Impact Assessment - Crime and Security Bill

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					Summary: Intervention & Options

 Department /Agency:                 Title:
 Home Office                         Impact Assessment of the Crime and Security Bill



 Stage: Final Proposal               Version: 1                          Date: November 2009
 Related Publications: Impact Assessments on some of the provisions in the Bill; Consultations and
 other documents
 Available to view or download at:
 www.crimereduction.homeoffice.gov.uk/crimeandsecuritybill/
 Contact for enquiries: Michael Drew                                  Telephone: 0207 035 1863

 What is the problem under consideration? Why is government intervention necessary?
 In recent years the Government has successfully introduced tough powers to tackle crime and
 antisocial behaviour. However, there is scope to go further and legislation is required to close a
 number of gaps in order to: make our streets safer, prevent crimes against the most vulnerable, shut
 down criminal and exploitative markets, and ensure that justice is done for victims and their families.

 What are the policy objectives and the intended effects?
 To protect our communities by introducing measures to address some of the public’s key crime
 concerns by:
     Tackling antisocial behaviour and gang violence
       Shutting down criminal and exploitative markets
       Protecting vulnerable members of society including women and children
       Providing justice for victims of crime and their families
       Reducing police bureaucracy

 What policy options have been considered? Please justify any preferred option.
 1) Retain the current position and not introduce the changes outlined in the Bill (Do nothing).

 2) Implement the Bill in part - to do this would only realise some but not all of the benefits from the
 proposed reforms.

 3) Implement in full – this would allow us to move forward on delivering the reforms that are needed to
 address some of the public’s key crime concerns. (This is our preferred option).

 When will the policy be reviewed to establish the actual costs and benefits and the achievement of the
 desired effects?
 Implementation and delivery plans for individual provisions of the Bill will be developed in due course.




                                                      1
Ministerial Sign-off For                    Impact Assessments:
            I have read the Impact Assessment and I am satisfied that, given the available
            evidence, it represents a reasonable view of the likely costs, benefits and impact of the
            leading options
Signed by the responsible Minister:
     
.............................................................................................................Date:      




Summary: Analysis & Evidence

Policy Option: 3                       Description: Implement Bill in Full



            ANNUAL COSTS                             Description and scale of key monetised costs by ‘main
                                                     affected groups’ See costs and benefits section
            One-off (Transition)          Yrs
            £ 53.2m - £55.5m                 
            Average     Annual            Cost
 COSTS




            (excluding one-off)
            £ 6.2m - £6.3m                           Total Cost (PV)                                                 £ 105m - 108.2
            Other key non-monetised costs by ‘main affected groups’ See costs and benefits section




            ANNUAL BENEFITS                          Description and scale of key monetised benefits by ‘main
                                                     affected groups’ See costs and benefits section
            One-off                       Yrs
            £ 5.2m                           
 BENEFITS




            Average    Annual         Benefit
            £      12.4m                             Total Benefit (PV)                                              £ 108m

            Other key non-monetised benefits by ‘main affected groups’ See costs and benefits section



 Key Assumptions/Sensitivities/Risks See costs and benefits section and individual IAs


 Price Base            Time Period              Net Benefit Range                        (NPV)        NET BENEFIT              (NPV    Best
 Year 2010             Years 10                 £ -0.2m to £3m                                        estimate)
                                                                                                      £ 1.4m

 What is the geographic coverage of the policy/option?                                                                UK
 On what date will the policy be implemented?                                                                         Various       dates
                                                                                                                      depending upon the
                                                                                                                      provision
 Which organisation(s) will enforce the policy?                                                                       Principally the Police
                                                                                                                      and the Courts      

 What is the total annual cost of enforcement for these organisations?                                                £ see above


                                                                            2
 Does enforcement comply with Hampton principles?                                   Yes
 Will implementation go beyond minimum EU requirements?                             No
 What is the value of the proposed offsetting measure per year?                     £ N/A
 What is the value of changes in greenhouse gas emissions?                          £ N/A      
 Will the proposal have a significant impact on competition?                        No
 Annual      cost     (£-£)     per    organisation       Micro        Small        Medium        Large
 (excluding one-off)
 Are any of these organisations exempt?                   Yes/No       Yes/No       N/A           N/A
 Impact on Admin Burdens Baseline (2005 Prices)                                     (Increase - Decrease)
 Increase of     £ Unknown        Decrease of    £Unknown            Net Impact     £ Unknown
                                         Key:     Annual     costs     and      benefits: (Net)      Present
Evidence Base (for summary sheets)


