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					CBS, STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF ISRAEL 2008                              2008   ‫למ''ס, שנתון סטטיסטי לישראל‬

                       19            AGRICULTURE

This chapter presents annual data on                      In drought years (e.g., 2000 and 2001) also
agriculture in Israel (including Jewish                   includes areas in which crops were sown but
localities in Judea and Samaria Area).                    not reaped.
Agriculture includes agriculture, forestry and
fishing as defined in the Standard                        SOURCES AND METHODS OF
Classification of Economic Activities, 1993 -             COMPUTATION
Second Edition, Publication No. 63.                       Agricultural areas: Until 2002, data were
                                                          obtained from an annual census conducted
The years in the tables, through 1985/86, are             in co-operation with the Ministry of
agricultural years beginning on October 1. As             Agriculture. As of 2003, data are obtained
of 1986, the years in most tables are calendar            from various administrative sources (e.g., the
years (January-December).                                 Ministry of Agriculture, production and
                                                          marketing boards, agricultural insurance
         AGRICULTURAL AREA                                companies, and organizations of farmers).
          AND FOREST AREA                                 The data are based primarily on the farmers'
                (Tables 19.1-19.4)                        reports to the various organizations. Owing
DEFINITIONS                                               to changes in data collection methods, the
Physical area for crops: The area in which                figures cannot be compared.
the farm grew agricultural crops during the               LIMITATIONS OF THE DATA
survey year. These are areas whose yield
                                                          Agricultural areas: The entire farm area is
was harvested and gathered even if it was
                                                          registered according to the geographic
poor, and also include areas in which crops
                                                          location of the locality and not according to
were sown but not reaped due to drought.
                                                          the geographic location of the cultivated
Agricultural area, by industry: The physical
                                                          area. As of 2003, “agricultural crop areas by
area used for agriculture - excluding natural             natural region”, and “agricultural crop areas
pasture area, and including area that has                 by regional council” (Tables 19.3-19.4)
been sown but not reaped.                                 include only areas in Jewish localities. In
Area for other use: Area of buildings, yards              2004-2005, data on agricultural areas were
and roads in the agricultural farm as well as             collected for two years, and reflect data of
areas fit for cultivation on which there were             two calendar years.
no crops during the survey year.                          Area of flowers and garden plants: The
In the years 2000 and 2002, also includes                 area of flowers and garden plants is included
flowers and garden plants area.                           in the total area designated for agriculture,
Aquaculture area: Area of fish ponds                      but due to problems with data collection in
(including industrialized aquaculture), and               the industry since 2000, there is no way of
area of reservoirs in which fish are grown.               estimating the exact area in which flowers
Industrialized aquaculture: Fish ponds with               and garden plants are grown.
fully computerized climate control, which                 Other citrus fruits: Until 2005, other
allows them to continue production                        varieties of oranges, except for shamouti,
throughout the year. (Production per dunam                were included in the category of "other citrus
in industrialized fisheries is 50 times greater           fruits". As of 2006, a category of oranges
than production in regular fish ponds.)                   was added, which includes all varieties of
Multi-crop: Two crops or more grown in the                oranges, therefore, the data on "other citrus
same plot during the same year.                           fruits" cannot not be compared with data on
Crops area: Total area (in dunams) of                     "other citrus fruits" for previous years.
species grown during the survey year
(including bi-crops), which were harvested
and gathered even if the yield was poor.

AGRICULTURE                                       )128(                                         ‫חקלאות‬
   MARKETING OF LIVESTOCK AND                              intended for export. Hence, the data
      LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS                                   published relate to the area of organic
            (Tables 19.5 and 19.6)                         agriculture and to quantities of produce for
Source of the data: The Ministry of                        export.
Agriculture, based on reports of the Dairy                 Source of the data: In the past, data were
and Poultry Councils.                                      obtained from the Organization of the Israel
                                                           Bio-Organic Agriculture Association (IBOAA).
