Neptune Circuit Breaker Components

Document Sample
Neptune Circuit Breaker Components Powered By Docstoc
					                       DRAFT
        NEPTUNE CIRCUIT BREAKER COMPONENTS

                         Denise Dennis, Circuit Breaker Group
                                     April, 2002

ABSTRACT
The NEPTUNE circuit breaker is designed for 10kV and 10A dc system. The
components of the circuit breaker include a 2-10F capacitor, 2 1k resistors and 3-4
vacuum switches. The task at hand is to locate components that meet the desired
specifications. At least two sources are located for each component, and comparisons of
the different products are presented. In some instances tentative prices are obtained. At
this point recommendations are not made, as certain aspects of the design are not yet
finalized.

Beyond the components of the circuit breaker, diodes and surge arresters are needed in
each node. These important components are also addressed in this report.

INTRODUCTION

The NEPTUNE power system is unique in several respects. First, the source voltage is
10kV direct current, which is uncommon in utility systems. Second, the operating
current is larger than most industrial high voltage dc applications. This combination
creates a challenge in finding off-the-shelve components.

The circuit breaker is designed to be immersed in standard transformer oil to reduce the
size of the various components and to provide a heat exchange medium. The components
must be capable of withstanding the generated heat for the lifespan of the project. A
figure of the circuit breaker is shown below, with all switches open.




                                Figure 1. Circuit Breaker


                                                                                            1
The work done here is composed of three steps:

    1. To find if the components with the desired ratings exist.
    2. If available, the size and durability of the components are examined
    3. If all satisfactory, the cost is considered


CIRCUIT BREAKER COMPONENTS

CAPACITOR

The initial investigation indicates that the bypass capacitor may have a valued between
2F and 10F. The physical size of a capacitor is determined largely by its voltage
rating as well as its capacitance. Since the voltage is fixed (10 kV), and the current is
determined by the power flow, the capacitance is the determining factor for the physical
size. 10F capacitors are rather large, (up to 14 inches longest dimension), the 1F and
5F capacitors are considerably smaller (about 6 inches longest dimension). We are
currently using ATP simulations to select the smallest capacitance that limits the system
transients to a tolerable level while preventing restrikes when the breaker is opening. A
smaller capacitor could significantly decrease the overall size of the circuit breaker as
demonstrated below, but the exact size is to be determined after the ATP simulations are
completed.

Three sources for capacitors are located, HiVolt Corporation, Plastic Capacitors Inc and
High Energy Corporation. These three companies manufacture similar products. Below
is a summary of their capacitors‟ specifications and dimensions. Figures 1-3 show the
general dimensions, and Tables 1-4 gives the specifications. Table 5 shows a comparison
between these products. Information about the companies is included in the appendix,
along with datasheets.


Hi Volt Capacitors
Construction: Dielectric material: polyester/polypropylene film and capacitor tissue;
                Case: hermetically sealed tinplate, rolled-seamed;
                Internal construction designed to prevent movement when cap is subjected to mechanical
                shock or vibration; External connections via ceramic terminals; Enamel finish
Impregnant: mineral oil
Tolerance: 10%
Temperature: -55 to 85C
Applications: DC applications such as filters, bypass, coupling of low frequnecy audio. Also Pulse-
                Forming networks, energy storage, High voltage smoothing, oscillator circuits, arc and
                spark suppression
Notes: Vtest: 2Vrated for 1 minute




                                                                                                     2
                                Figure 1. Hi-Volt Capacitor Diagram



           10kV DC
           working Capacitance
            voltage   in F             A           B           C           D           E
          PMR 100-
             503       0.05             58         80          48          40          60
          PMR 100-
             504       0.5             140         80          48          40          60
          PMR 100-
              105        1             160          85          67         40          60
          PMR 100-
             205        2              140         130         100          50         60
          PMR 100-
             605        6              350         130         100          50         60
          PMR 100-
              156       15             350         180         180          75         60
                                       Dimensions are in mm
                        Table 1. Hi Volt Capacitors: Models and Dimensions




Plastic Capacitors

Construction: Similar to MIL-C-19978; not QPL listed; military can, hermetically
                sealed; High voltage terminals of the solder-seal variety—eliminates gasket failure,
                common fault in some cap types as gaskets age; internal individual capacitor elements are
                wound using extended foil design; elements connected to brass terminal stud with heavy
                copper braid.
Impregnant: mineral oil, 145 C flash point
Temperature: -55 to 85C
Tolerance: 10%
Applications: energy storage/discharge of high current at low repetition rates
              Pulse x-ray, photoflash, laser pumping, pulse-forming networks,
              High intensity strobe
Notes: Capable of handling a dead-short discharge, though not recommended.



