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SIMULATION OUTLINE—ADDIS ABABA. A. INTRODUCTION As the capital and largest city in the country with over 2.7 million inhabitants, Addis Ababa serves as the central hub of life in Ethiopia. The city boasts a rich and varied history, diversity being a central theme applicable to all aspects of the Addis profile. It is this heterogeneity that has allowed the city to play such a significant role in Africa, and now it is emerging on the world stage. In its quest to remain relevant in the cutthroat, competitive globalized market, it has faced the same challenges as countless other growing cities throughout the world. These issues include housing, employment, sanitation, efficient infrastructure and, of course, the prospect of the city’s future sustainability. Addis is well aware of the trials it is facing on the way to becoming a world city, though, and will continue to take advantage of its strong history and vivacious population while working to tackle these matters. B. KEY POINTS 1. The Addis government needs to pull away from internal conflict between the four parties of the CUD, and keep its attention focused outward on its people. It should work on supporting a migration of its citizens away from the agricultural sector and into the information age. They can do this by providing federal funding for increased education, which would stimulate intellectual activity within the city and prepare the city’s population for green-collar jobs. 2. Political tension with outside groups and countries pose a threat to the security of the city. Increased border control should be implemented to protect Addis from Somalian extremists and the Sudanese, who there is currently conflict with. Additional security should be placed in the most densely populated areas of the city to reduce urban violence and the frequency of petty crimes and theft. 3. Urban planning is a relatively new endeavor in Addis, and great attention must be paid to the layout and structure of the city. The roads are heavily depended on, and clogged with foot traffic (more so than vehicles), so they should be well integrated in the city and efficiently laid out. The city grew on its own rather organically, so there needs to be better infrastructure and spaces created to harbor sustainability, such as parks and outdoor recreation areas. Following the proposals of the Masdar Initiative (stemming out of Abu Dhabi) can bring along these changes and ultimately lead Addis to a smaller CO2 footprint. 4. Addis has not slowed its productivity in the face of the current economic crisis, and this could prove problematic when/if the correlating demand needed diminishes. Many of the workers contributing to this production cannot afford to live within the core of the city and are forced to commute every day, causing pollution and drawing attention to the lack of desirable affordable housing and also to the lack of strong infrastructure that can handle the constant ebb and flow of this work force. The Smart Growth method, which calls for planning housing for various socioeconomic groups and improving transportation and infrastructure, should continue to be explored in Addis. 5. Addis has vowed to become a ―greener‖ city and is working on altering its ecologically irresponsible habits, but time is of the essence now. Addis still must cut pack on its pollution, improve its sanitation standards, and reduce clogging and congestion on the roads to keep the city moving at a faster, more efficient overall pace. Other future environmental plans should include investments in green architecture and city planning, such as vertical building construction. 6. Waste management is an urgent issue that Addis must address. There is a swelling population within the city and yet only a fraction of these inhabitants properly dispose of their waste; this includes children who don’t have adequate access to dumping areas, or ―skips.‖ Collection areas must be cleaned and restored with greater frequency, which will aid in improving sanitation throughout the city, thus eliminating many preventable diseases, and increasing the general quality of life within Addis Ababa. 7. As Addis works to become a more prominent figure on the global stage and benefit from globalization, it is essential the city doesn’t abandon its history, eclectic roots, and culture. Recently the Ethiopian government has begun to pay more attention to the arts and with this recent renewed appreciation, Addis has naturally been receiving more notice as a showcase for creativity. As new, greener buildings are constructed and the city moves into a more modern age, it must make sure to preserve its museums and galleries that give the city so much of its vibrancy and life. C. