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Constitution of The Participatory Democracy Party of Canada Article 1 : Definitions Definition 1.1 : Community and Kinship Equality and Justice – A societal situation societal structures do not contribute to the formation of racial, ethnic, religious, sexual preference or gender prejudice, and where societal structures exist to work against this prejudice and discrimination. Definition 1.2 : Democracy – A system where people’s decision making power is in proportion to how much each person is affected by the decision. This is an ideal to be reached for, and is to be approximated as much as possible in practice. Definition 1.3 : Participatory Economy - A Participatory Economy, when referred to in this document, means an economy where goods and services are allocated according to a participatory planning procedure further explained in Appendix A. Furthermore, a participatory economy is one where all work done by citizens is performed in a balanced job complex, where workplace policy is determined democratically (see 1.1), where each person has a mix of tasks both rote and empowering, and pay is in proportion to effort and sacrifice. See Appendix A for further details on work in a participatory economy. These are ideals to be worked towards, and should be approximated as much as possible. Definition 1.4 : Participatory Polity - A Participatory Polity as defined here is one where citizens make take part in deliberative nested councils of no less than 20 and no more than 50 persons. Each council may send delegates to a higher level deliberative council. This process may be repeated until all voting citizens in a Polity are represented in a nested council structure. The purpose of the polity is to make laws consistent with democracy (1.1), human rights, and proper guidance of a participatory economy (1.2). More details are to be found in Appendix B. Definition 1.5 : Economic Efficiency - Accomplishing economic goals without wasting valuable assets such as work hours, the environment, and resources. Definition 1.6 : Solidarity – A feeling of goodwill amongst all citizens towards each other. The feeling that your fellow citizens are working towards the same positive goals, and not against each other. Definition 1.7 : Social Justice – A societal situation with rough economic equality for all, where people have a substantial say in how people are ruled, where all people have equal rights, access for necessities and opportunities, are free from discrimination and persecution for their beliefs. Definition 1.8 : Environmental Sustainability – Where a human society can exist in a natural environment while maintaining ecological processes, functions, biodiversity and productivity into the future Article 2 : Body Constituted 2.0 - The Body Constituted shall be known as the Participatory Democracy Party of Canada, herein referred to as the PDP for short. Article 3 : Scope of the Constitution and Bylaws 3.1 - This constitution and bylaws shall govern the activities of the PDP, all persons operating on behalf of the PDP, and the rights, responsibilities and duties of its recognized units, committees and membership. 3.2 - The constitution shall have precedence over the bylaws, and any bylaw that is inconsistent with the constitution shall be null and void to the extent of the inconsistency, as judged by the party electorate in a referendum. Article 4 : Values 4.1 - Self management (see Democracy 1.2) 4.2 - Social Justice (1.7). 4.3 - Remuneration according to effort and sacrifice. 4.4 - Solidarity (1.6). 4.5 - Diversity of cultures, ideas, and economic goods. 4.6 - Economic efficiency (1.5). 4.7 – Community and Kinship Equality and Justice. (1.1) 4.8 – Environmental Sustainabilty (1.8) Article 5 : Purpose 5.1 - To create a Participatory Society in Canada, politically governed by a Participatory Polity (1.3) and economically run by a Participatory Economy (1.2). This is to be achieved by, but not limited to, using the Canadian political apparatus to form participatory structures, replacing the current system, upon the PDP forming the Government of Canada. 5.2 - Encourage transition to a Participatory Society by encouraging Social Justice and the formation of participatory democratic structures within the current capitalist and representative democratic system. 5.3 - Fielding and electing candidates in federal elections. 5.4 - Form and maintain PDP organizations at the Federal, Provincial and Municipal level. 5.5 - Debate and help form legislation in the Canadian Parliament by participating in the Government of Canada according to the values of the PDP (4.1- 4.7). 5.6 - Develop policy consistent with the values of the PDP (4.1 - 4.7). 5.7 - Foster development of the values of the PDP (4.1- 4.7) outside of electoral periods. 5.8 – Work in solidarity with Participatory Democracy Parties worldwide. Article 6 : Membership and Working for the PDP 6.1 - Any citizen of Canada sixteen years or older, shall be eligible for membership in the PDP. 6.2 - Any Citizen of Canada younger than sixteen years may become a member of the PDP with full voting rights by answering a series of questions concocted by an ad hoc committee of at least ten PDP members each of whose age is over sixteen years. The questions should be designed to show comprehension of basic politics, current issues, Participatory Polity, Participatory Economy, and Social Justice. A 60% vote of the questioning group is required to allow membership of the candidate after the series of questions is answered. 