                                                                                                       3
                                 Figure 2: Plastic Capacitors Diagram


                              Capacitance
  10KVDC                      in F       A             B            C            D          E
  LK100-104ND                          0.1       3.75         1.75         3.75          2       2.125
  LK100-504ND                          0.5       3.75         1.75         6.25          2       2.125
  LK100-504ZND                         0.5       3.75       3.1875         4.25          2       2.125
  LK100-105ND                            1       3.75         2.25            8          2       2.125
  LK100-105YND                           1       3.75       3.1875            6          2       2.125
  LK100-105ZND                           1     4.5625         3.75            5          2       2.125
  LK100-205ND                            2     4.5625         3.75          7.5          2       2.125
  LK100-405ND                            4          8            4         9.25        4.5       2.125
  LK100-405YND                           4     4.5625         3.75         11.5          2       2.125
  LK100-605YND                           6      7.375        5.625            9          3       2.125
  LK100-805YND                           8      7.375        5.625         9.75          3       2.125
  LK100-106ND                           10       13.5        4.125           11       6.75       2.125
  LK100-106YND                          10      7.375        5.625       12.125          3       2.125
  LK100-206ND                           20       13.5        6.125           12       6.75       2.125
                                      Dimensions are in inches
                         Table 2. Plastic Capacitors: Models and Dimensions



High Energy Corporation

Construction: paper/polypropylene dielectric, plated steel case with optional epoxy finish, or mild steel
with epoxy finish.
Impregnant:       „environmentally compatible impregnant‟
Temperature: -40 to 85C
Tolerance:        10%
Applications: Primarily used as filters in output of high DC power supplies. Can be used in broadcast
                  and radar power supplies, and other high voltage DC supplies.




                                                                                                         4
                         Figure 3. High Energy Capacitor Diagrams

                     Drawn                                           Welded
                  Rectangulars                                        Case

        A               1             1.75                  W1         4             8
        B             1.19            2.5                   W2        4.13          13.5
        C             1.25            3.75                  W3        5.13          13.5
        D             1.75            3.75                  W4        6.25          13.5
        E             2.25            3.75                  W5         7             14
        F              2.5            3.75
        G             3.19            3.75
        K             2.84            4.56
        J             3.75            4.56
                                      Sizes are in inches
                     Table 3. High Energy Corp Capacitor Dimensions



            C-F     VDC       base     figure       ht          B      T
CC692         1       10,000   G             2       5.50    2.00            2.00

CC693         2       10,000   J             2       7.00    2.00            2.00

LC322         5       10,000   W1            3      10.00    3.00            5.00

LC330        10       10,000   W2            3      10.00    3.00            5.00

                                    Dimensions are in mm
                   Table 4. High Energy Corp: Capacitors and Dimensions




                                                                                           5
                         Plastic Capacitors          Hi Volt Corp                High Energy Corp
Construction             Military can,               Dielectric material:        paper/polypropylene
                         hermetically sealed;        polyester/polypropylene     dielectric, plated steel
                         high voltage terminals      film and capacitor          case with optional epoxy
                         of solder-seal variety—     tissue; hermetically        finish, or mild steel with
                         eliminates gasket           sealed tinplate case,       epoxy finish.
                         failure; internal           rolled-seamed;
                         individual capacitor        Internal construction
                         elements wound using        designed to prevent
                         extended foil design;       movement when cap is
                                   elements          subjected to mechanical
                         connected to brass          shock or vibration;
                         terminal stud with          External connections via
                         copper braid.               ceramic terminals
                                                     Enamel finish

Impregnant               mineral oil, 145 C flash   mineral oil                 environmentally
                         point                                                   compatible impregnant
Temperature              -55 to 85C                -55 to 85C                -40 to 85C
Tolerances               10%                        10%                        10%
Applications             Energy                      DC applications such as     Primarily used as filters
                         storage/discharge of        filters, bypass, coupling   in output of high DC
                         high current at low         of low frequency audio.     power supplies. Can be
                         repetition rates            Also Pulse-Forming          used in broadcast and
                         Pulse x-ray, photoflash,    networks, energy            radar power supplies,
                         laser pumping, pulse-       storage, high voltage       and other high voltage
                         forming networks,           smoothing, oscillator       DC supplies.
                         High intensity strobe       circuits, arc and spark
                                                     suppression

Notes                    Capable of handling a       2Vrated for 1 minute
                         dead-short discharge

                                  Table 5. Capacitor Comparison




   Figure 4. Volume vs. Capacitance. The linear relationship between volume and capacitance is
    apparent. The circuit breaker could be significantly smaller if a lower capacitance is used.


                                                                                                         6
The chart in Figure 4 shows the capacitor volume vs. its capacitance. The relationship
demonstrates that the size is linearly reduced when the capacitance is reduced.

The cost of the capacitors ranges from around $150 for the 1F to close to $500 for the
10F version.

RESISTORS
Two resistors are required for the circuit breaker (see Figure 1. R1 and R2). One is for
the soft-closing of the circuit breaker. The second is for the dissipation of the stored
energy of the capacitor after the breaker is opened. The task here is to find resistors
which can withstand the power and energy for each of these operations. Three sources
were located, Kanthal Globar, Tepro Electrotechnik, and Nicrom Electronic. Company
information and datasheets are located in the appendix.