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Addis Ababa is the capital of Ethiopia and the headquarters of the African Union, previously the Organization of African Unity. It is the largest city in Ethiopia and the world’s second largest city in a landlocked country. Home to approximately three million people, Addis Ababa exists as a chartered city with the political status as a city and a state. Addis was founded in 1866 by Emperor Menelik II and was later taken over by Italy in 1936, when it was made the capital of Italian East Africa until 1941. When Emperor Haile Selassie retook the city in 1963, the Organization of African Unity was formed. Addis Ababa contains people of over eighty nationalities and languages and home to many religious communities. Almost twenty-two percent of all urbanites in Ethiopia live in Addis where the density currently stands at approximately 5,165 residents per square kilometer. Addis is a working city and employs many residents in areas of commerce trade, industry, and development. There is also a large amount of people working in education, health, and catering services. There is a fair amount of rural poor that come into the city to beg, but this number has declined thanks to the work of the government and NGOs that provide them with education and jobs. Recently in Addis Ababa, there has been a decrease in crime rate, contrasting with a construction boom and an increase of luxury services. Addis has a functional public transportation system and is home to a great number of schools, including Addis Ababa University. D. COMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON GOVERNANCE Recommendations: 1. Strengthen the economy by moving away from the agricultural sector a. ADDIS is heavily dependent on agriculture, but this does not make for a strong economy since the regular droughts combined with poor cultivation practices make it very variable. This requires developing a new sector that ADDIS can benefit from. 2. Move away from a multi-party system with lots of coalitions, towards a more unified government. a. As of right now, the CUD (Coalition of Unit and Democracy) is in power, which consists of 4 different political parties. The parties are heavily investigated in gaining more spots in parliament, and therefore rigged elections and high competition are very prevalent among the government. 3. Put Federal funding in community organizations a. Corrupt government mostly embezzles or misinvests the funds that they claim are going to neighborhood improvement projects so community organizations are left to their own meager means of trying to improve their neighborhoods. 4. Unify the 10 municipalities/ districts of ADDIS- as of now all 10 are allowed to set their own budget and all have a lot of freedom, but they can’t successfully function as a city if they’re not all on the same page. 5. Install incentives for people to become owners of their homes and not tenants Recommendations Concerning Unemployment: 6. Create jobs in construction, particularly of houses (300,000 houses needed) 7. Create jobs in marketing by organizing the informal vendor carts that are sprawled around the city. 8. Install an Employment Committee in the federal government, which has representatives for all 10 municipalities, and deals specifically with job creation and encouraging people to seek work. a. Unemployment is the #1 problem with 60% of the population unemployed and part of the ―informal sector‖ i. First the government should focus on the slum population, and try to improve the slum communities that people live in, this can involve providing better services for people in the slum communities. This plan will help those in the slums feel as though they are more involved in the fabric of the city ii. Next Addis focus on economic growth, and the focus should be on growth that provides equal opportunity for all groups of people and make sure that there are adequate employment opportunities as more rural people are migrating, and they need jobs in order to be viable citizens of Addis iii. To help the city become more successful economically, the government should focus on having a more modern urban economy iv. The next main focus should be on the environment, as the urbanization of Addis Ababa has caused the environment to worsen v. The government should better understand the environment in and around the city, and take the lead in bettering the environment vi. The government should penalize people who do not meet environmental standards, especially businesses, and have the green movement begin in the homes so everyone is involved in the future of the city vii. Education should be at the forefront of Addis’ plan to become a leader of innovation viii. The only way to reach creativity/innovation is through quality educational programs ix. Government should place a focus on science so Addis can be a technological and cultural center for the world x. As of now, there is not an abundance of universities (really only one main one- University of ADDIS Ababa), and only 37% make it to a secondary school education. There needs to be educational facilities in all 10 municipalities at least at the primary educational level. The city council needs to request Federal funding from the Ethiopian government. Cities are magnets for information, so Addis, out of all of Ethiopia, needs to be the most densely populated with schools. COMMITTEE ON SECURITY i. Extremists from Somalia pose risks to safety and security within Addis Ababa and therefore an increase in border control should be warranted. ii. Pick pocketing and other petty crimes are common in Addis Ababa. To solve this, the city’s police force should be expanded and dispatched to heavily concentrated areas. iii. The presence of police officers in common areas like markets and stores should provide a sense of security to citizens and maintain economic growth. iv. Addis Ababa needs to cancel the debt of Sudan and lift the economic and commercial sanctions against the Sudan in order to support it in