6.3 – A member may cease to be in good standing upon failure to pay the current annual membership fee or upon other conditions as laid out in the bylaws. 6.4 - A person cannot be a member of the PDP if the person belongs to an organization whose actions are detrimental to the PDP, as determined by local or other council to which the person is a member. 6.5 – Any paid work done for the PDP by PDP members or non-members must be performed as part of a Balanced Job Complex, and be paid according to effort and sacrifice. See Appendix A for details. Hiring for this paid work is to be done based on principles of affirmative action, where, as long as there is underepresntation of some group (race, ethnicity, gender or sexual preference) in the general Canadian workforce, that group will be given preference in hiring, providing that there is a choice between two candidates with equal qualifications, one of an underrepresented group, and one of an overepresentated group. Article 7 : Units of the PDP and role of PDP units 7.1 - PDP Member : A person meeting the requirements of article 6. 7.2 - PDP Electoral District Association : The total body of PDP members within a candidacy as defined by Elections Canada. 7.3 – Local and higher level Councils : 7.3.1 - A local council is a subgroup of PDP members within an electoral district association. 7.3.2 - Each local council is to be composed of between 20 (if possible) to 50 (maximum) PDP members from as close as possible geographic neighborhoods. 7.3.3 - Each local council can send one delegate to a higher level council composed of between 20 (if possible) to 50 (maximum) PDP members. Once the higher level is filled, the higher level councils can then send delegates to a higher level again until these higher level councils are filled, culminating in the Candidate Council or elected candidate council (see 7.5). 7.3.4 - Councils may send more than one delegate to higher level councils, but only if lack of numbers forces this issue in some way. 7.3.5 – The purpose of the local council is to bring up and discuss issues pertinent to the PDP as seen by the local council. These will be voted on and communicated to higher level councils and ultimately to the Candidate council or elected candidate council via sent delegates (7.4). 7.3.6 – The local council should strive for consensus on each issue voted on. If consensus cannot be reached, a majority vote should be taken to express the wishes of the local council. 7.3.7 – The local council has the right to call for a referendum on PDP policy to force the Candidate council or elected candidate councils to adopt said policy. A referendum can be called if there is support for the referendum from at least 50% of the population active in local councils that are affected by the proposed referendum. 7.3.8 – In the event of a successful election of a PDP candidate, each local council will have the power to issue local laws for their local council that affect only those in the local council. Combinations of councils within an electoral district can issue laws that affect all citizens within the combination of councils. Law conflicts are to be resolved via the mechanisms of a Participatory Polity, as these laws must also have the participation of at least 70% of the voting adults within the geographical scope of the proposed laws be they PDP members or not. These laws are to have the same force as laws decreed by the elected representative and shall affect only the area represented by the local council or combinations of the local council. A successful vote on a law must be allowed by the elected representative if it is within her or his powers to grant such a law force as given to the elected representative by the Government of Canada. (A study of Canadian MP rights should be conducted to clarify what sort of decisions this might pertain to, if any) 7.4 - Delegates : 7.4.1 - A Delegate is a member of the PDP elected by his or her sending (lower level) council for a four year term by a greater than 50% vote. Re-election of a Delegate after three terms are completed is not permitted. 7.4.2 - A Delegate has the responsibility to communicate the votes and wishes of her or his lower council to the higher level council, and is required to communicate the results of votes and consensus statements fairly and accurately, with summarized reasons given by his or her sending council. Failure to communicate the wishes of the sending council can result in termination of the delegate’s appointment, as determined by the sending council in a majority 70% vote. 7.4.3 - A delegate is not required to vote the way her or his sending council has voted, he or she can vote the way she or he chooses while participating in her or his higher level council. No penalty is to be accrued for voting habits of the delegate, only for failure to present the position of her or his sending council. 