Soft close resistor
In the initial design of the breaker, the R1=1k resistor is selected for the soft starting
process. During the closing sequence of the breaker, the resistance is present in the
circuit for t=1 second. In reality this time will probably be shorter, but t=1 second is used
for power and energy calculations. The power (P) and energy (E) requirements of the
resistor are calculated as follows:

P  I 2 R 1 kW
E  P t 1000 J

The current of the breaker is assumed to be 1A. This is because we are assuming that
when the breaker is closing, it excites only one section with one node.

Nicrom Electronic manufactures a resistor appropriate for our purposes. This is the
500.100 model. It is rated at 110W, but can withstand 5kW for one second in oil without
problems. The Kanthal Globar (KG) 886A model is a 1k resistor rated at 1500 J and
can accommodate our need. However, the power rating is only 30 W which makes the
resistance vulnerable to the failure of its bypass switch. If the bypass switch fails in the
open mode, the resistance will conduct a current of as much as 10 A without interruption.
This will cause the thermal limits of the resistance to exceed its rating in very short time,
and the resistor will eventually fail open. The price of most of the resistances is less than
$100. Table 6 shows comparisons of various resistors.

Tepro Electrotechnik can also produce a resistor to our specifications. Richard Bischel, a
physicist at Tepro, provided the following specifications. .

1) Rated power is 60 watts
2) Diameter is 17 mm
3) Length is 400 mm
4) Max. allowable impulse voltage (kV) is 150kV (1.2X50usec)
5) Allowable pulse injection energy is 6000 joules


                                                                                            7
6) Voltage coefficient would be -5%kV/cm
7) Short time overload would be 10 times rated power for 6 seconds

Again, this is not a resistor that Tepro carries in stock. As with the other resistors, size is
a concern. This resistor has a length of 400 mm or 15.75 inches. The price for this
component was not obtained.


Resistor      R          PEAK    AVERAGE ENERGY                       DIMENSION NOTE
                         VOLTAGE POWER   (J)                          (INCHES)
Nicrom-       1K        160KV   110W    N/A                          12.1251.25 Use 20
500.100                                                                           units in
                                                                                  parallel
Kanthal       1K        20KV           30W            7000           50.75
Globar
886AS
Kanthal       1K        30KV           50W            13000          61
Globar
887AS
Kanthal       1K        75KV           150W           75000          121
Globar
1032AS
Kanthal       1K        120KV          225W           119000         181.5
Globar
1038AS
TEPRO         1K        150KV          60W            6000           15.750.67     Made to
                                                                                     order
                            Table 6. Soft Close Resistor Comparison

Discharge Resistor
The initial design specifies 1k for the discharging resistance of the breaker‟s capacitor.
For 10 f capacitance, the time constant of the discharging circuit is

  R C 10 ms

The power in the discharging circuit can be represented by
         t
    Vc2 RC
P     e  100 e 100 t kW
     R

The energy of the resistance is

    
E   100 e 100 t dt  500 J
    0




                                                                                              8
 Kanthal Globar manufactures two resistors that serve our needs. The 102AS is rated at
 3kV peak, 5W and 600J. The dimensions of this resistor are 2.1250.31in. The 251AS is
 rated at 2.5kV peak, 3.5W and 400J. The size is 1.1250.44inches.

RESISTOR R            VOLTAGE AVERAGE ENERGY                   DIMENSIONS TEMP
                              POWER   (J)                      (INCHES)    RATING
                                                                           C
Nicrom-      1K      160KV         110W           N/A         12.1251.25 -55—225
500.100
Kanthal      1K      3KV           5W             600         2.1250.31        -55—230
Globar
102AS
Kanthal      1K      2.5KV         3.5W           400         1.1250.44        -55—230
Globar
251AS
                               Table 7. Discharge Resistors




 VACUUM INTERRUPTERS

 At least 3 vacuum interrupters are used in the breaker design. Since high voltage arcs are
 produced by the ionization of the insulating medium, lack of medium, i.e, a vacuum,
 would produce the greatest isolation between contact electrodes. In addition, vacuum
 provides an oxide-free atmosphere for the contacts, so less corrosion occurs during
 switching. Thus the vacuum interrupters can have longer life than oil or air breakers.

 Kilovac is one of the suppliers of high-voltage vacuum interrupters suitable for
 NEPTUNE circuit breaker. These vacuum interrupters rage from 10kV to 28kV with
 operating times of 15-18 msec. A fast operating time is desirable as it allows the use of
 smaller bypass capacitor without introducing restrikes.

 Jennings Technology produces several vacuum switches suitable for NEPTUNE. The
 Jennings Technology switches tend to have faster operating times than the Kilovac
 switches, which will allow for a smaller capacitor. The RF73-26S is rated at 15kV and
 has a 4 millisecond operating time, but it is a latching type contact. Other switches
 shown in the table below have slightly lower operating voltages and slower operating
 times. The next highest voltage rating above 15kV is 28kV. While the higher voltage
 rating might be desirable for the backbone, there are tradeoffs. The higher voltage
 switches have much slower operating times, ranging from 18-30 milliseconds. While 18
 milliseconds is an acceptable operating time, the switch with this operating time is rated
 at 110A continuous current, making it a poor choice for our circuit. The 28kV switches
 with lower current ratings have operating times of 25-30 milliseconds, which is too slow.