the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). v. If the Ethiopian government reduces the tension with Sudan, Ethiopian borders will be safer and consequently Addis Ababa will also be safer. vi. Addis Ababa should contribute towards programs of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and the training of the Joint Integrated Units (JIU’s) in order to eliminate crime and terrorist activity. vii. 10 universal recommendations for reducing urban violence- increase police force, improve police training, identification (foreign passport, visa etc.) should be required at local stores and important facilities, video cameras should be installed at open markets, important sites, and known violent areas, release political prisoners, forbid known felons or terrorists from entering the country/city, increased dispatch of soldiers/police at city’s borders, maintain criminal penalties already established in Addis Ababa for petty crimes(severe but necessary), raise the age limit required to own a gun, revise penal system regarding illegal weapon/drug possession and trafficking in order to enforce harsher penalties. viii. The potential of renewable energy (solar, wind, hydrothermal, geothermal, biomass and bio fuels) in the Horn of Africa is huge, if harnessed properly. Addis Ababa should make sure to properly use and develop these renewable energies and thus limit their dependence on oil. ix. Plant more trees, save crop genetic diversity in order to help food production adapt to the inevitable changes in agricultural systems, and take steps to ensuring the preservation of wildlife and nature. x. Increase school enrollment and literacy in order to gain awareness and knowledge about global warming and oil dependency. xi. Enact strict penalties against water polluters and harmful polluting factories. xii. Preparedness of Mayor Checklist- highly trained and specialized police force ready for any possible attack; mayor should have a realistic evacuation plan for schools, markets, and buildings if faced with a terrorist attack from extremists, a plan for rebellions or political protests. xiii. Today, Addis Ababa is in a stage of transition as Ethiopia adjusts to a new free market economy and a democratic government, and therefore the mayor should be well qualified and knowledge about matters dealing with democracy and a free-market economy. COMMITTEE ON URBAN PLANNING i. There is no designated city center in Addis because, until very recently, there was no urban planning. Addis Ababa simply grew in a natural, organic way, and its present appearance reflects this unforced and unstructured evolution. Major rural exodus to Addis Ababa has increased the population of the Ethiopian capital by nearly 20 percent over the past 10 years – a development that has strained the city's infrastructure to breaking point. Addis has become one of the most urbanized cities away from a coastline. In 1986 a city Master Plan was developed to help the city on its road to creating a more structuralized Addis. This plan has since been reconstructed as technology, the economy, and society advanced and the population has soared. ii. Urban planning is responsible for organizing a proper land and transport plan specifically structured for that particular city. Urban renewal is another major part of urban planning. It is the re-generation of inner cities by adapting urban planning methods to existing cities suffering from long-term infrastructural decay. iii. Cities should be accessible to everyone, in addition to having equal opportunities to all economic sectors of society. Because cities are close knit regions they encourage interaction between all levels of social stature. iv. Transportation and Services 1. Transportation and public spaces are essential aspects to a city. Without them the city would cease to exist. Addis Ababa is an important regional and international transportation hub. They have a pretty good transportation system, and little pollution caused from exhaust fumes, etc. The Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway, the only major rail link in Ethiopia today has been the most influential in the development of the capital as a primate city. Through this line, the majority of Ethiopia's agricultural and manufactured products are prepared for export. 2. Air transport facilities have also been influential in shaping the geography of Addis Ababa and spurring investment and development. The city has two airports, the old Lideta Airport southwest of the city and the Bole International Airport to the southeast. By providing international connections these facilities have established Addis Ababa as the most global city in East Africa as it attracts conventions and tourists alike. 3. For the vast majority of Addis Ababa's residents, transportation is a local or regional endeavor. Though cars, trucks and motorbikes clog the narrow streets, most residents do not own their own automobiles. The fastest and easiest transportation around town is in mini-vans called "Wee Eeuts." 4. The road is an essential part to the Addis system. All facets of life center around the road. Since virtually no one owns vehicles, every one walks along the road. Cars and trucks play a minor role compared to all this pedestrian activity. 5. Addis faces multiple problems related to its spatial and physical development. Lack of public spaces such as greenery, playgrounds, car parking, etc are severe problems in the built-up areas of Addis. 