocation was a disaster: the food was
           terrible,_______________________________.
                     and the weather was awful as well.
           (as well)




                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                             NCE-B4




 3) It’s said casinos(赌场) bring Macao lots of profit.
 As a Special Administrative Region(SAR), the
 gambling industry is permitted to stay although
 gambling remains illegal on the Chinese mainland.
 As a Special Administrative Region(SAR), Marco is
                         lucrative gambling industry
 permitted to retain its_________________________
 ____________________________________________.
although gambling remains illegal on the Chinese mainland.

 (lucrative)


                                      next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                               NCE-B4



     4) It is usual for manufactures to first build an
     experimental model of a new car before they set up
     a factory to make the cars.

     Manufactures usually begin by building
     the prototype of a new model before they set
     ____________________________________________
     up a factory to make the cars.
     __________________________________.(prototype)




                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                       NCE-B4




     5) Medical evidence shows that smoking
     could result in lung cancer.

       Medical evidence shows that smoking
     and lung cancer ______________________
                      are correlated.
     (correlate)




                                next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




                I. 4. Complete the following, using
           the words or phrases in brackets. Make
           additions or changes where necessary. Mode:
           The way to make self-sufficiency work on a
           small scale is to resist the temptation to buy a
           tractor and other laborsaving devices.
           (temptation, device, scale)



                                            next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4




        (become a reality, pollution, be poised to, presently)

         1) Expanded use of computer technology,
              development of stronger and lighter materials,
                            into pollution
              and research ______________ control will
              produce better, and ―smarter‖ automobiles. In
              the 1980s the notion that a car would ―talk‖ to
              its driver was science fiction; by the 1990s it
                 had become a reality
              _____________________, more or less.

                                               next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




              Presently automobile companies such as GM
               __________

                and Nissan _______________ launch new
                            are poised to
                advertising campaigns for their smart cars.




                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                   NCE-B4




            2) Sounds are produced by objects
             that vibrate
            ______________in the air at a rate that the
            ear can detect. This rate is called
            __________ and is measured in hertz, or
             frequency
            vibrations per second. (frequency, vibrate)




                                            next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4




            3) Reflective devices are more visible at night and
                                               lanes
            are used in some locations to mark______and
            other significant places on the road. What’s more,
            automated vehicle-control
                         are presently
            technologies__________ under development to
                      highway
            improve _______ safety. These devices ______ in
                                                   are mounted
                                    alert
            the vehicle and can ________driver to an
                       hazard
            impending __________or, in an emergency,
            override the actions of the driver.
            ( mount,highway, hazard, lane, alert, presently)


                                                  more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4




                               III. Usage
                     -ing/-ed forms of verbs used as
                     attributes




                                                 more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




          -ing or-ed forms of verbs can be used as attributes
             before nouns. e.g.
          orbiting satellite(Text A, Unit 2, Book IV)
          computerized highway(Text A, Unit 2, Book IV)
          A grossly underestimated, life-threatening hazard




                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




          The basic difference between the –ing form and the
          –ed form lies in that in the _ing cases the noun is
          often the doer of the action while in the –ed case
          the noun is usually the receiver of the action.
      e.g.
      orbiting satellite=satellite that is orbiting the earth
      computerized highway=highway that has been
         computerized



                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4



            However, note that the –ing attribute also can
            be used to denote the purpose or use for which
            the noun to be modified is intended. Examine
            the following:
            A sleeping carriage=a carriage for sleeping
            (compare: a sleeping child= a child that is
            sleeping)
            Drinking water = water for drinking
            (compare: a drinking horse = a horse that is
            drinking

                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




                  Now complete the following sentence
                 by translating the Chinese into English

      1. A new ________________(游泳池) on the
                swimming pool
         campus is due to open up next week.
                                           _____________
      2. Sue sailed into her room with herdrawing board
         (画板), whistling a merry tune.
      3. Over three centuries English gradually
         swallowed French, and by the end of the 15th
         century what had developed into being was
                           enriched Middle English
         modified, greatly_________________________(丰
         富了的中古英语).
                                             more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                   NCE-B4




         4. The predictions about carbon dioxide and its
         role in global warming set forth by Arrhenius
         were virtually ignored for over half a century,
                                             disturbing change
         until scientists began to detect a _____________

         (令人不安的变化)in atmospheric levels of
         carbon dioxide.