                  FOREST                                   As of 2007, the data are based on estimates
                  (Table 19.7)                             obtained from organizations for control of
Forests in Israel, whether natural or planted,             Israeli organic exports.
constitute about 9% of the total land area, of
which 4% is planted.                                                     EMPLOYMENT
The functions of the forests include:                                       (Table 19.9)
protection of broad land areas, land                       SOURCES OF THE DATA
preservation, improvement of environmental
                                                           a.    Employed persons - according to
quality (“green areas”), recreation and leisure,
                                                                 Labour Force Surveys.
provision of timber, improvement of animal
                                                           b.    Employee jobs of foreign workers -
husbandry, etc.
                                                                 according to employers’ reports to the
In recent years, the area in which new forests
                                                                 National Insurance Institute.
are planted in the northern and central
                                                           See explanation on Employed persons,
regions    of    Israel    has   diminished
                                                           Employees/Jobs, Employee jobs in the
considerably. Most of the new planting is in
                                                           Introduction to Chapter 12, Labour and
the southern region of Israel.
New forest area - an area in which there
                                                              OTHER PRODUCTION FACTORS
                                                                         (Tables 19.10 -19.12)
were no forests in the past.
Reforestation area - An area in which there
                                                           Capital stock in agriculture: Total value of
were forests in the past but the forest was cut
down because the trees were damaged due                    all fixed physical assets, which serve the
to various causes such as pests, droughts,                 production of agricultural produce: fruit
fires, or snow. Reforestation and filling of the           plantations, livestock, agricultural machinery
forest space is done in these areas.                       and equipment, agricultural structures,
                                                           irrigation network, greenhouses, fish ponds
SOURCE OF THE DATA                                         and drainage. Since 1970, land reclamation
The Jewish National Fund (JNF).                            for agriculture has been included. The value
                                                           of assets: land, forests, water plants,
LIMITATIONS OF THE DATA                                    residential buildings, roads, electricity
The data in the table refer only to forest areas           installations, etc. is not included. Nor is the
handled by the JNF, and do not include forest              value of assets in the fishing industry
areas in nature reserves and national forests.             included, or the value of spraying aircraft
Because this definition is problematic, no                 included.
data from natural forests are presented.                   Gross capital stock: Gross value of assets,
        ORGANIC AGRICULTURE                                before deduction of cumulative depreciation.
                  (Table 19.8)                             Net capital stock: Gross capital stock less
Organic agriculture is a method of growing                 cumulative annual depreciation up to the
plants and raising livestock at their natural              survey year.
pace, with full consideration for life                     SOURCES          AND       METHODS           OF
processes in their growth environment,                     COMPUTATION
careful attention is paid to recycling and                 Capital stock: computed by the “perpetual
prevention of pollution in the environment.                inventory” method, according to which a
Similarly, pesticides, chemical fertilizers and            given year's capital stock includes the sum of
hormones are not used.                                     gross capital formation in assets according to
In the Western world there is more demand                  whose "lifetime" depreciation is still deducted.
for and awareness of these products and                    The price indices that serve for deducting
most of these products are therefore
AGRICULTURE                                        )129(                                          ‫חקלאות‬
annual investment are specific for each type             addition of investment in new plantations and
of asset.                                                afforestation. The data include output mostly
Part of the gross capital formation is                   produced (especially harvested) during the
obtained from estimates of capital formation             survey year, even if production began during
for the national accounts (agricultural                  the previous year and the marketing in the
equipment and machinery, agricultural                    years that followed. The data on citrus
structures, greenhouses, irrigation network              include all the harvest from August-
and land reclamation); see introduction to               September of the preceding year to July-
Chapter 14 - National Accounts.                          August of the survey year.
Another part is estimated as follows:                    Destinations of output:
Livestock: Data on fixed value of capital                      Local consumption: The produce
stock are obtained by multiplying the number                   destined for direct consumption by the
of livestock (with a life span exceeding one                   population       of   Israel     including
year) at the beginning of each year by the                     consumption by the farmer and the
respective price of each unit (see also the                    farmer’s         household         ("home
definition of “number of animals” below).                      consumption"), and includes produce
Data on number of animals were obtained                        directed to Judea, Samaria and the
from various professional animal husbandry                     Gaza Area.
organizations and from the Ministry of                         Local manufacturing: includes all of the
Agriculture.                                                   fresh      produce        supplied      for
The poultry inventory is based mainly on data                  manufacturing, including fresh produce
regarding chick hatchings.                                     after industrial processing.
