Module 3 Lesson Plans by jpw10107

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									Module 3 Lesson Plans


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson Plans



      The following lessons have been designed to assist teachers in the delivery of module
      content. Click on the lesson titles to view the lessons or click on the pdf icon to
      download the lesson plan.



                              Module 3: The Earth and the Moon
      # Lesson title                                         Classes Curricular         pdf
                                                                     connections
      1. Reasons for the seasons                             3      Science, ICT
      2. A. The magificent and beautiful Aurora- Aurora 1           Science
         webquest
      2. B. The magificent and beautiful Aurora- Chalk 2            Art
         pastel rubbing
      3. Phases of the Moon                                  3      Science, ICT
      4. Observing and sketching the lunar surface           1      Science
      5. Eclipses WebQuest                                   3      Science, ICT
      6. Tides                                               1      Science, ICT
                                                     Total   14
Module 3 Lesson 1


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 1: The reasons for the seasons



      Timeframe:
      This activity will require approximately three 30-minute classes

            q   1 class to introduce the topic, demonstrate the processes with flashlight and
                globe and to introduce the applet (activity 1 & 2)
            q   1 class period to have students work with the applet describing the reasons for
                the seasons (activity 3)
            q   1 class period for closure activity (activity 4)



      Objectives:
                Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                301-20: observe and explain how the relative positions of Earth, the moon,
                and the sun are responsible for the moon phases, eclipses, and tides.
                    Pan-Canadian Objectives




                General Objectives:
                Students will observe, sketch and explore the reasons for the seasons via the
                interactive applet, in an attempt to better understand the relationships
                between the sun, moon and Earth relating to the seasons.


      Curricular Connections:
            q   Information and Communication Technologies
                    r Use of interactive applet

            q   Language Arts
                    r Descriptive writing




      Lesson Overview:
Module 3 Lesson 1


      By engaging students in a variety of activities targeting different learning styles
      (kinesthetic, visual, and technological), students will become familiar with the
      seasons, and will be able to explain the reasons for the seasons depending on the
      orientation of the sun, moon, and Earth.

      The lesson plan is divided into four separate activities:

           1. Activity 1: demonstration of seasons (students participate)
           2. Activity 2: introduce the applet to later be used by students
           3. Activity 3: in the computer lab, students work with the Reasons for the Seasons
                applet in groups of two
           4. Activity 4: closure activity, teacher uses the applet in a lecture style delivery
                format stopping the animation at key moments and eliciting feedback from the
                students as to an explanation for the current seasons in both the Northern and
                Southern Hemispheres



      Materials and Resources:
           1. Reasons for Seasons applet
           2. Reasons for the Seasons handout
           3. Globe, model of the moon (a simple ball will do), and a bright flashlight



      Vocabulary:
            q   autumnal equinox
            q   vernal equinox
            q   summer solstice
            q   winter solstice
            q   lunar cycle


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
Module 3 Lesson 1


      Begin with focus questions:

               Have you ever wondered why Canadians experience such vastly different
               weather patterns during the seasons?
               Do you know why it warmer in Canada during the summer?
               Did you know that when Canadians are experiencing summer, our friends
               in Australia are experiencing winter?
               Did you know that a winter in the Southern Hemisphere is a fair bit
               warmer than a winter in the Northern Hemisphere?

      Explain the nature of the activities that will be used to help students become better
      acquainted with the reasons for the seasons:

               Activity 1: students participate in a visual demonstration of the seasons
               with globe and flashlight

               Activity 2: teacher uses computer with projection system to display the
               Reasons for the Seasons applet. Teacher explains how the applet works
               and what students will do with the applet in Activity 3

               Activity 3: teacher demonstrates the applet and distributes the Reasons
               for the Seasons handout to the students. The students are given
               approximately 30 minutes to complete the handout using the applet.

               Activity 4: simply mention to the students that there will be a final
               activity that will help to reinforce what they have learned about the
               seasons (Activity 4 should follow approximately 2 days after the
               completion of Activities 1, 2 and 3.

      Commence the activities and remember to have fun.

