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                            LESSON #5 – JULY 14TH 2009

                     APPROACHES TO READING INSTRUCTION



TASK – Listen to a and "micro teaching" activity
RED, RED, RED…

MY CAT LIKES TO HIDE IN BOXES




APPROACHES TO ESL




   1.   GRAMMAR TRANSLATION = *GOAL = to be able to read literature




              historically used in teaching Greek and Latin.
              Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue,
              . Vocabulary = isolated word lists.
              Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course
              Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which
               are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
              lessons were based on mental aerobics – repetition drills and out of
               context vocabulary drills as well as translations of ancient texts.
              Languages were learned \"to train the mind."
              Rules, conjugations and parts of speech were the cornerstones
              grammar taught deductively - from rules to examples
              – rote learning.
              methodology = grammar exercises, translation and dictation.

ADVANTAGES OF GRAMMAR                           DISADVNTAGES
TRANLASTION

       easy to teach                              inability to communicate
       no training needed for teacher –           "fossilized"
        just knowledge of language                 teacher in complete control!
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   2. AUDIO LINGUAL & DIRECT METHOD GOAL = to communicate in the
      target language = * reaction against Grammar Translation

      Emphasis on oral communication.
      everyday language rather than literature
      question / answer techniques.
      Berlitz/ Ulpan
      Inductive
      STRUCTURAL PATTERNS
      Behaviourist learning theories a la Pavlov's dog which Skinner and others
       had applied to human learning.
      Errors had to be avoided at all costs.
      four skills in the following order with no exceptions; listening, speaking,
       reading, writing.
      VISUAL AIDS
      based on the principles of behavior psychology.
      New material is presented in the form of a dialogue.
      principle that language learning is habit formation,
      dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-
       learning.
      repetitive drills
      Little or no grammatical explanations are provided; ]
      contrastive analysis between L1 and L2.
      language laboratories, tapes and visual aids.




3. COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH = Goal: to learn language communicatively

      LANGUAGE reflects a communicative event
       Style and register
      Krashen (Natural Approach)
      Teacher acts as counsellor supporting and unsterstanding
      Students' invovement
      Democratic classroom
      Allow use of L1
      Non threatening style is encouraged

KRASHEN

      Acquisition vs. learning
      Natural Order Hypothesis
      Input hypothesis (comprehensible input)
      No textbooks
      Students encouraged to express FEELINGS
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"When children read for pleasure they acquire, involuntarily, and without conscious
effort, nearly all the language skills. They become adequate readers, acquire a large
vocabulary and develop the ability to understand complex sentences."




      discourse rules, use (the communicative use of language in natural
       settings) versus usage (the display language
      focused on teaching and learning far more than on the language itself.
      methodologies concentrating on student interaction, humanistic values,
       authentic materials –
       accuracy versus fluency debate
      Learners viewed as individuals
      differences between conscious and unconscious learning
      authentic reading at low levels
      idea of the information gap


AUDIO LINGUAL METHOD (ALM)

Behaviorist Approach
Known as the "Army method" adopted by the military in the Second World War
Language = set of abstract linguistic units
Based on drill work that aims to form language habits
Various linguistic stimulus and response
If respond well – get a reward
If respond badly – no response at all.
No Grammar – grammar learned through repetitions
Ten minute drill periods
Memorization of dialogue
Chain drills
Substitution drills
Rote learning



THE WHOLE LANGUAGE APPROACH

      The term =coined by Dr. Kenneth Goodman in the early 1980's.
      not just a method, but an holistic educational philosophy
      learning written language occurs naturally, like spoken language.
      readers do not read word for word, but construct meaning from the text.
      children are immersed in reading and writing projects
      no systematic teaching skills.
      "inventive spelling" – NO punctuation or grammar.
      essential belief - language is learned "from whole to part"
        "print rich " environment.
       inclusion of literacy as part of the language,
      language is a social behavior.
      curriculum = "meaning centered" and "student centered"
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Ken and Yetta Goodman (1981) who began using in reference to how English speaking
children become readers.
"Language is a whole and that any attempt to fragment it into parts

(grammar, vocabulary, phonics) destroys it.


In WHOLE LANGUAGE - readers interact with texts
They predict what comes next (sample cues and their knowledge of the world)

"WL is not a method, nor a collection of strategies, techniques or materials – it is
a way of seeing the world."