                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                 NCE-B4




      5. A new component system(such as a mew braking
                    fully developed prototype
      system) in a _________________________________
       (得到完全开发的样机)can take as long as four
      years to incorporate into a new model.

      6. ________________(罐装食品) are popular
          Canned foods
      because they are already partially prepared and
      cooked, can be stored without refrigeration for long
      periods, and are generally low in cost.

                                          more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                 NCE-B4



      7. As the percentage of older people on the population
      increases and the size of the
      working population (工作人员)
      ____________________
      declines, traditional methods for caring for the old
      may need to be modified.

      8. Scientists who question the global warming trend
                       puzzling difference
      point to three_______________________

      (令人费解的不同之处) between the predictions of the
      global warming modes and the actual behavior of the
      climate.
                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




                     II. Word Formation
       Abbreviation
       In book III we touched upon two types of abbreviation:
       initialism and acoronym. Here we will mainly deal with
       two more types, ie., clipping and blending.
           Clipping means forming a word by omitting some
       letters of a word.



                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




       e.g. Ad  advertisement
              lab  laboratory
              math  mathematics.
       Blending means forming a word by combining parts of
       other words. E.g.
             smog smoke and fog
             motel motor and hotel
             telematics  telecommunication and informatics

                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                               NCE-B4


      Now try to find out what words the following
      clipped words and blends are formed from:

      Clipped Words:



                kilogram
         kilo ________________            doctor
                                 doc__________________

             memorandum
         memo_______________           veterinarian
                                 vet__________________

             gymnasium                  preparatory
                                 prep__________________
         gym________________
                 liberation            automobile
                                 auto__________________
         lib__________________

                                        more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                NCE-B4


      Now try to find out what words the following
      clipped words and blends are formed from:

   Blends:


  medicare________________
          medical care                       automatic pilot
                                 autopilot__________________
          electronic mail
  email_______________                     European dollar
                                 Eurodollar__________________
  comsat________________                     breakfast lunch
         communications satellite brunch__________________

          news broadcast
  newscast_________________                 television broadcast
                                 telecast__________________

                                         more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                   NCE-B4




        1. Complete the following sentences after the
       model, using ―double prepositions‖ :
       Model:The automobile industry ranks ___________the
       most lucrative and powerful industries of the twentieth
       century.
       The automobile industry ranks as among the most
       lucrative and powerful industries of the twentieth
       century.


                                           next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                      NCE-B4



            1) Thanksgiving day in the U.S.A., like
                     Spring Festival in China, brings
                                            from across
                     families back together_____________
                     the country.

            2) 2)The monkey suddenly emerged
                     ___________ the tree, frightening Lucy
                     from behind
                     into screaming.



                                               more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                         NCE-B4



           3) Mom said that she would not allow me to buy a
                                                      ______
                new computer unless the price dropped to below
                2000 yuan.

             In between
           4)__________ the chores, Jim managed to spend 50
                to 60 hours a week working at the computer or
                doing reporting for the freelance articles he sells
                to magazines




                                                  next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




              2. Complete the following sentences after the
              model, using ―v.+it +adj.+to do‖and the words
              given in brackets:
              Model: The new device _____________ your
              location on the earth to within about a hundred
              feet.(make, possible, determine)
              The new device makes it possible to determine
              your location on the earth to within about a
              hundred feet.

                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




       1) Most people_______________________________
                       find it hard to understand
            how living with one;s own children could be
            lonely.(find, hard, understand)

       2) The manager_______________________________
                      feel it necessary to remove
            the five misbehaving secretaries in order to
            maintain administrative
            discipline.(feel, necessary, remove)




                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




                         called it wasteful to give
           3) The Senator____________________________
           free Medicare to those who can afford to
           pay.(call, wasteful. give)



           4) We don’t ______________________________
                        consider it possible to set back
           the clock of history. (consider, possible, set back)



                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                     NCE-B4




                              I. Cloze (A)
                     Complete the following passage
                     with words chosen from the
                     Words and Phrases to Drill box.
                     Change the form where necessary.