7.4.4 - If someone in higher level council (designated level N) is chosen as a delegate to a next higher level council (level N+1), the next lowest council (level N-1) of which that delegate was a member sends a replacement delegate to the council he or she just vacated. This replacement delegate attends both the (N-1) level and the N level council, is recallable by the N-1 level council and seeks to reflect the actual views of that N-1 level council. The delegate chosen to the N+1 level-council continues to attend the N level council and the N+1 level council, is recallable by the N level council, and seeks to reflect the actual views of that N level council. 7.4.5 – Delegates in high level councils (three and above) must make efforts to attend meetings of their local level council whenever possible. As with 7.4.4 They are not recallable by this council. 7.5 - Candidate Council : 7.5.1 – A Candidate council is made of delegates from local councils or higher level local councils, depending on PDP participation, (See Appendix B and other places in this document for mechanics of councils) and should be from 20 (if possible) to 50 delegates (maximum). It is the highest level council in the Electoral District Association. 7.5.2 – If there are more than 50 delegates in the Candidate council, a reshuffling of lower councils is in order so that local councils send delegates to higher level councils, who in turn send delegates to higher level councils, and so on, until the number of delegates sent to the Candidate council (the top council for the electoral district) agrees with 7.5.1. For more details on the mechanics of a Participatory polity, see Appendix B. 7.5.2 - The function of the Candidate Council is to advise the candidate running for election. 7.5.3 - The candidate for election must be a member of the Candidate council and must articulate PDP policy as instructed by the candidate council as time permits for the council to advise and meet with the candidate. Every effort should be made to seek input from lower councils as time permits. 7.5.4 - In the event that there is one and only one PDP member elected to parliament : 184.108.40.206 – In the event that there is one and only one PDP member elected to parliament, the candidate council for the elected candidate will be recomposed into an Elected Candidate Council so that at least 60% of the candidate council is from the local PDP electoral district association (including the elected candidate), 30% should be composed of invited PDP members (if they so wish to come) from other candidate councils across the country (see 220.127.116.11), and 10% will be invited candidates from other parties in the local riding (if they so wish to come) (see 18.104.22.168). 22.214.171.124 – Invited members will be chosen by random draw of names out of a box from lists of candidate council members in other ridings. Provisions should be made so that other electoral districts are not over or underrepresented, depending on the relative numbers of each. 126.96.36.199 – Invited candidates from other parties in the local riding will be invited to join the elected candidate council based on the highest vote totals and number of seats available. This is to reflect that diversity of ideas, and local voices, are important. 188.8.131.52 – The consensus statements or votes of the elected candidate council are binding on the elected member of the council. The elected member must vote as instructed by the elected candidate council. If there is not enough time for the elected member to consult with the elected candidate council he or she may vote as she or he sees fit with no possibility for disciplinary action by the elected candidate council provided time was not permitting. The candidate council will make the determination of whether or not time was “permitting”. 184.108.40.206 - The PDP member of parliament may talk to the media, communicate with other political entities as he or she sees fit, etc. provided that the spirit of the PDP’s wishes, as expressed by all councils, is expressed in this communication. 7.5.5 - In the event that there are between two and twenty PDP members elected to parliament : 220.127.116.11 - In the event that there are between two and ten PDP members elected to parliament the elected candidate council shall be composed of the elected PDP members and a number of sent delegates from the local district councils so that each local council is represented in equal numbers. This should make up approximately 80% of the elected candidate council, the remaining 20% should be composed of invited PDP members as in 18.104.22.168. 22.214.171.124 – Local elected candidate councils will be maintained, and the local candidates must meet with these councils periodically to discuss local issues and hear local concerns. Matters of a “local” nature will be deliberated and voted on here, any decision of a purely local nature will be binding. Matters of wider concern will be taken to the elected candidate council via the elected member and sent delegates. 126.96.36.199 - The consensus statements or votes of the elected candidate council are binding on the elected members of the council. The elected members must vote as instructed by the elected candidate council. If there is not enough time for the elected members to consult with the elected candidate council they may vote as they see fit with no possibility for disciplinary action by the elected candidate council provided time was not permitting. The candidate council will make the determination of whether or not time was “permitting”. 