               Activity 1: click here for diagram

                    1. arrange students into a large circle (students will need a piece of
                      paper and a black marker)
                    2. place a light source at the center of the circle
                    3. darken the classroom and turn on the light source
                    4. students will pass a globe around the circle being careful to
                       maintain the tilt of the Earth
                    5. instruct students to observe the globe as they pass it to their
                       classmates and to draw on their paper the shape of light impacting
                       on the globe's surface
                    6. initiate a short discussion as to why the light appear to impact the
                       globe differently as it is passed around the circle
                    7. have students write the season they observed on their diagrams
                       (summer, fall, winter or summer)
Module 3 Lesson 1


               Activity 2: Reasons for the Seasons applet


                    1. with the classroom back in order, the teacher begins
                      demonstrating the applet
                    2. identify the key elements (moon, Earth, and sun)
                    3. play the applet animation straight through at least two times
                    4. have the students focus first on the Sun's rays impacting the Earth
                       bottom right of the applet
                    5. then have the students focus on the progression of the Earth
                       around the Sun.
                    6. run the animation a few more times stopping at key stages
                       (Winter Solstice, Vernal Equinox, Summer Solstice, and Autumnal
                       Equinox)

               Activity 3:

                    1. provide students with a brief review of the applet's functionality
                    2. distribute the Reasons for the Seasons worksheet
                    3. explain that students will be required to complete the handout by
                      the end of the current class time

               Activity 4:

                    1. repeat steps as per Activity 2



      Closure:
      As a closure to the activities, the teacher uses the applet in a lecture style delivery
      format, stopping the animation at key moments and eliciting feedback from the
      students as to an explanation for the current seasons in both the Northern and
      Southern Hemispheres.


      Evaluation:
      Evaluate both student participation as well as the completion of the Reasons for
      Seasons worksheet. Student participation can be evaluated during activities 1, 2 and
      3, even when the students are working with the applet. Students could also be
      presented with a short quiz in which they would have to correctly identify and explain
      the reasons for the seasons.
                                                             Student name:_________________
Reasons for the Seasons



 Question 1.
 What’s going on? Let’s draw a diagram to help us out.




 Question 2.
 At what angle is the Earth tilted at with respect to the Sun?


 _____________ degrees

 Question 3.
 How do the Sun’s rays impact the Northern Hemisphere during the Summer Solstice?




         Earth




 Question 4.
 When the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing autumn, which season is the
 Southern Hemisphere experiencing?

 ______________________

 Question 5.
 During which season is the Earth closest to the Sun? Don’t forget to indicate which
 hemisphere you are talking about.
Module 3 Lesson 2a


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 2: The Amazing and Beautiful Aurora

                Part A. Aurora Webquest



      Timeframe:
      This activity will require approximately one 30-minute classes

            q   1 class for students to complete the WebQuest activity



      Objectives:
                     Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                     205-7: record observations using a single word, notes in point form,
                     sentences, and simple diagrams and charts (e.g., use a data table to
                     record night sky observations)
                         Pan-Canadian Objectives




                     General Objectives:
                     Through this lesson students will become more familar with the mysterious
                     and beautiful aurora. Students will learn that the aurora are connected to
                     sunspots and solar flares and that they can be seen from both extreme
                     northern and southern latitudes.


      Curricular Connections:
            q   Information and Communication Technologies
                    r Internet research

            q   Language Arts
                    r Descriptive writing




      Lesson Overview:
Module 3 Lesson 2a


      Students will use an Internet WebQuest research activity to learn of the intricate
      nature of the aurora borealis. Students will learn that the aurora are connected to
      sunspots and solar flares and that they can be seen from both extreme northern and
      southern latitudes. Students will also observe several amazing and beautiful images of
      the aurora and the will have the opportunity to draw and sketch the aurora.

      http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/segwayed/lessons/auroras/index.html



      Materials and Resources:
            q   Student WebQuest worksheet




      Vocabulary:
            q   magnetic fields
            q   corona
            q   solar flare
            q   photosphere
            q   Aurora Borelis
            q   magnetic pole
            q   charged particles


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
           1. Comment that this is an group investigative activity
           2. Handout resources…
                     r Student WebQuest sheet
           3.   Explain time frames
                    r approx. 1 class for WebQuest

           4.   Explain lab protocol
                    r what students can and cannot do in the computer lab.

                    r no off-task surfing

                    r stop when the time is up

           5.   Assign students to groups
                    r 2 students per group

           6.   Dismiss students to their groups to begin their task
           7.
                After 40 mins. reassemble the class and commence closure activity



      Closure:
Module 3 Lesson 2a


      As a closure activity, teacher should review the questions from the student WebQuest
      worksheet. The teacher may wish to ask several students to share their previous
      thoughts on the cause and origin of the aurora.