       Background

       Rationale
       1.       In June 2009 the Government announced its intention to introduce a Policing, Crime and
       Private Security Bill in its draft legislative programme. The draft Bill sought to address the public’s
       key crime concerns by closing the few gaps that have emerged following the implementation of
       the government’s strategies that significantly reduced crime and increased the efficiency of the
       criminal justice system. Building upon this, a Crime and Security Bill is being brought forward and
       will be introduced in Parliament in November 2009.

       Objectives
       2.     The Crime and Security Bill will protect our communities by introducing measures to
       address some of the public’s key crime concerns by:
               Making our streets safer;
               Protecting vulnerable members of society, including women and children;
               Shutting down criminal and exploitative markets; and
               Providing justice for victims of crime and their families.

       3.       Specifically, the Crime and Security Bill will introduce provisions to:
               Retrospectively collect biometric data from serious violent and sexual offenders to assist
                police investigations including ‘cold cases’
               Ensure that those convicted of serious offences overseas are added to the DNA database
               Ensure the right people are on our DNA database
               Prevent gang violence through the use of gang injunctions for under 18 year olds
               Protect victims of domestic violence through the use of Domestic Violence Prevention
                Notices and Orders
               Increase parental responsibility for their child’s antisocial behaviour through the use of
                mandatory Parenting Needs Assessments and Parenting Orders
               Prevent financial exploitation by licensing vehicle immobilisation businesses
               Prevent inmates from continuing criminal activity from prison using mobile phones
               Reduce police bureaucracy by reducing the statutory reporting requirements for stop and
                search
               Ensure air weapons are safely kept away from the reach of children

       4.      This overarching Impact Assessment has been developed to provide an overview of the
       benefits, costs and savings provided by the Bill.

       5.      Individual impact assessments will be produced for each of the provisions in the Bill and
       will be published upon introduction.



                                                      3
6.     Some of the provisions have been the subject of Government consultation papers. A list
of these papers is provided at Annex A.

Summary of key provisions

Retrospective collection of biometric data from serious violent and sexual offenders

7.      The Bill will give the police service additional powers to require biometric data from
individuals in the following circumstances:
         Following arrest for a recordable offence, where they have been released on bail and
            have not previously had their data taken; or in any event where data previously taken
            proved subsequently to be insufficient;
         Following conviction (in England and Wales) for a serious offence where existing
            powers do not enable biometric data to be taken; and
         Following conviction (outside England and Wales) for a serious offence.

8.      As with existing powers to take DNA and fingerprints, all the new powers will enable the
police i) to require a person to attend a police station to have their data taken, ii) to take data
without the person’s consent and iii) to arrest a person who does not comply for the sole purpose
of taking the data.

Ensuring the right people are on the DNA database

9.     The Bill will amend DNA and fingerprint retention periods under the Police and Criminal
Evidence Act 1984. The Bill will introduce the following retention periods after which records will
be deleted:
    Adult – Convicted: indefinite retention of fingerprints & DNA profile;
    Adult – Arrested but unconvicted: retention of fingerprints & DNA profile for 6 years;
    Under-18 – Convicted of serious offence or multiple minor offences: Indefinite retention of
       fingerprints & DNA profile;
    Under-18 – Convicted of single minor offence: retention of fingerprints & DNA profile for 5
       years;
    16- & 17-year-olds – Arrested for but unconvicted of serious offence: 6 years retention of
       fingerprints & DNA profile;
    All other under-18s – Arrested but unconvicted: 3 years retention of fingerprints & DNA
       profile;
    Terrorism and National Security - Retention of DNA profile for 6 years. DNA may be
       retained beyond 6 years on national security grounds which will be subject to review by a
       senior police officer every two years; and
    All DNA samples: Retained until profile loaded onto database, but no more than 6
       months.

Under 18 gang injunctions

10.     The Bill will amend Part 4 of the current Policing and Crime Bill, Injunctions to prevent
gang-related violence, to allow use for 14-17 year olds. This requires the creation of a number of
additional safeguards and two new disposals for breach of a gang injunction – a supervision
package and custody. It will also be possible to fine 14-17 year olds under existing arrangements.