188.8.131.52 - The PDP members of parliament may talk to the media, communicate with other political entities as he or she sees fit, etc. provided that the spirit of the PDP’s wishes, as expressed by the elected candidate council, is expressed in this communication. 7.5.6 - In the event that there are between twenty and twenty five PDP members elected to parliament : 184.108.40.206 - In the event that there are between twenty and twenty five PDP members elected to parliament the elected candidate council shall be composed of the elected PDP members and one sent delegate from the local district councils of the elected representatives. This constitutes the entire elected candidate council. 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168 remain in effect. 7.5.7 - In the event that there are between twenty five and fifty PDP members elected to parliament : 22.214.171.124 - In the event that there are between twenty five and fifty PDP members elected to parliament the elected candidate council shall be composed of the elected PDP members only. This constitutes the entire elected candidate council. Elected candidates act as sent delegates from their local candidate councils, 126.96.36.199 and 188.8.131.52 remain in effect. 7.5.8 - In the event that there are above fifty PDP members elected to parliament: 184.108.40.206 - In the event that there are above fifty PDP members elected to parliament, the elected candidates shall form a number of lower councils, based on close geographical ties, with a minimum of five elected candidate members and the rest made up of non- elected delegates from local elected candidate councils with the same close geographical ties. The number of lower councils shall be such that a higher level council can be formed by sending a maximum of two delegates from each lower council. Policy binding for the entire PDP party can be formed by these councils that pertain only to the geographical region in question 220.127.116.11 - The delegates for the lower councils shall be drawn by random lot from the lists of the local candidate councils of those candidate councils with elected representatives and those without. Efforts should be made to represent each geographically close region regardless of whether or not there is an elected candidate from that electoral district. 18.104.22.168 – One cross Canada council of elected candidate PDP members sent from the lower councils shall be formed to form policy on issues pertinent to all Canadians. Elected candidates act as sent delegates from their local candidate councils, 22.214.171.124 and 126.96.36.199 remain in effect. 7.5.9 - In the event that the PDP forms a minority government for Canada : 188.8.131.52 - In the event that the PDP party forms a minority government of Canada, every effort should be made to form a true participatory society based on Participatory Economics and Participatory Polity through referenda and Social Justice steps taken by the ruling PDP. 184.108.40.206 – If a participatory society cannot be formed or is being attempted to be formed, the PDP shall rule as the government of Canada, forming a Cabinet and choosing a Prime minister etc., but shall form PDP policy as in 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124. 7.5.10 - In the event that the PDP forms a majority government of Canada : 126.96.36.199 - In the event that the PDP party forms a majority government of Canada, every effort should be made to form a true participatory society based on Participatory Economics and Participatory Polity through referenda and Social Justice steps taken by the ruling PDP. 188.8.131.52 – If a participatory society cannot be formed or is being attempted to be formed, the PDP shall rule as the government of Canada, forming a Cabinet and choosing a Prime minister etc., but shall form PDP policy as in 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168. 7.6 - PDP Candidate or PDP Member of Parliament: 7.6.1 - The PDP candidate is a PDP member who runs for election to the Canadian parliament or has been elected as a Member of Parliament for his or her electoral district. 7.6.2 - PDP candidates should be elected by the local PDP membership prior to election time and may serve for three approximately four year terms of Parliament, but no longer. The length of service is approximate, meant to agree with election timing, so that the candidates will be ready to run with ample time before the Canadian Election 7.6.3 - The PDP candidate will be chosen for his or her ability to articulate and enact the policy and values of the PDP, and will be bound by the decisions of the candidate councils and elected candidate councils as in 7.5. 7.6.4 Selection of the PDP Candidate and party “Leader”: 22.214.171.124 - Any PDP member may run for election to become the PDP candidate for the local PDP Electoral District Association after receiving nomination from two PDP members of his or her local council during the PDP election period. 126.96.36.199 - The election of a candidate will be held at a convention where each local council has sent their regular delegate as well as those members running for election. Each candidate will give speeches as to their ability to win election to parliament. Votes will be tallied for each. If no candidate has greater than 50% of the vote, then those with the lowest vote tallies will be eliminated, with ten candidates remaining. Those ten candidates will be voted for again, and the five with the top vote tallies will remain. This process will be repeated to generate three candidates, then two and then finally one remaining candidate who will then be the elected candidate. If at any time during this process, a candidate seeking election to be the voice of the PDP association gains more than 50% of the vote, she or he will become the PDP candidate, foregoing the above process. 