KEN GOODMAN –
"Human babies learn to speak their mother tongue without any formal teaching."



KEEP LANGUAGE WHOLE AND INVOLVE CHUILDREN IN USING IT
FUNCTIONALLY AND PURPOSEFULLY TO MEET THEIR OWN NEEDS!!

Put aside "basal readers" spelling programs, handwriting kits.
GET CHILDREN TO TALK ABOUT THINGS THEY KNOW AND UNDERSTAND

      Its all right to ask questions and listen to the answers
      Suggest they write about what happens to them (publishing)
      Encourage them to read for information – enjoy a good story
      Teachers work with children in a natural direction of growth
      WL is more stimulating, more fun
      WL get together the teacher/pupil/community/parents
   
      Alternative assessment tools portfolio and project work, and peer assessment
       is encouraged.
      Readers construct meaning during reading – using prior learning experience to
       make sense of the texts
      Readers predict, select, confirm and self correct
      Readers monitor their own reading to see whether they have guessed right
      Writers become effective by making sure their writing is comprehensible
      RISK TAKING is essential
      Teacher – MOTIVATES, MONITORS, FACILITATES AND PROVIDES
       APPPROPRIATE MATERIALS
      MOTIVATION IS INTRINSIC
      Most important question "DOES THAT MAKE SENSE?"
      Materials must be relevant and meaningful
   




      HELPING PUPIL TO BECOME LITERATE GIVES THEM POWER IN SOCIETY
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       OWNERSHIP of material sense of their potential power
       REAL ACCESS to socially useful knowledge through the development of language
        (TODAY THROUGH THE INTERNET!!!)




TO SUMMARIZE:
Whole language means whole learning in whole situations
Respect for learner and teacher
Focus on meaning and not language
Authentic speech events
Taking risks
All versions of language are appropriate



EVALUATION

   1.   "KID WATCHING" rather than testing – then evatluate and revise plans
   2.   self evaluation
   3.   peer evaluation
   4.   progress evaluation (projects, portfolios, etc)

    GETTING RID OF "WOMBATS" (Groupings ‫)הקבצות‬
  Virginia Fergussen did a study on how children learn to read.
She asked a child to read, and she said, "I can't Miss, Only the Lookaburras can learn
that"
Placing in a group is stigmatizing – low group destroys self esteem



SUGGESTOPEDIA
Developed by Georgi Lonanov in 1979.
If mind and body are relaxed the brain absorbs knowledge and effort.
Use of music (Baroque)60 beats per minute to soothe brain
Comfy armchairs - Dim lighting
Teacher reads text to background of music
Students close their eyes and imagine the text.

TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR)



Use of acting, dancing, art, musicTotal Physical Response (TPR) is a method
developed by Dr. James J. Asher, a professor emeritus of psychology at
San José State University, to aid learning second languages.

The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or
additional language, language is internalized through a process of
codebreaking similar to first language development and that the process
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allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to
production.

Students respond to commands that require physical movement.

TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological
program for acquiring any natural language on earth - including the sign
language of the deaf.

The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first
language.[7]

Communication between parents and their children combines both
verbal and physical aspects.

The child responds physically to the speech of their parent.

The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech
of the parent.

For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to
speak.

After this stage the child is able to reproduce the language
spontaneously.

With TPR the language teacher tries to mimic this process in class.

In the classroom the teacher and students take on roles similar to that
of the parent and child respectively.

Students must respond physically to the words of the teacher.

The activity may be a simple game such as Simon Says or may involve more
complex grammar and more detailed scenarios.

TPR can be used to practice and teach various things. It is well suited to
teaching classroom language and other vocabulary connected with actions.
It can be used to teach imperatives and various tenses and aspects. It is
also useful for story-telling.

Because of its participatory approach, TPR may also be a useful
alternative teaching strategy for students with dyslexia or related
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learning disabilities, who typically experience difficulty learning foreign
languages with traditional classroom instruction. [8]

ADVANTAGES

      Students will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and moving
       around.
      do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the
       teacher.
      , works well with a mixed ability class,
   
      It is good for kinæsthetic learners who need to be active in
       the class.
       Class size need not be a problem, and it works effectively
       for children and adults.[7]

DISADVANTAGES

      it is easy to overuse TPR-- "Any novelty, if carried on too
       long, will trigger adaptation."[7]
      It can be a challenge for shy students.
      heavy emphasis on the use of the imperative mood,

				
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