11.    Courts will be able to sentence those aged 14-17 who have been found guilty of breach of
a gang injunction to a 6-month supervision package administered by a Youth Offending Team
(YOT). This can include varying levels of supervision, activity requirements, curfews and
electronic monitoring.

12.    If a breach is deemed persistent or serious enough to warrant detention then courts will
have the option of imposing a custodial sentence of up to 3 months. This may be served in a
Young Offender Institution, Secure Training Centre or Secure Children’s Home. Allocation will be
made by the Secretary of State on the advice of the Youth Justice Board.

Domestic Violence Prevention Notices and Orders
                                             4
13.     The police will be given the power to issue a Domestic Violence Protection Notice (DVPN)
to a perpetrator of domestic violence requiring the suspected perpetrator not to contact the victim
and, in cases where the perpetrator and the victim co-habit, excluding the perpetrator from the
premises for 48 hours. If appropriate, this process could run in tandem with any criminal
proceedings.

14.     Within those 48 hours the police will apply to a magistrates’ court at which the magistrates
will be asked to make a Domestic Violence Prevention Order (DVPO) for up to a maximum of 28
days. Victims cannot be compelled to attend this hearing.

15.    Breach of a DVPO will be dealt with as contempt of court and can be punishable by a fine
or a custodial sentence.

Mandatory parenting needs assessment where a child is considered for an ASBO

16.  The Bill will amend the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 to oblige agencies applying for an
ASBO on a child aged 10 to 15 years to carry out an assessment of parenting needs before the
ASBO application is considered by a Court.

Mandatory parenting orders for parents or carers children who breach an ASBO

17.    The Bill will amend the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 to provide a presumption that the
courts must make a Parenting Order on parents or carers of 10 to 15 year olds who breach their
Antisocial Behaviour Order.

Licensing of vehicle immobilisation businesses

18.    The Bill will introduce compulsory business licensing arrangements requiring vehicle
immobilisation businesses to provide the Security Industry Authority with specific information by
way of registration and compliance with a compulsory code of practice through third party
accreditation.

19.     Business licensing will include general and sector specific licence conditions which
businesses would have to abide by in order to obtain and retain their business licence. The
proposals for conditions are set out in more detail in the individual Impact Assessment for the
provision.

Possession of an unauthorised mobile phone in prison

20.     The Bill will introduce powers under the Offender Management Act 2007 to make the
unauthorised possession of a mobile phone (and component parts) within prison grounds a
criminal offence. This would attract a maximum penalty on conviction of up to two years’
imprisonment and/or an unlimited fine. The offence will be applicable to all those who enter a
prison, including prisoners, visitors and staff.

Reducing the statutory reporting requirements for stop and search

21.    The Bill will reduce the statutory recording requirements for a stop and search encounter
to:
          the officer’s details;
          the date;
          the time;
          the place;
          what the officer was looking for (i.e. stolen property, drugs, firearms, offensive
           weapons, going equipped, criminal damage or other);
          the reason for the stop and search; and
          the individual’s self-defined ethnicity


                                             5
in all cases where either no further action is taken or where action short of arrest and immediate
custody is taken.

Failure to safely store an air weapon

22.    The Bill will introduce a new offence for individuals who fail to take reasonable measures
to keep their air weapon stored safely, thereby allowing a young person to gain access to it. The
offence will be summary in nature with a maximum penalty of a level 3 fine (£1,000).

Groups affected

23.     The provisions of the Bill impact mainly on victims of crime, their families, parents of
children who display antisocial behaviour, gang members, owners of air weapons, the public
sector (local authorities, police, courts, prison service and other agencies within the criminal
justice system, Security Industry Authority (SIA) and the private sector (vehicle immobilisation
businesses to be regulated by the SIA).

