CBS, STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF ISRAEL 2008 2008 למ''ס, שנתון סטטיסטי לישראל
This chapter presents annual data on In drought years (e.g., 2000 and 2001) also
agriculture in Israel (including Jewish includes areas in which crops were sown but
localities in Judea and Samaria Area). not reaped.
Agriculture includes agriculture, forestry and
fishing as defined in the Standard SOURCES AND METHODS OF
Classification of Economic Activities, 1993 - COMPUTATION
Second Edition, Publication No. 63. Agricultural areas: Until 2002, data were
obtained from an annual census conducted
The years in the tables, through 1985/86, are in co-operation with the Ministry of
agricultural years beginning on October 1. As Agriculture. As of 2003, data are obtained
of 1986, the years in most tables are calendar from various administrative sources (e.g., the
years (January-December). Ministry of Agriculture, production and
marketing boards, agricultural insurance
AGRICULTURAL AREA companies, and organizations of farmers).
AND FOREST AREA The data are based primarily on the farmers'
(Tables 19.1-19.4) reports to the various organizations. Owing
DEFINITIONS to changes in data collection methods, the
Physical area for crops: The area in which figures cannot be compared.
the farm grew agricultural crops during the LIMITATIONS OF THE DATA
survey year. These are areas whose yield
Agricultural areas: The entire farm area is
was harvested and gathered even if it was
registered according to the geographic
poor, and also include areas in which crops
location of the locality and not according to
were sown but not reaped due to drought.
the geographic location of the cultivated
Agricultural area, by industry: The physical
area. As of 2003, “agricultural crop areas by
area used for agriculture - excluding natural natural region”, and “agricultural crop areas
pasture area, and including area that has by regional council” (Tables 19.3-19.4)
been sown but not reaped. include only areas in Jewish localities. In
Area for other use: Area of buildings, yards 2004-2005, data on agricultural areas were
and roads in the agricultural farm as well as collected for two years, and reflect data of
areas fit for cultivation on which there were two calendar years.
no crops during the survey year. Area of flowers and garden plants: The
In the years 2000 and 2002, also includes area of flowers and garden plants is included
flowers and garden plants area. in the total area designated for agriculture,
Aquaculture area: Area of fish ponds but due to problems with data collection in
(including industrialized aquaculture), and the industry since 2000, there is no way of
area of reservoirs in which fish are grown. estimating the exact area in which flowers
Industrialized aquaculture: Fish ponds with and garden plants are grown.
fully computerized climate control, which Other citrus fruits: Until 2005, other
allows them to continue production varieties of oranges, except for shamouti,
throughout the year. (Production per dunam were included in the category of "other citrus
in industrialized fisheries is 50 times greater fruits". As of 2006, a category of oranges
than production in regular fish ponds.) was added, which includes all varieties of
Multi-crop: Two crops or more grown in the oranges, therefore, the data on "other citrus
same plot during the same year. fruits" cannot not be compared with data on
Crops area: Total area (in dunams) of "other citrus fruits" for previous years.
species grown during the survey year
(including bi-crops), which were harvested
and gathered even if the yield was poor.
AGRICULTURE )128( חקלאות
MARKETING OF LIVESTOCK AND intended for export. Hence, the data
LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS published relate to the area of organic
(Tables 19.5 and 19.6) agriculture and to quantities of produce for
Source of the data: The Ministry of export.
Agriculture, based on reports of the Dairy Source of the data: In the past, data were
and Poultry Councils. obtained from the Organization of the Israel
Bio-Organic Agriculture Association (IBOAA).
FOREST As of 2007, the data are based on estimates
(Table 19.7) obtained from organizations for control of
Forests in Israel, whether natural or planted, Israeli organic exports.
constitute about 9% of the total land area, of
which 4% is planted. EMPLOYMENT
The functions of the forests include: (Table 19.9)
protection of broad land areas, land SOURCES OF THE DATA
preservation, improvement of environmental
a. Employed persons - according to
quality (“green areas”), recreation and leisure,
Labour Force Surveys.
provision of timber, improvement of animal
b. Employee jobs of foreign workers -
according to employers’ reports to the
In recent years, the area in which new forests
National Insurance Institute.
are planted in the northern and central
See explanation on Employed persons,
regions of Israel has diminished
Employees/Jobs, Employee jobs in the
considerably. Most of the new planting is in
Introduction to Chapter 12, Labour and
the southern region of Israel.
DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
New forest area - an area in which there
OTHER PRODUCTION FACTORS
(Tables 19.10 -19.12)
were no forests in the past.