                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                   NCE-B4



              Hello, Welcome to your new car. I am your
          onboard computer-assisted driving system. It is
          my job to ________ you to any hazard that
                     alert              ________
                            highway
          may occur on the _________ . From the moment
          you _________ the car, I’ll be there to help you.
              start up
                                       take control of
          When you want to relax, I can_______________

          the steering in your place, guiding you from one
           lane
          ________ to another. If a car in front of you
                                    ________
          slows down suddenly, I’ll decrease your speed.

                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                  NCE-B4



               get     stuck     in
       If you ________ ________ _________ a traffic jam,
                                            monotonous
       the experience will no longer be so _____________.
       Just sitback, relax, and let me_________ the worry.
                                       eliminate
       When you want to ________ back from automatic
                              convert
       control to manual control, that’s easy. Just press
                                 mounted
       the right button _______ on the steering column.




                                           more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                 NCE-B4




                          I. Cloze (B)

                     Fill in the gaps with any
                     words you think fit:



                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4



          The automobile industry is one of the most
        important industries in the world, affecting mot
        only the economy but also the cultures of the world.
                            for
        It provides jobs _____________ millions of people,
        generates billions of dollars in worldwide revenues,
        and provides the basis for a multitude of related
        service and support industries. Automobiles
        revolutionized transportation in the 20th century,
                                way
        changing forever the _________ people live, travel,
        and do business.


                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                               NCE-B4



                              enabled
        The automobile has ___________ people to
                                      farther
        travel and transport goods ____________ and
        faster, and gas opened up new market
        opportunities for business and commerce.
                                    decreased
        The auto industry has also _____________ the
        overall cost of transportation _______ using
                                         by
        methods such as mass production (making
                quantities
        large______________ of a product within a
        short period of time, mass marketing (selling
                                         locally
        products nationally rather than ___________
                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4



        And globalization of production (assembling products
                          worldwide
        with parts made _______________ . A century later,
              with
        _________________ automakers and auto buyers
        expanding globally, automaking became the world’s
                 manufacturing
        largest ________________ activity, with more than 53
        million new vehicles built each year worldwide.
                    As
            ___________________ a result of easier and faster
        transportation, the United States and world economies
                                  on/upon
        have become dependent _____________ the mobility
                                              provide
        that automobiles, trucks, and buses ________________.


                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                  NCE-B4



        This mobility has allowed remote populations to
                                    which
        interact with one another, ____________ has increased
        commerce. The transportation of goods to consumers
        and consumers to goods has become an industry in
             itself
        _____________ . However automobile has also caused
               hazards
        some ____________ , such as air pollution, congested
                    and
        traffic, ____________ increased highway fatalities.
          Nevertheless
        _________________ , the automobile industry is
          continuing
        ________________ to be an important source of
        employment for millions of people worldwide.


                                           next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                  NCE-B4




                             II. Translation
                     Translate the following passage
                     into English, using as many
                     words and phrases given below
                     as possible.


                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                  NCE-B4


           eliminate   as well     satellite    hazard
           application pollution    manufacture
    汽车在二十世纪改变了世界, 尤其是在美国和其他工业国
    家。汽车确实对我们大有用处,但也带来了一些危害,比
    如声音污染‘ 空气污染以及公路死亡事故。据报道汽车事
    故被列为全世界导致死亡的主要原因之一。可庆幸的是,
    现代发明家们正在重新发明汽车。新的推进系统、燃料.设
    计以及制造汽车的手段在过去的十年中得到迅速发展。例
    如, 通过使用卫星辅助的全球定位系统,汽车里的计算机
    能给汽车精确定位;随着遥感器的应用, 智能汽车能排除
    不少汽车事故。
                                           more   previous   back index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                        NCE-B4




     Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century,
     ________________________________________________
     ________________________________________________
     particularly in the United States and other industrialized
     ________________________________________________
     nations. They ate indeed of great use to us, but they have
     ________________________________________________
     brought some hazards as well, such as noise and air
     ________________________________________________
     pollution, and highway fatalities. It is reported that
     ________________________________________________
     automobile accidents rank among the leading causes of
     ________________________________________________
     death and injury throughout the world. Fortunately
     ________________________________________________
     modern innovators are reinventing the automobile. New
     ________________________________________________
     propulsion systems, fuels, designs, and means of
     ________________________________________________
     manufacturing cars have all developed rapidly in the past

                                        more   previous   back   index   break   over
Unit 2: Smart Cars                                                    NCE-B4




      decade. For example, by using the satellite-aided global
     _________________________________________________
      positioning system(GPS), a computer in the automobile
     _________________________________________________
      can locate the vehicle’s precise position, and with the
     _________________________________________________
      application of sensors, smart cars can eliminate most car
     _________________________________________________
      accidents.
     ________________________________________________




                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                   NCE-B4




           The following are useful words
           and phrases from Text B. Learn
           to make proper use of them.




                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                    NCE-B4




           outline vt.    give a short general description of
                                   (sth.) 概述;概括


       at the start of     at the beginning of 在…开始时

                            a thing that is suggested or
           implication    implied; a thing that is not stated
                                     含意;暗示

       thereby      ad.    by that means or action 因此,
                                    由此,从而



                                                   more   index   break   over
Part III                                                         NCE-B4




                          that can be done; possible
      feasible a.         可行的;可能的;有理的


                          having or showing a sensible
                          and a practical idea of what can
           realistic a.   be done, achieved, etc.
                          现实的; 实际的


 in cooperation with      与…合作,与…协作



                                       more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                              NCE-B4




                             (French) on the way; while
           en route ad./a.   traveling 在途中

                             any of the parts of which sth.is
       component n.
                             made 元件,组件;部件,零件

                                 of different kinds; varied
             diverse a.          形形色色的 ;多种多样的

                             lasting or expected to last for
           permanent a.      a long time or forever
                             永久的; 持久的


                                            more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                           NCE-B4




                          put (sth.) into effect; carry (sth.)
           implement vt   out 贯彻;执行;实施

                           a thing, mount, word, etc. that is
            equivalent     Equal in value, importance,etc.
                           相等物; 等价物


                          suitable, acceptable or correct in
       appropriate        The circumstances 适当的,恰当的,
                          相称的



                                         more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                           NCE-B4



      by means of        by using (sth.); with the help of
                                  (sth.) 用, 依靠

                         the action or process of fitting
       assembly n.         together the parts of sth.
                                   装配,组装

           exposure n.              暴露, 显露


                            become or make sb/sth.
            mature
                            mature 使成熟,(使)成长




                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                          NCE-B4




                          the bringing of sth. Into use or
     introduction n.      Operation for the first time
                          采用;引进




                          interpret or understand (sth.)
           perceive vt.   In a certain way
                          把…看作, 认为



                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                NCE-B4




           Choose the best answer
           for each of the following:




                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                               NCE-B4




           1. The author mentions the Futurama as an
                           a
              example to _______.

             a. illustrate that the idea of automatic cars has
              been around a long time

             b. suggest that America has always held the
              lead in automobile research and development

              c. explain a failed attempt at automation

              d. show how far we have progressed

                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                                NCE-B4




    2. We can infer that the author believes that________.
                                                    c

           a. chauffeurs can be afforded by everybody

           b. fuel is running short

           c. human drivers cannot safely travel close behind
    other vehicles

           d. automatics cars will need broader freeways



                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                                NCE-B4




     3. Visual systems for observing the road are better
                                             c
     than magnetic systems because they ________.

           a. are more accurate

           b. can read road signs

           c. do not need special equipment buried in the road

           d. can make use of the vehicle’s control computer




                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                               NCE-B4




                                                      d
     4.for observing other vehicles, laser systems ______.

       a. cost more than radar systems

       b. are preferred in Europe

       c. are better at detecting vehicles than radar systems

       d. can find it difficult to operate in bad weather




                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                               NCE-B4




     5. Onboard computers are better than roadside
                      b
     computers for _______.

       a. setting lane speeds

      b. deciding when it is safe to change lanes

      c. advising on the best speed to use

      d. finding places to park.