Costs and benefits

24.     The table below outlines the costs and benefits of the proposed changes.

Costs and Benefits
            Summary of costs                             Summary of savings/benefits
  Ensuring the right people are on the
               DNA database
This provision will incur one-off costs of
between £51.4m and £53.4m. The average
annual costs (excluding one-off costs) are
estimated to be £4.8m) This is broken
down as follows:
     £11.2m (one-off) to delete orphaned The provision would bring the benefit of re-
       profiles      and     re-programme offending individuals being caught due to the
       computer software                   retention period.
     £14.1m to £16.1m (one-off) +
       £4.4m/year to destroy DNA samples There would also be potential savings of £5.1m
     £26.1m (one-off) + £389,000/year to (one -off) and £7.8m/year in refrigeration savings.
       destroy adult and under 18s
       fingerprint records                 The total savings of the provision over 3 years are
                                             estimated to be £28.1m, including one-off savings
The total cost of the provision over 3 years of around £5.1m.
(excluding one-off costs) is estimated to be
£65.7m to £67.7m, including one-off costs
of around £51.4m to £53.4m.

All costs would be met by individual forces.



  Retrospective collection of biometric
  data from serious violent and sexual
               offenders
The average annual costs of this provision      There would be a potential saving on investigation
are estimated to be between £276,000 and        and prosecution time as a result of speculative
£381,000. This is broken down as follows:       DNA and fingerprint searches against crime scene
     £250,000 per annum to cover the           samples for both past and future offences.
        additional cost of taking and storing

                                                6
        samples
     Between £26,000 and £131,000 per
        annum to cover the time and travel
        costs incurred by those required to
        attend a police station to provide a It is difficult to quantify the benefit in monetary
        DNA sample                           terms, although the potential public benefit in
                                             deterring or preventing even one further serious
The total cost of the provision over 3 years crime is significant.
is estimated to be between £828,000 and
£1.14m.

All costs would be met by individual forces.
           Under 18 gang injunctions
The average annual costs of this provision
are estimated to be between £330,000 and
£615,500, based on high/low unit costs and
70-90 injunctions being obtained. This is
broken down as follows:
                                              The intervention is expected to provide the
      £48,000 - £68,000 for County Court     following benefits:
       Security
                                                    Reduction in violent gang offences in affected
      £281,000 - £553,000 for Fees, Legal
                                                       areas.
       Aid, Supervision Orders and
       Custody                                      Reduction in other offences related to gangs
                                                       due to prohibitions.
DA clearance has been obtained on the               Protection of community from individuals who
basis that the policy will be piloted in a             are involved in gang-related violence.
particular geographical area.                       Increased public confidence in police and
                                                       local authority ability to deal with gangs.
Estimated costs for the pilot are between
£24,750 and £92,300. The Home Office has
agreed to fund any costs arising from the
pilot, either in whole or in partnership with
pilot agencies.

  Domestic Violence Prevention Orders
                  and Notices
DA clearance has been obtained on the The provision is expected to provide the following
basis that the policy will be piloted in two 2 key benefits:
police force areas from October 2010. The          Reducing repeat victimisation of domestic
pilot will aim to measure national costs and          violence
impact of the policy.                              Providing police-led immediate protection to
                                                      victims of domestic violence where,
Estimates for the pilot (based on between             currently, immediate protection does not
250 and 300 DVPOs being issued) are as                exist.
follows:
                                               The evaluation of the pilot will include a robust
                                               assessment of the savings that will be made as a
£250k pilot set up and implementation          result of this policy. Net reductions in repeat
costs:                                         incidents of domestic violence, may result in
    Local police coordination of the pilot;   savings in the following areas:
    training for pilot staff and agencies
       involved;                                      CJS: a reduction in repeat victimisation
    caseworker support;                               would result in savings to all aspects of the
    court IT infrastructure.                          criminal justice system. Domestic violence
                                                       has been estimated as costing the CJS
£450k capped running costs which will                  £1.2bn (Walby and Allen, 2004).
                                               7
                                                        Homelessness: by removing the perpetrator
                                                         rather than the victim and her family there
                                                         will be less of a need to supply emergency
                                                         refuge accommodation (costs £103 per
                                                         week to place a women in a refuge) or re-
cover:                                                   house the family (£4k per family)
    Net additional costs to Legal Aid of               Healthcare:     a   reduction    in  repeat
      granting DVPOs in the pilot period                 victimisation may also result in savings to
    Net additional costs to Legal Aid of                the healthcare system. Domestic violence
      granting subsequent applications for               has been estimated as costing the CJS
      longer-term protective orders (Non-                £1.6bn (Walby and Allen, 2004).
      Molestation Orders and Occupation
      Orders                                         We anticipate substantial savings to accrue to
    Police costs for applying for, and              all agencies from the potential reductions in
      enforcing, DVPOs.                              repeat victimisation as a result of DVPOs.
                                                     These may include reduced costs of criminal
The Home Office has agreed to fund any               prosecutions and support services required for
costs arising from the pilot, either in whole        victims of domestic violence.
or in partnership with pilot agencies.
                                                     Based on existing available data (at the time of
                                                     publishing this Assessment), these are
These costs are an estimated range, based            examples of two potential savings as a result of
on a number of assumptions, which will be            DVPOs:
tested and revised through the pilot that will
commence in October 2010 for a minimum
                                                       In the pilot period, the estimated savings in
of 6 months (max 12 months).
                                                      police re-attendance during the DVPO period
                                                      are between £2k and £2.4k (Source: ACPO
This is a discrete pilot that will be fully           Violence Against Women and Girls Review, to
evaluated and DVPOs will be available for             be published Nov ’09).
use in the pilot for a trial period for the
purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of             In the pilot period, the estimated savings in
the provisions. At the end of the pilot               refuge housing as a result of the DVPO are
period, DVPOs will be stopped whilst the              between £110k and £130k (Sources: .ACPO
evaluation is completed.                              Review – as above – and an IDVA services
                                                      evaluation published by The Hestia Fund and
                                                      The Henry Smith Charity, 2008).
A further Impact Assessment will be
developed after the joint Home Office/MoJ
                                          At a micro level, the potential savings to housing
evaluation of the pilot to determine the
                                          services can be illustrated. The current estimated
national costs and potential impact of
                                          unit cost of a DVPO is between £1.2k and £1.5k. In
DVPOs.
                                          the pilot, we will be exploring the impact of DVPOs
                                          on families having to be re-housed which has a unit
                                          cost of £4k. This is particularly important as in a
                                          study by Shelter, 40% of all homeless women
                                          stated that domestic violence was a contributor to
                                          their homelessness.




