Lymphatic and Immune System Diseases and Disorders by malj


									                                         Lymphatic and Immune System Diseases and Disorders
                                                         Information Sheet

There are numerous disorders that could develop as a result of some pathological malfunction in many of the human body systems. In the
study of the lymphatic system, one could find lymphatic structural disorders, allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiency
disorders, and many kinds of cancer. For this basic study of diseases or disorders, please view the following table for a reference to some of
the more common conditions as well as a few of the less common conditions. The information for this chart was obtained from Diversified
Health Occupations, 5th Edition by Louise Simmers; Medical Assisting: Administrative and Clinical Competencies, 4th Edition by Lucille
Keir, Barbara A Wise, and Connie Krebs, and Medical Terminology for Health Professionals, 3rd Edition by Ann Ehrlich and from

     Disorder                Description                 Causes                         Symptoms                        Treatment
Acquired Immune       Advanced stages of HIV      (HIV) human                Early: positive HIV blood test,   No cure, but treat the
Deficiency            infection, characterized    immunodeficiency           weight loss, recurrent fever,     various symptoms. Much
Syndrome (AIDS)       by serious infections,      virus                      night sweats, skin rashes,        research is being done to
                      cancers, and other                                     diarrhea, fatigue, and swollen    develop a vaccine to
                      disorders.                                             lymph nodes. Later: cancers       prevent and drugs to cure
                                                                             such as Kaposi’s sarcoma;         the disease. Drugs such as
                                                                             opportunistic infections such     Zidovudine are used to
                                                                             as tuberculosis, pneumocystic     slow the progression of the
                                                                             carinii, Candidiasis,             disease.
                                                                             toxoplasmosis; and other
                                                                             disorders such as persistent
                                                                             enlarged lymph nodes
Addison’s Disease     A life-threatening          Decrease secretion of      Dehydration, hypotension,         Steroid hormones,
                      autoimmune disorder of      aldosterone by the         mental lethargy, weight loss,     controlled intake of
                      the adrenal cortex          adrenal cortex resulting   muscle weakness, excessive        sodium, and fluid
                                                  in interference of         yellow-brown coloring of the      regulation to prevent
                                                  reabsorption of sodium     skin, hypoglycemia, and           dehydration.
                                                  and water and an           edema.
                                                  increased level of
                                                  potassium in the blood
    Disorder               Description                     Causes                     Symptoms                        Treatment
Crohn’s Disease     Chronic autoimmune            Unknown, but some        Acute episodes often cause        Symptomatic treatment
                    disorder involving any        think that it might be   appendicitis-type pain in right   including dietary
                    part of the                   caused by allergies or   lower quadrant with flatulence,   supplements, steroids to
                    gastrointestinal tract, but   infections.              nausea, fever, and diarrhea.      reduce inflammation,
                    especially the walls of                                Bloody stools may be present.     antibacterial agents.
                    ileum or colon. The walls                              Chronic disease may have          Lifestyle changes of more
                    may become edematous                                   diarrheal episodes of four to     rest and dietary
                    ulcerate, narrow, and                                  six stools daily, marked weight   adjustments, such as
                    become abscessed.                                      loss, weakness, and difficulty    restrictions of some fruits
                                                                           dealing with everyday stress.     and vegetables that might
                                                                                                             cause attacks. Surgery
                                                                                                             sometimes necessary.
Diabetes Mellitus   A complex metabolic           Inadequate insulin       Hyperglycemia (high blood         Regulate diet to control
                    disorder of the pancreas      secretion                sugar), excessive urination,      level of blood sugar,
                                                                           thirst, hunger, sugar in urine,   exercise, and oral
                                                                           weight loss, fatigue, vision      medications or insulin
                                                                           changes, slow healing of          injections to lower blood
                                                                           wounds or infections.             sugar levels.
Grave’s Disease     An autoimmune disorder        Increased secretion of   Strained or tense facial          Medications to slow the
                    of the thyroid gland          thyroxine                expressions, protruding           production of thyroxine,
                                                                           eyeballs, goiter, nervous         radioactive iodine to
                                                                           irritability, emotional           destroy thyroid tissue, and
                                                                           instability, tachycardia (fast    thyroidectomy
                                                                           heart), great appetite but
                                                                           weight loss, diarrhea
Hashimoto’s         An autoimmune disorder        Believed to have a       Thyroid tenderness. General       Oral medications replacing
Thyroiditis         where the immune              genetic basis. Thyroid   symptoms: fatigue, depression,    thyroid hormone, such as
(hypothyroidism)    system attacks thyroid        enlargement decreases    modest weight gain, cold          Synthroid. Thyroidectomy
                    tissue                        the ability to produce   intolerance, dry course hair,     sometimes needed.
                                                  thyroid hormones.        dry skin. Progressed
                                                                           symptoms: puffiness around
                                                                           eyes, slow heart, low body
   Disorder                 Description                    Causes                      Symptoms                        Treatment