 The Jennings‟ switches range in size from 2.75 inches high with 0.8 inch diameter, to 3
 inches high with 1.3 inch diameter.


                                                                                             9
Table 8 shows a comparison of switches.




                              PEAK
                              OPERATING                                 OPERATING
   SWITCH #     TYPE CONTACT VOLTAGE                    CURRENT         TIME (msec) COST
   Kilovac KC11 SPDT          15KV                      50A                      15    $403
   Kilovac
   KC12         SPDT          15KV                      30A                      15    $403
   Kilovac KC18 SPDT          15KV                      30A                      15    $368
   Kilovac KC14 SPDT          15KV                      30A                      15    $388
   Kilovac K62A SPST NO       25KV                      18A                      15    $737
   Kilovac K62B SPST NC       25KV                      18A                      15    $680
   Kilovac KC22 SPST NO       25KV                      65A                      18   $1225
   Kilovac
   KC28*        SPST NO       25KV                      30A                      18   $1297
   Kilovac KC32 SPST NC       25KV                      45A                      18   $1225
   Jennings          NO-
   RF73-26S     SPST LATCHING 15KV                      45A                       4
   Jennings
   RF69-26S     SPST NC       12KV                      15A             15
   Jennings
   RF71-12S     SPST NO       12KV                      15A                       8
   Jennings
   RF53-26S     SPST NO       12KV                      15A                      15
   Jennings
   RJ8A-
   26N765       SPST NO       12KV                      110A                      8
                       *Make-only—can be used for capacitor discharge only.
                                 SPST-single pole single throw
                                 SPDT-single pole double throw
                                      NO-normally open
                                     NC-normally closed
                       Table 8. Kilovac Vacuum Switch Comparison .

The best options from Kilovac are the KC22 and KC32 models. These are single-pole,
single-throw switches that have the dimensions shown in Figure 5. The Jennings RF71-
12S is a very fast switch. The datasheets for the switches are located in the appendix.




                                                                                              10
        Figure 5. Kilovac Vacuum Switch Diagram with Dimensions for KC22 and KC32



OTHER NODE COMPONENTS

Diodes
Two “auctioneering”diodes are used in every node to allow for a sequential startup of the
NEPTUNE power system. The diodes carry the converter current of the node, so 2-3
amps is sufficient current rating. Most off-the-shelve 10 kV diodes are rated at either
large currents (hundreds to thousands of amps) or very small currents (milliamp range).
Two sources are located for high voltage, 2-5 amp diodes, Microsemi and Electronics
Manufacturing Ince (EMI). Table 9 shows a comparison of the diodes discussed below.

Microsemi produces a diode 1N5603, rated at 5kV and 5A. These diodes can be stacked
to achieve a 10kVrrm and are designed specifically to be stacked. This is a bell shaped
disk, 3.45 inches diameter and 1 inch high.
Electronics Manufacturing, Inc (EMI) manufactures three series of diodes that meet our
requirements. The 3HV diode is rated at 15kVrrm and 20kVrrm, both rated at 2.5A.
This diode is a rectangular case measuring 621 inches. The 6HV diode is available
with inverse voltage ratings of 15kV and 20kV and average forward current rating of 3A
and 2.75 A respectively. These diodes come in a rectangular case measuring 621


                                                                                       11
inches. The 38S0 is rated at 15kV or 20kVrrm and Ifave of 3A and 2.5A, respectively.
This is a 6 inch (15kV) or 7 inch (20kV) rectangular case.

Two critical specifications for the diodes are the di/dt and dv/dt capabilities. Part of the
dv/dt information is represented by the recovery time. The recovery time indicates how
quickly the diode can respond to a full voltage reversal.

Diode        Vrrm          Ifave           Vf             Ir         Surge        Recovery
                                                                     current      time dv/dt
                                                                     di/dt
Microsemi    5kV           5A              6V-10V         100A      200A in      NA
1N5603                                                               8.3 ms
EMI          15kV          2.5A            14V            0.5A      150a in      1-3 ms
3HV15K                                                               8.3 ms
EMI          20kV          2.5A            18V            0.5A      150A in      1-3 ms
3HV20K                                                               8.3 ms
EMI          15kV          3A              15V            5A        400A in      1-3 ms
6HV15K                                                               8.3 ms
EMI          20kV          2.75A           20V            5A        400A in      1-3 ms
6HV20K                                                               8.3 ms
EMI          15kV          3A              15V            5A        150A in      1-3 ms
38S015                                                               8.3 ms       (150, 75,
                                                                                  35 ns
                                                                                  available)
EMI          20kV          2.5A            20V            5A        150A in      1-3 ms
38S020                                                               8.3 ms       (150, 75,
                                                                                  35 ns
                                                                                  available)
                                   Table 9. Diode Specifications




SURGE ARRESTERS
Surge arresters are required for the shore stations to protect them against surges and
lightning strikes. The common type of arresters is the metal-oxide varistor (MOV) that
may include spark gap. Three types of MOV insulation are available, porcelain, polymer
or silicon rubber. Porcelain is the common type, but the other two options are lighter in
weight and possibly less prone to mechanical damage.