82% of the population of Addis lives in unplanned neighborhoods, which lack basic urban facilities and infrastructure networks such as open spaces, recreation areas. The severity of urban decay and lack of public facilities are more deep in central parts of the City; mainly because, one, inner city of Addis constitutes the unplanned and the oldest parts of the City, two, development interventions undertaken against the continuous physical and environmental deterioration of the built up areas were and are still minimal. v. Inner City Problems 1. Over crowdedness, congestion, building obsolescence, unhygienic environment, misuse of public spaces (e.g. by street hawkers) and deterioration of urban facilities. These different problems call for different approaches. The problem of inner city deterioration in Addis Ababa is receiving a steadily growing attention both from urban planners and policy makers. These days, improving the physical and economic fabrics of the built up areas has been one of the key development concerns of the City Government. This concern stems mainly from the need to improve the living environment of residents, improving the image of the city, and exploiting economic potentials of the city center vi. Major Components of Master Plan 1. Strong center & sub-center for a coherent development frame, the road network, affordable transport-enhanced access and mobility, equitable distribution of affordable services, adequate residential options for all income levels, historical values preserved and integrated into a dynamic urban system, and overall balanced urban improvement and growth. vii. Proposal Framework 1. Improving Social services. Health, education, recreational facilities 2. Tackling unemployment problem through creation of income generating schemes 3. Improving land use and housing condition 4. Utility supply as for the security situation and activeness 5. Provision of greenery and open space viii. Today, the majority of the world’s population lives within sixty kilometers of the coastline and this is steadily increasing. This profound demographic shift has significant implications for the coastal environment, inhabitants and ecosystem stability. Cities need to start developing outward, and away from the ocean-more in the direction of their periphery. They also need to start being built higher above ground, and barricades should be constructed along the waters edge ceiling them in to prevent flooding. However, this is not a current problem for Addis because its city center rests miles away from the Red Sea: ix. Yes, although the Masdar Initiative costs enormous amounts, it will have positive results in the sustainability of our future, which is what we need to focus on. The use of fossil fuels to set up the project is contradictory, so although they may be more effective, switching to all energy efficient renewable resources would be the best way to go in the construction of the project. Addis and all cities would be better off if they began to create a zero carbon city. It will have negative effects on the present because of the economic situation we are in, but it will be worth it for the future in areas of sanitation and pollution. x. Parts of the Plan 1. Focus on land development and provision, Increase efficiency in land transfer; involve developers and those to be affected by intervention programs in decision making, establish land management institutions and techniques. 2. Build capacity for better regularization and efficient utilization of plots. 3. Organize financial and development consulting institutions to advice on financing cooperative housing, self-help housing, and low-income housing development 4. Target subsidy to the poor 5. Focus investments in the inner city and selected development/ growth directions (East, south and southwest) 6. Ensure the provision of technical infrastructure in the core and periphery that guarantees the supply of land 7. Provide major public services in the under-serviced areas of the eastern, southwestern, and southern parts of the city. Locate these services along the mass transport routes and strategic areas 8. Ensure investment in the inner city and the selected development/ growth directions (East, southwest and south) through the provision of basic infrastructure 9. Enhance development in the city center and complementary sub-centers (Megenagna, Kality, Ayer Tena 10. Develop mass transit and improve road network on the two main development axes (east-west & north-south). Construct truck and rail freight terminals in the southern axis 11. Construct regional bus terminals and city bus terminals in the strategic investment areas corresponding the city centers 12. Reserve space for future modem mass transport lines and terminals COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT i. Overall: Addis Ababa has just recently urbanized, putting itself on the map. It has begun developing a bigger industry sector and trading with foreign nations. ii. Addis Ababa has been known for its ruinous unemployment rate, and with the current economic crisis, the problem has only increased. Businesses have closed, employees have been fired, and jobs are nowhere to be found. iii. Addis needs more government intervention—new policies and increased funds. The situation in Ethiopia though, is that the local