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					                            Developing the
                            Listening Mind
                                 John Hildreth, M.A., David Zuschin, PhD,
                                         Radford University




                                                     Ludwig van Beethoven
                                                        (1770 - 1827)
INTRODUCTIONS: Who we are, our roles at RU, and a brief synopsis of the project.

- John Hildreth is an Assistant Director and Instructor in the RU Technology in Learning Center
- David Zuschin is a musicologist and an Associate Professor in the RU Department of Music

Contributors to this project also include Dr. Krista Terry, Director of the RU Technology in Learning Center, and Charley Cosmato,
M.S., Assistant Director of the Technology in Learning Center. The podcast of this presentation will remain accessible through
Summer 2006.
An interview conducted with Dave a few years back summarizing his initial inspiration for having music students use iPods.

For those viewing via podcast, see the accompanying video, ‘David Zuschin’ for this portion of the presentation podcast.
                                     music history
                                   development of musical style                                              Das Wohltemper
                                                                                                                                  Prelud




                                                                                             = 60




                                                                                  4




                                                                                  7




For those viewing via podcast, see the accompanying slideshow, ‘The Listening Mind’ for this portion of the presentation podcast.
The following slides duplicate those in the slideshow.
                                                                                 10
In Music History, instructors strive to teach students an ability to listen and perceive music on a number of different levels. To begin
with, there is an ‘overall context’ of information about a given piece which includes title, composer, date, etc. And while students
learn these details, they move on to study additional ‘immediate circumstances’ about a piece such as historic context, geography,
religious references and influences, and stylistic trends. Finally, there is the piece of music itself, within which students learn to
perceive formal elements such as harmony, rhythm and orchestration, all of which is influenced by the overall context and immediate
circumstances.
Overall Context
     Immediate
   Circumstances

       Piece
       itself
Overall Context
     Immediate
   Circumstances

       Piece
       itself
Overall Context
     Immediate
   Circumstances

       Piece
       itself
•   modernism, primitivism

•   early 20th-c Paris



•   Stravinsky

•   ballet: The Rite of Spring

•   premiere: riot



•   bitonal harmony

•   ostinato

•   layering
•   modernism, primitivism

•   early 20th-c Paris



•   Stravinsky

•   ballet: The Rite of Spring

•   premiere: riot



•   bitonal harmony

•   ostinato

•   layering
                                                 •     modernism, primitivism

                                                 •     early 20th-c Paris



                                                 •     Stravinsky

                                                 •     ballet: The Rite of Spring

                                                 •     premiere: riot



                                                 •     bitonal harmony

                                                 •     ostinato

                                                 •     layering


The model applied to Igor Stravinsky’s ballet, ‘The Rite of Spring,’ with examples of the types of information that may be studied at
each level.
  Paris
  1913

 Rite of
 Spring

   Igor
Stravinsky

 Bitonal
harmony
                           reality: disconnect


                • multiple choice, essay: highest scores
                • listening portion: lowest



The listening portion of music history exams involves playing a piece of music that students must provide details about, culled from
the different levels of understanding illustrated in the preceding slides. The listening portion is typically the toughest for students,
any many who do well on the multiple choice and essay sections do poorly on the listening section.
Students studying music simultaneously refer to class notes and musical scores while listening.
Students studying music simultaneously refer to class notes and musical scores while listening.
Students studying music simultaneously refer to class notes and musical scores while listening.
Students studying music simultaneously refer to class notes and musical scores while listening.
College music texts and anthologies are traditionally bought by students with accompanying recordings on CD. Performances on
these CD sets tend to be mixed at best, and the discs themselves can be cumbersome to navigate, as each can contain dozens of
tracks, with individual pieces sometimes separated into two or more sections.
Add the manuscript . . .
                                                              Primitivism
           Premiere: riot
                                                          Early 20th-c Paris
                                  The Rite of Spring
                 Ostinato
                                                Modernism
                  Bitonal harmony                                    Layering
                                                       Ballet
                                             Stravinsky



. . . and the information . . .
                                                                                           Primitivism
          Premiere: riot
                                                                                  Early 20th-c Paris
                                 The Rite of Spring
                Ostinato
                                                                Modernism
                Bitonal harmony                                                                           Layering
                                                                                Ballet
                                                          Stravinsky



. . . we often treat music as a soundtrack to whatever it is we are doing, and with students studing in this capacity, the music on CD
tends to fall to the background as they pour over notes and study manuscripts.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
To make a comparison to the visual arts: in a painting such as ‘The Last Supper,’ details can be seen and discussed at a moment’s
notice. However, music unfolds over time and details to be discussed may not occur until 1, 2 or 10 minutes into a work.
Piece
itself