 Mandatory Parenting Orders for parents
 or carers of 10-15 year olds who breach
                  an ASBO
Although the latest data show that 390           The benefits of the provision would be a
ASBOs were issued to this age group, the         reduction in the breach rate for ASBOs and an
number of additional Parenting Orders            improvement in the behaviour of the young
being issued per annum is very difficult to      person. This would save court time as well as
quantify because we do not know how              agencies’ time. It would also prevent future
many cases will fall into the category of        offending.
“exceptional circumstances”.

                                                 8
                                                It has been identified that the majority of young
Parenting Orders are issued by the courts       people entering custody for breach of an ASBO
and this will be zero cost (as confirmed by     were prolific offenders. Youth Justice Board
the Ministry of Justice). This is because the   research confirms that a small but significant
order will be ancillary to the ASBO.            minority is responsible for a very high proportion
                                                of anti-social behaviour. In the study 43 young
£97m is paid to the Youth Justice Board for     people were responsible for 1779 offences.
prevention work and parenting programmes
are funded out of this.
Mandatory Parenting Needs Assessment
where a child is considered for an ASBO
  Although the latest data shows that 390
ASBOs were issued to this age group in
2007, there are unlikely to be a noticeable
increase in costs to agencies from this
provision.     Central Guidance already
requires an assessment of the young    The provision would ensure that parents whose
person’s circumstances and any such    children’s behaviour is sufficiently serious to
assessment      should    already      warrant being considered for an ASBO have their
                                     include
                                       needs assessed and met. This would enable them
parenting issues. The provision will ensure
                                       to take responsibility for the behaviour of their
that this is done thoroughly and uniformly
across the country.                    children and given them a better chance to control
                                       them. This engagement would help to prevent
                                       further ASB and reoffending which would reduce
The Youth Justice board estimates that
                                       court costs and the resources of the agencies that
Parenting Assessments should cost no
                                       tackle ASB although this cannot be quantified.
more that £200.

