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					FSATIE TELECOMMUNICATION
        WORKSHOP

Bluetooth technology survey


Presented by David Johnson
Mobile platform technology leader
Icomtek
CSIR
                                    1
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            2
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            3
                          Origins of Bluetooth

         In 1994 Ericsson initiated a study to investigate the
          feasibility of a low-power low-cost radio interface
          between mobile phones and their accessories
         In Feb 1998, five companies Ericsson, Nokia, IBM,
          Toshiba and Intel formed a Special Interest Group (SIG)
         In July 1999 the first bluetooth specification 1.0 was
          released
         The bluetooth consortium today is comprised of 9
          promoter companies who are leaders in telecomms,
          computing and networking and more than 2000 adopter
          companies
         Bluetooth is the fastest growing technology since the
          internet or the cellular phone, incredible considering that
          its first public outing was in mid 1998.

Author: D L Johnson                                                     4
                      Origins of Bluetooth




Author: D L Johnson                          5
                             History of Bluetooth

         Harald I Bluetooth (Danish Harald Blåtand) was the King
          of Denmark between 940 and 985 AD who united Denmark
          and Norway
         As Harald Bluetooth united Denmark and Norway,
          Bluetooth of today will unite the many worlds of personal
          devices around us




         Rune stone in Danish town, Jelling
         depicting Harold Bluetooth
Author: D L Johnson                                                   6
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            7
                      What Bluetooth can do - definition




                 Bluetooth is a low-power, low-cost short range
                 radio system intended to replace cables between
                 fixed and portable devices. It is intended to
                 replace many propriety cables with one
                 universal radio link.




Author: D L Johnson                                                8
                        What Bluetooth can do - domains




           Landline




                                                           Cable
                       Data/Voice                       Replacement
                      Access Points




                                      Personal Ad-hoc
                                        Connectivity

Author: D L Johnson                                                   9
                      What Bluetooth can do – user level

         Hot spot scenario: Let your laptop or PDA connect
          wireless to Internet or office while at the airport, hotel etc
         Automatically sync mail, calendar, notes etc. between
          your PDA and PC, as soon as you get into your office
         Physical access control
         Let your PC, Stereo and TV all connect without cables to
          your loudspeakers. Let the PC, phone or PDA control
          them all
         Take a picture with a digital camera, and send it via BT to
          a mobile phone, which forwards the picture to an email
          recipient via WAP
         Pay the cab driver via the phone.
         Withdrawal of money at ATMs
         Setup ad-hoc wireless network at a conference
Author: D L Johnson                                                        10
                      What Bluetooth can do – technical level

         Data links: Can establish up to 7 simultaneous data
          connections between a master and it’s slaves (piconet)
         Voice links: Can establish up to 3 simultaneous voice
          connections between a master it’s slaves (piconet)
         Maximum asymmetrical data rate of 723 kbps (57.6 kbps
          return channel)
         Maximum Symmetrical data rate of 432.6 kbps
         Can have up to ten multiple self contained networks
          (piconets) sharing spectrum in the same area (scatternet)
         Range can be up to 10m for 10mw bluetooth devices and
          up to 100m for 100mw bluetooth devices
         Very low power consumption
         Ability to discover available services on another device
Author: D L Johnson                                                   11
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            12
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP




Author: D L Johnson                                        13
                      The Bluetooth Stack Overview




Author: D L Johnson                                  14
                      The Bluetooth Stack Overview




Author: D L Johnson                                  15
                      Bluetooth Stack - Overview
                          Headset Bluetooth Stack




Author: D L Johnson                                 16
                       Bluetooth Stack - Overview
                      Access Point Bluetooth Stack




Author: D L Johnson                                  17
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP




Author: D L Johnson                                        18
                        Bluetooth Stack - Radio
         Bluetooth radio is a short range radio link capable of data
          and voice
         Three classes of operating range are defined ( Class3:
          1mw ~ 10cm, Class2: 10mw ~ 10m, Class1: 100mw ~
          100m )
         Uses a radio link at 2.4Ghz (2400-2483.5MHz ) which is the
          unlicensed ISM band also used by WLAN
         GFSK (Guassian Frequency Shift Keying) modulation
          scheme
         Uses frequency hopping spread spectrum technology
          (1600 hops/s)
         The signal hops among 79 frequencies which have a
          bandwidth of 1MHz which improves interference
          immunity
         Channel has a symbol rate of 1 Mb/s
Author: D L Johnson                                                     19
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP




Author: D L Johnson                                        20
                      Bluetooth Stack - Baseband

        Baseband is responsible for channel coding and decoding
         and low level timing control and management of the link
         within the domain of a single data packet transfer
        Each registered device has a unique 48-bit device address
        Bluetooth uses TDM where the duration of a slot is 625µs
        A Master and Slave transmit on alternate time slots with
         the master always initiating data exchange
        Larger packets can use multiple slots
        The Master and slave devices need to synchronize their
         clocks to enable reliable communication to take place




Author: D L Johnson                                                  21
                      Bluetooth Stack - Baseband

         Timing diagrams for data packets




Author: D L Johnson                                22
                      Bluetooth Stack - Baseband

         Bluetooth is able to form point-to-point links and point-to-
          multipoint links
         The network of bluetooth devices is defined as a Personal
          Area network (PAN)
         A Piconet is an arbitrary collection of Bluetooth enabled
          devices which are physically close enough to
          communicate
         A Scatternet is formed when there are two overlapping
          Piconets, where one of the Slaves of one Piconet also
          forms the Master/Slave of another Piconet
         A supervision timeout ensures that links are closed down
          when Bluetooth devices move out of range of the Piconet.


Author: D L Johnson                                                      23
                      Bluetooth Stack - Baseband

         Piconets (a & b) and Scatternets ( c )




Author: D L Johnson                                24
                      Bluetooth Stack - Baseband




Author: D L Johnson                                25
                        Bluetooth Stack - Baseband

          Two types of links are defined
             + Data Links - ACL (Asynchronous Connection-Less)
             + Voice Links – SCO (Synchronous Connection Orientated)
          An ACL link is a packet switched data link which is
           established between a Master and Slave as soon as a
           connection has been established.
          ACL Data is carried in DH (Data High rate) packets with
           no FEC (Forward Error Correction) or DM (Data Medium
           rate) packets with FEC
          A SCO link provides a circuit switched link between a
           Master and Slave with reserved channel bandwidth.
          SCO Data is carried in HV (High Quality Voice) packets a
           number of selectable error correction packets
Author: D L Johnson                                                    26
                      Bluetooth Stack - Baseband

         Packet Types




Author: D L Johnson                                27
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP




Author: D L Johnson                                        28
                      Bluetooth Stack – Link Controller

         The Link Control Layer is a state machine which drives
          the baseband through various stages to establish links.
         It is responsible for managing device discoverability,
          establishing connections and once connected,
          maintaining the on-air links
         It can drive a device through the following stages
            + Host Inquiry
            + Inquiry Scan
            + FHS (Frequency Hop Synchronization) packet response
            + Paging
            + Page Scan
            + Connection


Author: D L Johnson                                                 29
                      Bluetooth Stack - Link Controller

         State Diagram for Link Controller




Author: D L Johnson                                       30
                      Bluetooth Stack - Link Controller

     Inquiry procedure (typical time ~ 2s)




Author: D L Johnson                                       31
                      Bluetooth Stack - Link Controller

     Inquiry procedure (continued)




Author: D L Johnson                                       32
                      Bluetooth stack – Link Controller
            Bluetooth Inquiry procedure at packet level




Author: D L Johnson                                        33
                      Bluetooth Stack - Link Controller

         Paging Procedure (typical time ~0.6s)




Author: D L Johnson                                       34
                      Bluetooth Stack - Link Controller

         The frequency hop sequence used in the connected state
          is calculated from the Master BD Address and Clock
         A connection is established once the Slave has received
          the Masters native clock and bluetooth address and a poll
          packet has been sent to confirm the connection is
          working




Author: D L Johnson                                                   35
                      Bluetooth stack – Link Controller
            Bluetooth Paging procedure at packet level




Author: D L Johnson                                       36
                      Bluetooth Stack - Link Controller

        Low Power connected states (Can re-establish connection in 2ms)
          + Connection – Hold: Device ceases to support ACL traffic for a defined
            period of time to free up bandwidth for other operations such as
            paging or inquiring, maintains AM address, after hold time expires the
            device resynchronizes to the CAC and listens for traffic again
          + Connection – Sniff: Device is given a predefined slot time and
            periodicity to listen for traffic, on reception of a packet during this time
            it will continue to listen until packets with its AM address stop and the
            timeout period ceases, it then waits until the next sniff period
          + Connection – Park: Slave gives up its AM address and only listens for
            traffic at predefined beacon intervals – between this it can enter a low
            power state. At these intervals even if there is no traffic it will
            synchronize its clock to the CAC.




