Climate Change Adaptation in Fiji by puw61439


									 Climate Change
Adaptation in Fiji
Patrina Dumaru, Institute of Applied
  Science, University of the South
Presentation Outline
1. Climate change concerns in Fiji
   - Background
   -   Climate change threats

2. Significance of climate change
   adaptation in rural Fiji

3. How climate change adaptation is
   currently approached in Fiji

4. CCA Project Adaptation Process
   - what we have done so far
   -   What we plan to do next

5. Future prospects
Climate Change Concerns in
Fiji - Background
Climate Change Concerns in
Fiji - Ethnicity and Land Ownership
•   Population: Just over 50% Indigenous
    Fijians; about 40% Indo-Fijians; others
    include Europeans, Chinese, Pacific
    Islanders etc.

•   85% of the land is communally owned by
    indigenous Fijians which is leased out for
    agricultural, commercial and residential
Climate Change Concerns in
Fiji - Ethnicity and Land Ownership
•   Indigenous Fijians are also recognised
    custodians of in-shore fishing areas called i

•   A Qoliqoli Bill was in the process of being
    enacted when the last coup happened in
    December 2006

•   Fiji has experienced three major coups in
    1987, 2000 and 2006 of which racial and land
    ownership issues have been brought up as
    issues of contention
Climate Change Concerns in
Fiji - Rural Fiji
•   Half of Fiji’s population live in rural areas and are
    directly depend on natural resources for their

•   A majority of the rural population are indigenous
    Fijians living in a traditional Fijian village setup.

•   The Local Government Acts that set standards for
    environmental and health practices do not apply
    to Fijian villages because they are governed
    separately by the Fijian Affairs Act.

•   However, basic health services and conservation
    projects occur voluntarily in Fijian villages.
Climate Change Concerns in
Fiji - CC threats
•   Average annual temperature in Suva has
    increased by approximately 1.2 degrees Celsius
    in the past 40 years (0.25 degrees increase per

•   A World Bank Report in 2000 stated that unless
    climate change adaptation is planned and
    implemented at all levels of the society, a small
    island such as Viti Levu (Fiji) could incur a cost
    equivalent to 2-4% of Fiji’s GDP (US$23-52
    million) by 2050 in damages associated with
    climate related disasters.
Climate Change Concerns in
Fiji - CC threats
Other projections:
• 1,150-2,300 hectares of coastline could be lost
  by 2050

•   Coastal inundation of up to 6% of land below 10
    meters altitude

•   Impact on coral reefs estimated at US$5 - $14
    per year in lost fisheries, habitat and tourism

•   Greater climate variability projected with
    alternating floods and droughts

•   Cyclones to intensify by 20%
Significance of Climate Change
Adaptation in Rural Fiji
•   Heavy dependence on agriculture and
    fisheries for sustenance

•   Water scarcity problems as well as water
    quality standards in many rural communities
    continue to be serious or critical

•   High proportion of rural population live on
    the coast with inadequate coastal protection
Significance of Climate Change
Adaptation in Rural Fiji
•   Relatively inadequate environmental
    management regulations and standards

•   Housing structures and location are more
    vulnerable to coastal changes and

•   Growing threat of human activity such as
    unsustainable harvesting of resources and
    waste pollution already experienced at
    critical levels
Main barriers to implementing climate
change adaptation in Rural Fiji

•   Prevailing weak socioeconomic conditions;

•   Inadequate available and accessibly
    capacity in terms of resources,
    technology, knowledge and development
How adaptation is currently approached
in Rural Fiji – The CCA Project
•   Climate change adaptation process is
    being piloted in six rural communities in
    Fiji through a project – referred to as the
    CCA Project.