Three sources were located for 15kV surge arresters, Joslyn Manufacturing, Cooper
Power Systems, and Hubbell/Ohio Brass. Cooper Power Systems manufactures porcelain
insulated (VariGAP-AZS) and silicon rubber insulated (VariGAP) surge arresters. The
arrester technology is a combination of MOVs in series with a non-linear gap structure.
This combination distributes the voltage stress between the two components of the
gapped MOV, which results in much lower discharge voltages than are possible with




                                                                                           12
gapless metal oxide arresters. The gapped MOV, however, are slower arresters as
compared with the gapless type.

Cooper offers a silicon rubber insulation arrester. This silicone rubber insulation resists
degradation due to UV, chemical contamination, algae and mildew. Joslyn
Manufacturing ZS, and ZSP surge arresters employ a series of nonlinear metal oxide
disks encased in either porcelain insulation (ZS) or ethylene propylene polymer
insulation (ZSP). Hubbell/Ohio Brass manufactures a polymer-housed arrester that uses
MOV valve blocks.

All brands and models are tested in accordance with ANSI/IEEE C62.11 code, which
include:

      Duty cycle: 22 current surges of 5kA crest 8/20s waveshape
      High-current, short-duration discharge: 2 current surges of 65kAcrest 4/10s
       waveshape
      Low-current, long-duration discharge: 20 current surges of 75A crest 2000s
       rectangle wave duration.
      Thermally stability: all products remained thermally stable following each of the
       above tests.

Surge arresters are selected based on the maximum voltage rating and the maximum
continuous operating voltage (MCOV). The MCOV is the maximum line-to-ground
voltage. For a 3 phase wye-connected system rated at 15kV, the MCOV is at least
8.66kV.

Tables 11 and 12 show various arrester data for comparison. The diagrams of these
arresters can be found in the product datasheets of the manufacturers listed in the
appendix.




                                                                                          13
                                                                    Maximum Discharge Voltage (kV crest) using and
                                                                    8/20sec Current Impulse
Product     Rated   MCOV          TOV        TOV      Maximum       1.5kA    3kA 5kA 10kA 20kA 40kA
            kVrms   kVrms         1sec       10sec    Switching
                                  kV         kV       Surge (kV
                                                      crest)
J-ZSP0012   12      10.5          14.9       14.2     24.7          26.5     27.7    28.4   30.3     32.5        35.6
J-ZSP0015   15      12.7          18.5       17.7     30.9          33.2     34.6    35.6   37.8     40.6        44.5
J-ZS        12      10.2          14.8       14.1     22.6          26.2     27      27.8   29.1     32.1        34.4
J-ZS        15      12.7          18.4       17.6     28.3          32.7     33.8    34.7   36.4     40.1        43
H-PDV65     12      10.2          Not        Not      34            39       41      44     49       57          74
                                  listed     listed
H-PDV65     15      12.7          Not        Not      40            45.5     48.5    52     57.5     67.5        87.5
                                  listed     listed
C-          12      10.5          Not        Not      Not listed    27.9     30.1    32.3   35.4     40.4        46.9
VariGAP-                          listed     listed
UNG
C-          15      12.7          Not        Not      Not listed    30.5     33      35.4   38.7     44.2        51.4
VariGAP-                          listed     listed
UNG
C-          12      10.2          Not        Not      Not listed    29.8     32.3    35.5   41.6     47.6        59
VariGAP-                          listed     listed
AZS
C-          15      12.7          Not        Not      Not listed    32.8     35.5    39.1   45.7     52.3        64.8
VariGAP-                          listed     listed
AZS
                                              TOV=temporary overvoltage
                                     Table 11. Surge Arrester Performance



      Product       Height (in)            Weight (lbs)     Clearance        Clearance        Insulation
                                                            (radial)         (vertical)
      J-ZSP0012     9.2                    19               11               7                Polymer
      J-ZSP0015     9.2                    19               12               8                Polymer
      J-ZS 12kV     14.67                  44               11               5.5              Porcelain
      J-ZS 15kV     18.17                  52               11               5.5              Porcelain
      H-PDV65       14.69                  6.7 with         7.5              5.7              Polymer
      12kV                                 bracket
      H-PDV65       14.69                  6.7 with         8.5              6.7              Polymer
      15kV                                 bracket
      C-VariGAP-    10.6                   N/A              5                8.7              Silicone-
      UNG 12kV                                                                                Rubber
      C-VariGAP-    10.6                   N/A              5                8.7              Silicone-
      UNG 15kV                                                                                Rubber
      C-VariGAP-    17.25                  N/A              6.4              8.7              Porcelain
      AZS
      C-VariGAP-    17.25                  N/A              7.1              9.7              Porcelain
      AZS
                            Table 12. Surge Arrester Dimensions and Weight




                                                                                                            14
APPENDIX A: Company Information, Products and Their Claims (Names in
Alphabetical Order)

Company name: Cooper Power Systems
Web site: www.cooperpower.com
Product: Surge Arresters

With our world headquarters in Waukesha, Wisconsin, Cooper Power Systems manufactures
equipment, components and systems for distributing and managing electrical energy. Our
products are used by electric utility companies in bringing electric power to homes, industries,
businesses, and institutions throughout the world.