                                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                              NCE-B4




           6. The author’s attitude toward the future
           development of automatic transport systems is
           _______.
               b

            a. negative

            b. positive

            c.undecided

            d. neutral

                                            next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                               NCE-B4




           Translate into Chinese
           the underlined sentences
           in the essay:




                             next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                         NCE-B4


     1. These are vulnerable to weather problems and
     provide less accurate measurements, but they do not
     require special roadway installations, other than
     well-maintained lane markings.
      这类系统容易受气候变化的影响,提供的数据不够精
     ———————————————————————
      确,但他们不需要特别的道路设置,只需将路面标志
     ———————————————————————
      维护好就行了。
     —————————




                                       more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                           NCE-B4



     2. However, it should not take long for the costs to
     become affordable to a wide range of vehicles
     owners and operators, especially with many of the
     enabling technologies already being
     commercialized for volume production today.
      然而,不用多久,其成本就能为广大车辆拥有者
     __________________________________________
      和驾驶者所接受,尤其是目前不少可以应用的技
     __________________________________________
      术已经走向市场, 开始了批量生产。
     __________________________________________




                                         more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                           NCE-B4




      3. The largest impediment to introduction of
      electronic chauffeuring may turn out to be the
      general perception that it’s more difficult and
      expensive to implement than it really is.
      电子驾驶应用的最大障碍可能在于一种普遍的观
      __________________________________________
      念, 认为这一技术的应用比实际情况更困难,
      __________________________________________
      更昂贵。
      __________________________________________




                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                           NCE-B4




      4. Given all of this experience in implementing
      safe automated transportation systems, it is not
      such a large leap to develop road vehicles that
      can operate under automatic control.
      考虑到所有这些安全运用自动化交通运输系统的
      __________________________________________
      经验,开发由自动控制操纵的公路车辆算不上什
      __________________________________________
      么大的飞跃。
      ______________




                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                    NCE-B4




           Fill in the gaps with words or
           phrases listed in the Words and
           Phrases to learn box. Change
           the form where necessary.




                                  next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                            NCE-B4


      1. The ______________ of radio into the telephone
                 introduction
         set has been the most important recent
         development in telephone technology, permitting
         first the cordless phone and now the cell phone.

      2. The budget speech contains a general review of
         economic conditions and _______________ the
                                       outlines
         fiscal polices that the government advocates.

      3. American culture possesses an unusual mixture of
         patterns and forms forged from among its
             diverse
         ______________ peoples.


                                          more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                             NCE-B4

   4. The Internet was first developed in the 1960s, but it was
   not until the introduction of the World Wide Web in 1989
   that it became ______________ to transfer multimedia
                       feasible
   information over computer networks.

   5. The United Nations Environment Program(UNEP) works
        in cooperation with
   _______________________ other bodies.



   6. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16,000
   robots for task such as painting, machine loading, parts
                    assembly
   transfer, and ___________________.


                                           more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                             NCE-B4

         At the start of
     7. ________________ World War I, Britain had decisive
     superiority in heavy battleships, but Germany eventually
     challenged British dominance of the seas with its
     submarine campaign.



     8. Einstein’s law of the equivalence of mass and energy,
     expressed by the equation E=mc2 , was first regarded as a
     matter of mainly philosophical interest but later turned
                                    implication
     out to have immense practical ____________.




                                           more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                             NCE-B4

     9. Anthropologists have studied such topics as how
        different languages assign gender to words, shape the
        ways in which people perceive the natural and
                              ________
        supernatural worlds, and create or reinforce divisions
        of rank and status within societies.

     10. Recent innovations in software have enabled
         animators to create figures with a more __________
                                                 realistic
           sense of movement.

     11. Standard language is usually more appropriate in
                                            ____________
         formal situations because people have come to expect
           it on those occasions.