188.8.131.52.1 – As Elections Canada requires a “party leader”, a party leader will be elected by popular vote of all Canadian PDP members. A list of all PDP candidates from all electoral regions will be formed. Videos and written word positions from each candidate willing to be party “leader” will be made available for easy viewing by PDP members. PDP members across Canada will then vote for the candidate via electronic balloting or mail in votes over a designated voting period. 184.108.40.206.2 – The role of the party leader is to participate as a regular elected candidate in his or her council and campaign for election. The party leader has no special decision making power over other PDP members and is held to the decisions of various councils, as is any other candidate. The party leader will participate in “Party Leader Debates” if possible. If the Party Leader becomes Prime Minister, the Party Leader may be required to fulfill the duties of a Canadian Prime Minister until a Participatory Society can be developed. The Party leader at that time will still be beholden to the PDP apparatus to develop and vote on party policy as the PDP sees fit. Article 8 : Amendments to Constitution and Bylaws 8.1 Constitution 8.1.1 - Notice of amendments to the constitution shall be given six months in advance to all local PDP councils. 8.1.2 - Amendments to the Constitution shall be proposed via a referendum of all PDP members. 8.1.3 - Amendments shall be adopted by an 80% majority of the votes cast in a Referendum of all PDP members. 8.2 Bylaws 8.2.1 - Notice of amendments to the Bylaws shall be given six months in advance to all local PDP councils. 8.2.2 - Amendments to the Bylaws shall be proposed via a referendum of all PDP members. 8.2.3 - Amendments shall be adopted by a majority of the votes cast in a Referendum of all PDP members. Article 9 : Council Court 9.1 - In the event of any executive powers being transferred to the PDP (example: Candidate(s) is/are elected to parliament), a Council Court of 41 randomly selected PDP members from across the country shall be convened when needed. 9.2 - The mandate of the Council Court is to rule in disputes involving which body has the right to vote over certain issues. If an issue is to be voted on that only affects a certain group of PDP members, then that group has sole voting rights over that issue. The court may also rule that certain issues affect some groups more than others, but the groups all have a right to vote. In this case the group affected more by the vote can have their vote weighted more than the other groups, at the discretion of the council court. BYLAWS Bylaw 1. Membership 1 Criteria for membership 1.1 - If a citizen of Canada meets the qualifications spelled out in Article 6, she or he may be a member of the PDP, provided 1.2 - The member upholds the Constitution and Bylaws. 1.3 - The member is a member in good standing if he or she pays the annual membership recommended fee of 10$. A local council may override this membership fee to a higher or lower amount as it chooses in a majority vote. The local council may override the requirement of the membership fee if it so desires on an individual basis with instructions to the secretary on how to determine if the membership fee may be overridden.. 1.4 - The member in good standing is not a member of another political party (provided they are not from another party and are invited as a guest to council) 1.5 - A person may apply for membership to: 1.5.1 - The secretary of a local council. 1.5.2 - A designate of the local PDP office (if such exists) 1.6 - Resignation or removal of a PDP member 1.6.1 – A PDP member may be removed for inappropriate behavior, or other reasons by a majority 70% vote of her or his council where the behavior is manifested. The member will have an opportunity to state her or his case before the vote is taken. This explication is valid for five years. 1.6.2 – If the PDP member dies that person shall permanently cease to be a member of the PDP. 1.6.3 – If the PDP member or has not been a member of good standing for 12 months, he or she shall cease to be a member of the PDP, but may reapply at any time. Bylaw 2. Meetings, the Secretary, Facilitator of a Council, and the Office of the PDP 2.1 Meetings 2.1.1 Future meetings of a council, local or otherwise, are to be set upon agreed dates during the current meeting, or by the consultation of the council members by the future facilitator. Emergency meetings may be called by the facilitator of the next meeting. 2.1.2 Notice of a meeting or an emergency meeting is to be done through any reasonable and accustomed means, including email and telephone notice. 2.1.3 The agenda of the meeting is to be created by the Facilitator of the next meeting through consultation during the current meeting, and consultation leading up to the next meeting. Members are encouraged to notify the future facilitator of any agenda items they wish to include. 