Mononucleosis        Presence of an               Epstein-Barr Virus that   Fever, fatigue, sore throat,       Rest, pain medications, and
                     abnormally large number      is spread by saliva       swollen lymph glands. Can          sometimes anti-viral
                     of atypical lymphocytes                                progress to hepatitis and          medications.
                     that have a single nucleus                             splenomegaly.
Multiple Sclerosis   A chronic, debilitating,     Unknown, but usually      Early symptoms: visual             No cure. However,
                     and progressive              begins between the        disturbances, weakness,            physical therapy, muscle
                     autoimmune disorder of       ages of twenty and        fatigue, poor coordination,        relaxants, steroids, and
                     brain and spinal cord that   forty.                    tingling, and numbness. Late       counseling help maintain
                     destroys the protective                                symptoms: Tremors, paralysis,      function as long as
                     covering of the nerve                                  spastic muscles, emotional         possible.
                     fibers of the brain and                                swings, incontinence, and
                     spinal cord.                                           speech disturbances
Myasthenia Gravis    An autoimmune disorder       Unknown why               Episodes of muscle weakness        No cure, but try to be
                     of nerve impulses not        antibodies attack the     that may lead to paralysis. Can    supportive of victim as
                     properly transmitted to      body’s own tissues.       be fatal if reaches respiratory    disease progresses.
                     muscles.                                               muscles
Psoriasis            A chronic autoimmune         Thought to be             Itching, red papules covered       No cure. However,
                     disorder of                  hereditary.               with silvery scales occurring      coal/tar or cortisone
                     integumentary system                                   mostly on elbows, knees,           ointments, ultraviolet light,
                                                                            scalp, and trunk.                  and/or scale removal are
                                                                                                               common treatments.
Rheumatoid           A chronic systemic           Malfunction of immune     Affected joints stiffen            Salicylates to reduce
Arthritis            inflammatory                 response causing          following inactivity, swell, and   inflammation.
                     autoimmune disorder of       inflammation to dilate    show signs of deformity. As        Corticosteroids, anti-
                     joints and connective        blood vessels and cause   the disease progresses, the        inflammatory agents, gold
                     tissues and surrounding      fluid to accumulate in    joints become tender, painful,     salts, and antimalarial
                     muscles, tendons,            the joint cavity. These   hot and enlarged with marked       drugs have helped. Acute
                     ligaments, and blood         cycles eventually cause   deformities.                       episodes are treated with
                     vessels.                     destruction of joint.                                        ice packs. Chronic cases
                                                                                                               need range of motion
                                                                                                               exercises and heat
                                                                                                               applications. Rest.
     Disorder           Description                   Causes                        Symptoms                        Treatment
Scleroderma      An autoimmune disorder      Unknown but thought         Abnormal tissue thickening        Individualized to the
                 of the skin, “hard skin”    to be inherited.            that usually starts on fingers,   specific symptom at the
                                                                         hands, or face. Tiny calcium      particular site.
                                                                         deposits in skin. Tiny red
                                                                         areas on face, hands, and in
                                                                         mouth behind lips. Raynaud’s
                                                                         Phenomenon (fingers turn
                                                                         white, then blue, and then red
                                                                         when exposed to cold or heat
                                                                         due to tiny artery spasms)
Splenomegaly     Enlargement of the          Can be caused by            Swelling and abdominal pain.      Treat causes. However, if
                 spleen                      abnormal accumulation       If spleen ruptures, internal      cause cannot be treated, a
                                             of red blood cells,         hemorrhage and shock occur.       splenectomy is done.
                                             mononucleosis, and
                                             cirrhosis of liver
Systemic Lupus   An autoimmune disorder      Unknown immune              Beginning symptoms: fever,        Rest when needed, but try
Erythematosus    affecting many body         system changes.             weight loss, headache, fatigue,   to carry on normal
                 systems, such as joints,                                swollen glands, depression,       activities of daily living.
                 skin, connective tissues,                               loss of appetite, nausea and      Avoid sun exposure during
                 and other major body                                    vomiting, easy bruising, hair     peak hours of sunlight.
                 organs, such as kidneys,                                loss, edema. More specific        Anti-inflammatory and
                 lungs, heart, and nervous                               are: rash over cheeks and         pain medications for joint
                 system.                                                 bridge of nose, rash after sun    and muscle pain. Steroids.
                                                                         exposure, arthritis in two or
                                                                         more joints, bald spots, ulcers
                                                                         inside mouth, anemia, pleurisy,
                                                                         Raynaud’s Phenomenon.
Tonsillitis      Inflammation of the         Irritability of tonsil      Throat pain, difficulty           Antibiotics, warm throat
                 tonsils                     tissues or pathogenic       swallowing, fever, white or       irrigation (gargle), rest, and
                                             invasion of tonsil tissue   yellow spots on the tonsils,      pain medications. If
                                                                         swollen lymph nodes below         chronic or frequent
                                                                         the jawbone                       infections occur, may need

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