                                           more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                            NCE-B4


                                                  by means
    12. The electronic signals can be transmitted _________of
    media such as telephone wires or radio waves.
    13. Ecosystems are so interconnected that a change in
              component
    any one ____________ of an ecosystem will cause
    subsequent changes throughout the system.
    14. All countries subject their bank, however owned, to
    government regulation and supervision, normally
     implemented
    ___________ by central banking authorities.
    15. The introduction of gunpowder technologies from
                                               thereby
    China result in the manufacture of guns, _____________
    reducing the effectiveness of heavy shields and massive
    stone fortifications.
                                          more   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                                NCE-B4



           16. The Security Council of the United Nations has
                                            permanent
           15 members; five of which hold ____________ seats.

           17. The initial damage to the cochlea(耳蜗) done by
           noise pollution may be temporary, but with repeated
            exposure
           __________ , the damage becomes permanent.

           18. A word processor, in computer science, is an
           application program for manipulating text-based
                                       equivalent
           documents; the electronic __________ of
           paper, pen, typewriter, eraser, and most
           likely, dictionary.


                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Part III                                                                NCE-B4



           19. In the present world context, when a nation’s
                          matures
           economy __________________ , its service sector
           grows rapidly while its manufacturing sector
           stabilizes or diminishes.



                                          en route
           20. They stopped at Pairs _______________________
           from Rome to London, spending one day visiting the
           sights.




                                              next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                               NCE-B4




            I Acting Out a Play

          From groups of three and
          put on a play based on the
          following:


                            next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                        NCE-B4

Time 2020
Place a bar


Characters
              John--- a college graduate, eager to work as
                       a designer of smart cars
              Ruth--- a college student, John’s friend, fond
                       of smart cars
              Jack--- a senior engineer of an auto company,
                       Ruth’s cousin




                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                          NCE-B4




    The three happen to meet at the bar. Curious to know
  about recent developments in the automobile
  industry, John and Ruth ask Jack questions like ―what do
  the latest smart cars look like‖ and ―what are their
  advantages.‖ John,eager to get hired by an auto
  company, inquires about qualifications for a job as a smart
  car designer.

    When you are done, the teacher might ask some groups to
  perform the play for the whole class.


                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                         NCE-B4



                     II Essay Writing
    When John is applying for a job, one of the things he
    has to do is to compose a resume—a short account of
    your personal details, your education and your work
    experience that you send to an employer. Now write a
    resume setting forth pertinent facts of yourself.




                                      next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                            NCE-B4



                 How to write a resume
      A resume is a concise business-style report that displays
    your job qualifications to a prospective employer.
    Typically, information is grouped under the six headings as
    shown in Sample 2.


                        include your name, address, phone
                        Number, and e-mail address. Don’t
    1.Headings          Date the resume; it will then become
                        Obsolete more quickly that it
                        Otherwise would.

                                         more   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                    NCE-B4


                      State your immediate work
     2. Employment    goal and the direction you
        Objective     hope your career will take

                     List relevant facts of your college
    3. Education     education. Note any academic
                     honors such as a scholarship.


                      Highlight your full-time, part-
    4. Employment     time, volunteer, and summer
       Experience     work experience. Mention any
                      promotions or raises you’ve
                      received.
                                 more   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                    NCE-B4




                      Cite membership in professional
     5.professional   organizations. In addition, note
       Interests      any special skills such as
                      training in lifesaving or fluency
                      in a foreign language.



     6. Reference     Indicate that they will be
                      furnished on request.




                                 more   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                         NCE-B4



    Below are some more tips:
       1. Capitalize the headings to make them stand out on
    the page.
       2. To condense information, use phrases and clauses
    rather than complete sentences.
       3. List your most recent education and employment
    experience first and then work backward so the employ
    -er can quickly gauge what you have done recently.
      4. Don’t try to cram too much material onto a page.
    Ample white space is important.