Cooper Power Systems, with its combination of McGraw-Edison, Kyle, RTE and Kearney product
lines, provides an unequaled array of products for substation, overhead, underground and in-
plant medium voltage distribution systems.

Cooper Power Systems is a division of Cooper Industries, Inc., a USA-based Fortune 500
company with 1998 revenues of US $3.7 billion. Cooper Power Systems manufactures a wide
range of medium and high voltage electrical equipment for the utility and industrial markets
including distribution transformers, capacitors, voltage regulators, reclosers, switches,
sectionalizers, fuses, hardware, splices, arresters, elbows, distribution automation equipment,
power systems analysis software, and specialty transformer fluids. In addition, Cooper Power
Systems operates a unified R&D program that coordinates development efforts across all product
lines.

Company name: Electronics Manufacturing Inc
Web site: www.rectifiers.com
Product: Diodes
Electronics Manufacturing is a Gulf Coast company specializing in the manufacture of high
voltage rectifiers and power supply components. EMI has been providing excellent products
and services to our customers since 1986. By taking advantage of lower operating costs
achievable in the South, inexpensive real estate, a lower tax base and an excellent labor pool, we
are able to build superior components at very competitive prices.


The Mission:

At EMI, it is our purpose to manufacture the highest quality components available anywhere on
the market. We will support our products completely and without reservation, to any customer,
anywhere in the world. We will treat each customer of EMI as if he or she is the only customer
we have and give them whatever attention is fair and reasonable to assure their complete
satisfaction.

We will do all these things at the most competitive prices available in the industry.




                                                                                                   15
Company name: Elite Semiconductor
Web site: www.elitesemi.com
Product: Diodes

Elite Semiconductor Products, Inc. is a manufacturer and distributor of quality electronic
components, established in 1971.

Elite markets its products under its own name as well as the major manufacturers found on the
web sites' part search system. We are dedicated to serving the industry with quality products at a
competitive price.

We are capable of doing special testing and marking from our large component inventory. Elite
takes every precaution for reliability by using only "State of the art" test equipment.

Our Sales and engineering departments are ready to assist you in the following capacity: SCR's,
TRIACS, rectifiers, power rectifiers, bridge rectifiers,zener diodes,schottky diodes, small signal
transistors, power transistors, DIACS, and IC's (both memory and linear).

Company name: High Energy Corporation
Web site: www.highenergycorp.com
Product: Capacitors

High Energy is the foremost manufacturer of high voltage oil-filled and ceramic capacitors used in
a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. We manufacture capacitors for use in
high voltage power supplies, X-ray equipment, broadcast equipment, induction heating
machinery, cable fault finders and for other high voltage and high current applications. We offer
high frequency capacitors for use in high power tube type induction generators, and solid state
inverters.

We are located in Parkesburg, Pennsylvania, in picturesque Pennsylvania Dutch Country, 40
miles west of Philadelphia. The local area has a reputation for fine, quality workmanship and a
strong work ethic. The company has recruited and trained a dedicated, skilled work force drawn
from the local population. We invite you to visit, meet our staff and tour our plant.

High Energy prides itself in offering the highest quality product, delivered promptly and supported
by strong customer service. We encourage you to give us a try!!!

Company name: Hivolt Capacitors
Web site: www.highvoltcapacitors.com
Product: Capacitors

We at Hivolt Capacitors Limited have been designing and manufacturing high voltage
capacitors at our factory in Northern Ireland since 1968.
In the manufacture of our product we employ mixed dielectric technology. Our
impregnant is a highly refined pure mineral oil. We do not use PCBs or other toxic
material.
Typical applications for our capacitors include X-ray power supplies; linear accelerators,
laser; radar and pulse equipment; RF transmitters; railway traction and general high
voltage power supplies.
At Hivolt Capacitors Limited we specialise in the manufacture of custom built
components. We produce small batch quantities and can supply on a one-off basis
replacements for those difficult to source capacitors. Our flexible design approach has


                                                                                                 16
enabled us to become the leading UK producer of capacitors for almost every high
voltage application.
The name of Hivolt Capacitors Limited has become synonymous with quality for both
product and efficiency of service. Our commitment to quality has been officially
recognised since 1991 when we were awarded the International Standard Quality
Certificate BS EN ISO 9002. We ensure this standard is maintained by having quality
audits carried out by external bodies.
Over the years Hivolt Capacitors Limited has built an impressive loyal customer base.
Our market which was once mainly located in the UK and Europe now stretches from the
USA to Australia, Scandinavia to South Africa and more recently to Taiwan and Japan.