2.2 Facilitator 2.2.1 The Facilitator of a council meeting has the duty of creating the agenda through consultation of the council members, running the council meeting so that each agenda item is covered, and calling a vote to issues after discussion. 2.2.2 The Facilitator is required to bring each proposed agenda item forward before the council at the start of the meeting and call for a vote on adoption of the agenda. Before the vote is called, the Facilitator or any council member may suggest that items be taken off or added to the agenda. Each addition or subtraction to the agenda requires a majority vote (50%). 2.2.3 The duty of facilitator must be rotated so that no permanent hierarchy develops in the council. A member cannot be a facilitator consecutively for a time greater than one year. After serving as a facilitator for a total time of one year, a member may not be facilitator for a period of five more years. The way this rotation is performed is up to each council via majority vote. All members of the council are encouraged but not required to try the duty of facilitator. Diversity of facilitation duties based on gender, race, ethnicity, and sexual preference is also encouraged. Depending on funds and the desires of the council, remuneration is possible for the duties performed as facilitator. If remuneration is given to the Facilitator, twice as much must be given the secretary for the same hours worked, as being the secretary is considered rote work. 2.3 Secretary 2.3.1 The Secretary of a council is responsible for writing the minutes of a meeting and posting the minutes of the meeting to all PDP members in whatever manner is convenient. The meeting minutes should also be made available to the delegate from the council for reference. 2.3.2 The Secretary is responsible for registering new members and collecting their fees. 2.3.3 The secretary is responsible for transferring fees and other monies from the council to the appropriate office of the PDP. 2.3.4 The duty of secretary must be rotated so that the rote work involved is rotated through members of the council. The way this rotation is performed is up to each council via majority vote. Diversity of secretary duties based on gender, race, ethnicity, and sexual preference is also encouraged. Depending on funds and the desires of the council, remuneration is possible for the duties performed as secretary. 2.4 Votes 2.4.1 Whenever possible, all members are encouraged to try to form consensus on an issue. 2.4.2 If consensus is not possible, a majority vote should be taken. By default, this vote is to be a majority 50% vote. The facilitator may call for a vote to be passed only if some percentage greater than 50% is achieved, but this is only possible if 60% of the council members agree with the facilitator that a greater than 50% vote is required. 2.5 Office 2.5.1 The office of the PDP exists to keep track of finances and membership of the PDP. 2.5.2 Any worker in the office of the PDP that is paid is to be remunerated according to effort and sacrifice, and work in a balanced job complex, as much as is possible. 2.5.3 The office of the PDP is to be administrated by members of an appropriate level council. The council should represent the region that the office is located. Depending upon funds, the administration work should be remunerated for effort and sacrifice and be performed in a balanced job complex. Appendix A - Participatory Economy The recommended source for examples and deeper explanations of a Participatory Economy is “Parecon : Life after Capitalism” by Micheal Albert. (http://www. zmag.org/zparecon/pareconlac.htm) For the purposes of this document, a Participatory Economy is an economy run very differently from a “Capitalist” or “Communist” Economy, and it is meant to be run in tandem with a Participatory Polity. One of the main goals of the Participatory democracy Party of Canada is to achieve a good approximation of this economy in Canada. A Participatory Economy has several features it must achieve in the workplace and in the allocation system. The Workplace: All workers in a Participatory Economy must work in a “Balanced Job Complex,” where each worker has a mix of tasks, some empowering, some rote and not as empowering. Necessary rote work is to be shared by all workers, regardless of education or other criteria. Every attempt should be made to balance the work of each worker through hours of work, degree of empowerment or “roteness” etc. so that each worker has a similar rating for their entire mix of tasks. Workers in positions of power should be rotated so that permanent hierarchies do not develop. Pay in a Participatory Economy is to be allocated according to effort and sacrifice. If a worker works longer hours than average or works with greater effort than average, or must complete tasks with a greater effort rating than average and cannot balance this with other work, then that worker is entitled to more pay than average. Workers will be paid with “credits” which disappear when spent on goods. To earn more, one must work more. Every worker has the right to vote on workplace decisions in proportion to how much they are affected by these decisions. Voting in this manner is not limited to greater than 50% voting, but can require higher percentages or consensus if all parties are affected enough. Allocation: Allocation in a Participatory Economy will be done by a participatory