; Chapter 31 Plant Structure
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Chapter 31 Plant Structure


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									Chapter 31 Plant Structure
monocots        petiole                 meristem              endodermis
dicots          protoplast              apical meristem       lateral roots
root system parenchyma cell             primary growth        pericycle
shoot system collenchyma cell           secondary growth      vascular bundle
xylem           sclerenchyma cell       lateral meristem      stomata
phloem          guard cells             taproot               sclereids
root cap        transpiration           fibrous root          tracheids
mesophyll       root hairs              pericycle             zone of cell division
stem            node                    xylem                 vessel elements
cortex          pith                    vascular cambium      cork cambium
blade           sieve-tube members internode                  sieve plates
leaves          ground meristem         axillary bud          zone of elongation
periderm        terminal bud            dermal tissue system zone of maturation
bark            apical dominance        epidermis             stele
lenticel        annuals                 perennials
1. List the characteristics of an angiosperm.
2. Explain the differences between monocots and dicots.
3. Describe the importance of root systems and shoot systems to plants and explain how
they work together.
4. Explain how taproot systems and fibrous root systems differ.
5. Explain the differences between stolons and rhizomes.
6. Describe how plant cells grow.
7. Distinguish between parenchyma and collenchyma cells with regards to structure and
8. Explain the importance of tracheids and vessel elements to plants.
9. Distinguish between water-conducting cells and sieve-tube members with regards to
structure and function.
10. Explain the differences between simple tissues and complex tissues.
11. Explain the importance of a cuticle on the aerial parts of a plant and its absence on
12. Describe the functions of the dermal tissue system, vascular tissue system and ground
tissue system.
13. Distinguish among annual, biennial, and perennial plants.
14. Explain the importance of the zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell
differentiation in primary growth of roots.
15. Explain the importance of the endodermis to a plant.
16. Describe the importance of an apical meristem to the primary growth of shoots.
17. Distinguish between the arrangement of vascular tissues in roots and shoots.
18. Describe how "wood" forms due to secondary growth of stems.
19. Using a diagram, describe the basic structure of a root, a stem, and a leaf.
Chapter 32 Plant Transport
transport proteins      turgor pressure        endodermis             circadian rhythms
selective channels      turgid                 Casparian strip        translocation
chemiosmosis            aquaporins             transpiration          sugar source
osmosis                 tonoplast              cohesion               sugar sink
water potential         symplast               root pressure          transfer cells
apoplast                guttation              tension                bulk flow
plasmolyze              mycorrhizae            transpiration-to-photosynthesis ratio
1. List three levels in which transport in plants occurs.
2. Trace the path of water and minerals from outside the root to the shoot system.
3. Explain how a proton pump may affect mineral transport in plants.
4. Describe the symplast and apoplast routes for the transit of water and minerals across
the root cortex from the epidermis to the stele.
5. Explain how solutes are transferred between the symplast and apoplast.
6. Define water potential.
7. Explain how solute concentration and pressure affects water potential.
8. Predict the direction of net water movement based upon differences in water potential
between a plant cell and a hypoosmotic environment, a hyperosmotic environment or an
isosmotic environment.
9. Explain how root pressure is created by some plants and how it causes guttation.
10. According to the transpiration-cohesion-adhesion theory, describe how xylem sap can
be pulled upward in xylem vessels.
11. Explain why a water potential gradient is required for the passive flow of water
through a plant, from soil.
12. Compare the transpiration-to-photosynthesis ratio between C3 and C4 plants.
13. Describe both the disadvantages and benefits of transpiration.
14. Explain how guard cells control the stomatal aperture and how this, in turn, can affect
photosynthetic rate and transpiration.
15. Explain how K + fluxes across the guard cell membrane affects guard cell function.
16. List three cues that contribute to stomatal opening at dawn.
17. Describe environmental stresses that can cause stomata to close during the daytime.
18. Describe source-to-sink transport in phloem and explain what determines the
direction of phloem sap flow.

Chapter 33 Plant Nutrition
mineral                nutrients             topsoil        cation exchange
nodules                essential nutrient    horizons       nitrogen-fixing bacteria
macronutrients         nitrogen fixation     loams          mycorrhizae
micronutrients         humus                 nitrogenase
1. Describe the chemical composition of plants including: a. Percent of wet weight as
water b. Percent of dry weight as organic substances c. Percent of dry weight as inorganic
2. Distinguish between macronutrient and micronutrient.
3. Recall the nine macronutrients required by plants and describe their importance in
normal plant structure and metabolism.
4. List seven micronutrients required by plants and explain why plants need only minute
quantities of these elements.
5. Explain how a nutrient's role and mobility determine the symptoms of a mineral
6. Explain how soil is formed.
7. Explain how humus contributes to the texture and composition of soil.
8. Explain why plants cannot extract all of the water in soil.
9. Define cation exchange, explain why it is necessary for plant nutrition, and describe
how plants can stimulate the process.
10. Explain why soil management is necessary in agricultural systems but not in natural
ecosystems such as forests and grasslands.
11. List the three mineral elements that are most commonly deficient in farm soils.
12. Explain how soil pH determines the effectiveness of fertilizers and a plant's ability to
absorb specific mineral nutrients.
13. Define nitrogen fixation and write the overall equation representing the conversion of
gaseous nitrogen to ammonia.
14. Distinguish between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and nitrifying bacteria.
15. Recall the forms of nitrogen that plants can absorb and describe how they are used by
16. Describe modifications for nutrition that have evolved among plants including
parasitic plants, carnivorous plants, and mycorrhizae.

