Ch6: Diagramming: Answers 1. S AdvP V NP VP Adv N VC NP EN Art N PP P NP N N N Never had Irving seen a pizza with óctopus sausage Aux Su Pred DO Adjl mod pizza Advl mod S Note: this sentence involves ‘subject-auxiliary inversion’. Óctopus sausage is a compound. 2. S VP NP PP VC Art N PP P PP EN P NP P PP Art AP N P NP A Art N Down off of the building climbed the creature from the greasy spoon OO Pred Su Adjl mod spoon Adjl mod creature Note: this S involves ‘subject-VP inversion’. Down off of the building is a complex PP. 3. S NP VP N VC AP V A PP P NP NP AP N Pro A N N Maude is ecstatic about her new snow blower Su Cop Pred OO Adjl mod snów blower Ass mod snów blower Note: about her new snow blower is an OO of the predicate adjective ecstatic. 4. S NP VP N VC AP V A PP P NP NP N N Bella seems happy with Boris’s decision Su Cop Pred OO Ass mod decision Note: seems is a copular verb and happy is a predicate adjective. 5. S NP VP N VC PP V P NP N Ethelred was from Rummage Su Cop Pred OO Note: the predicator here is the preposition from. Rummage is the other argument of from; however, since Rummage is the object the preposition from and, by definition, ar- guments of predicators that are objects of prepositions are OOs and OOs must be PPs. So, the PP from Rummage is the OO. 6. S NP VP Art N VC PP V AdvP EN P NP Adv Art N The kids have all slid down the sled Su Aux Pred OO Qfs kids Advl mod S Note: the floated quantifier all quantifies kids and, like all non-verbals placed in the VC, it is considered a sentence modifier. 7. S NP VP N VC NP NP V N Art AP N AdvP A Adv Mildred brewed Angus some extra special stout Su Pred IO DO Adjl mod stout Advl mod special Note: Angus is an IO: we can paraphrase this sentence with Mildred brewed some extra special stout for Angus. Note that extra modifies special and so must be an adverb. 8. S NP VP N VC NP PP V Inf EN Art N P NP N Elmer must have loaded the tractor with manure Su Aux Pred DO OO Note: we can paraphrase this sentence with Elmer must have loaded manure on the tractor. 9. S NP VP Art N VC AP V AdvP Inf EN A PP PP Adv P NP P NP N NP N Pro The voles might all have been angry at Clarence for his mistakes Su Aux Aux Cop Pred OO OO Qfs voles Ass mod mistakes Advl mod S Note: all is a floated quantifier. The predicate adjective angry has two oblique object ar- guments. 10. S NP VP Pro VC NP PP V Art N P NP NP N Pro There ’s a fly in your soup GSu Cop NSu Pred OO Ass mod soup Note: the predicator is the preposition in. 11. S NP VP Pro VC NP VC PP V Inf EN Art AP N ING P NP A NP N Pro N N There could have been a nasty snake slithering in your backpack GSu Aux NSu Pred OO Adjl mod snake Ass mod báckpack Note: as discussed on p44 of the text, the VC must be split in cases like this. 12. S NP VP NP PP N VC NP AP N P NP V AdvP Inf NP N A NP N Adv N N Gus did not reject Seymour’s offer last night at Bertha’s party Su Aux Pred DO Advl mod S Advl mod S Advl mod S Ass mod offer Adjl mod night Ass mod party Note: this sentence has two sentence adverbials, one a temporal adverbial and the other a place adverbial. 13. S NP V NP VP Pro N VC NP PP INF Dem AP N P A Whom did Zelda send that ghastly picture to OP to Aux Su Pred DO IO Adjl mod picture 14. S PP V NP VP P NP N VC NP N INF EN NP AP N Pro A From whom might Rollo have gotten his nifty bassoon OO Aux Su Aux Pred DO Adjl mod bassoon Ass mod bassoon Note: from whom is an oblique object of get, which takes three arguments. 15. S NP VP Pro VC NP PP V Dem AP N P NP A NP N Pro Who put that stupid lizard in my bed Su Pred DO OO Adjl mod lizard Ass mod bed Note: put takes three arguments. 16. S S S NP VP VP NP N VC PP VC Pro V AdvP EN P NP V Adv Art N PP P NP N Velma has never listened to the symphonies of d’Umbelle, has she Su Aux Pred OO Tag Advl mod S Ass mod symphonies Aux Su Note: never is negative, so the tag has to be positive. 17. S’ Int NP S N VP VC NP V Pro OK Zeke drop it Int Voc Pred DO Note: this is an imperative with an interjection and a vocative. 18. S S S NP VP PP VP NP Pro VC NP VC PP P NP VC Pro V N PP ING P NP N V AdvP P NP Pro Adv There are hordes of mosquitoes waiting for you in Wisconsin, are n’t there GSu Aux NSu Ptv Pred OO Advl mod S Tag Aux GSu Advl mod S Note: this is a presentative construction with a tag.
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