planning process. The planning process is to last about a month, with time off work for participation. Every year, consumers and workers will enter their planned consumption and planned work via computer to a central database. Consumers will enter their planned consumption at several levels. On an individual level, consumers will enter what they wish to consume for themselves. At a community level, every citizen can send a proposal to their local facilitation board for consideration by the community as a whole. The same can be done on larger scales even national and provincial. Workers will enter their work proposals for the upcoming year as well. These proposals will include planned hours, types of work enjoyed and not enjoyed, planned changes to the workplace, planned production quotas, etc. The culmination of production and consumption proposals states a proposed supply and demand for the upcoming year. Environmental and social costs for producing a good are factored in, and prices for all goods and services are generated. Workers and consumers then revise their proposals at all levels in reaction to these prices. Proposals are refined and entered again, but cannot deviate above or below a certain percentage from the original proposal. Prices are generated again, and the process repeats a few more times, with less and less deviation, until final prices are generated. These are the prices for all goods and services for a year. Appendix B - Participatory Polity A Participatory Polity is meant to be run in tandem with a Participatory Economy. Whereas polities of today expend a great deal of effort to regulate the economy, the job of a participatory polity would be more to pass and enact laws, although laws could be passed to regulate the excesses of a Participatory Economy, if needed. (For more details, see http://www.zmag.org/znet/viewArticle/4957) Creation and passing of laws in a Participatory Polity is done by a council at an appropriate level. Councils are composed of adults of legal age and have between twenty and fifty members, considered reasonable numbers for effective face to face discussion. Lowest level councils are an council of adults that live geographically near each other. For issues that affect only this council of people, laws passed in this council are binding and cannot be overturned by any other body, save a constitutional court (see below). Each low level council sends a delegate to a higher level council, until this council is full at between twenty and fifty members. Thus, at twenty member councils, this next higher level council represents 400 people in their area, and at fifty member councils, this represents 2500 people. Again, for issues affecting only the people represented by this council, the decisions are final and cannot be overturned. For issues affecting more than the people in this council, these are made at a higher level council. Conflicting laws are settled by a court system , again described below. The second level council sends a delegate to the third level council. With the same rules applied, and these councils send delegates to the next level as well. Thus with five levels, 32 million people are represented is each council has twenty members each, or about 310 million are represented with councils at fifty members each. If approximately half the population is composed of voting adults, then these councils will actually represent 64 million people and 620 million respectively. There can be more levels, or councils can be numbered differently, depending upon population. As above, each council is deliberative at its own level. If an issue affects only the population represented by the council, this council has complete sovereignty, that is, laws passed cannot be contravened by any other body, unless they are unconstitutional. If an issue affects more people than the council, the issue should be voted upon at the appropriate level, or combinations of councils at the appropriate level. Delegates to higher level councils are required to sate the wishes and thoughts of their sending councils, but are not bound to vote as the sending councils might wish. Delegates are recallable by a sending council for not representing their sending council, but are not to be recalled for their voting habits. If higher level councils are not representing the wishes of the rest of the population, referenda can be held when significant numbers of people in the lower level councils vote in favor of a referendum. Each council should strive for consensus, but divisive issues can be settled by majority vote. Majority vote can mean a greater than 50% majority, or can require 60% or 70% vote or higher, depending upon how people are affected by the decision. Conflicts over what group of people should have decision making power will be settled by a council court system. When councils differ over how much say they should have over a particular decision, the matter would be settled by a court of randomly selected citizens theoretically disinterested in the outcome. If a council passes a law deemed unethical, such as one that might oppress a smaller group (“the tyranny of the majority”), it can be challenged by a council court, which is a check and balance against a large population doing something unethical to another group, individual, or even itself.
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