Chapter 31 Plant Structure Terms monocots petiole meristem endodermis dicots protoplast apical meristem lateral roots root system parenchyma cell primary growth pericycle shoot system collenchyma cell secondary growth vascular bundle xylem sclerenchyma cell lateral meristem stomata phloem guard cells taproot sclereids root cap transpiration fibrous root tracheids mesophyll root hairs pericycle zone of cell division stem node xylem vessel elements cortex pith vascular cambium cork cambium blade sieve-tube members internode sieve plates leaves ground meristem axillary bud zone of elongation periderm terminal bud dermal tissue system zone of maturation bark apical dominance epidermis stele lenticel annuals perennials Objectives 1. List the characteristics of an angiosperm. 2. Explain the differences between monocots and dicots. 3. Describe the importance of root systems and shoot systems to plants and explain how they work together. 4. Explain how taproot systems and fibrous root systems differ. 5. Explain the differences between stolons and rhizomes. 6. Describe how plant cells grow. 7. Distinguish between parenchyma and collenchyma cells with regards to structure and function. 8. Explain the importance of tracheids and vessel elements to plants. 9. Distinguish between water-conducting cells and sieve-tube members with regards to structure and function. 10. Explain the differences between simple tissues and complex tissues. 11. Explain the importance of a cuticle on the aerial parts of a plant and its absence on roots. 12. Describe the functions of the dermal tissue system, vascular tissue system and ground tissue system. 13. Distinguish among annual, biennial, and perennial plants. 14. Explain the importance of the zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell differentiation in primary growth of roots. 15. Explain the importance of the endodermis to a plant. 16. Describe the importance of an apical meristem to the primary growth of shoots. 17. Distinguish between the arrangement of vascular tissues in roots and shoots. 18. Describe how "wood" forms due to secondary growth of stems. 19. Using a diagram, describe the basic structure of a root, a stem, and a leaf. Chapter 32 Plant Transport Terms transport proteins turgor pressure endodermis circadian rhythms selective channels turgid Casparian strip translocation chemiosmosis aquaporins transpiration sugar source osmosis tonoplast cohesion sugar sink water potential symplast root pressure transfer cells apoplast guttation tension bulk flow plasmolyze mycorrhizae transpiration-to-photosynthesis ratio Objectives 1. List three levels in which transport in plants occurs. 2. Trace the path of water and minerals from outside the root to the shoot system. 3. Explain how a proton pump may affect mineral transport in plants. 4. Describe the symplast and apoplast routes for the transit of water and minerals across the root cortex from the epidermis to the stele. 5. Explain how solutes are transferred between the symplast and apoplast. 6. Define water potential. 7. Explain how solute concentration and pressure affects water potential. 8. Predict the direction of net water movement based upon differences in water potential between a plant cell and a hypoosmotic environment, a hyperosmotic environment or an isosmotic environment. 9. Explain how root pressure is created by some plants and how it causes guttation. 10. According to the transpiration-cohesion-adhesion theory, describe how xylem sap can be pulled upward in xylem vessels. 11. Explain why a water potential gradient is required for the passive flow of water through a plant, from soil. 12. Compare the transpiration-to-photosynthesis ratio between C3 and C4 plants. 13. Describe both the disadvantages and benefits of transpiration. 14. Explain how guard cells control the stomatal aperture and how this, in turn, can affect photosynthetic rate and transpiration. 15. Explain how K + fluxes across the guard cell membrane affects guard cell function. 16. List three cues that contribute to stomatal opening at dawn. 17. Describe environmental stresses that can cause stomata to close during the daytime. 18. Describe source-to-sink transport in phloem and explain what determines the direction of phloem sap flow. Chapter 33 Plant Nutrition Terms mineral nutrients topsoil cation exchange nodules essential nutrient horizons nitrogen-fixing bacteria macronutrients nitrogen fixation loams mycorrhizae micronutrients humus nitrogenase Objectives 1. Describe the chemical composition of plants including: a. Percent of wet weight as water b. Percent of dry weight as organic substances c. Percent of dry weight as inorganic minerals 2. Distinguish between macronutrient and micronutrient. 3. Recall the nine macronutrients required by plants and describe their importance in normal plant structure and metabolism. 4. List seven micronutrients required by plants and explain why plants need only minute quantities of these elements. 5. Explain how a nutrient's role and mobility determine the symptoms of a mineral deficiency. 6. Explain how soil is formed. 7. Explain how humus contributes to the texture and composition of soil. 8. Explain why plants cannot extract all of the water in soil. 9. Define cation exchange, explain why it is necessary for plant nutrition, and describe how plants can stimulate the process. 10. Explain why soil management is necessary in agricultural systems but not in natural ecosystems such as forests and grasslands. 11. List the three mineral elements that are most commonly deficient in farm soils. 12. Explain how soil pH determines the effectiveness of fertilizers and a plant's ability to absorb specific mineral nutrients. 