government is fairly inefficient and cannot target the true problem adequately. iv. Ethiopia has not been fully dependent on other nations for funds, but Addis is still facing issues with foreign investment. The mass of the export and import trade of Ethiopia channels through Addis, allowing the city to interact with other nations. However, as a result of the economic crisis, there is a drop in demand for products, but that hasn’t stopped Addis Ababa from producing the same number of commodities as ever. v. If Addis doesn’t slow down its pace, there will be nobody to buy its products, and an enormous loss of money. Local governments need to invest or buy subsidies such as oil or other strategic capital goods, in hopes of keeping the trade business functioning. vi. Local governments in Addis should offer different housing options; many residents cannot afford to live inside the city and resort to traveling every day—causing pollution—or to living on the streets. vii. The Smart Growth method, which presents imperative actions, such as creating a range of housing opportunities or providing a variety of transportation choices, could make or break Addis Ababa—one wrong move could cause riots from the informal or formal sector. viii. As a result of its success, Addis has attracted rural migrants to travel, seeking employment in the center, but the infrastructure isn’t prepared to handle the new population. ix. In addition to the Smart Growth’s proposals, Addis will need a major update on its infrastructure—its sewer system and pipelines specifically. Housing has always been an issue, even more recently because of the crisis. Families have not been able to meet their housing payments, facing eviction. Smart Growth, if it truly executes what it claims it will do, is an effective method of offering housing to diverse families from different socioeconomic classes. x. The majority of workers in the formal sector are involved in administrative, service, or commercial professions, while manufacturing and industrial sectors are on the rise. Addis, the heart of Ethiopia, contains 67% of the country’s industry. xi. Africa overall has an enormous informal sector, but Addis has managed to profit financially from it. xii. The majority of the people in the informal sector don’t have access to education and formal institutions. With education, residents of the informal sector will be able to use their knowledge and hopefully join the formal sector. xiii. Even though the informal sector will never be gone, the local government needs to survey its community to figure out what these people do, who they are, where they live, and other statistics to improve conditions. xiv. Street vendors and shoe shiners all work on the street, never having a place to call ―work.‖ Better infrastructure will help the residents move up on the socioeconomic chart. COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENT i. Carrying capacity is affected everywhere when the rate of those living in cities constantly is rising; a physical space can only carry so many people and the number cannot increase or decrease unless drastic changes are made ii. Big problems facing Addis: sanitation, highly endangered green areas, growing pollution and flood hazards, lack of education about problems iii. Solid waste is just dumped into the streets of Addis, less than 68% of it is collected and the residents don’t have access to any kind of sanitation facilities. Since there are new alternative energy sources and lack of education/public awareness, there have not been any steps forward toward improving the sanitation system in Addis and have lead to rapid deforestation and soil erosion which in turns causes flooding of the city, damages houses and infrastructure while constantly contributing to water, air, noise, and soil pollution. iv. Plans have been proposed to have better sanitation services, use new types of wood as energy, to protect the city from pollution, to maintain a deep association with nature, and to encourage urban agriculture v. The city has plans to move to a more green level and become a much more environmentally friendly and cautious city but has so far shown no progress; the plans if executed correctly can help to clean up Addis and help it to advance vi. The level of pollution in Addis is its worse problem (along with lacking education to learn about the environmental crisis) and is not a problem only in Addis, but is all over the world and is contributing to Global Warming vii. In connection with sustainability, there are many specific plans and sets of ideas that have been suggested to help improve all of the problems that Addis is facing; like creating new parks, building waste treatment units, promote public transportation, prepare landfills, provide access to sewer lines, etc. but everything is just an idea and nothing has been executed yet so there’s no way to say if it’s working or not viii. Addis has the potential to be a sustainable city as long as it confronts its major problems first, the plans that are designed for it are ones that are intricate enough to make Addis better not only right now but in the future and continue to improve as time goes on ix. Why might sustainability and making it a green city fail? The conditions of the land, air, people, houses, is so squalid at this point that it is very hard to clean them up and it would be better to start from