Company name: Hubbell/Ohio Brass
Web site: www.hubbell.com
Product: Surge Arresters

Hubbell Incorporated is an international manufacturer of quality electrical and electronic products
for commercial, industrial, utility, and telecommunications markets. The corporation operates
manufacturing facilities in North America, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Singapore, and the United
Kingdom; participates in joint ventures with partners in South America and Taiwan; and maintains
sales offices in Malaysia, Hong Kong, South Korea, and the Middle East.

Fundamentally, Hubbell Incorporated’s commitment to electrical equipment manufacture has
enabled the Company to consistently maintain its focus and apply its energies to the technology
of generating, transmitting and utilizing electrical energy. Electricity is the most adaptable form of
energy, and the one which will power the 21st century from basic industry to the most advanced
electronic devices. The expertise developed during the first 100 years is an asset vital to the
Company and its customers in the future.

The Ohio Brass Company, a subsidiary of Hubbell Incorporated, was founded in 1888. Ohio Brass
continues to thrive on developing new technologies and state-of-the-art power products. Manufacturer of
insulators for transmission and distribution, intermediate and station class arresters. Ohio Brass has been
ISO-9001 registered since 1994

The Ohio Brass Company manufactures a complete line of polymer insulators and high-voltage
surge arresters used in the construction of electrical transmission and distribution lines and
substations. The Ohio Brass Company's primary focus in this product area is its Hi*LiteXL and
Veri*Lite polymer insulator lines and its polymer based surge arrester lines. Electrical
transmission products, primarily suspension insulators, are used in the expansion and upgrading
of electrical transmission capability.

Company name: Jennings Technology
Web site: www.jenningstech.com
Product: Vacuum Switches

Jennings offers over five decades of expertise in state of the art vacuum technology for the
electrical, industrial, communications, and power industries. Jennings holds the notable
recognition of creating the first high voltage, vacuum, variable capacitor. This revolutionary
discovery in 1942, as Jennings Radio Manufacturing Company, resulted in a capacitor offering
application flexibility with its variable tuning capability and its small size.

Today, Jennings is known worldwide as a leader in non-thermionic vacuum components offering
a full line of products including vacuum and gas filled capacitors and relays, vacuum interrupters,




                                                                                                              17
vacuum contactors, vacuum coaxial relays, switching matrices, and test and measurement
equipment.

Jennings Technology employs 140 people, not including representatives and distributors
worldwide, and is located in a 140,000 square foot facility in San Jose, CA, U.S.A., the world
renowned Silicon Valley.

In October 1995, Jennings' parent company, Joslyn Corporation, was acquired by Danaher
Corporation with approximately 24,000 associates throughout the world. Danaher Corporation
designs, manufactures, and markets industrial and consumer products with strong brand names,
proprietary technology and major market positions in two principal businesses: Tools and
Components, and Process/Environmental Controls.

Company name: Joslyn Manufacturing
Web site: www.joslynmfg.com
Product: Surge Arresters

Joslyn Manufacturing Company holds leadership positions in three domestic markets: power
utilities, telecommunications and cable television. We serve these markets both direct to the end
user and through our well developed network of distributors. Internationally, Joslyn is recognized
as a leader in arresters and terminations and conducts business through independent
representatives located in the major world markets, various manufacturing license agreements
and joint ventures with foreign partners.

Joslyn Manufacturing Company employs over 500 people in our three manufacturing plants and
three distribution centers. Pole line hardware is manufactured in our Chicago Plant. All metal
oxide valve elements used in our surge arresters are manufactured in our ISO 9002 certified
facility located in Franklin Park, Illinois. Cable accessories are manufactured and assembled in
the Chicago Apparatus Plant. All together totaling more than 500,000 square feet of
manufacturing and distribution space.

Company name: Kanthal Globar
Web site: www.globar.com
Product: Resistors

Kanthal Globar was established in 1993 when the Electric Products Division of Carborundum
Corporation was purchased by Kanthal Globar Elektrowarme GmbH, headquartered in Erlangen,
Germany. Kanthal Globar is, in-turn, a wholly owned subsidiary of Kanthal AB, headquartered in
Halstahammar, Sweden.

Kanthal is a world leader in the supply of high temperature ceramic, metal and metal alloy
products that are used in electrically resistive element applications such as residential and
industrial heating equipment, electronic components, and consumer products. Kanthal's annual
sales are approximately $200 million.

Kanthal is a world leader in the supply of high temperature ceramic, metal and metal alloy
products that are used in electrically resistive element applications such as residential and
industrial heating equipment, electronic components, and consumer products. Kanthal's annual
sales are approximately $200 million.

High quality ceramic resistive components have been produced for nearly 70 years at our
113,000 square foot facility located in Niagara Falls, New York. Kanthal Globar attained ISO
9002 certification in July, 1995.


