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MEMORIAL RESEARCH TOUR

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					MEMORIAL RESEARCH TOUR
SHANKSVILLE, PA ∙ WASHINGTON, DC ∙ OKLAHOMA CITY, OK ∙ MONTGOMERY, AL

OCTOBER 1 - 5, 2002

MEMORIAL SITES VISITED
Shanksville Flight 93 Memorial John F. Kennedy Memorial Pentagon Memorial and Grave Site Tombs of the Unknown Soldiers

The Pentagon
Vietnam Veterans Memorial Lincoln Memorial Jefferson Memorial World War II Memorial
(under construction)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial
Marine Corps (Iwo Jima) Memorial Arlington National Cemetery U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum Oklahoma City National Memorial Civil Rights Memorial Rosa Parks Museum

Korean War Memorial National Law Enforcement Memorial Japanese American Internment Memorial

LMDC MEMORIAL RESEARCH TOUR October 1-5, 2002

Shanksville, PA

LMDC and family members met with:
Susan Hankinson, Flight 93 Coordinator
Mark Critz, Representative of Congressman Murtha Joanne Hanley, National Park Service

SHANKSVILLE, PA Temporary Memorial

The attack on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the events over Shanksville, PA were attacks on America. The location of the three sites are symbolically connected.
LMDC MEMORIAL RESEARCH TOUR October 1-5, 2002

In the weeks and months following the crash of Flight 93 in a field near Shanksville, PA, a variety of personal, spontaneous remembrances were left near the crash site. This temporary memorial site has served as a gathering place for families and others seeking to mourn and remember those lost.

SHANKSVILLE, PA Temporary Memorial

The crash site itself is still a Medical Examiner’s Site, and closed to the public. Families of victims were given access on the anniversary of the crash, and LMDC staff and family members were allowed inside while touring the area on October 1, 2002.

SHANKSVILLE, PA Flight 93 Impact Site

The Pentagon

LMDC and family members met with:

Carol Anderson-Austra, Army Corps of Engineers Brett Eaton, Pentagon Renovation Office

WASHINGTON, DC The Pentagon

The Pentagon conducted an open competition for a memorial.
Shortly after the attack on the Pentagon, Congress authorized the Secretary of Defense to establish a memorial on the grounds of the Pentagon. An open, two-stage competition is currently being held for the memorial design. Six finalists will be announced on October 17 and a final design in December 2002. WASHINGTON, DC The Pentagon

An original block of masonry charred by the fire following the impact has been inscribed with the date of the attack and replaced at its original location in the Pentagon building.
WASHINGTON, DC The Pentagon

In addition to the outdoor memorial, inside the Pentagon there is a private memorial and chapel where services are conducted.

WASHINGTON, DC The Pentagon

Vietnam Veterans Memorial

LMDC and family members met with:

Jan Scruggs, Founder and President, Vietnam Memorial Fund

Dedicated on November 13, 1982, The Vietnam Veterans Memorial stands in the Constitution Gardens at the National Mall in Washington D.C. Two long black polished granite walls are inscribed with the names of the 58,000+ killed during the war. The memorial was conceived by its designer, Maya Lin, as a place of healing and contemplation.

WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial

The mission statement drafted by the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund consisted of 4 simple points:
• Design must include all 57,000+ names of soldiers missing or killed Design must be apolitical Design must be harmonious with site Design must facilitate a healing process

•

•

•

WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial

“Controversy will accompany any truly meaningful process.”
Jan Scruggs, President and Founder

WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Fund decided to have only art professionals on the selection jury.

WASHINGTON, DC Vietnam Veterans Memorial

The Mall

LMDC met with:

Charles Atherton, Secretary, Fine Arts Commission Arnold Goldstein, Superintendent, National Capitol Parks Central John Parsons, Associate Regional Director, Lands, Resources, and Planning, National Parks Service

WASHINGTON, DC The Mall

World War II Memorial

The World War II Memorial will be the first national memorial to commemorate all who served in the military services and Merchant Marine of the United States during World War II, and to acknowledge the commitment and achievement of the entire nation.

THE MALL World War II Memorial (Under Construction)

Lincoln Memorial

The relevance of a memorial is dependent upon its interpretation as a symbol and continued use by future generations.
Located at the west end of the Mall in Washington, D.C., The Lincoln Memorial, dedicated in May 1922, holds a position as one of the country’s most potent symbols of freedom.