      Evaluation:
      The student WebQuest worksheet should be taken in and graded for completeness and
      correct responses. Teachers may also wish to evaluate students' ability to work within
      their small groups.
                                                   Student name: _________________



        The Northern Lights- Aurora Borealis
                   Aurora Paintings in the Sky Website
          http://www.exploratorium.edu/learning_studio/auroras/


1.    What do aurora look like from here on Earth? Briefly explain in words
and then use the back of this page to draw a sample of that they look like.
Use colors if you wish.
_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________



2.   What causes aurora?
_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________



3.   What colors of aurora can we see and why?
_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________



4.   What would aurora look like from space?
_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________



5.   Where can we see aurora?
_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

6.   What are some myths surrounding aurora?
_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________
Module 3 Lesson 2b


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 2b: The Amazing and Beautiful Aurora


      Timeframe:
      This lesson will require approximately two 30-minute classes:

            q   1 class to complete the oil pastel rubbing
            q   1 class for the follow-up lesson, adding silhouettes to give the impression of
                depth



      Objectives:
                Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                104-8: demonstrate the importance of using the languages of science and
                technology to compare and communicate ideas, processes, and results (e.g.,
                use appropriate terminology such as "constellations," "planets," "moons,"
                "comets," "asteroids," and "meteors" to describe objects in space)
                205-2: select and use tools in manipulating materials and in building models
                (e.g., select appropriate materials to build model constellations)
                205-7: record observations using a single word, notes in point form,
                sentences, and simple diagrams and charts (e.g., use a data table to record
                night sky observations)
                     Pan-Canadian Objectives




                General Objectives:
                This activity is intended to reinforce students’ understanding of the Aurora,
                expanding on their skills in artistic expression and appreciation.
                As an introduction to landscape drawing and painting, students will observe in
                photos and prints the different layers (background, middle ground, foreground)
                that make up a landscape.
                Students will experiment with colours and colour intensity to create depth and
                distance. More detail may be added to enhance this effect in a follow-up
                lesson, using a cut-out black construction paper silhouette.
                Students will practice using oil pastels in a creative and controlled way.
                Students will improve their art vocabulary: background, middle ground,
                foreground, line, shape, colour, depth, overlapping shapes.


      Curricular Connections:
            q   Visual Arts
Module 3 Lesson 2b


      Lesson Overview:
      In this lesson, students will create oil pastel rubbings depicting aurora. This activity
      will follow the students’ research of aurora and will enable them to draw a connection
      between the science and inherent beauty of the aurora.
      ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Materials and Resources:
           1.   Books or images of aurora
           2.   Dark blue cartridge paper – trimmed to 11.5” x 17.5”
           3.   Black paper and scissors for cutting silhouettes (for follow-up lesson)
           4.   White pencils for drawing and labelling
           5.   Oil pastels
           6.   Sponges for cleaning up
           7.   Photos, prints, calendar pictures, etc., of the aurora borealis
           8.   Sample image



      Vocabulary:
            q   aurora
            q   foreground
            q   middle ground
            q   background
            q   magnetic fields
            q   corona
            q   solar flare
            q   photosphere
            q   Aurora Borelis
            q   magnetic pole
            q   charged particles


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
Module 3 Lesson 2b


      Introduction: Students look at and discuss pictures of the aurora, observing the lines
      and overlapping shapes. Explain that they will be creating an oil pastel rubbing of the
      aurora, in a design of their choosing.

           1. Distribute the dark blue and black paper to students, as well as the oil pastels
               and scissors.
           2. Show various images of aurora in different designs and colors, and have sample
               images available for students to study individually.
           3. Show students the sample image. It is highly recommended that the teacher
              prepare a sample prior to assigning the project to students.
           4. Explain the steps required in completing the project:
                  r after choosing an aurora design for their artwork, students should lightly

                     sketch that design onto the blue paper with an oil pastel. Common
                     auroral colors include white, yellow, green, pink, purple, and blue.
                  r once their basic line has been sketched, students should layer up their

                     chosen colors along the line.
                  r with finger, students will draw colors upward, blending carefully to avoid

                     sharp lines and geometric shapes.
                  r stars can be added to the sky with white pastel. Encourage students to

                     depict at least one subtle constellation in the sky.
           5. When aurora is satisfactory, students can proceed to second phase of project:
              adding silhouettes. Students should decide on a foreground design and draw it
              on the black paper with a white pencil before cutting it out and gluing it to their
              aurora pictures.



