"Climate Change Adaptation in Fiji"
Climate Change Adaptation in Fiji Patrina Dumaru, Institute of Applied Science, University of the South Pacific Presentation Outline 1. Climate change concerns in Fiji - Background - Climate change threats 2. Significance of climate change adaptation in rural Fiji 3. How climate change adaptation is currently approached in Fiji 4. CCA Project Adaptation Process - what we have done so far - What we plan to do next 5. Future prospects Climate Change Concerns in Fiji - Background Climate Change Concerns in Fiji - Ethnicity and Land Ownership • Population: Just over 50% Indigenous Fijians; about 40% Indo-Fijians; others include Europeans, Chinese, Pacific Islanders etc. • 85% of the land is communally owned by indigenous Fijians which is leased out for agricultural, commercial and residential purposes Climate Change Concerns in Fiji - Ethnicity and Land Ownership • Indigenous Fijians are also recognised custodians of in-shore fishing areas called i qoliqoli • A Qoliqoli Bill was in the process of being enacted when the last coup happened in December 2006 • Fiji has experienced three major coups in 1987, 2000 and 2006 of which racial and land ownership issues have been brought up as issues of contention Climate Change Concerns in Fiji - Rural Fiji • Half of Fiji’s population live in rural areas and are directly depend on natural resources for their livelihood • A majority of the rural population are indigenous Fijians living in a traditional Fijian village setup. • The Local Government Acts that set standards for environmental and health practices do not apply to Fijian villages because they are governed separately by the Fijian Affairs Act. • However, basic health services and conservation projects occur voluntarily in Fijian villages. Climate Change Concerns in Fiji - CC threats • Average annual temperature in Suva has increased by approximately 1.2 degrees Celsius in the past 40 years (0.25 degrees increase per decade • A World Bank Report in 2000 stated that unless climate change adaptation is planned and implemented at all levels of the society, a small island such as Viti Levu (Fiji) could incur a cost equivalent to 2-4% of Fiji’s GDP (US$23-52 million) by 2050 in damages associated with climate related disasters. Climate Change Concerns in Fiji - CC threats Other projections: • 1,150-2,300 hectares of coastline could be lost by 2050 • Coastal inundation of up to 6% of land below 10 meters altitude • Impact on coral reefs estimated at US$5 - $14 per year in lost fisheries, habitat and tourism • Greater climate variability projected with alternating floods and droughts • Cyclones to intensify by 20% Significance of Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Fiji • Heavy dependence on agriculture and fisheries for sustenance • Water scarcity problems as well as water quality standards in many rural communities continue to be serious or critical • High proportion of rural population live on the coast with inadequate coastal protection infrastructure Significance of Climate Change Adaptation in Rural Fiji • Relatively inadequate environmental management regulations and standards • Housing structures and location are more vulnerable to coastal changes and inundation • Growing threat of human activity such as unsustainable harvesting of resources and waste pollution already experienced at critical levels Main barriers to implementing climate change adaptation in Rural Fiji • Prevailing weak socioeconomic conditions; and • Inadequate available and accessibly capacity in terms of resources, technology, knowledge and development planning How adaptation is currently approached in Rural Fiji – The CCA Project • Climate change adaptation process is being piloted in six rural communities in Fiji through a project – referred to as the CCA Project. • The project is funded by AusAID and implemented jointly by the Pacific Centre for Sustainable Development (PACE-SD) and the Institute of Applied Science (IAS) of the University of the South Pacific How adaptation is currently approached in Rural Fiji – The CCA Project Project Aim: To pilot an integrated approach to climate change adaptation in in six rural communities in Fiji focusing on coastal ecosystems and water supply issues. (Fiji’s draft Climate Change Policy identified 4 sectors to be particularly vulnerable: agriculture; coastal zones; public health and water resources) How adaptation is currently approached in Rural Fiji – The CCA Project Process-based Adaptation (evolving and continuous) Human and institutional capacity-building (awareness raising, knowledge of and access to appropriate adaptation options and technology) Mainstreaming adaptation into local community management plans Relocation of people and infrastructure – to where and how? Discrete Measures (short-term) Coastal strengthening (e.g. mangrove replanting, seawalls, limit aggregate extraction at the coast) Increase freshwater catchments (e.g. rainwater harvesting, infrastructure development & maintenance) CCA Project Adaptation Process – What we have done Step 1: We set up a Project Advisory Committee (PAC) consisting of stakeholders from the various NGOs, academic institutions government departments (Environment, Health, Land and Water resources, Fisheries, Public Works, Tourism) The advisory committee advises on project implementation – selection of pilot sites; awareness raising content; vulnerability and adaptation assessment processes; technology options and access; evaluation; etc. CCA Project Adaptation Process – What we have done Step 2: We consulted stakeholders to make suggestions for pilot sites. Four approaches were taken: i. Relevant IAS staff systematically identified communities that were part of the locally managed marine areas network who faced serious problems relating to coastal management and water scarcity CCA Project Adaptation Process – What we have done ii The twelve provincial offices to suggest communities with critical water and/or coastal management issues for the project. iii The Department of Environment was asked to suggest sites of previous climate change projects iv Project Advisory Committee members were also invited to suggest sites. CCA Project Adaptation Process – What we have done Step Four: We short-listed and conducted a rapid assessment of the nine sites. The sites were short-listed by the PAC Site Selection Sub-Committee. CCA Project Adaptation Process – What we have done The site assessment criteria were: • Effectiveness of leadership in the community • Level of community interest in the project; • Level of need to the community • Level of vulnerability of the community and • Practicality of implementing a pilot adaptation initiative within the funding capacity of the project • Sustainability The Nine Assessed Sites CCA Project Adaptation Process – What we plan to do next 1. Awareness of the climate change problem 2. Look in more detail how climate change is likely to affect our community 3. Identify the main threats to be addressed 4. Identifying the options to address them 5. Identifying the data to be gathered to evaluate options 6. Plan and gather the required data 7. Develop a Community Adaptation Action Plan that contains the chosen adaptation measure and how and who will implement the plan 8. Implementation of the Community Adaptation Action Plan using an adaptive management approach Future Prospects i. CCA Project Phase 2 with the following objectives: Objective 1: To replicate the piloted climate change adaptation approach to three other sites. Objective 2: To further enhance the adaptive capacity of the six pilot sites by incorporating activities such a reducing land-based pollution into coastal ecosystems and water resources and disaster preparedness. Objective 3: To evaluate the sustainability of nine climate change adaptation projects This project proposes to incorporate an evaluative framework into the original project so that the benefits from lessons learned in the pilot projects are transferred to future community- based adaptation projects Future Prospects ii. Re-operation of National Climate Change Committee - to act as Project Advisory Committee for CCA project and other Climate Change projects that are about to start (GEF funded projects on Mangroves through WWF; CC and Health; and CC and Tourism). iii. National Policy Implications – mainstreaming climate change into various sectors THE END