Teacher’s Guide Take Time to Remember, Dear Educator: Grades K-3 Thank you for your participation in this Veterans’ Week activity. Veterans Affairs Canada applauds your efforts to introduce your students to the importance of remembrance and help students learn more about the service and sacrifice of Canada’s Veterans and peacekeepers. This guide is intended to help you and your class get the most from the Take Time to Remember activity booklet. As always, we welcome your comments and suggestions. Please take a moment to complete and return the enclosed evaluation form by mail or fax. We encourage students to take the booklet home and share the information with their families. You can also check out the Veterans Affairs Canada Web site at www.vac-acc.gc.ca for more information on Canadian Veterans’ experiences and for a wide array of teaching resources. Visit the ‘Youth and Educators’ section of the Web site for other features of special interest to students. Veterans Affairs Canada P is for Poppy (pages 2-3) Pictured here is a Remembrance Day ceremony at the National War Memorial in Ottawa. Like many ceremonies held across Canada on November 11, this occasion honours those who have served our country in times of war, military conflict and peace in the cause of freedom. If students watch the television broadcast of this event, or take part in a similar ceremony locally, the scene will come to life for them. The National War Memorial, pictured on the left-hand side of the page, was unveiled in 1939 to commemorate the contribution of Canadians during the First World War. The dates of the Second World War (1939-45) and the Korean War (1950-53) have been added in bronze numerals. In 2000, Canada unveiled its Tomb of the Unknown Soldier when the remains of an unidentified Canadian soldier who died in the First World War were repatriated from France and, with great ceremony, buried in front of the National War Memorial. During the 20th century more than 116,000 Canadians lost their lives during wars and peacekeeping missions. The graves of nearly 28,000 of them have not been identified. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier represents all of those Canadians, past, present and future who have suffered and died in the name of peace and freedom. Its purpose is to renew awareness of the causes and consequences of war for new generations of Canadians. The Peace Tower, pictured on the right-hand side of the page, stands at the centre of Canada’s Parliament Buildings. It was built to mark the end of the First World War and now houses the Books of Remembrance. Six Books of Remembrance are located in the Memorial Chamber in the Peace Tower on Parliament Hill containing the names of those who died in service in the First World War; Second World War; Korean War; during wartime service in the Merchant Navy; during the Nile Expedition and South African War; and those from Newfoundland who died in military service before that province joined Confederation. A seventh book will be completed by Veterans’ Week 2005 that will contain the names of those who died while serving with the Canadian Forces in the years since the wars. Every day there is a ceremony in which pages of the Books of Remembrance are turned. This is done according to a schedule that ensures that each page of each book is turned once a year. Answers: There are 14 poppies in the picture. Other things in the picture that begin with the letter P are: planes, package, ponytail, pigtails, puddle, people, pockets, Parliament Buildings and Peace Tower. In Flanders Fields (page 4) More than 66,000 Canadians died during the First World War. Canadian Army doctor John McCrae of Guelph, Ontario, was the author of the best-known poem of the war, In Flanders Fields. He wrote it to honour one of his closest friends who had been killed in action and then buried in a cemetery in Flanders, Belgium. Simple crosses marked the graves of many who died there, and soon bright red poppies began to grow up among them. As the fame of the poem spread, the poppy became recognized as a symbol of remembrance around the world. It is a legacy that continues today. In the Korean War (1950-53), Canadians fought through heavy rain and snow alongside other United Nations forces in the mountains, swamps and rice fields. At Kapyong, Canadian soldiers were surrounded by North Korean troops, but they bravely held on and turned back the enemy. For this, they were awarded a special honour for bravery. Answers: 1 - b , 2 - a , 3 - c Air, Land and Sea (page 5) Canada played a major role in the air, land and sea battles of the three major wars of the last century. In the First World War (1914-18), Canadian troops fought on the battlefields of Europe in trenches filled with water, mud and rats. Soldiers wore masks to protect themselves against a deadly new weapon, poison gas. Canada's greatest victory was the Battle of Vimy Ridge in France. Both French and British troops had already tried and failed to capture this important hill. But on April 9, 1917, Canadian troops swept forward to victory through sleet, wind and snow. During the Second World War (1939-45), Canadian troops saw combat in Europe, Africa and Asia for six long years. In the Battle of the Atlantic, they fought German submarines to prevent the sinking of Allied ships. In Italy and at Dieppe in France, many were wounded, died or taken prisoner. Canadians were in the front lines at D-Day, the great invasion that helped win the war. They went on to free most of the Netherlands. At home, Canadian men and women built tanks, ships, planes, guns and ammunition. The Korean War (page 6) On June 25, 1950, the forces of North Korea crossed the 38th Parallel into the Republic of Korea. This marked the beginning