Author: D L Johnson                                                                        37
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP




Author: D L Johnson                                        38
                      Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager

         Commands the Link Controller/Baseband
         Attaches/Detaches slaves to a piconet and allocates their
          Active Member addresses
         Configures the link which inlcudes a master-slave switch
         Establishes ACL (data) and SCO (voice) links
         Puts connections in low-power modes: Hold, Sniff, Park
         Controls Power levels
         Communicates with Link Managers on other Bluetooth
          devices using the Link Management Protocol (LMP)
            + These LMP commands are used to exchange information necessary
              for security negotiation
            + Requesting a SCO connection or Master/Slave switch is also done
              through LMP commands

Author: D L Johnson                                                             39
                      Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager




Author: D L Johnson                                    40
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP
         Bluetooth Stack – Other Higher Layers



Author: D L Johnson                                        41
                            Bluetooth Stack - HCI

         The Host Controller Interface is necessary when there is
          system partitioning between the baseband and Link
          Manager on one processor and the higher layers such as
          L2CAP, SDP and RFCOMM running on a serperate host
          processor
         This can reduce the processing power needed by the
          bluetooth device and hence reduce cost
         Creates a standard interface that can be used by different
          manufactures of Bluetooth devices
         Three types of HCI packets are used
            + Command packets used by host to control the module
            + Event packets used by the module to inform the host
            + Data packets used to pass voice and data between host and
              module
         A transport layer (USB, RS-232) is also required to carry HCI
          packets
Author: D L Johnson                                                       42
                         Bluetooth Stack - HCI

         Position of the HCI in the Bluetooth Stack




Author: D L Johnson                                    43
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP
         Bluetooth Stack – Other Higher Layers



Author: D L Johnson                                        44
Bluetooth Stack – Logical Link Control and Adaptation
                  Protocol (L2CAP)
         Takes data from higher layers of the stack and from
          applications and sends it over the lower layers of the
          stack
         Achieved by multiplexing using dedicated channel
          numbers and associated (Protocol Service Multiplexers)
          PSM’s
         Segmentation and reassembly to transfer packets larger
          than the lower layers support
         Quality of service management for high layer protocols




Author: D L Johnson                                                45
Bluetooth Stack – Logical Link Control and Adaptation
                  Protocol (L2CAP)
         Example setting up an L2CAP connection over HCI




Author: D L Johnson                                         46
Bluetooth Stack – Logical Link Control and Adaptation
                  Protocol (L2CAP)
         Segmentation and transport of L2CAP packets




Author: D L Johnson                                     47
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP
         Bluetooth Stack – Other Higher Layers



Author: D L Johnson                                        48
                         Bluetooth Stack - RFCOMM

         RFCOMM is a simple reliable transport protocol which can
          emulate the serial cable link settings and status of an RS-
          232 serial port
         It can handle multiple concurrent connections by relying on
          the multiplexing features of L2CAP
         It provides the following provisions
            + Modem status – RTS/CTS, DSR/DTR, DCD and RI
            + Remote line status – Break, Overrun, Parity
            + Remote port settings – Baud rate, parity, data bits etc.
            + Parameter negotiation (frame size)
            + Optional credit based flow control



Author: D L Johnson                                                      49
      Building blocks of Bluetooth – the Bluetooth stack

         The Bluetooth Stack Overview
         Bluetooth Stack – Radio
         Bluetooth Stack – Baseband
         Bluetooth Stack – Link controller
         Bluetooth Stack – Link Manager
         Bluetooth Stack – HCI
         Bluetooth Stack – L2CAP
         Bluetooth Stack – RFCOMM
         Bluetooth Stack – SDP
         Bluetooth Stack – Other Higher Layers



Author: D L Johnson                                        50
             Bluetooth Stack – Service Discovery Protocol

         Provides a means for an SDP client to access information
          about service offered by SDP servers (examples: printing
          services, Dial-up networking, LAN access)
         SDP servers maintain a database of service records
          which provide information that a client needs to access a
          service (This will be the service name, protocols needed
          for this service and even URL’s for executables and
          documentation)
         Services have UUID’s (Universally Unique Identifiers)
          which have been allocated for the standard bluetooth
          profiles but service providers can define their own using
          a method that guarantees they cannot be duplicated
          (there is no need for a central authority to allocate these)
         Fits in well with Universal Plug and Play architecture
Author: D L Johnson                                                      51
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Example applications – Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            52
                      Bluetooth ad-hoc networking