Reforestation area - An area in which there
Capital stock in agriculture: Total value of
were forests in the past but the forest was cut
down because the trees were damaged due all fixed physical assets, which serve the
to various causes such as pests, droughts, production of agricultural produce: fruit
fires, or snow. Reforestation and filling of the plantations, livestock, agricultural machinery
forest space is done in these areas. and equipment, agricultural structures,
irrigation network, greenhouses, fish ponds
SOURCE OF THE DATA and drainage. Since 1970, land reclamation
The Jewish National Fund (JNF). for agriculture has been included. The value
of assets: land, forests, water plants,
LIMITATIONS OF THE DATA residential buildings, roads, electricity
The data in the table refer only to forest areas installations, etc. is not included. Nor is the
handled by the JNF, and do not include forest value of assets in the fishing industry
areas in nature reserves and national forests. included, or the value of spraying aircraft
Because this definition is problematic, no included.
data from natural forests are presented. Gross capital stock: Gross value of assets,
ORGANIC AGRICULTURE before deduction of cumulative depreciation.
(Table 19.8) Net capital stock: Gross capital stock less
Organic agriculture is a method of growing cumulative annual depreciation up to the
plants and raising livestock at their natural survey year.
pace, with full consideration for life SOURCES AND METHODS OF
processes in their growth environment, COMPUTATION
careful attention is paid to recycling and Capital stock: computed by the “perpetual
prevention of pollution in the environment. inventory” method, according to which a
Similarly, pesticides, chemical fertilizers and given year's capital stock includes the sum of
hormones are not used. gross capital formation in assets according to
In the Western world there is more demand whose "lifetime" depreciation is still deducted.
for and awareness of these products and The price indices that serve for deducting
most of these products are therefore
AGRICULTURE )129( חקלאות
annual investment are specific for each type addition of investment in new plantations and
of asset. afforestation. The data include output mostly
Part of the gross capital formation is produced (especially harvested) during the
obtained from estimates of capital formation survey year, even if production began during
for the national accounts (agricultural the previous year and the marketing in the
equipment and machinery, agricultural years that followed. The data on citrus
structures, greenhouses, irrigation network include all the harvest from August-
and land reclamation); see introduction to September of the preceding year to July-
Chapter 14 - National Accounts. August of the survey year.
Another part is estimated as follows: Destinations of output:
Livestock: Data on fixed value of capital Local consumption: The produce
stock are obtained by multiplying the number destined for direct consumption by the
of livestock (with a life span exceeding one population of Israel including
year) at the beginning of each year by the consumption by the farmer and the
respective price of each unit (see also the farmer’s household ("home
definition of “number of animals” below). consumption"), and includes produce
Data on number of animals were obtained directed to Judea, Samaria and the
from various professional animal husbandry Gaza Area.
organizations and from the Ministry of Local manufacturing: includes all of the
Agriculture. fresh produce supplied for
The poultry inventory is based mainly on data manufacturing, including fresh produce
regarding chick hatchings. after industrial processing.
Fruit plantations: The data on capital Exports: Fresh agricultural produce
formation value in new plantations according exported in the same year. As of 1986,
to species are obtained by a normative excluding sales to the Judea, Samaria
computation of the value of expenditure - and Gaza Area.
expenditure per dunam multiplied by the The prices are recorded as f.o.b. (rates
number of dunams according to the age of charged at the port).
the plantation until fruit bearing. These data are not necessarily identical
Fish ponds: Data on capital formation are to those in Chapter 16 - Foreign Trade.
obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, and The differences result from the fact that
include capital formation in industrialized part of the fresh produce shipments are
aquaculture. exported on a consignment basis.
Greenhouses: Until 2002, the investment is Therefore, the value declared to the
based on a change in areas of greenhouses. Customs authorities when shipping
As of 2003, the investment is based on the abroad are not necessarily the same as
percentage of change in the quantities of the final sale value of these goods.
greenhouse crops marketed. Intermediate produce: is agricultural
As of 2006, the investment is based on the produce that re-enters the agricultural
Ministry of Agriculture's estimates of the production process (e.g., locally grown
greenhouse areas sold for agriculture. barley used for livestock feed).
Water for agriculture: See Chapter 21 - Data on intermediate produce also
Energy and Water. include data on destruction of
agricultural produce and changes in
INPUT, OUTPUT livestock inventory,
AND DOMESTIC PRODUCT Income originating in agriculture: is the
(Tables 19.13-19.22) income of "primary" production factors
(labour and capital) employed in agriculture.
DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS
Income is estimated as the sum of the value
Input: Composed of total materials and
of total agricultural output as well as
services purchased by agriculture from other
compensation and additional industry
activities in Israel and from imports (the
receipts, less the value of the input. The
purchased input), the intermediate produce
estimates of agricultural income that appear
and the depreciation in renewal prices.
here differ from those appearing in Chapter
Output: The value of agricultural production
14 - National Accounts, and do not include
(including intermediate produce) with the
AGRICULTURE )130( חקלאות
income from non-profit institutions. market are based on vegetable produce data
Compensation and other receipts of the and on estimates of fruit produce received
industry include all transfers (excluding from the plant board. Estimates of quantities
subsidies to production units), compensation of plant produce for the domestic market in
from insurance (such as natural damages), 2006 were calculated mainly on the basis of
drought compensation, compensation on averages for previous years. Beginning with
water cutbacks, wage supplements and other data for 2005, the method of calculating
receipts (various subsidies). prices of fruit for the domestic market was
As of 1991, also including compensation from changed. This caused a break in the series,
private insurance companies. and these data cannot be compared with
SOURCES AND METHODS OF Production of some field crops is estimated
COMPUTATION by multiplying the average yield per dunam
Purchased input: is an inclusive estimate for by the area sown. Field data are obtained
each of the main input items. The main from the Israel Association of Field Group
sources are as follows: imports of agricultural Growers and from the instructors at the
inputs (such as feed); supply from local Agricultural Extension Service of the Ministry
production (such as oil cake and fertiliser); of Agriculture.
water consumption, as estimated by the The value of agricultural output: (quantity
Water Commission; data from surveys of multiplied by price) is an estimate adjusted to
distributors and production boards (such as the average general price level of each year.
pesticides); financial reports of the The value of each product in the month of
government and local authorities; analysis of marketing is adjusted to the average of the
the balance sheets of various organizations. year according to the Consumer Price Index.
Depreciation: is estimated at renewal prices The agricultural output value usually
by the 'straight line' method and is based on excludes board fees and marketing
the Bureau's series on investments in commissions.
agriculture (see "Capital stock", above). Production value at previous year prices:
Compensation for employee jobs is obtained by multiplying the quantity of each
(formerly: compensation of employees): item by the price of the previous year. This
based on the wages series, obtained from value is used in calculating the quantitative
the summaries of employers' reports to the change in the series (see "Indices" below).
National Insurance Institute (see Chapter 12 - New plantations and afforestation:. Data
Labour and Wages). They include wages of on investments in afforestation are obtained
workers paid through the Wages from the Land Development Authority, while
Administration of the Employment Services in data on investment in new plantations is
addition to social supplements paid by the obtained by normative computation of the
employer. Wages include only compensation costs of cultivating the plantation fields until
for employee jobs, and do not include fruit bearing.
imputation of wages to the farm owners. Indices: Changes in quantity and price of the
See detailed definition in the paragraph various components of the agricultural
“Definitions of Wages, Compensation and account were computed according to the
Labour Cost” in Chapter 14 - National Laspeyres and Paasche methods,
Accounts. respectively, using an estimate of the value at
Output: estimates of vegetables, fruit, previous year's prices. It should be noted that
poultry, cattle, milk, eggs, fish and part of the the differences between the price indices
field crops are based chiefly on monthly derived from the agriculture account (“implicit
reports from wholesalers, production boards, indices”) and the price indices of agricultural
and from industrial enterprises, on produce output presented in Chapter 13 - Prices, are
received from the farms for the local market, due mainly to differences in definition.
for export and for manufacturing. Estimates Whereas the price indices relate to the entire
of private sales, home consumption and agricultural output, those in Chapter 13 and in
intermediate produce are added to these Table 19.11 relate to the traded produce only.
data. Moreover, the weights of the production price
Quantities of plant produce for the domestic index are current weights, whereas the
AGRICULTURE )131( חקלאות
weights of the output price index are fixed. average population living in Israel in the year
The same applies to the Index of Input Prices surveyed (excluding temporary residents and
in Agriculture, which is derived from the tourists who stay less than a year in Israel).