scratch. A lot of money, time, and education are also required to design green projects and to execute them in a way that would benefit all of Addis for now and the future. x. Addis could build green buildings and more green infrastructure because it will be easier for them since they don’t have much to begin with and so they can become green when they start to build up their city xi. Addis should create a Just Sustainability Agreement because it will help direct them towards a more green future and help create better public policy but it will require a lot of education about environmental sustainability and for the majority to agree to help move towards a more stable country all over xii. Addis Ababa has faced an uncontrollable and high amount of urban sprawl from rural areas since the 1970's due to poverty and wars in rural areas xiii. Most of these migrants enter the city's core region and settle in slums or high density housing neighborhoods that surround the city's central market (elite city dwellers are mainly located away from centers, in spacious, quiet areas) xiv. Traffic congestion and dependence on private cars are problems in Addis (due to poor public transportation systems and lack of roads) xv. Although the city is surrounded by many different suburbs, the majority of people who reside there do not travel into Addis for work (cultivate subsistent crops, live in monasteries, work at many of the natural sites in the Entotto mountains and hot springs outside of the city) xvi. The negative consequence of increasing density in cities has already occurred in Addis: most workers reside in the city's center, which is densely populated with poor housing conditions (mud-walled homes with earthen floors, poor sewage and water systems in low income areas xvii. Since Addis has no choice but to increase density, and most of the population already resides in small living spaces within the city, the government should work to provide comfortable, low-income housing for all these people so that they can settle and establish themselves in these areas xviii. The housing should be built upward, not outward: buildings in Addis tend to be low, and if vertical space is occupied, the large demand for housing could be satisfied, also decreasing travel distance (which is useful to the urban poor in a city with little public transportation, and helpful in decreasing the carbon footprint), and driving the urban poor away from residing in and thus ruining the "greenbelt" of eucalyptus trees, which provides the city with industry (harvested and sold), infrastructure (used to build homes), fuel, and open, green spaces. xix. Increasing urban density should not occur if slums and low-income housing are prevalent in a city: forcing suburban workers into a city with these areas could lead to increase population in slums, worsening the already pressing issue for Addis xx. The urban poor that are already in the city should be taken care of first xxi. Although the city considers transportation a major issue, and is currently devoted to road construction projects, those in charge should shift focus to taking care of the urban poor, and next, instead of building roads, should upgrade the public transportation system (less private car dependence means less congestion and emission; cheaper method of transportation); this would bring sustainability xxii. Although Addis is struggling to urbanize and provide housing, UA has not been totally lost in the process xxiii. Every vacant area within and around the city is cultivated by surrounding residents (usually poor migrants) who rely on UA as a main source of income xxiv. UA closest to the central market tends to be occupied by dairy products and vegetables, along the roads into Addis tend to be Eucalyptus trees, and outer farmlands tend to cultivate subsistent crops like grass (used for weaving) xxv. Crop Transportation to Market: some can easily do this by foot, some haul crops on their backs in a 5 hour commute by foot, some load crops onto rooftops of city-bound cars, and some distribute surplus crops locally xxvi. The "greenbelt" of eucalyptus trees provides numerous benefits: acts as a coolant in the concrete jungle, reduces the carbon footprint, provides poor with labor and material for housing, and provides open green spaces scattered throughout a crowded city xxvii. The UA blueprint in Addis already exists, and has been kept alive by the people who depend on its profits xxviii. The concern with Addis Ababa's current UA system is that the government will not recognize its importance, and the cultivated land will shrink due to the struggle to provide housing for the growing population xxix. It is important to protect these spaces because urbanizing them is an irreversible process xxx. Agriculture should also remain in its current location because the mountainous nature of the northern region and the volcanic nature southern region of Addis Ababa deem these areas infertile COMMITTEE ON SOCIAL SERVICES i. About 30% of the urban population of Ethiopia lives in Addis ii. In the slum areas it is estimated that 632 people live in every 2.5 acres compared to 5 people per 2.5 acres that is experienced in the city. iii. Because of the high density it is difficult to make sure that everyone has the resources they need. It is estimated that 45% of households get their drinking water from outside their homes, from vendors