         ?
?
     the listening mind

 development involves:
• connecting sound with sense
• internalization and transference
                  iPod and the listening mind

                                                                       accessibility
                                                                             •immersion
                                                                             •integration


                                                                       music quiz for iPod
                                                                              •focus on specific examples
                                                                              •reinforcement
                                                                              •immediate feedback



    I.
        Project Goals
              a.
 Facilitate development of the listening mind using the iPod
                       i.
Increased Accessibility (anytime/anywhere listening (practice, immersion, associations).
                       ii.Breaking down barriers (no CDs, school and personal listening mixed).
              b.
 Music Quiz for iPod (demonstrate)
                       i.
Associating terminology and sound.
                       ii.Reinforcement (practice with the quiz anytime, anywhere).

         
              iii. Coherence (superficial versus transferable information).
                                iPod music quiz
                           Using the iPod’s Notes feature, users can create multiple-choice quizzes
                                        out of plain .txt files and simple text markup.


         A multiple-choice
       question is displayed,                         LISTEN
        along with a link to                          The composer of this piece is:
         begin playback of                            1 - Hector Berlioz
           related music.                             2 - Clara Schumann
                                                      3 - Felix Mendelssohn




                                                                                                       Use the controls
                                                                                                      to playback audio,
                                                                                                      navigate questions
                                                                                                         and choose
                                                                                                           answers.




When connecting the iPod to your computer, use iTunes to ‘Enable Disk Use’ (accessible in the iTunes preferences) so that you can
use it a storage drive. This gives the user access to the iPod’s Notes.

Enabling or Disabling ‘Notes’ or (other features such as Games, Voice Narration, etc.) on the iPod’s Main Menu is done in the iPod’s
‘Settings.’
                                 under the hood . . .
LISTEN                                       <title>QUESTION 01</title>
The composer of this piece is:
                                             <a href="ipod:music?
1 - Hector Berlioz
                                             song=ex05&NowPlaying=false">LISTEN
2 - Clara Schumann
                                             </a>
3 - Felix Mendelssohn

                                             The composer of this piece is:

                                             1 - <a href="_utility/
                                             haha.txt">Hector Berlioz</a>
                                             2 - <a href="_utility/
                                             haha.txt">Clara Schumann</a>
                                             3 - <a href="_utility/
                                             aha.txt">Felix Mendelssohn</a>




   •The text between the <title> tags will appear as a filename on the iPod.
   •The <a href> tag around ‘LISTEN’ links to an audio file on the iPod, and the
   ‘false’ attribute enables the user to hear playback without leaving the question
   page.
   •The links to ‘haha.txt’ and ‘aha.txt’ display incorrect and correct answer
   messages, respectively.
   •While browsing questions and answers, an underscore indicates the currently
   selected item.
                            implementation




                                             MUSC 322 Site

I.
   Implementation
      a.
 Purchased and distributed iPods.
      b.
 Web used as media distribution center for class. (view athttp://www.radford.edu/~dzuschin/322podcast/)
              i.
Music Quizzes for iPod.
              ii. Lectures recorded with iRiver MP3 lanyard recorder and podcast.
assessment | evaluation
assessment | evaluation

• 92%: quiz helped to reinforce musical
  concepts
assessment | evaluation

• 92%: quiz helped to reinforce musical
  concepts
• 88%: quiz was easy to navigate
assessment | evaluation

• 92%: quiz helped to reinforce musical
  concepts
• 88%: quiz was easy to navigate
• 80%: podcasts were helpful
assessment | evaluation

• 92%: quiz helped to reinforce musical
  concepts
• 88%: quiz was easy to navigate
• 80%: podcasts were helpful
• 92%: iPod a valuable tool
                           student interview




For those viewing via podcast, see the accompanying video, ‘Student Interview’ for this portion of the presentation podcast.
                                         future goals


                                                         Opus X




                                                    iPod
                                                 Requirement
- Opus X digital music library (iTunes database of entire CD collection of McConnell Library).

- Music students are required to purchase iPods starting Fall 2006.

- Visit www.radford.edu/~dzuschin/opusx to peruse details and information about the Opus X digital music library, as well as the
iPod requirement for music students.
                                        resources

                               podcast of presentation
                                     materials




             http://www.radford.edu/~jhildret/nmc/listeningmind/podcast.xml

                                 John Hildreth, jhildret@radford.edu
                                 David Zuschin, dzuschin@radford.edu



This podcast will remain accessible through Summer 2006.

Contact us at:

John Hildreth, jhildret@radford.edu
David Zuschin, dzuschin@radford.edu

				
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