Fruit plantations: The data on capital                         Exports: Fresh agricultural produce
formation value in new plantations according                   exported in the same year. As of 1986,
to species are obtained by a normative                         excluding sales to the Judea, Samaria
computation of the value of expenditure -                      and Gaza Area.
expenditure per dunam multiplied by the                        The prices are recorded as f.o.b. (rates
number of dunams according to the age of                       charged at the port).
the plantation until fruit bearing.                            These data are not necessarily identical
Fish ponds: Data on capital formation are                      to those in Chapter 16 - Foreign Trade.
obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, and                 The differences result from the fact that
include capital formation in industrialized                    part of the fresh produce shipments are
aquaculture.                                                   exported on a consignment basis.
Greenhouses: Until 2002, the investment is                     Therefore, the value declared to the
based on a change in areas of greenhouses.                     Customs authorities when shipping
As of 2003, the investment is based on the                     abroad are not necessarily the same as
percentage of change in the quantities of                      the final sale value of these goods.
greenhouse crops marketed.                                     Intermediate produce: is agricultural
As of 2006, the investment is based on the                     produce that re-enters the agricultural
Ministry of Agriculture's estimates of the                     production process (e.g., locally grown
greenhouse areas sold for agriculture.                         barley used for livestock feed).
Water for agriculture: See Chapter 21 -                        Data on intermediate produce also
Energy and Water.                                              include data on destruction of
                                                               agricultural produce and changes in
          INPUT, OUTPUT                                        livestock inventory,
      AND DOMESTIC PRODUCT                               Income originating in agriculture: is the
              (Tables 19.13-19.22)                       income of "primary" production factors
                                                         (labour and capital) employed in agriculture.
                                                         Income is estimated as the sum of the value
Input: Composed of total materials and
                                                         of total agricultural output as well as
services purchased by agriculture from other
                                                         compensation and additional industry
activities in Israel and from imports (the
                                                         receipts, less the value of the input. The
purchased input), the intermediate produce
                                                         estimates of agricultural income that appear
and the depreciation in renewal prices.
                                                         here differ from those appearing in Chapter
Output: The value of agricultural production
                                                         14 - National Accounts, and do not include
(including intermediate produce) with the
AGRICULTURE                                      )130(                                           ‫חקלאות‬
income from non-profit institutions.                        market are based on vegetable produce data
Compensation and other receipts of the                      and on estimates of fruit produce received
industry include all transfers (excluding                   from the plant board. Estimates of quantities
subsidies to production units), compensation                of plant produce for the domestic market in
from insurance (such as natural damages),                   2006 were calculated mainly on the basis of
drought compensation, compensation on                       averages for previous years. Beginning with
water cutbacks, wage supplements and other                  data for 2005, the method of calculating
receipts (various subsidies).                               prices of fruit for the domestic market was
As of 1991, also including compensation from                changed. This caused a break in the series,
private insurance companies.                                and these data cannot be compared with
                                                            previous years.
SOURCES AND METHODS OF                                      Production of some field crops is estimated
COMPUTATION                                                 by multiplying the average yield per dunam
Purchased input: is an inclusive estimate for               by the area sown. Field data are obtained
each of the main input items. The main                      from the Israel Association of Field Group
sources are as follows: imports of agricultural             Growers and from the instructors at the
inputs (such as feed); supply from local                    Agricultural Extension Service of the Ministry
production (such as oil cake and fertiliser);               of Agriculture.
water consumption, as estimated by the                      The value of agricultural output: (quantity
Water Commission; data from surveys of                      multiplied by price) is an estimate adjusted to
distributors and production boards (such as                 the average general price level of each year.
pesticides);     financial   reports    of    the           The value of each product in the month of
government and local authorities; analysis of               marketing is adjusted to the average of the
the balance sheets of various organizations.                year according to the Consumer Price Index.