and other sources. iv. Solid waste is Addis’ largest problem. v. The sewage system is meant to serve 200,000 households but is currently only working for 6,000 households. vi. The amount of slums and illegal housing makes it very difficult to make sure that there is adequate waste disposal which leads to the spread easily preventable diseases vii. In order to help fix this problem the Health Bureau is trying to promote recycling among the inhabitants of Addis. viii. What is needed is to help educate people on proper waste management at home. ix. The poorer slum dwellers tend to make more use of their waste and separate the waste effectively while the richer families tend to never separate their waste since they have no need for it. x. Toilets are a major issue in Addis. Having enough toilets and latrines to keep Addis sanitary is difficult because of the irresponsibility of the slum dwellers who go so far as to throw dead animals into the latrines. xi. There also has to be a re digging of many of them since liquid waste tends not to flow down them as was expected, and instead it stands still and causes serious odor and sanitation issues. xii. It is shown that many slum dwellers in fact do care about living in a clean space since there are many instances where they have complained to local government of burned dead animals that were found in latrines and other spaces. xiii. The main problem is that there is not an organized way of disposing of waste. The skips given to the people to throw their waste in tend to fill quickly and smell. There are also a lot of children who simply cant reach the skips and therefore throw waste anywhere there is space. xiv. The main problem is to get there large skips full of waste emptied every 2-3 days instead of every 3 weeks. With this small change the city will become much cleaner. xv. 32% of the city is under 15 and there are over 78 ethnic groups in the city xvi. Addis has a respectable literacy rate of 83% xvii. More than half of the children aged 5-11 are enrolled and attend school, which helps with this literacy rate xviii. The main issue is making sure that they enroll in secondary school. xix. This is a place where the government can definitely intervene. If the kids were given the chances to go to a secondary school that is close by, more children would attend, helping make the city a more educated place. xx. Without a proper education it is impossible for Addis to become the world city that it has the potential to be. NGO’s and other outside sources should definitely be helping with this goal. If other countries helped bring Addis up to speed, everyone involved would benefit since Addis has the potential to be anything it needs to be. xxi. The skyline is very mixed in Addis with high-rise buildings within slum areas xxii. The government has not done enough in the past years to help give affordable housing to all of its inhabitants. xxiii. This is a very difficult task for the government to handle especially with the influx of people that come to live in Addis every year. Addis is seen as a city that is going to go somewhere in the future, so many rural people move to Addis in hopes of making a fair and decent living. xxiv. The government should invest in building large buildings that can house many inhabitants, much like the proposed Tolou projects in China that would help solve the issue of housing. xxv. Both housing and education are huge investments that Addis will have to make in the very near future in order to come out of the periphery and into the inner circle of cities, but Addis can not do this alone. With the help of private organizations and other countries Addis can achieve almost anything. COMMITTEE ON CULTURE AND IDENTITY i. Addis Ababa is a relatively new city, boasting a population of around two million residents, which puts the city in a position to improve urban design. Architects have worked hard to create sleek buildings that touch the sky, and should be applauded for their ambitious efforts. However, the city’s desire to become a part of the global market has made the city forgetful of sustainability. Housing conditions for the majority of Addis Ababa consists of crowded, shoddy, and substandard structures with no municipal sewage systems. While, yes, there are some wealthy areas that thrive, most of Addis Ababa struggles to get by. Not too long ago, in 1980, over 85% of the population was living in slums, most of which have been relocated due to the fast paced building going on in the center. In order to be sustainable, Addis Ababa needs to work with its urban planning architects to come up with solutions to the never-ending issues it faces. ii. One place to start is the environment. Because going green has become such a hot topic, Addis Ababa could seize the opportunity while it has the chance to become an eco city. Improving the ecological footprint of the city would allow other benefits to trickle down. A new design for the slums that promotes a green way of life would not only help the environment, but the standard of living as well. In addition, an improved sanitation system would clean the city up while again, improve life in Addis Ababa. Another recommendation would be to make transportation more accessible to the peripheries of the city. As of a now, the concentration of people in the center is very high, but a clean and expanded transportation network could