      Closure:
      When artwork is complete, have students write their names in the bottom right corner
      before submitting for evaluation.


      Evaluation:
      The evaluation for this activity should focus on the artistic aspects rather than on
      scientific accuracy. Use the following questions to guide the evaluations:
      1. Was colour intensity used successfully to create depth and distance?
      2. Did the student succeed in cutting the silhouettes in a controlled manner?
      3. Did the student make an effort to work neatly and with care?
Module 3 Lesson 3


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 3: The phases of the Moon



      Timeframe:
      This activity will require approximately three 30-minute classes

            q   1 class to introduce the topic, demonstrate the processes with flashlight and
                globe and to introduce the applet (activity 1 & 2)
            q   1 class period to have students work with the applet describing the reasons for
                the phases (activity 3)
            q   1 class period for closure activity (activity 4)

      * Note: Approximately 2 weeks before attempting this lesson, print and distribute the
      "Charting the Moon" handout to the students and have them track the appearance of
      the moon on consecutive days.



      Objectives:
                Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                301-20: observe and explain how the relative positions of Earth, the moon,
                and the sun are responsible for the moon phases, eclipses, and tides.
                    Pan-Canadian Objectives




                General Objectives:
                Students will observe, sketch and explore the phases of the moon via the
                interactive applet, in an attempt to better understand the relationships
                between the sun, moon and Earth relating to the phases of the moon.


      Curricular Connections:
            q   Information and Communication Technologies
                    r Use of interactive applet

            q   Language Arts
                    r Descriptive writing




      Lesson Overview:
Module 3 Lesson 3


      By engaging students in a variety of activities targeting different learning styles
      (kinesthetic, visual, and technological), students will become familiar with the phases
      of the moon, and will be able to explain the reasons for the lunar phases depending on
      the orientation of the sun, moon, and Earth.

      The lesson plan is divided into four separate activities:

           1. Activity 1: demonstration of the phases (students participate)
           2. Activity 2: introduce the applet to later be used by students
           3. Activity 3: in the computer lab, students work with the phases of the moon
                applet in groups of two
           4. Activity 4: closure activity, teacher uses the applet in a lecture style delivery
                format stopping the animation at key moments and eliciting feedback from the
                students as to an explanation for the observed phase



      Materials and Resources:
           1.   Charting the Moon handout
           2.   Phases of the Moon applet
           3.   Phases of the Moon handout
           4.   Globe, model of the moon (a simple ball will do), and a bright flashlight
           5.   Moon Phase Calendar generator: http://www.googol.com/moon/



      Vocabulary:
            q   lunar phase
            q   synodic month
            q   lunar cycle
            q   crescent
            q   gibbous
            q   blue moon


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
Module 3 Lesson 3


      Begin with focus questions:

               Have you ever noticed that the moon looks different from night to night?
               Have you ever noticed that some nights, there doesn't appear to be a
               moon at all?
               Have you ever seen a beautiful full moon rising from the eastern
               horizon?
               What makes a full moon look so big?
               Have you ever seen the man in the moon?

      Explain the nature of the activities that will be used to help students become better
      acquainted with the phases of the moon:

               Activity 1: students participate in a visual demonstration of the moon's
               phases with globe and flashlight

               Activity 2: teacher uses computer with projection system to display the
               "Phases of the Moon" applet. Teacher explains how the applet works and
               what students will do with the applet in Activity 3

               Activity 3: teacher demonstrates the applet and distributes the "Phases
               of the Moon" handout to the students. The students are given
               approximately 40 minutes to complete the handout using the applet.

               Activity 4: simply mention to the students that there will be a final
               activity that will help to reinforce what they have learned about the
               phases of the moon (Activity 4 should follow approximately 2 days after
               the completion of Activities 1, 2 and 3.

      Commence the activities and remember to have fun.