Depreciation: is estimated at renewal prices                The agricultural output value usually
by the 'straight line' method and is based on               excludes board fees and marketing
the Bureau's series on investments in                       commissions.
agriculture (see "Capital stock", above).                   Production value at previous year prices:
Compensation          for    employee       jobs            is obtained by multiplying the quantity of each
(formerly: compensation of employees):                      item by the price of the previous year. This
based on the wages series, obtained from                    value is used in calculating the quantitative
the summaries of employers' reports to the                  change in the series (see "Indices" below).
National Insurance Institute (see Chapter 12 -              New plantations and afforestation:. Data
Labour and Wages). They include wages of                    on investments in afforestation are obtained
workers      paid      through     the   Wages              from the Land Development Authority, while
Administration of the Employment Services in                data on investment in new plantations is
addition to social supplements paid by the                  obtained by normative computation of the
employer. Wages include only compensation                   costs of cultivating the plantation fields until
for employee jobs, and do not include                       fruit bearing.
imputation of wages to the farm owners.                     Indices: Changes in quantity and price of the
See detailed definition in the paragraph                    various components of the agricultural
“Definitions of Wages, Compensation and                     account were computed according to the
Labour Cost” in Chapter 14 - National                       Laspeyres       and      Paasche      methods,
Accounts.                                                   respectively, using an estimate of the value at
Output: estimates of vegetables, fruit,                     previous year's prices. It should be noted that
poultry, cattle, milk, eggs, fish and part of the           the differences between the price indices
field crops are based chiefly on monthly                    derived from the agriculture account (“implicit
reports from wholesalers, production boards,                indices”) and the price indices of agricultural
and from industrial enterprises, on produce                 output presented in Chapter 13 - Prices, are
received from the farms for the local market,               due mainly to differences in definition.
for export and for manufacturing. Estimates                 Whereas the price indices relate to the entire
of private sales, home consumption and                      agricultural output, those in Chapter 13 and in
intermediate produce are added to these                     Table 19.11 relate to the traded produce only.
data.                                                       Moreover, the weights of the production price
Quantities of plant produce for the domestic                index are current weights, whereas the
AGRICULTURE                                         )131(                                          ‫חקלאות‬
weights of the output price index are fixed.                average population living in Israel in the year
The same applies to the Index of Input Prices               surveyed (excluding temporary residents and
in Agriculture, which is derived from the                   tourists who stay less than a year in Israel).
Agriculture Account, as compared with the                   The balance sheet is drawn up in the form
Index of Input Prices in Chapter 13 - Prices.               determined by the Food and Agricultural
Imports of agricultural produce: Data                       Organization (FAO), with some adaptations to
received from the Ministry of Agriculture,                  conditions in Israel.
which represent the main agricultural                       Until 1986/87 data were published according
imports.                                                    to agricultural years (October-September). As
Absorption of vegetables and fruit to                       of 1988, data are published for calendar
manufacturing        establishments:        The             years.
source of the data is the survey Absorption                 As of 2001, the coefficients used to calculate
of Vegetables and Fruit in Manufacturing                    nutritional values were changed and adapted
Establishments.     The     survey     includes             to Israeli products, with the help of the
approximately         50        manufacturing               Department of Nutrition in the Ministry of
establishments. The establishments provide                  Health.
data on the amount of processed produce                     Commodity: The food commodities recorded
intended for the domestic market and for                    here are generally “primary” commodities.
export, and on the price paid to the farmer                 These commodities serve as the basis for
for the products.                                           calculating the nutritional values of food
                                                            commodities obtained from them. For
LIMITATIONS OF THE DATA                                     example, the item 'wheat' contains wheat
1. Data on private sales of produce, on                     used for manufacture of bread, biscuits,
   home       consumption,       and    on                  noodles etc., except for quantities that are a
   intermediate produce in agriculture                      component of another commodity in the
   are based on estimates.                                  balance sheet.
2. Data on capital formation in new                         The “primary” food commodities were
   plantations are mainly based on                          eliminated and were expressed in their basic
   calculations of the Ministry of                          form; i.e., jams appear under “fruit and sugar”,
   Agriculture.                                             margarine appears under “oils and fats”, etc.