THE MALL Lincoln Memorial

Jefferson Memorial

WASHINGTON, DC Jefferson Memorial

Korean War Memorial

WASHINGTON, DC Korean War Memorial

National Law Enforcement Memorial

WASHINGTON, DC National Law Enforcement Memorial

No memorial can be constructed on The Mall in Washington, D.C. until 25 years have passed since the event.
WASHINGTON, DC The Mall

Arlington National Cemetery

LMDC met with:

Jack Metzler, Superintendent, Arlington National Cemetery

WASHINGTON, DC Arlington National Cemetery

A number of memorials of various sizes represented a broad range of people and historical events.
Unidentifiable remains of those who died in that attack on the Pentagon have been cremated and interred in a casket in section 64 of Arlington National Cemetery, which received ceremonial burial on September 12, 2002. The site is marked by a large headstone, which recognizes all 184 people lost in the attack.

ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY Pentagon Memorial and Grave Site

The Tomb of the Unknowns, also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, marks the grave of an unidentified American soldier from World War I. It stands in Arlington National Cemetery, atop a hill overlooking Washington, D.C. In front of the World War I Unknown are crypts of unknowns from World War II, Korea and Vietnam.

ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers

This memorial, in Arlington National Cemetery, depicts an historic moment first immortalized in a photograph taken by Associated Press photographer Joe Rosenthal on February 23 -- the flag-raising on Mount Suribachi during the battle of Iwo Jima in World War II.
ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY Marine Corps (Iwo Jima) War Memorial

The approach and sight lines to a memorial can be as much a part of the experience as the symbolic element itself.

ARLINGTON NATIONAL CEMETERY John F. Kennedy Memorial - Eternal Flame

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum

LMDC met with:

Sara Bloomfield, Director Arthur Berger, Director of Communications

A living memorial to the more than eleven million people who perished in the Holocaust, the United States Holocaust Museum and Memorial have continued to attract unexpected numbers of visitors and to play a crucial role in the continued remembrance of the events and victims of the Holocaust.

U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM

Max Reid, USHMM Photo Archives

The historical significance of September 11th has not yet been fully understood and continues to evolve.

It is through representing the individual that historical events have meaning and resonance.

U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM Tower of Faces

Architecture can function as memorial content
U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM Hall of Witness
Alan Gilbert, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives

“If there is no debate, you’re probably on the wrong track.”
-Sara Bloomfield, Director

U.S. HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM Replica of Auschwitz Death Camp Gate

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Oklahoma City National Memorial
LMDC met with:
Kirk Humphreys, Mayor, Oklahoma City Kari Watkins, Executive Director Linda Lambert, Vice-Chair and Board Member Don Ferrell, Board Member
The memorial honors the victims, survivors, and rescuers of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah building on April 19, 1995. The mission statement written by the Oklahoma City National Memorial Task Force reads: “We come here to remember those who were killed, those who survived and those changed forever. May all who leave here know the impact of violence. May this memorial offer comfort, strength, peace, hope, and serenity.”

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK Oklahoma City National Memorial

Through simple design, landscaping, and view corridors, a memorial can be adjacent to busy streets and yet be quiet and reflective.
OKLAHOMA CITY, OK Oklahoma City National Memorial

Considerations must be made for how a memorial functions during the daytime and night, summer and winter, closed and open.

OKLAHOMA CITY, OK Oklahoma City National Memorial

A museum store is located within the museum and is not a part of the memorial.
OKLAHOMA CITY, OK Oklahoma City National Memorial

Civil Rights Memorial and Rosa Parks Museum

LMDC met with:

Morris Dees, Co-Founder, Southern Poverty Law Center Penny Weaver, Director of Community Affairs Georgette Norman, Director, Rosa Parks Museum

The Civil Rights Memorial was created by the Southern Poverty Law Center in downtown Montgomery, Alabama, to educate new generations about the civil rights movement and those who died for its cause.

MONTGOMERY, AL Civil Rights Memorial and Rosa Parks Museum

“The simpler, the better. Not all successful memorials are the result of competitions, committees, or drawn-out decision making.”
-Morris Dees

“A memorial is a mandate.”
-Georgette Norman

MONTGOMERY, AL Civil Rights Memorial and Rosa Parks Museum

SUMMARY & GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
• • Each memorial reflects unique events and is specific to time and place A memorial is successful if it: – has continued significance to future generations – endures over time as an active site – serves to illuminate and inspire No one single process guarantees a successful outcome A mission statement is essential to establishing a foundation for subsequent decisions How a memorial is constructed is as important as the ideas it represents Some memorials are magnificent in scale and others are powerful because of their intimacy Remembrance is not enough. Memorials are mandates to educate. Good healthy debate is inherently part of the process

• • • • • •

LMDC MEMORIAL RESEARCH TOUR October 1-5, 2002


				
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