               Activity 1: click here for diagram

                    1. arrange students into a large circle (students will need a piece of
                         paper and a black marker)
                    2. place one student at the center to hold the ball (explain to
                         students that they will be using the ball as a model for the moon)
                    3.   place the bright flashlight at one corner of the room
                    4.   darken the classroom and turn on the flashlight
                    5.   instruct students to observe the globe and to draw on their paper
                         the shape of the shadow they see
                    6.   once all students have completed their drawings, have the
                         students share their drawings with the class beginning with
                         student closest to the flashlight (proceed clockwise around the
                         circle until all students have shared their drawings)
                    7.   initiate a short discussion as to why the shadows appear as they
                         do and the progression of the shadows around the circle
Module 3 Lesson 3

                    8. have students write the phase on their diagrams (new moon,
                         waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning
                         gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent, new moon)


               Activity 2:        Phases of the Moon applet


                    1. with the classroom back in order, the teacher begins
                         demonstrating the applet
                    2.   identify the key elements (moon, Earth, and sun)
                    3.   play the applet animation straight through at least two times
                    4.   have the students focus first on the phases shown on the bottom
                         right
                    5.   then have the students focus on the progression of the moon
                         around the Earth.
                    6.   run the animation a few more times stopping at key stages (new
                         moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon,
                         waning gibbous, last quarter, waning crescent, new moon)
                    7.   as class is dismissed, distribute Charting the Moon handout and
                         instruct students to monitor the phase of the moon over the next
                         month

               Activity 3:

                    1. provide students with a brief review of the applet's functionality
                    2. distribute the Phases of the Moon handout
                    3. explain that students will be required to complete the handout by
                         the end of the current class time

               Activity 4:

                    1. repeat steps as per Activity 2



      Closure:
      As a closure to the activities, the teacher uses the applet in a lecture style delivery
      format, stopping the animation at key moments and eliciting feedback from the
      students as to an explanation for the observed phase.


      Evaluation:
      Evaluate both student participation as well as the completion of the phases of the
      moon handout and the charting the moon handout. Student participation can be
      evaluated during activities 1, 2 and 3, even when the students are working with the
      applet. Students could also be presented with a short quiz in which they would have to
      correctly identify and explain the phases of the moon.
Charting the Moon
                                                           Name: ___________

                        Month: ______________

  Sunday       Monday     Tuesday   Wednesday   Thursday      Friday    Saturday
    What’s going on?   3


            4                      2

                           Moon
                                               Sun



                                           1
5




                           Earth



            6                      8


                       7

    Explanations:
        8                   7          6




        1                              5




            2               3          4
Module 3 Lesson 4


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 4: Observing and sketching the lunar surface



      Timeframe:
      This activity requires approximately one 40-minute class

            q   1 Class for students to sketch the moon with chalk using their observations*

      * note: this activity is dependant on students having made observations of the moon
      using binoculars. Ensure that you warn students well in advance so that they have
      enough time to make observations of the moon using binoculars. Two weeks is a good
      time frame, as it will also allow students to bring in sketches depicting different moon
      phases.



      Objectives:
                Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                205-7: record observations using a single word, notes in point form,
                sentences, and simple diagrams and charts (e.g., use a data table to record
                night sky observations)

                206-2: compile and display data, by hand or by computer, in a variety of
                formats including frequency tallies, tables, and bar graphs (e.g., prepare a
                diagram showing the orbits of the planets)

                301-20: observe and explain how the relative positions of Earth, the moon,
                and the sun are responsible for the moon phases, eclipses, and tides
                    Pan-Canadian Objectives




                General Objectives:



      Curricular Connections:
            q   Visual Arts
                    r Sketching the lunar surface




      Lesson Overview:
Module 3 Lesson 4


      This activity involves two components. In the first, students are assigned the task of
      observing the moon with aid of binoculars (provide two weeks for students to
      complete their observations). Students will then use their observations to make a
      more detailed sketch of the lunar surface using white chalks.



      Materials and Resources:
           1. Phases of the moon calendar generator: http://www.googol.com/moon/
           2. Student handout: Oberving the moon sketch sheet
           3. Images of the moon
                    rLarge image of the lunar surface
                  r Smaller image of the moon at first quarter

           4. black construction paper
           5. white chalk
           6. Sample image



      Vocabulary:
            q   lunar eclipse
            q   solar eclipse
            q   partial eclipse
            q   prenumbra
            q   umbra
            q   total eclipse
            q   annular eclipse
            q   corona


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
           1. Introduce the activity observing and sketching the moon
           2. Instruct students to begin observing the moon on a nightly basis
                    rstudents may want to compile a series of lunar sketches but will only be
                     required to one for the purpose of shading with chalk.
           3. Distribute black paper and white chalk to students and instruct them to
              reproduce their chosen sketch on the black paper with the white chalk. Special
              attention should be given to shading of the lunar surface.