Chapter 34 Plant Reproduction
monoecious               dioecious               sporophyte              microspore
coleoptile               protoplast fusion       gametophyte             megaspore
fruit                    monoculture             sepal                   embryo sac
petal                    pollination             simple fruit            stamen
self-incompatible        aggregate fruit         morphogenesis           ovules
endosperm                multiple fruit          cellular differentiation complete flower
double fertilization imbibition                  incomplete flower       seed coat
perfect flower           hypocotyl               positional information imperfect flower
radicle                  apomixis                epicotyl                callus
vegetative reproduction                          alternation of generations
1. Outline the angiosperm life cycle.
2. List the four floral parts in their order from outside to inside of the flower.
3. From a diagram of an idealized flower, correctly label the following structures and
describe their function: a. Sepals c. Stamen: filament and anther b. Petals d. Carpel: style,
ovary, ovule and stigma
4. Distinguish between complete and incomplete flowers.
5. Distinguish between a perfect and imperfect flower.
6. Distinguish between monoecious and dioecious.
7. Explain by which generation, structure, and process spores are produced.
8. Explain by which generation, structures, and process gametes are produced.
9. Explain why it is technically incorrect to refer to stamens and carpels as male and
female sex organs.
10. Describe the formation of a pollen grain in angiosperms.
11. With reference to the developing pollen grain, distinguish among generative nucleus,
tube nucleus, and sperm nucleus.
12. Describe the development of an embryo sac, and explain what happens to each of its
13. Distinguish between pollination and fertilization.
14. Describe mechanisms that prevent self-pollination, and explain how this contributes
to genetic variation.
15. Outline the process of double fertilization, and describe the function of endosperm.
16. Describe the development of a plant embryo from the first mitotic division to an
embryonic plant with rudimentary organs.
17. From a diagram, identify the following structures of a seed and recall a function for
each: a. Seed coat d. Radicle g. Endosperm b. Embryo e. Epicotyl h. Cotyledons c.
Hypocotyl f. Plumule i. Shoot apex
18. Explain how a monocot and dicot seed differ.
19. Describe several functions of fruit and explain how fruits form.
20. Distinguish among simple, aggregate, and multiple fruits and give examples of each.
21. Explain how seed dormancy can be advantageous to a plant and describe some
conditions for breaking dormancy.
22. Describe variations in the process of germination including the fate of the radicle,
shoot tip, hypocotyl, epicotyl, and cotyledons.
23. Distinguish between sexual reproduction and vegetative reproduction.
24. Explain how the technique of plant tissue culture can be used to clone and
genetically engineer plants.
25. Define monoculture and list its benefits and risks.

Chapter 35 Plant Control Systems
hormone                  circadian rhythm     phototropism           photoperiodism
auxin                    tropisms             short-day plant        cytokinins
gravitropism             long-day plants      gibberellin            day-neutral plants
abscisic acid (ABA) phytochrome               ethylene               action potentials
thigmomorphogenesis                           senescence             sleep movements
1. List five classes of plant hormones, describe their major functions, and recall where
they are produced in the plant.
2. Explain how a hormone may cause its effect on plant growth and development.
3. According to the acid-growth hypothesis, explain how auxin can initiate cell
4. Explain why 2,4-D is widely used as a weed killer.
5. Explain how the ratio of cytokinin to auxin affects cell division and cell
6. Define apical dominance and describe the check-and-balance control of lateral
branching by auxins and cytokinins.
7. List several factors besides auxin from the terminal bud that may control apical
8. Describe how stem elongation and fruit growth depend upon a synergism between
auxin and gibberellins.
9. Explain the probable mechanism by which gibberellins trigger seed germination.
10. Describe how abscisic acid (ABA) helps prepare a plant for winter.
11. Give an example of how ABA can act as a "stress hormone".
12. Describe the role of ethylene in plant senescence, fruit ripening and leaf abscission.
13. List two environmental stimuli for leaf abscission.
14. Define tropism and list three stimuli that induce tropisms and a consequent change of
body shape.
15. Explain how light causes a phototropic response.
16. Describe how plants apparently tell up from down, and explain why roots display
positive gravitropism and shoots exhibit negative gravitropism.
17. Define circadian rhythm and explain what happens when an organism is artificially
maintained in a constant environment.
18. List some common factors that entrain biological clocks.
19. Define photoperiodism.
20. Distinguish among short-day plants, long-day plants, and day-neutral plants; give
common examples of each; and explain how they depend upon critical night length.
21. Explain how the interconversion of phytochrome can act as a switching mechanism to
help plants detect sunlight and trigger many plant responses to light.
22. Describe the local and systemic response to virulent pathogens.

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