3. Some of the data on inputs are based                     As of 2001, it was decided to add drinks
   on partial records (e.g., from agencies                  (including water, alcoholic beverages, beer
   that    provide    spare     parts   for                 and imported wines) and stimulants (coffee,
   agricultural equipment). Additionally,                   tea, and cocoa beans) to the food supply
   some of the input items are measured                     balance sheet according to the FAO
   according to chained changes in                          guidelines.
   quantities and prices, where the base                    Quantities of commodities are recorded at
   year is 2000 (e.g., data on transport                    the weight and measure of the “primary”
   and packing).                                            commodity. For example, canned vegetables
4. As of 2000, there has been a break in                    are included in the balance sheet as
   the series due to changes in the                         quantities of fresh vegetables.
   calculation method.                                      Legumes - including peas for eating and
     FOOD SUPPLY & NUTRIENTS                                canning.
                                                            Vegetables and melons - including corn,
               (Tables 19.23-19.25)                         watermelons and sweetmelons.
DEFINITIONS                                                 Fresh fruits excluding citrus - this group does
Food supply: The amount of food available                   not include olives for oil, almonds and
to the public (exceeding the amount                         pecans. Those appear in different items in
consumed).                                                  the balance.
Food supply balance sheet is the record                     The commodity “Butter” is included under
and sum total of the sources of food                        Oils and Fats, whereas “Cream” is included
according to their description and the                      under Milk and Dairy Products. The (general)
calculation of their nutritional value (calories,           group “From animals” in Table 19.24 includes
fat, protein, minerals and vitamins) consumed               the groups of commodities: meat, eggs, fish,
on average per capita per day, by the                       milk and dairy products.
AGRICULTURE                                         )132(                                          ‫חקלאות‬
Production: domestic agricultural production                Exports: exports sent overseas and surplus
in the survey year, i.e., the calendar year                 (positive) of food commodities transferred
(January-December), except for citrus, which                from Israel to Judea, Samaria and the Gaza
are from August-September of the preceding                  Area.
year to July-August of the survey year.                     Imports: imports from overseas and surplus
Data on production (tons) for the                           (positive) of food commodities transferred
commodities: Unlike data on agricultural                    from Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Area to
production (in previous tables), the                        Israel.
production data for the commodities                         Change in stocks: commodities in the stock
livestock for meat, beef, sheep and goats                   at the beginning of the year, both from the
and pigs do not include internal organs.                    domestic production of the previous year and
Internal organs appear in a separate                        from imports, less commodities that
paragraph.                                                  remained in the stock at the end of the
Production data for the commodities poultry                 surveyed year - whether they were imported
and turkey include bones and internal organs                or grown and produced during the surveyed
(live weight). These definitions are in                     year, but consumed during the following year.
accordance with the international demands                   Other supply and waste: (Table 19.23) This
of the International Organization of Food and               column indicates quantities used for fodder
Agriculture.                                                and seed, for industrial processing, or for
Production data for beverages: water, wine                  production of another commodity appearing
and alcoholic beverages and beer, are listed                in the balance. For perishable food
in millions of litres.                                      commodities e.g., fruit and vegetables, waste
                                                            is estimated according to quantities that
                                                            rotted or were destroyed between the stage
                                                            of wholesale marketing and the retail
                                                            marketing stage or the depreciation resulting
                                                            from importing and uses by industry. The
                                                            estimate of waste is calculated according to

                                SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
1081  Agricultural Survey 1995                              TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS
1330  Food Supply Balance Sheet, 2006                       58  Input and Output Price Indices in the
1335  Agriculture in Israel 2006-2007                             Agricultural Activity, 1986

CURRENT BRIEFINGS IN STATISTICS                             JUBILEE PUBLICATIONS (on the occasion
13, 2002 Agriculture in Israel 2000:                        of Israel’s 50th year)
         Area and Livestock                                 Agriculture (No. 2 in the series)
15, 2007 Agricultural Activity Account in Israel,

AGRICULTURE                                         )133(                                        ‫חקלאות‬