                                      more   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                 NCE-B4




David Morris O’Reilly
 1643 Ocean Avenue
 Brooklyn, NY 14221
   (718) 553-6938

Career Goal: a position in biochemical research

                  Experience



                               more   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                         NCE-B4




Laboratory Technician                    1999-2001


• conduced study of sea mussel habit preservation in
London Island Sound,founded by the Atlantic Institute
and the New York State Government
• monitored pollution levels in public waterlands in
Nassau County, NY, under the supervision of the NY
State Department of the Interior



                                      next   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                            NCE-B4


Research Assistant                          1995-1998
   • Participated in Dr. Sandra Endicott’s study of the
   effects of the acid rain on marine microorganisms
   • regularly ran tests to measure
   oxygen , hydrogen, chlorophyll, and saline levels in marine
   wetlands
   • maintained all public-access laboratory records for
   Long Island State University
Science Writer                              1997-2001

  •Wrote monthly column on oceanography, ―At Sea,‖
  for Long Island States University’s Journal


                                          next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                                  NCE-B4




                 Education

    M. A., Ecology , Long Island States University,
    Seaview, NY                                     2001
    B.S., Biology, Long Island Sate University
    Seaview, NY                                     1998

                      Awards
    Tischler Prize for Excellence in Science                           2001
    American Science Foundation Scholarship                      1994-1998
    References and writing samples available upon request.

                                               next   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                   NCE-B4




              Karen K. Auernhamer



1407 East Elm Street   Home phone: (231) 796-7791
Big Rapids, MI 49307   Email: Auernh@aol.com




                                 next   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                           NCE-B4




Employment Objective
To work in a technical or an assistant managerial position in a
medical records department gain experience , and eventually
assume an administrative position


Education
Bachelor of science in Medical Records Administration.
Ferris State University, Big Rapids, MI.
May 2001


                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                          NCE-B4




Academic Honors
Grade Point Average 3.85 (of 4.0) in Medical Records Courses



Selected Course Work
Legal Aspects of Health Care Health Data and Analysis
Quality Assurance            Principles of Information Systems



                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
Part IV                                                       NCE-B4




Familiar with the Following Computer Programs


Windows XP and the Internet
3M Coding Software            MS Office (all features)
E and M Calculator            Visio




                                    next   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                          NCE-B4




 Employment Experience
Technical Trainee (Internship Program). Entered new patient
information into computer systems,Processed insurance
claims, assisted in managing patient charts, and assisted in
other technical duties in the Medical records
department, Saginaw Osteopathic
Hospital, Saginaw, MI48602, June 2000 to August 2000
Server at Zehnder’s of Frankenmuth. 215 South Main Street,
Frankenmuth, MI48734, Summers of 1997, 1998, 1999


                                        next   previous   back index   break   over
 Part IV                                                           NCE-B4




 Professional Interests
Member, American Medical Records Association, Ferris
Medical Records Association (Social Chair)




References will be furnished unpin request.


                                         next   previous   back index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




         能看、能听、有知觉、具嗅觉、会说话的智能
   汽车?还能自动驾驶?这听起来或许像是在做梦,
   但计算机革命正致力于把这一切变为现实。




                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                        NCE-B4




                                       米基奥.卡
                                         库
          1.     即便是过去七十年间基本上没有多少变
          化的汽车工业,也将感受到计算机革命的影
          响。

          2.     汽车工业是20世纪最赚钱.最有影响力
          的产业之一。


                             back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




       目前世界上有5亿辆车,或者说每10人就有一辆
       车。汽车工业的销售额达一万亿美元左右,从而
       成为世界上的最大的制造业。

       3.汽车及其行驶道路,将在21世纪发生重大变革。
       未来“智能汽车”的关键在于传感器。




                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




       ―我们会见到能看,能听,有知觉,具嗅觉,会
       说话并能采取行动的车辆与道路”,正在设计
       未来智能汽车和智能道路的通用汽车公司ITS项
       目的技术主任比尔.斯普雷扎预言道。

       4. 美国每年大约有四万人死于交通事故。



                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4


       在汽车事故中死亡或严重受伤的人数太多,我们
       已经不屑在报纸上提及。这些死亡的人中至少有
       半数是酒后驾车者造成的,另有许多死亡事故是
       驾驶员不小心所导致。智能汽车能消除绝大多数
       这类汽车事故。它能通过会感测空气中的酒精雾
       气的电子传感器检测开车者是否喝醉酒,并拒绝
       启动引擎。这种车还能在遇窃后通报警方,告知
       车辆的确切地点。