Agriculture Account, as compared with the The balance sheet is drawn up in the form
Index of Input Prices in Chapter 13 - Prices. determined by the Food and Agricultural
Imports of agricultural produce: Data Organization (FAO), with some adaptations to
received from the Ministry of Agriculture, conditions in Israel.
which represent the main agricultural Until 1986/87 data were published according
imports. to agricultural years (October-September). As
Absorption of vegetables and fruit to of 1988, data are published for calendar
manufacturing establishments: The years.
source of the data is the survey Absorption As of 2001, the coefficients used to calculate
of Vegetables and Fruit in Manufacturing nutritional values were changed and adapted
Establishments. The survey includes to Israeli products, with the help of the
approximately 50 manufacturing Department of Nutrition in the Ministry of
establishments. The establishments provide Health.
data on the amount of processed produce Commodity: The food commodities recorded
intended for the domestic market and for here are generally “primary” commodities.
export, and on the price paid to the farmer These commodities serve as the basis for
for the products. calculating the nutritional values of food
commodities obtained from them. For
LIMITATIONS OF THE DATA example, the item 'wheat' contains wheat
1. Data on private sales of produce, on used for manufacture of bread, biscuits,
home consumption, and on noodles etc., except for quantities that are a
intermediate produce in agriculture component of another commodity in the
are based on estimates. balance sheet.
2. Data on capital formation in new The “primary” food commodities were
plantations are mainly based on eliminated and were expressed in their basic
calculations of the Ministry of form; i.e., jams appear under “fruit and sugar”,
Agriculture. margarine appears under “oils and fats”, etc.
3. Some of the data on inputs are based As of 2001, it was decided to add drinks
on partial records (e.g., from agencies (including water, alcoholic beverages, beer
that provide spare parts for and imported wines) and stimulants (coffee,
agricultural equipment). Additionally, tea, and cocoa beans) to the food supply
some of the input items are measured balance sheet according to the FAO
according to chained changes in guidelines.
quantities and prices, where the base Quantities of commodities are recorded at
year is 2000 (e.g., data on transport the weight and measure of the “primary”
and packing). commodity. For example, canned vegetables
4. As of 2000, there has been a break in are included in the balance sheet as
the series due to changes in the quantities of fresh vegetables.
calculation method. Legumes - including peas for eating and
FOOD SUPPLY & NUTRIENTS canning.
Vegetables and melons - including corn,
(Tables 19.23-19.25) watermelons and sweetmelons.
DEFINITIONS Fresh fruits excluding citrus - this group does
Food supply: The amount of food available not include olives for oil, almonds and
to the public (exceeding the amount pecans. Those appear in different items in
consumed). the balance.
Food supply balance sheet is the record The commodity “Butter” is included under
and sum total of the sources of food Oils and Fats, whereas “Cream” is included
according to their description and the under Milk and Dairy Products. The (general)
calculation of their nutritional value (calories, group “From animals” in Table 19.24 includes
fat, protein, minerals and vitamins) consumed the groups of commodities: meat, eggs, fish,
on average per capita per day, by the milk and dairy products.
AGRICULTURE )132( חקלאות
Production: domestic agricultural production Exports: exports sent overseas and surplus
in the survey year, i.e., the calendar year (positive) of food commodities transferred
(January-December), except for citrus, which from Israel to Judea, Samaria and the Gaza
are from August-September of the preceding Area.
year to July-August of the survey year. Imports: imports from overseas and surplus
Data on production (tons) for the (positive) of food commodities transferred
commodities: Unlike data on agricultural from Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Area to
production (in previous tables), the Israel.
production data for the commodities Change in stocks: commodities in the stock
livestock for meat, beef, sheep and goats at the beginning of the year, both from the
and pigs do not include internal organs. domestic production of the previous year and
Internal organs appear in a separate from imports, less commodities that
paragraph. remained in the stock at the end of the
Production data for the commodities poultry surveyed year - whether they were imported
and turkey include bones and internal organs or grown and produced during the surveyed
(live weight). These definitions are in year, but consumed during the following year.
accordance with the international demands Other supply and waste: (Table 19.23) This
of the International Organization of Food and column indicates quantities used for fodder
Agriculture. and seed, for industrial processing, or for
Production data for beverages: water, wine production of another commodity appearing
and alcoholic beverages and beer, are listed in the balance. For perishable food
in millions of litres. commodities e.g., fruit and vegetables, waste
is estimated according to quantities that
rotted or were destroyed between the stage
of wholesale marketing and the retail
marketing stage or the depreciation resulting
from importing and uses by industry. The
estimate of waste is calculated according to
1081 Agricultural Survey 1995 TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
1330 Food Supply Balance Sheet, 2006 58 Input and Output Price Indices in the
1335 Agriculture in Israel 2006-2007 Agricultural Activity, 1986
CURRENT BRIEFINGS IN STATISTICS JUBILEE PUBLICATIONS (on the occasion
13, 2002 Agriculture in Israel 2000: of Israel’s 50th year)
Area and Livestock Agriculture (No. 2 in the series)
15, 2007 Agricultural Activity Account in Israel,
AGRICULTURE )133( חקלאות