of hostilities which were to rage for more than three years, throughout the country known to its people as the Land of the Morning Calm. The United Nations (UN) declared this invasion as a breach of the peace and 16 member nations joined forces to resist the aggression. The Canadian contribution to this international force, exceeded only by that of the United States and Great Britain, demonstrated our country’s willingness to uphold the ideals of the UN and to take up arms in support of peace and freedom. All told, 26,791 Canadians served in the Korean War and another 7,000 served in the theatre between the cease-fire and the end of 1955. The names of 516 Canadian dead are inscribed in the Korean War Book of Remembrance. Peace Support Efforts (page 6) After the Korean War, Canadians looked for new ways to prevent conflict. They continued to help build the peacekeeping forces of the UN which had been established in the years following the Second World War. Since then, Canadian peacekeepers have worked all over the world on UN and other international organizations’ peace efforts. They bring supplies and medical care to those in need, help rebuild war-torn areas, supervise elections and clear away land mines. Most importantly, they try to prevent the outbreak of violence. Lester B. Pearson, Canada's 14th Prime Minister, is known as the Father of Peacekeeping. In 1956, while Minister of Foreign Affairs, he suggested that the UN send troops to prevent war in the Middle East. For his efforts he was awarded a Nobel Peace Prize in 1957. Just over three decades later, Canadians shared another Nobel Peace Prize when all UN peacekeeping forces were awarded the honour in 1988. 5. Poems for Peace Write a class poem about war and peace. Print it on the wings of a large white paper dove suspended from the ceiling. Or encourage each child to write a rhyming couplet on a strip of paper. Attach the strips to a paper banner held aloft by a dove of peace. Did You Know? More than 1.5 million Canadians served in the First World War, Second World War and the Korean War. More than 116,000 gave their lives in the struggle for peace and freedom. More than 3,000 Canadian Nursing Sisters volunteered their services during the First World War. They worked close to the front lines as well as in hospitals throughout Europe, tending to the sick and wounded. During the Second World War, more than 4,400 Canadian Nursing Sisters once again answered the call of duty. They also provided invaluable assistance during the Korean War. Nursing Officers, as military nurses are now called, continue their dedicated service in peacekeeping missions around the globe. The Merchant Navy was made up of vessels that were used for shipping in peacetime and, thus, were manned by crews untrained in military practices and combat. As the First and Second World Wars escalated, these ships were used to transport desperately-needed supplies to Allied forces overseas. Against almost overwhelming odds, they moved millions of tonnes of food, munitions, petroleum and troops. More than 2,100 men and women of the Merchant Navy gave their lives serving our country. Canadian women played an increasingly important role, both at home and abroad, during the Second World War. More than 45,000 women joined the armed forces, and at home about 800,000 went out to work in offices and factories. Their contributions were essential to the success of Canada's war effort, and their presence in the workplace changed the role of women forever. Each November 11, wreaths of poppies, oak and maple leaves are placed on war memorials across Canada. The first Remembrance Day, then known as Armistice Day, took place November 11, 1919. It was held to commemorate the end of the First World War on Monday, November 11, 1918 at 11 a.m.- the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. Follow-Up Activities 1. Make a Memorial Wreath For each student, trace a poppy shape onto white paper. Students can then colour them, cut them out and print their names on them. Use glue to stick each poppy into place on a large ring pre-cut from heavy cardboard. Perhaps add a thank-you sign or ribbon to complete the wreath. Send it to your branch of the Royal Canadian Legion, or a local Veterans’ health-care facility. 2. Invite a Veteran to School Contact the Dominion Institute’s Memory Project www.thememoryproject.com/teaching_speakers.cfm or your local Royal Canadian Legion to invite a Veteran to visit the classroom and share stories of his or her experiences with the children. 3. View the Books of Remembrance Six magnificent Books of Remembrance are on display in the Memorial Chamber of the Peace Tower in the Parliament Buildings, in Ottawa. They contain the names of more than 110,000 Canadians who have died in war. Each day another page is turned. Explore the Veterans Affairs Canada Web site at www.vac-acc.gc.ca/youth and click on Canada’s War Collections. 4. Honour Roll Ask students to collect names of family members or friends who served during the First World War, the Second World War, the Korean War or in peacekeeping missions. Record the names on a list to display in the classroom. Information on the Internet Check out the Veterans Affairs Canada Web site at www.vac-acc.gc.ca for more information on Canadian Veterans’ experiences. Many educational materials that help young people learn about and reflect on the achievements and sacrifices of Canada’s Veterans over the years are available here as well. In addition to resources for teachers, students can view an array of Canadian military medals and decorations, listen to Veterans reading from their private journals, hear songs popular during the wars, and much more in the ‘Youth and Educators’ section of the Web site.