      Closure:
Module 3 Lesson 4


      Imagine that you are Galileo and the year is 1610...

               Remind students that Galileo used a telescope, similar in power to
               binoculars, way back in 1610. Imagine that you are Galileo, what would
               it be like to moon through a telescope? Have students write a short
               paragraph about what it must be like to be the first person on Earth to
               see the moon in such detail. Student's should indicate that it must be
               very confusing and goes against everything that was held as "truth" for
               centuries.



      Evaluation:
      This activity is intended for students to gain a deeper appreciation for the moon and
      more specifically, the lunar surface. Evaluation should reflect care and attention to
      detail.
                                                          Student Name: ____________
Title:




Object:     _______________        Description:
                                   ____________________________________________
Date:       _______________

Weather:    _______________

Location:   _______________

Observing tool? ________________
Module 3 Lesson 5


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 5: Solar and Lunar Eclipses



      Timeframe:
      This activity requires approximately three 30-minute classes

            q   1 Class for the Lunar Eclipse WebQuest
            q   1 Class for the Solar Eclipse WebQuest
            q   1 Class for students to write an explanation of the differences between solar
                and lunar eclipses



      Objectives:
                    Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                    301-20: observe and explain how the relative positions of Earth, the
                    moon, and the sun are responsible for the moon phases, eclipses, and
                    tides.
                        Pan-Canadian Objectives




                    General Objectives:
                    Through this activity, students will become more familar with solar and
                    lunar eclipses and will have an opportunity to see some fascinating pictures
                    and video clips of eclipses. Because the activity includes a WebQuest
                    component, students will also become more familiar with Internet
                    researching.


      Curricular Connections:
            q   Information and Communication Technologies
                    r Internet research

            q   Language Arts
                    r Descriptive writing




      Lesson Overview:
Module 3 Lesson 5


      This activity involves two WebQuest Internet research components. Students will use
      the Internet links provided to research solar and lunar eclipses in an attempt to better
      understand the relationship between the sun, moon and Earth. Students will also be
      presented with fascinating eclipse pictures and a look at the astronomers who chase
      eclipses around the world. The last part of the lesson involves having students write
      an explanation as to how solar and lunar eclipses differ.


      Materials and Resources:
           1. Student handout
           2. WebQuest URLs:
                    r   Lunar Eclipses for Beginners:
                        http://www.MrEclipse.com/Special/LEprimer.html
                    r   Solar Eclipses for Beginners:
                        http://www.MrEclipse.com/Special/SEprimer.html
           3.    Solar Eclipses interactive applet
           4. NASA Publication: Sun, moon and Earth interactions



      Vocabulary:
            q   lunar eclipse
            q   solar eclipse
            q   partial eclipse
            q   prenumbra
            q   umbra
            q   total eclipse
            q   annular eclipse
            q   corona


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
           1. Comment that this is an group investigative activity
           2. Handout resources…
                    rStudent WebQuest sheet
           3. Explain time frames
                  r approx. 1 class to explore solar eclipses via WebQuest

                  r approx. 1 class to explore lunar eclipses via WebQuest

                  r approx. 1 class to write explanations

           4. Explain lab protocol
                  r what students can and cannot do in the computer lab.

                  r NO OFF-TASK SURFING!!

                  r when the time is up, STOP!

           5. Assign students to groups
                  r 2 students per group
Module 3 Lesson 5

           6. Dismiss students to their groups to begin their task



      Closure:
      As a closure to the activities, the teacher uses the applet in a lecture style delivery
      format, stopping the animation at key moments and eliciting feedback from the
      students as to an explanation for the type of eclipse observers on Earth would see.


      Evaluation:
                    Possible Marks        6                4              2               0
                                     Excellent       Level of
                    Computer lab                                     Little         Student was
                                     participation   participation
                    research and                                     evidence of    off-task most
                                     and group       was
                    group work                                       work           of the time
                                     work            adequate
                                          6                4              2               0
                    Completed        Evidence of     WebQuest is     WebQuest is Evidence of
                    WebQuest         excellent       missing key     of poorer   very little if
                    activity sheet   research        components      quality     any research
                                          6                4              2               0
                                     The
                                     explanations    The
                                     given are       explanations                   The
                                                                     Either the
                                     very explict    given are                      explanation is
                                                                     explanations
                    Eclipse          in detail and   very have                      inherently
                                                                     lack detail
                    explanations     correctly       adequate                       wrong and
                                                                     or are very
                                     explain the     detail and                     lacks any
                                                                     vague.
                                     differences     are basically                  evidence.
                                     and             correct.
                                     similarities.
                                                            Name: ______________________