13. Define nitrogen fixation and write the overall equation representing the conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia. 14. Distinguish between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria. 15. Recall the forms of nitrogen that plants can absorb and describe how they are used by plants. 16. Describe modifications for nutrition that have evolved among plants including parasitic plants, carnivorous plants, and mycorrhizae. Chapter 34 Plant Reproduction Terms monoecious dioecious sporophyte microspore coleoptile protoplast fusion gametophyte megaspore fruit monoculture sepal embryo sac petal pollination simple fruit stamen self-incompatible aggregate fruit morphogenesis ovules endosperm multiple fruit cellular differentiation complete flower double fertilization imbibition incomplete flower seed coat perfect flower hypocotyl positional information imperfect flower radicle apomixis epicotyl callus vegetative reproduction alternation of generations Objectives 1. Outline the angiosperm life cycle. 2. List the four floral parts in their order from outside to inside of the flower. 3. From a diagram of an idealized flower, correctly label the following structures and describe their function: a. Sepals c. Stamen: filament and anther b. Petals d. Carpel: style, ovary, ovule and stigma 4. Distinguish between complete and incomplete flowers. 5. Distinguish between a perfect and imperfect flower. 6. Distinguish between monoecious and dioecious. 7. Explain by which generation, structure, and process spores are produced. 8. Explain by which generation, structures, and process gametes are produced. 9. Explain why it is technically incorrect to refer to stamens and carpels as male and female sex organs. 10. Describe the formation of a pollen grain in angiosperms. 11. With reference to the developing pollen grain, distinguish among generative nucleus, tube nucleus, and sperm nucleus. 12. Describe the development of an embryo sac, and explain what happens to each of its cells. 13. Distinguish between pollination and fertilization. 14. Describe mechanisms that prevent self-pollination, and explain how this contributes to genetic variation. 15. Outline the process of double fertilization, and describe the function of endosperm. 16. Describe the development of a plant embryo from the first mitotic division to an embryonic plant with rudimentary organs. 17. From a diagram, identify the following structures of a seed and recall a function for each: a. Seed coat d. Radicle g. Endosperm b. Embryo e. Epicotyl h. Cotyledons c. Hypocotyl f. Plumule i. Shoot apex 18. Explain how a monocot and dicot seed differ. 19. Describe several functions of fruit and explain how fruits form. 20. Distinguish among simple, aggregate, and multiple fruits and give examples of each. 21. Explain how seed dormancy can be advantageous to a plant and describe some conditions for breaking dormancy. 22. Describe variations in the process of germination including the fate of the radicle, shoot tip, hypocotyl, epicotyl, and cotyledons. 23. Distinguish between sexual reproduction and vegetative reproduction. 24. Explain how the technique of plant tissue culture can be used to clone and genetically engineer plants. 25. Define monoculture and list its benefits and risks. Chapter 35 Plant Control Systems Terms hormone circadian rhythm phototropism photoperiodism auxin tropisms short-day plant cytokinins gravitropism long-day plants gibberellin day-neutral plants abscisic acid (ABA) phytochrome ethylene action potentials thigmomorphogenesis senescence sleep movements Objectives 1. List five classes of plant hormones, describe their major functions, and recall where they are produced in the plant. 2. Explain how a hormone may cause its effect on plant growth and development. 3. According to the acid-growth hypothesis, explain how auxin can initiate cell elongation. 4. Explain why 2,4-D is widely used as a weed killer. 5. Explain how the ratio of cytokinin to auxin affects cell division and cell differentiation. 6. Define apical dominance and describe the check-and-balance control of lateral branching by auxins and cytokinins. 7. List several factors besides auxin from the terminal bud that may control apical dominance. 8. Describe how stem elongation and fruit growth depend upon a synergism between auxin and gibberellins. 9. Explain the probable mechanism by which gibberellins trigger seed germination. 10. Describe how abscisic acid (ABA) helps prepare a plant for winter. 11. Give an example of how ABA can act as a "stress hormone". 12. Describe the role of ethylene in plant senescence, fruit ripening and leaf abscission. 13. List two environmental stimuli for leaf abscission. 14. Define tropism and list three stimuli that induce tropisms and a consequent change of body shape. 15. Explain how light causes a phototropic response. 16. Describe how plants apparently tell up from down, and explain why roots display positive gravitropism and shoots exhibit negative gravitropism. 17. Define circadian rhythm and explain what happens when an organism is artificially maintained in a constant environment. 18. List some common factors that entrain biological clocks. 19. Define photoperiodism. 20. Distinguish among short-day plants, long-day plants, and day-neutral plants; give common examples of each; and explain how they depend upon critical night length. 21. Explain how the interconversion of phytochrome can act as a switching mechanism to help plants detect sunlight and trigger many plant responses to light. 22. Describe the local and systemic response to virulent pathogens.