                                                                                                 18
Company name: Kilovac/CII Technologies
Web site: www.kilovac.com
Product: Vacuum switches

CII Technologies is a leading designer, manufacturer, and marketer for thousands of different
types of electromechanical relays, electronic relays, solenoids and EMI/RFI filter products. This
broad product offering provides CII Technologies’ customers sophisticated, customized products
to solve unique switching or filtering applications, as well as standard or general purpose
products that address the more typical applications.

Recent acquisitions and new product development have positioned CII Technologies as the
switching and filtering applications leader. The company serves a diverse market including:
communications, defense/aerospace, medical, commercial/industrial, automotive and automatic
test equipment. CII Technologies’ products are used to control current, voltage, RF signals and /
or EMI in electrical and electronic circuits and are technological building blocks for a wide range
of products.

Founded in 1979 and based in Fairview (Asheville) North Carolina, CII Technologies has shown
solid growth in both revenue and profit to become one of the largest component manufacturers in
North America. The company is structured into two business groups and markets products under
the following major worldwide brands: The High Performance Group consisting of CII, Hartman
and Kilovac; and the Specialized Industrial Group consisting of Corcom, Midtex and Products
Unlimited. Whatever your switching or filtering needs, think CII Technologies . . . advanced
control electronic solutions.

Company name: Microsemi
Web site: www.microsemi.com
Product: Diodes
Microsemi Corporation is a global supplier of analog, mixed-signal and discrete
semiconductor products that manage and regulate power, protect against
transient voltage spikes and transmit, receive and amplify signals. The Company
serves the satellite, telecommunications, computer and peripherals, military/
aerospace, industrial/commercial, and medical markets with individual
components and complete circuit solutions that optimize battery operation, reduce
size or protect circuits. Patented device packaging differentiates many of our
discrete components, while patented topologies differentiate our key integrated
circuit solutions. The Company serves a broad group of high-volume customers, with
no single customer accounting for more than 3% of our revenue in fiscal year 2001.
Approximately 27% of the Company’s business is to customers whose principal sales are to the
U.S. Government.

Company name: Nicrom Electronics
Web site: www.ticino.com/nicrom
Product: Resistors

Nicrom Electronic was founded in 1993 by engineers with more than 30 years of experience in
the fields of Thick Film and Thin Film technology. Our purpose is to design and produce High
Performance Resistor Products for special and custom applications like High Voltage, High
Power, High Precision and Low TC Resistors where our experience plays a leading role.

The development of our products begins with a careful selection and tests of the materials to
guarantee a conservative produceability of high performance and quality. Special designs and



                                                                                                  19
process technologies allow to reach performances that can’t be reached in any other way and
provide technical solutions for our most exacting customers.

Our factory is placed in the south of Switzerland, an area with low hills and rolling countryside 25
km away from the airport of Lugano-Agno. An ideal location to take advantages of the economical
and political stability of the Switzerland.

Since the foundation Nicrom Electronic has deepened its knowledges in the fields of Ultra-High
Voltage Resistors and Dividers (up to 200 kV) and Power Resistors on Steel Carrier for
Automotive industry. Million Resistors have been uccessfully produced during the last six years
and our products are shipped daily all over the world.

Application fields : Automotive, High-Voltage Power Supply, Medical Applications (HV-Resistors
for X-Ray systems), Measurement Circuits, Electrostatic Application,…

Company name: Plastic Capacitors Inc
Web site: www.plasticcapacitors.com
Product: Capacitors

Plastic Capacitors, Inc., manufactures a wide variety of standard catalog Plastic film and/or
Paper dielectric capacitors, high voltage transformers, AC to high voltage DC power packs,
pulse forming networks and specialty L/C/R networks. We are particularly geared to produce
one piece to larger production quantities.

HEADQUARTERS: 2623 N. Pulaski Rd., Chicago, IL. 60639
Phone: (773) 489-2233 Fax: (773) 489-0496.

Incorporated in the State of Illinois under a Charter issued July 11, 1952, Plastic Capacitors,
Inc., has remained a privately held corporation. Its history has included a steady record of
expansion, research and product reliability. Employing about 100 people, it is classified as a
"Small Business" by U.S. Government definitions. Due to its manageable size, it is usually more
responsive to special customer requirements than large firms might be.

P.C.I. product lines are a combination of off-the-shelf and special High Voltage products. About
half of sales are represented by custom designed items that are not contained in this Web Site.
Capacitors for 250KV RMS 60MZ powerline use or high frequency AC; power supplies for X-ray
CAT scanners, lasers and electrostatic coating; are examples of commonplace production at
P.C.I.

The headquarters for Plastic Capacitors, Inc., is a building of 50,000 square feet, covering an
acre of land, located on the northwest side of Chicago. All of our products are made with pride in
the U.S.A.

Company name: Tepro Electrotechnik
Web site: www.electrotechnik.com
Product: Resistors

No company information is provided on their website




                                                                                                 20