Solar and Lunar Eclipses                                    Date: ______________________
       WebQuest

Day 1: Visit this website - Solar Eclipses for Beginners:
       http://www.MrEclipse.com/Special/SEprimer.html

Day 2: Visit this website - Lunar Eclipses for Beginners:
       http://www.MrEclipse.com/Special/LEprimer.html


Question #1.
What is the only lunar phase in which a lunar eclipse can occur?

___________________________________

Question #2.
Sketch the lunar eclipse geometry:




Question #3.
What are the three different kinds of lunar eclipse?

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

Question #4.
On average, how many total lunar eclipses are there every year?

___________________________________


Question #5.
Why does the Moon appear to take on a colored hue during an eclipse?
Question #6.
What is the only lunar phase in which a solar eclipse can occur?

___________________________________


Question #7.
Sketch the lunar eclipse geometry:




Question #8.
The Moon’s shadow consists of two parts, what are they?




Question #9.
How long does the total phase of a total solar eclipse last?

___________________________________


Question #10.
The path of the Moon’s shadow across the Earth’s surface is called …?

___________________________________


Question #11.
What are the key differences between total and annular eclipses?
Module 3 Lesson 6


      Module 3: The Earth and the Moon

      Lesson 6: The Tides


      Timeframe:
      This lesson will require one 30-minute period.


      Objectives:
                Pan-Canadian Curriculum Objectives:
                301-20: observe and explain how the relative positions of Earth, the moon,
                and the sun are responsible for the moon phases, eclipses, and tides.
                    Pan-Canadian Objectives




                General Objectives:
                    q   By viewing a related applet, students will gain an understanding of why
                        the Earth experiences tides.
                    q   Through discussion, students will gain an appreciation of the benefits of
                        Earth's tides.



      Curricular Connections:



      Lesson Overview:
      Students in this lesson will be introduced to the concept of tides and tidal forces, and
      will be asked to discuss the benefits of tides to life on Earth.


      Materials and Resources:
            q   Tides applet



      Vocabulary:
            q   neap tides
            q   spring tides
            q   gravity
            q   tidal bulge
            q   apogee
            q   perigee
Module 3 Lesson 6


            Astronomy Glossary



      Developing the Lesson:
      Open class by asking students to hypothesize as to the cause of the tides; have them
      discuss how they believe the Moon to be the cause, and ask if the Sun is involved in
      any way.

      Introduce the Tides applet. Explain the forces at work:

               For the millions of people in the world living along the ocean, the daily
               fluctuations of the water level are an important fact of life. Tides occur
               because of the gravitational attraction between the water in the oceans
               and the Sun and Moon. The Sun and Moon actually pull at the oceans
               and cause a tidal bulge (the tidal influence of the Moon is about twice
               that of the Sun). There are approximately two high tides and two low
               tides each day, and when it is high tide at one coastal location, it is low
               tide along a different coast a quarter of the way around the Earth.
               Because tides occur due to both the Sun and Moon, there are two kinds
               of tides which depend on the orientation of the Sun and Moon. A spring
               tide occurs near full or new moon, and causes the greatest tidal
               differences because the Sun and Moon act together to create one large
               tidal bulge. A neap tide occurs near a quarter moon when the Sun and
               Moon are at right angles from each other, causing two smaller tidal
               bulges. In addition to the effect of the orientation of the Sun and Moon,
               the distance to the Moon will also affect the tide levels. During perigee,
               the gravitational pull of the Moon is about 40% greater than if it were at
               apogee. The world’s greatest tides occur in Canada, in the Bay of Fundy
               in Nova Scotia. If the Moon is near perigee during a spring tide, the
               water level at high tide can be as much as 16 metres higher than at low
               tide at a place called Minas Basin. The location and shape of the
               shoreline combined with the depth of the water are the key reasons that
               the Bay experiences such dramatic tidal variations.

      Solicit student questions to be sure this concept is understood.



      Closure:
      Conduct a discussion regarding the effects of Earth's tides. What would our Earth be
      like without them? What are their benefits, and how would life on Earth be hampered
      without them?


      Evaluation:
      No evaluation of this lesson is necessary.

								
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