                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




         5.能监控行车过程以及周围行车状况的智能汽
         车已经造出来。藏在保险杠里的雷达能对周围
         的汽车作扫描。如果你发生重大行车失误(如
         变道时有车辆在你“盲点”内),计算机即会
         发出警报。




                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4



     6.在麻省理工学院媒介实验室,业已制造出能测
     知你行车时有多少睡意的样车,这对长途卡车司
     机意义尤其重要。一连数小时注视着中夹分道线
     这样一个单调,几乎能催眠的过程是被严重低估
     的威胁生命的重大隐患。为消除这一隐患,藏在
     仪表板里的一架微型照相机可对准开车者的脸部
     及眼睛。


                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4



      如果司机的眼帘合上一定时间,行车变得不稳定,
      仪表板里的计算机就会向司机发出警报。

      7.开车最头疼的两大麻烦是迷路和交通堵塞。虽
      然计算机革命不可能彻底解决这两个问题,但却
      会带来积极的影响。你汽车上与绕轨道允运行的
      卫星发出的无线电信号调协的传感器能随时精确
      的确定你汽车的方位,并告知交通堵塞情况。

                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




      我们已经有二十四颗环绕地球运行的导航卫星,
      组成了人们所说的全球卫星定位系统。通过这些
      卫星我们有可能以小于100英尺的误差确定你在地
      球上的方位。在任何一个特定时间,总有若干颗
      全球定位系统的卫星在11,000英里的高空绕地球
      运行。每颗卫星都装有四个“原子钟”,它们根
      据量子理论法则,以精确的频率振动。


                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




       8.卫星从高空经过时发出能被汽车上的计算机
       里的接收器辨认的无线电信号。汽车上的计算
       机就会根据信号传来所花的时间计算出卫星有
       多远。由于光速为人熟知,接收卫星信号时的
       任何时间延缓都能折算出距离的远近。




                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




    9.在日本,具有某种导航能力的汽车以有一百万辆
    之多。(有些导航装置通过方向盘的转动与汽车在
    地图上的位置并置来测定汽车的方位。)

    10.随着微芯片价格的大幅度下降,未来对全球卫
    星定位系统的应用几乎是无限的。 “制造这一商
    品的工业定会飞速发展,”生产导航系统的麦哲伦
    航仪公司的兰迪.霍夫曼说。


                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4



     盲人可以在手杖里装配全球卫星定位系统传感器,
     飞机可以通过遥控着陆,徒步旅行者可以测定自己
     在林中的位置——其潜在的应用范围是无止境的。

     11.全球卫星定位系统其实只是叫做“远程信息学”
     的这一更大行动的一部分,这一行动最终将把智能
     汽车送上智能高速公路。




                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4



     这种高速公路的样品已经在欧洲问世,加州也
     在进行实验,在高速公路上安装计算机芯片,
     传感器和无线电发射机,以便向汽车报告交通
     堵塞情况。

     12.在圣迭戈以北10英里的15号州际公路一段8
     英里长的路面上,交通工程师正在安装一个由
     麻省理工学院设计的引进“自动司机”的系统。


                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




       这一计划要求计算机在公路上埋设的数千个3
       英寸长的磁钉的协助下,在车辆极多的路段完
       全控制车辆的运行。车辆会编成10辆或12辆一
       组,车距仅6英尺,在计算机的控制下一齐行
       驶。

       13.这种计算机化的公路的倡导者对其未来的
       应用充满希望。


                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Chinese Version of Text A                       NCE-B4




       到2010年,远程信息技术很可能应用于美国的
       一条主要公路。如果成功的话,到2020年,当
       微芯片的价格降到一片一美分以下时,远程信
       息技术就会应用在美国成千上万英里的公路上。
       这对环保也会有利,能节省燃油,减轻交通堵
       塞,减少空气污染,还可用作公路扩建的替代
       办法。




                            back   next   previous   index   break   over
Web-links               NCE-B4




  http://www.gm.com




 www.caranddriver.com



                          index   break   over
next   previous   back index   over
Exit

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:77
posted:2/12/2010
language:English
pages:209