# Ch6 Diagramming Answers by tyndale

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```									                                    Ch6: Diagramming: Answers

1.                       S

AdvP      V        NP                   VP

Adv                N         VC                   NP

EN Art N                  PP

P                 NP

N

N            N

Never had Irving seen a pizza with óctopus sausage

Aux          Su        Pred       DO          Adjl mod pizza
Advl mod S

Note: this sentence involves ‘subject-auxiliary inversion’. Óctopus sausage is a compound.

2.                                            S

VP                                                  NP

PP                            VC         Art       N                  PP

P        PP                       EN                                P           NP

P         PP                                                        Art   AP     N

P              NP                                                     A

Art         N

Down off of the building climbed the creature from the greasy spoon

OO                       Pred                 Su                     Adjl mod spoon
Adjl mod creature

Note: this S involves ‘subject-VP inversion’. Down off of the building is a complex PP.
3.            S

NP                   VP

N    VC                        AP

V      A                           PP

P                      NP

NP AP              N

Pro       A    N        N

Maude is ecstatic about her new snow blower

Su   Cop Pred                          OO
Adjl mod snów blower
Ass mod snów blower

Note: about her new snow blower is an OO of the predicate adjective ecstatic.

4.         S

NP               VP

N       VC               AP

V            A            PP

P             NP

NP        N

N

Bella seems happy with Boris’s decision

Su       Cop      Pred                  OO
Ass mod decision

Note: seems is a copular verb and happy is a predicate adjective.
5.             S

NP                VP

N        VC           PP

V       P         NP

N

Ethelred was from Rummage

Su        Cop Pred OO

Note: the predicator here is the preposition from. Rummage is the other argument of
from; however, since Rummage is the object the preposition from and, by definition, ar-
guments of predicators that are objects of prepositions are OOs and OOs must be PPs.
So, the PP from Rummage is the OO.

6.                 S

NP                    VP

Art        N           VC                 PP

V AdvP EN          P        NP

Adv                Art N

The kids have all             slid down the sled

Su        Aux          Pred         OO
Qfs kids
Advl mod S

Note: the floated quantifier all quantifies kids and, like all non-verbals placed in the VC,
it is considered a sentence modifier.
7.             S

NP                  VP

N        VC         NP                  NP

V           N      Art             AP            N

AdvP          A

Adv

Mildred brewed Angus some extra special stout

Su    Pred          IO                 DO
Adjl mod stout
Advl mod special

Note: Angus is an IO: we can paraphrase this sentence with Mildred brewed some extra
special stout for Angus. Note that extra modifies special and so must be an adverb.

8.                 S

NP                             VP

N             VC                   NP                PP

V        Inf    EN      Art        N        P        NP

N

Elmer must have loaded the tractor with manure

Su    Aux            Pred          DO                OO

Note: we can paraphrase this sentence with Elmer must have loaded manure on the tractor.
9.                         S

NP                                        VP

Art        N                    VC                              AP

V AdvP Inf             EN        A          PP            PP

Adv                              P        NP   P         NP

N        NP         N

Pro

The voles might all have been angry at Clarence for his mistakes

Su            Aux      Aux           Cop       Pred       OO                 OO
Qfs voles                                                Ass mod mistakes
Advl mod S

Note: all is a floated quantifier. The predicate adjective angry has two oblique object ar-
guments.

10.             S

NP                        VP

Pro       VC       NP               PP

V Art N          P              NP

NP         N

Pro

There      ’s   a    fly    in   your       soup

GSu        Cop NSu Pred    OO
Ass mod soup

Note: the predicator is the preposition in.
11.                      S

NP                                              VP

Pro               VC                    NP                   VC            PP

V        Inf       EN Art AP           N        ING          P          NP

A                                      NP         N

Pro      N     N

There could have been a nasty snake slithering in your backpack

GSu             Aux                      NSu       Pred                          OO
Adjl mod snake                          Ass mod báckpack

Note: as discussed on p44 of the text, the VC must be split in cases like this.

12.                                      S

NP                       VP                              NP                PP

N            VC                    NP               AP       N    P            NP

V AdvP Inf              NP            N       A                     NP          N

Adv                   N                                          N

Gus did not reject Seymour’s offer last night at Bertha’s party

Su Aux      Pred                   DO           Advl mod S       Advl mod S
Advl mod S              Ass mod offer Adjl mod night Ass mod party

Note: this sentence has two sentence adverbials, one a temporal adverbial and the other
a place adverbial.
13.             S

NP       V    NP                   VP

Pro               N       VC            NP                PP

INF Dem        AP        N      P

A

Whom did Zelda send that ghastly picture                    to

OP to Aux       Su          Pred                DO         IO
Adjl mod picture

14.                              S

PP                V     NP                VP

P         NP                  N          VC               NP

N                         INF       EN    NP    AP    N

Pro   A

From whom might Rollo have gotten his nifty bassoon

OO            Aux        Su    Aux     Pred            DO
Adjl mod bassoon
Ass mod bassoon

Note: from whom is an oblique object of get, which takes three arguments.
15.            S

NP                      VP

Pro     VC               NP                     PP

V Dem           AP        N        P     NP

A                      NP N

Pro

Who put that stupid lizard in my bed

Su     Pred              DO                      OO
Adjl mod lizard            Ass mod bed

Note: put takes three arguments.

16.                                                       S

S                                                                 S

NP                                VP                                             VP NP

N                 VC                              PP                           VC Pro

V        AdvP       EN        P                      NP                 V

Adv                      Art           N             PP

P        NP

N

Velma has never listened to the symphonies of d’Umbelle, has she

Su    Aux             Pred                         OO                          Tag
Advl mod S                                 Ass mod symphonies Aux Su

Note: never is negative, so the tag has to be positive.
17.     S’

Int    NP          S

N          VP

VC NP

V        Pro

OK     Zeke   drop      it

Int    Voc    Pred DO

Note: this is an imperative with an interjection and a vocative.

18.                                                              S

S                                            S

NP                                VP                                    PP         VP       NP

Pro    VC                   NP                 VC         PP        P        NP    VC       Pro

V    N                   PP            ING    P    NP                N     V AdvP

P         NP                   Pro                       Adv

There are hordes of mosquitoes waiting for you in Wisconsin, are n’t there

GSu Aux                     NSu Ptv            Pred       OO        Advl mod S          Tag
Aux     GSu
Advl mod S

Note: this is a presentative construction with a tag.

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