Ch6 Diagramming Answers by tyndale

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									                                    Ch6: Diagramming: Answers

1.                       S

AdvP      V        NP                   VP

Adv                N         VC                   NP

                             EN Art N                  PP

                                              P                 NP

                                                                 N

                                                        N            N

Never had Irving seen a pizza with óctopus sausage

      Aux          Su        Pred       DO          Adjl mod pizza
Advl mod S

Note: this sentence involves ‘subject-auxiliary inversion’. Óctopus sausage is a compound.

2.                                            S

                         VP                                                  NP

         PP                            VC         Art       N                  PP

     P        PP                       EN                                P           NP

          P         PP                                                        Art   AP     N

              P              NP                                                     A

                   Art         N

Down off of the building climbed the creature from the greasy spoon

              OO                       Pred                 Su                     Adjl mod spoon
                                                                             Adjl mod creature

Note: this S involves ‘subject-VP inversion’. Down off of the building is a complex PP.
3.            S

  NP                   VP

     N    VC                        AP

           V      A                           PP

                            P                      NP

                                     NP AP              N

                                    Pro       A    N        N

Maude is ecstatic about her new snow blower

     Su   Cop Pred                          OO
                                         Adjl mod snów blower
                                     Ass mod snów blower

Note: about her new snow blower is an OO of the predicate adjective ecstatic.

4.         S

 NP               VP

  N       VC               AP

          V            A            PP

                                P             NP

                                         NP        N

                                         N

Bella seems happy with Boris’s decision

 Su       Cop      Pred                  OO
                                    Ass mod decision

Note: seems is a copular verb and happy is a predicate adjective.
5.             S

     NP                VP

      N        VC           PP

               V       P         NP

                                 N

Ethelred was from Rummage

     Su        Cop Pred OO

Note: the predicator here is the preposition from. Rummage is the other argument of
from; however, since Rummage is the object the preposition from and, by definition, ar-
guments of predicators that are objects of prepositions are OOs and OOs must be PPs.
So, the PP from Rummage is the OO.

6.                 S

      NP                    VP

Art        N           VC                 PP

                   V AdvP EN          P        NP

                        Adv                Art N

The kids have all             slid down the sled

      Su        Aux          Pred         OO
                       Qfs kids
                       Advl mod S

Note: the floated quantifier all quantifies kids and, like all non-verbals placed in the VC,
it is considered a sentence modifier.
7.             S

     NP                  VP

     N        VC         NP                  NP

              V           N      Art             AP            N

                                        AdvP          A

                                         Adv

Mildred brewed Angus some extra special stout

     Su    Pred          IO                 DO
                                              Adjl mod stout
                                        Advl mod special

Note: Angus is an IO: we can paraphrase this sentence with Mildred brewed some extra
special stout for Angus. Note that extra modifies special and so must be an adverb.

8.                 S

  NP                             VP

     N             VC                   NP                PP

          V        Inf    EN      Art        N        P        NP

                                                               N

Elmer must have loaded the tractor with manure

     Su    Aux            Pred          DO                OO

Note: we can paraphrase this sentence with Elmer must have loaded manure on the tractor.
9.                         S

      NP                                        VP

Art        N                    VC                              AP

                    V AdvP Inf             EN        A          PP            PP

                           Adv                              P        NP   P         NP

                                                                     N        NP         N

                                                                              Pro

The voles might all have been angry at Clarence for his mistakes

      Su            Aux      Aux           Cop       Pred       OO                 OO
                     Qfs voles                                                Ass mod mistakes
                     Advl mod S

Note: all is a floated quantifier. The predicate adjective angry has two oblique object ar-
guments.

10.             S

 NP                        VP

 Pro       VC       NP               PP

           V Art N          P              NP

                                     NP         N

                                     Pro

There      ’s   a    fly    in   your       soup

GSu        Cop NSu Pred    OO
                      Ass mod soup

Note: the predicator is the preposition in.
11.                      S

 NP                                              VP

 Pro               VC                    NP                   VC            PP

          V        Inf       EN Art AP           N        ING          P          NP

                                     A                                      NP         N

                                                                            Pro      N     N

There could have been a nasty snake slithering in your backpack

GSu             Aux                      NSu       Pred                          OO
                                    Adjl mod snake                          Ass mod báckpack

Note: as discussed on p44 of the text, the VC must be split in cases like this.

12.                                      S

NP                       VP                              NP                PP

 N            VC                    NP               AP       N    P            NP

       V AdvP Inf              NP            N       A                     NP          N

          Adv                   N                                          N

Gus did not reject Seymour’s offer last night at Bertha’s party

 Su Aux      Pred                   DO           Advl mod S       Advl mod S
       Advl mod S              Ass mod offer Adjl mod night Ass mod party

Note: this sentence has two sentence adverbials, one a temporal adverbial and the other
a place adverbial.
13.             S

  NP       V    NP                   VP

  Pro               N       VC            NP                PP

                            INF Dem        AP        N      P

                                           A

Whom did Zelda send that ghastly picture                    to

OP to Aux       Su          Pred                DO         IO
                                          Adjl mod picture

14.                              S

      PP                V     NP                VP

 P         NP                  N          VC               NP

           N                         INF       EN    NP    AP    N

                                                     Pro   A

From whom might Rollo have gotten his nifty bassoon

      OO            Aux        Su    Aux     Pred            DO
                                                         Adjl mod bassoon
                                                    Ass mod bassoon

Note: from whom is an oblique object of get, which takes three arguments.
15.            S

 NP                      VP

Pro     VC               NP                     PP

         V Dem           AP        N        P     NP

                         A                      NP N

                                                Pro

Who put that stupid lizard in my bed

 Su     Pred              DO                      OO
                     Adjl mod lizard            Ass mod bed

Note: put takes three arguments.

16.                                                       S

                    S                                                                 S

 NP                                VP                                             VP NP

   N                 VC                              PP                           VC Pro

          V        AdvP       EN        P                      NP                 V

                   Adv                      Art           N             PP

                                                                    P        NP

                                                                             N

Velma has never listened to the symphonies of d’Umbelle, has she

   Su    Aux             Pred                         OO                          Tag
                   Advl mod S                                 Ass mod symphonies Aux Su

Note: never is negative, so the tag has to be positive.
17.     S’

Int    NP          S

        N          VP

              VC NP

               V        Pro

OK     Zeke   drop      it

Int    Voc    Pred DO

Note: this is an imperative with an interjection and a vocative.

18.                                                              S

                                            S                                            S

 NP                                VP                                    PP         VP       NP

 Pro    VC                   NP                 VC         PP        P        NP    VC       Pro

         V    N                   PP            ING    P    NP                N     V AdvP

                             P         NP                   Pro                       Adv

There are hordes of mosquitoes waiting for you in Wisconsin, are n’t there

 GSu Aux                     NSu Ptv            Pred       OO        Advl mod S          Tag
                                                                                   Aux     GSu
                                                                                     Advl mod S

Note: this is a presentative construction with a tag.

								
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