•   The project is funded by AusAID and
    implemented jointly by the Pacific Centre
    for Sustainable Development (PACE-SD)
    and the Institute of Applied Science (IAS)
    of the University of the South Pacific
How adaptation is currently approached
in Rural Fiji – The CCA Project
Project Aim: To pilot an integrated
 approach to climate change adaptation in
 in six rural communities in Fiji focusing on
 coastal ecosystems and water supply

(Fiji’s draft Climate Change Policy identified
  4 sectors to be particularly vulnerable:
  agriculture; coastal zones; public health
  and water resources)
How adaptation is currently approached
in Rural Fiji – The CCA Project

Process-based Adaptation (evolving and
    Human and institutional capacity-building (awareness
    raising, knowledge of and access to appropriate
    adaptation options and technology)
    Mainstreaming adaptation into local community
    management plans
    Relocation of people and infrastructure – to where and

Discrete Measures (short-term)
    Coastal strengthening (e.g. mangrove replanting,
    seawalls, limit aggregate extraction at the coast)
    Increase freshwater catchments (e.g. rainwater
    harvesting, infrastructure development & maintenance)
CCA Project Adaptation
Process – What we have done
Step 1: We set up a Project Advisory
  Committee (PAC) consisting of stakeholders
  from the various NGOs, academic institutions
  government departments (Environment, Health,
  Land and Water resources, Fisheries, Public
  Works, Tourism)

The advisory committee advises on project
  implementation – selection of pilot sites;
  awareness raising content; vulnerability and
  adaptation assessment processes; technology
  options and access; evaluation; etc.
CCA Project Adaptation
Process – What we have done
Step 2: We consulted stakeholders to
   make suggestions for pilot sites. Four
   approaches were taken:

i.   Relevant IAS staff systematically
     identified communities that were part of
     the locally managed marine areas
     network who faced serious problems
     relating to coastal management and
     water scarcity
CCA Project Adaptation
Process – What we have done
ii   The twelve provincial offices to suggest
     communities with critical water and/or
     coastal management issues for the

iii The Department of Environment was
    asked to suggest sites of previous
    climate change projects

iv Project Advisory Committee members
   were also invited to suggest sites.
CCA Project Adaptation
Process – What we have done

Step Four: We short-listed and
  conducted a rapid assessment of the
  nine sites. The sites were short-listed by
  the PAC Site Selection Sub-Committee.
CCA Project Adaptation
Process – What we have done
The site assessment criteria were:
• Effectiveness of leadership in the
• Level of community interest in the project;
• Level of need to the community
• Level of vulnerability of the community
• Practicality of implementing a pilot
  adaptation initiative within the funding
  capacity of the project
• Sustainability
The Nine Assessed Sites
CCA Project Adaptation Process –
What we plan to do next
1.   Awareness of the climate change problem

2.    Look in more detail how climate change is likely to affect our

3.   Identify the main threats to be addressed

4.   Identifying the options to address them

5.   Identifying the data to be gathered to evaluate options

6.   Plan and gather the required data

7.   Develop a Community Adaptation Action Plan that contains the
     chosen adaptation measure and how and who will implement the

8.    Implementation of the Community Adaptation Action Plan using
     an adaptive management approach
Future Prospects
i.   CCA Project Phase 2 with the following objectives:

     Objective 1: To replicate the piloted climate change
     adaptation approach to three other sites.

     Objective 2: To further enhance the adaptive
     capacity of the six pilot sites by incorporating
     activities such a reducing land-based pollution into
     coastal ecosystems and water resources and
     disaster preparedness.

     Objective 3: To evaluate the sustainability of nine
     climate change adaptation projects This project
     proposes to incorporate an evaluative framework into the
     original project so that the benefits from lessons learned
     in the pilot projects are transferred to future community-
     based adaptation projects
Future Prospects
ii. Re-operation of National Climate Change
    Committee - to act as Project Advisory
    Committee for CCA project and other Climate
    Change projects that are about to start (GEF
    funded projects on Mangroves through WWF;
    CC and Health; and CC and Tourism).

iii.   National Policy Implications – mainstreaming
       climate change into various sectors

                         THE END

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