         Ad-hoc wireless networks are defined as a network where
          each node operates not only as a host but also as a
          router
         Network is dynamically self-organizing and self-
          configuring
         Nodes in the network automatically establish and
          maintain routing among themselves as they move about
         There is no requirement for existing infrastructure such
          as access points or administration
         Bluetooth is a natural choice over 802.11 for ad-hoc
          networking due to its good performance under high
          levels of contention
         802.11 uses a carrier sense, collion detection & back off
          scheme which requires no central arbiter whereas
          bluetooth uses a master node as a bandwidth arbiter
Author: D L Johnson                                                   53
                      Bluetooth ad-hoc networking

         When the underlying technology for ad-hoc networking is
          bluetooth, the technology specific name is scatternet
          formation
         A scatternet is formed when two or more bluetooth
          piconets are joined
         The bluetooth 1.1 specification does not describe a
          method for forming scatternets
         This is currently a key area of research and there is a
          dedicated working group in the bluetooth SIG looking at
          scatternet formation




Author: D L Johnson                                                 54
                      Bluetooth ad-hoc networking




Author: D L Johnson                                 55
                      Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Example of self routing strategy - Bluetree




Author: D L Johnson                                     56
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Example applications – Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            57
                              Bluetooth Security - Overview

         Wireless signals can be easily intercepted and are
          vulnerable to spoofing and eavesdropping
         Bluetooth offers the following inherent security features
            + Two different modes of accessibility (confidentiality)
                      – Discoverable mode – Anyone can discover the device
                         – Non-discoverable, Limited discoverability, General discoverability
                      – Connectible mode – Only trusted devices can connect to the devices
            + Frequency hopping
            + Limited Range
         Bluetooth offers the following specific security services
            + Authentication to verify the device’s identity
            + Authorization to allow a device access to specific services
            + Encryption to protect the link privacy

Author: D L Johnson                                                                             58
                      Bluetooth Security – Security Levels

         Not all applications warrant the use of security
         Bluetooth defines three levels of security
            + Mode 1: Absence of security for users accessing non-critical
              applications in public areas such as airports or for example
              exchanging business cards
            + Mode2: Service level security which will enable or disable
              security depending on the particular application which in run.
              For example a hotel bluetooth network could have no security
              for accessing local town information but could add security if
              you wanted to access your email.
            + Mode3: Link-level security where security is enforced at a
              common level for all applications – for example if ATM
              transactions were done via bluetooth.


Author: D L Johnson                                                            59
                      Bluetooth Security - Components

         Security is based on the SAFER+ security protocol
         All link-level security is based on 128-bit link keys
         A secret PIN number (variable from 4 to 16 octets) which is
          common to the two devices wishing to communicate forms
          one of the key inputs into forming the initial link key.
         Authentication in Bluetooth uses a device-to-device
          challenge and response scheme to determine if the two
          devices share a common link key
         Encryption generates a cipher stream based on an
          encryption key which is generated from a common link key
          – encryption is symmetrical




Author: D L Johnson                                                     60
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            61
                           Bluetooth Profiles

         The blueooth SIG has created profiles which give a clear
          description of how the bluetooth specification should be
          used for a given end-user function – this is to ease
          interoperation between different bluetooth devices




Author: D L Johnson                                                  62
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Example applications – Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            63
                                 Bluetooth Products

             Notebooks Printers and keyboards

               Camcorders


                Access points

               PC and flash cards

                Phones and accessories

                Headsets

                 PDA’s and accessories

                 USB and serial ports
Author: D L Johnson                                   64
                      Bluetooth Products - Bluetags


        Track: Registration of the
         tagged item leaving a
         predefined area or range.
        Search: Registration of
         the tagged item entering
         a predefined area or
         range
        Write: Information can be
         written and stored
         directly in the BlueTag
        Read: Information stored
         in the BlueTag can be
         accessed and read

Author: D L Johnson                                   65
                      Bluetooth Products – Ericsson Chatpen


         Used together with patterned
          paper it enables you to store
          and transmit basically
          anything you write or draw
         Can store several pages of
          information
         The information is
          transmitted by the Bluetooth
          transceiver, either directly to
          your computer, or forwarded
          to someone via a relay
          device such as a cell phone


Author: D L Johnson                                           66
         Bluetooth Products – Commil’s Cellarion system

             Your mobile phone with Bluetooth inside becomes your “all-in-
              one” handset: a cellular phone outdoors
              and a cordless extension of your desk phone at your office
             Your Bluetooth PDA becomes an extension of
              your PC, continuously connected to the Internet and to the
              office LAN