move this concentration outward. While there are a lot of designs that would benefit the city, these are a few that could propel Addis Ababa into a more prosperous and sustainable future. iii. Addis Ababa is the main hub of Ethiopia, giving it one of the most vibrant identities in the nation. In 1886, Menelik II renamed the former city, known as Finfinnie, to Addis Ababa. Since then, Addis Ababa has become the capital of Ethiopia, the capital of Italian East Africa, and following World War II, the capital of Ethiopia for a second time. Rapid growth has come to define the global city that it is today, and it is currently competing with Kabul to be the world’s largest landlocked city. Because of this, Addis Ababa is facing the threat of losing its identity and cultural heritage it has worked so hard to build. The antiquity of the city has been kept in tact for the most part, but this is changing as more people from all different background flock to the center. For this reason, it is important that the city supports and creates more public spaces. Museums and historic sites are struggling keep up with the fast paced globalization, so it is the city’s job to create a balance between the two so Addis Ababa’s history and identity is not erased. iv. There is no use in trying to pinpoint which religion in Addis Ababa is the all end all of the city because religion in this city spans from Islam, to Christianity, Animism, and more. Addis Ababa has become such a multi-ethnic city as globalization increases, allowing a fairly tolerant society to flourish. With a salad bowl mix up of around 74.7% of a population who are Orthodox Christians, 16.2% who are Muslim, 7.8% who are Protestants, and so on, Addis Ababa thrives on different aspects of each religion that make it unique. Maintaining this religious diversity is especially important to the future Addis Ababa as it becomes more entangled in the global network. If the city forgets for a second how influential religion is to the city in the midst of globalizing, there could be a serious clash among the different groups. v. Recently, Ethiopia’s government has paid more attention to the promotion of the arts. With its newfound support for the arts, the government is taking various works and displaying them in galleries throughout the country, but primarily in Addis Ababa. Some of the biggest art galleries in the center include St. George Art Gallery, Goshu Gallery and Pan African Gallery. Not to mention theater has also guided the city into its new creative era. In the future, the city should expand its support for the arts and incorporate more into education. A basic understanding of the various walks of life that reside in the city will make the city more sustainable. E. ISSUES 1. Due to a large exodus of rural Ethiopians to Addis Ababa, the population has increased by almost twenty percent in ten years. This new, larger population has placed a heavy strain on the city’s infrastructure. Many workers live in the center of the city without access to decent housing conditions due to a lack of space, money, and available shelter. In addition, traffic congestion, already an issue due to poor public transportation systems and not enough roads, has been exasperated by the influx of people. 2. Although a large number of people are employed in Addis Ababa, an equally large number are not. The unemployment rate is currently rising and the number of available jobs is decreasing. Businesses are closing due to the economic crisis and many are getting laid off from their jobs. However, the city is still producing the same amount of materials and products. If this trend continues, Addis will be left with a surplus of goods and there will be little or no more profit made. This could potentially destroy the economic system of Addis. 3. Slums have grown increasingly prevalent in Addis Ababa. They contribute to the overcrowding of the city and its immense amount of waste and pollution. The government must try to implement programs to help the slum-dwellers move out of their squalid living conditions. Currently there is a fairly adequate literacy rate among the residents of Addis, including those in the slums. However, the education of the people must be continued and increased in order for Addis to both improve the situation of the slums and to establish itself as a world city. 4. Addis Ababa has a huge sanitation and pollution problem. Due to the growing population and lack of housing, there is a large number of people living on the streets, waste accumulates and isn’t disposed of properly. Solid waste is thrown into the streets and less than 68 percent of all waste is disposed of properly. In addition, those who do live in the streets rarely have any effective forms of sanitation facilities. To improve its sustainability, Addis must fix the problem of its waste treatment and disposal and implement more green spaces. 5. Addis Ababa has placed economic and commercial sanctions on the nation of Sudan, which is indebted to Addis. However, this causes a lot of tension around the borders of Ethiopia and consequently affects the safety of Addis. In addition, there is a problem with petty crime on the streets and an increase in terrorist extremists. Addis will need to improve its security around its borders and in the streets in order to make the city a safer place.
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