The Youth Justice board estimates that
Parenting Assessments should cost no
more than £200.
  Licensing of vehicle immobilisation
                 businesses
Estimated annual cost to (250) vehicle
immobilisation businesses:                  The current requirement for all vehicle
                                            immobilisation operatives to re-licence every year
     £400 assessment fee
                                            (at a cost of £245) will be reduced to every 3 years.
     £300 development costs                This would give a total average annual benefit of
     £700 licence processing cost          around £360,000 and a total benefit of
     £700 intelligence and compliance cost approximately £1m over 3 years.
    £2,100 Total annual cost
                                                There will be an associated reduction in individual
                                                licence holder’s time spent completing forms.
The total average annual cost of the
provision is estimated at £525,000
                                              The key benefit for citizens will be to make vehicle
                                              immobilisation businesses accountable and subject
The total cost of the provision over 3 years to compulsory conditions which will reduce the
is estimated to be £1.5m.                     potential for public harm and remove unacceptable
                                              business practices.
All costs would be funded by the SIA (from
fees) and by the individual vehicle
immobilisation businesses.
        Offence of possession of an
   unauthorised mobile phone in prison
The new offence will lead to additional The key benefits to citizens are the potential
investigation and administrative work for the reduction in crimes committed as a result of the
Police, prosecutors and the courts. The use of mobile phones in prison. Additional benefits

                                                9
introduction of a prison sentence for illegal
possession of mobile phones will impose
costs on the prison service.
                                                 might arise from the further incapacitation of
The average annual cost of the provision is      criminals due to additional sentences, leading to
estimated at £0.5m.                              the prevention of potential criminal activities.

The total cost of the provision over 3 years
is estimated to be £1.5m
 Reducing the reporting requirements for
              stop and search
                                               The provision would save around £4.2m per year
There may be marginal costs to police by reducing the time spent on stop and search
forces associated with revising existing processes by u to 15 minutes per encounter.
recording processes for case disposals
when further action is taken or proposed Other key benefits would include improved contact
following stop and search. There would be between the Police and other public which would
one off costs and are likely to be negligible. raise confidence within communities about the use
                                                 of stop and search powers to prevent and deter
                                                 crime.
 Offence of failure to safely store an air
                    weapon
Costs are based on an estimate of two
offences each year and the cost of buying
security devices for 100,000 existing
owners of air weapons. The cost of the
provision are broken down as follows, none
of which fall to the Home Office:

      overall annual cost for new owners
       purchasing     security    devices:       The provisions would provide a deterrent to the
       £40,000                                   minority of owners who might be careless with their
      annual costs to the criminal justice      air weapons. The prospect of a substantial fine and
       system:    £2,000     (MoJ     have       a criminal record would prompt them to store their
       confirmed that they will pay for          air weapon more responsibly. This would reduce
       these costs)                              the opportunities for unauthorised access by young
      one-off cost to existing owners:          people and consequently the number of instances
       £1million                                 where young people are injured or killed with air
                                                 weapons.
The average annual cost (excluding one-off
costs) of the provision is estimated to be
£42,000.

The total cost of the provision over 3 years
is estimated to be £1.126m, including one-
off costs of £1m.




                                                10
Specific Impact Tests: Checklist


Use the table below to demonstrate how broadly you have considered the potential impacts of your
policy options.

Ensure that the results of any tests that impact on the cost-benefit analysis are contained within
the main evidence base; other results may be annexed.

 Type of testing undertaken                                   Results       in   Results
                                                              Evidence Base?     annexed?
 Competition Assessment                                       Yes/No             Yes/No
 Small Firms Impact Test                                      Yes/No             Yes/No
 Legal Aid                                                    Yes/No             Yes/No
 Sustainable Development                                      Yes/No             Yes/No
 Carbon Assessment                                            Yes/No             Yes/No
 Other Environment                                            Yes/No             Yes/No
 Health Impact Assessment                                     Yes/No             Yes/No
 Race Equality                                                Yes/No             Yes/No
 Disability Equality                                          Yes/No             Yes/No
 Gender Equality                                              Yes/No             Yes/No
 Human Rights                                                 Yes/No             Yes/No
 Rural Proofing                                               Yes/No             Yes/No


Annexes


Consultation papers


Keeping the right people on the DNA database (Home Office, May 2009)
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/cons-2009-dna-database/


Together we can end violence against women and girls strategy (Home Office, March 2009)
www.crimereduction.homeoffice.gov.uk/domesticviolence/domesticviolence071.htm


Licensing of vehicle immobilisation businesses (Home Office, 30 April 2009)
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/cons-2009-vehicle-immobilisation/


Other papers


Extending our reach: a comprehensive approach to tackling organised crime (Home Office, July 2009)
www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/extending-our-reach