Author: D L Johnson                                                           67
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Example applications – Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            68
                        Bluetooth in South Africa

         Bluetooth is still in its infancy in South Africa
         Red-M have representation in South Afirca – they
          specialize in bluetooth networking solutions for buildings
          (supply bluetooth access nodes and servers)
         Axis are represented in South Africa and also provide
          access points
         ATIO piloted bluetooth networking in a hospital
         Electrowave in Durban have produced two qualified
          bluetooth products
            + Cabchat hands-free car kit
            + GSM and bluetooth based road emergency SOS system



Author: D L Johnson                                                    69
                      Bluetooth in South Africa




   Very little low level design work and R&D is currently
     being carried out in bluetooth but a need exists




Author: D L Johnson                                         70
                         Bluetooth in South African

         CSIR has been carrying out research and created
          Bluetooth prototype systems for the past 2 years
            + Bluetooth Serial port adapters
            + Heart rate over Bluetooth system
            + Assistive communication device
            + Low cost fixed and mobile access point
         Non- OFS (Off The Shelf) solutions are needed for the
          Transport sector, Energy sector, Emergency services and
          Scientists
         Currently a bluetooth chip costs between $4 and $5 when
          purchased in bulk
         South African markets need to create indigenous
          solutions based on the raw chipset and not only purchase
          OTS solutions from overseas suppliers

Author: D L Johnson                                                  71
                          Bluetooth in South Africa

         Current potential markets are
            + Home and industrial security
            + Home automation
            + Emergency services
            + Motor vehicle industry
            + Industrial control and automation
            + Military
            + Scientific instrumentation




Author: D L Johnson                                   72
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Example applications – Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            73
                      Competing Technology




Author: D L Johnson                          74
                        Competing Technology
                       HomeRF         Bluetooth         802.11b
      Physical layer   FHSS           FHSS              FHSS, DSSS
      Hop frequency    50 hops/s      1600 hops/s       2.5 hops/s
      Transmitting     100mW          10mW-100mW        100mW
      power
      Power            Approx 200mA   720kbps 53mA      TX <420mA
      consumption                     Standby 57uA      RX <260mA
      (100mW device)                  Sleep 20uA
      Data rates       1 or 2 Mbps    1 Mbps            11 Mbps
      Range            50m            10m-100m          100m (Legal!)
      Cost             R1000          USB R238          Pcmcia
                                      Chipset $4 - $5   R256 to R1000
      Terminals        Laptop and     Anything          Laptop and
                       Desktop        electronic        desktop
Author: D L Johnson                                                     75
                      Contents of Bluetooth lecture

         Origins and history of Bluetooth
         What Bluetooth can do
         Building blocks of Bluetooth – the bluetooth stack
         Bluetooth ad-hoc networking
         Bluetooth Security
         Example applications – Bluetooth profiles
         Bluetooth products on the market
         Bluetooth in South Africa
         Competing technology
         The future of Bluetooth



Author: D L Johnson                                            76
                                      The Future
        Version 1.2 draft has been released
            +Backward compatible with 1.1
            +Improves wifi co-existence with Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH)
            +Improved connection times
            +Higher quality audio link




        Current version 2.0 working group
          + High rate bluetooth 10 Mb/s
          + HI_FI quality non-compressed audio, video suitable for video conferencing
          + Local positioning for indoor and built-up areas

Author: D L Johnson                                                                     77
                                     The Future
         Despite the delays, Bluetooth is still projected to be a $5 billion market
          within the next five years (Merrill Lynch February 8, 2001).
         The majority of market forecasting for Bluetooth applications remain in
          mobile phones, headsets, PDAs, and PCs, accounting for over 80% of
          units by 2006.
         Bluetooth penetration rate for digital still cameras is expected to be 60%
          in 2006 and the same rate for digital TV is expected to hit 65% in 2006
          (Merrill Lynch, February 8, 2001).
         Cost per bluetooth chip is expected to fall to $5 by 2003
         Based on analysts pricing estimates, this could translate to $18.5 billion
          of data access revenues, $2.4 billion of m-commerce, and $1.2 billion of
          advertising revenues by 2005 (Goldman Sachs, “Mobile Internet Primer,”
          July 14, 2000
         Bluetooth remains a chicken or egg game – where the benefits of
          Bluetooth only begin to reach their zenith as a function of
          manufacturers’ willingness to introduce new products and make
          Bluetooth a persistent element in the industry
Author: D L Johnson                                                                    78

				
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