Assessing the Durability and Integrity of Natural Gas by ays20225

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									Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




  Assessing the Durability and
    Integrity of Natural Gas
Infrastructures for Transporting
  and Distributing Mixtures of
   Hydrogen and Natural Gas
                                  Gaz de France - Isabelle Alliat
                                       TNO – Jan Heerings


     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
                                                                                                                    1
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)
                                                     OBJECTIVES                                                         (1/2)
    Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
    Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




           How much % of H2 is acceptable?
 SAFETY = Potential leakages of H2 and failure of gas pipes

 Effects of hydrogen on the durability of materials and
  components used in the natural gas transmission and
  distribution networks and end user infrastructure
    What are the H2 leakages in steel pipes? in PE pipes? in gas
     appliances?
    How does H2 effect the initiation and growth of defects in
     pipes? In which conditions?
    Has H2 an ageing effect on PE pipes?
    Etc.
         NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
         for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                        2
                                            Transmission pipelines
                                               Potential Threats
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                Combined Gas & Liquid Incidents 1990-2001

         1000
          900
          800
          700
          600
Incidents 500
          400                                                                                                       Liquid
          300                                                                                                       Gas
          200
          100
            0
                                       Outside    Other    Corrosion Malfunction
                                     Force & 3rd Failures            of Control/
                                        Party    (Various)             Relief
                                      damage                         Equipment
     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                         3
                                                     Transmission pipes
                                                     Threats, in more detail
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




Corrosion                                                                                                           Material Imperfections
        General                                                                                                     Weld defects
        MIC                                                                                                         Laminations
        AC
        DC
                                                                                            Mechanical damage (Third party)
        SCC
                                                                                             Dents
                                                                                             Gouges




     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                                   4
            Potential Effect of Hydrogen, in terms
                                                         of material performance
 Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
 Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                              What is the combination of crack size,
                              material and loading conditions representing
                              the maximum allowable condition to rupture?
                                                              Embrittlement




                  Fatigue                                                                                             Fatigue
                   Rate                                                                                              Threshold

How fast does a crack                                                                        At what K does an existing crack
larger than the threshold grow ?                                                             start to grow ?
      NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
      for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                            5
                                               Transmission pipelines
                                  Assess the effect of H2 on steels
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 State of the art
 Gaseous H embrittlement of steels
   Degradation of steel ductility = more brittle
   Easier initiation of internal cracks (with or without
    applied stress)
   Delayed failure ruptures under mechanical loading
   Reduced fatigue life
   Reduced threshold stress intensity factor (KIH) for
    cracks initiation
   Higher crack propagation rate under cyclic loading

        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                6
                                              Transmission pipelines
                                 Assess the effect of H2 on steels
  Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
  Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Scope = steels for pipes & welds & defects




 Mechanical strength and fracture behaviour
            Fracture toughness
            Burst resistance
            Fatigue behaviour
 Deterministic and Probabilistic Approaches

       NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
       for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                7
                                            Transmission pipelines
                               Assess the effect of H2 on steels
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                8
                                              Transmission pipelines
                                 Assess the effect of H2 on steels
  Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
  Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Experimental methodology
            Machined sample                                                                             Tile cut in the pipes




                          Crac
                                  k in a
                                           xial d
                                                 irect
                                                          ion


                            CT specimen
                              W=100 mm
                                   a=0.5W



       NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
       for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                          9
                                                    Transmission pipelines
                                       Assess the effect of H2 on steels
        Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
        Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




   Experimental methodology
                  Part of pipes                                                                                   Closed-end pipes

                                                      Ring


                                                                           Glas
   Internal                                                                s cell
  hydraulic
pressurizatio
   n room




             NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
             for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                         10
                                                    Distribution network
                                         Assess the permeability of PE
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Purpose = identify the leakage of gas and assess
  the potential risks (safety)

 Scope = PE for pipes (PE80, PE100)
          & welds (electro-fusion)

 State of the art
    Few works were published on H2 permeation
    Quite thin literature on ageing of PE


        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                11
                                                            Distribution network
                                                 Assess the permeability of PE
           Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
           Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Permeation measurement
       on samples & pipe sections
        and welds




                                                                                                                               1150
                                          From gas mixtures
                                              reservoir



                                                                                        Thermoregulated environment




Polymer plane sheet
                                                                                          Gas Chromatograph
        Gas collector
  Thermoregulated pipe




                NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
                for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                12
                                                    Distribution network
                                                                                 H PE
                                         Assess the permeabilitydeof purs dans le PE
                                                Evolution des quantités de CH et
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661                                                                                 4         2


                                                                              8

 First results                                                               7
                                                                                                          H , 61°C, 21 bar
                                                                                                           2
                                                                                                                                     CH , 80°C, 21.6 bar
                                                                                                                                       4
                                                                                                                                                           1.2




                                                            Amount CH (cm )
                                                           3
                                                                                                                                                           1




                                                                                                                                                                    Amount H (cm )
                                                                              6


 Permeability
                                                                       4
                                                                              5                                                                            0.8

                                                                                                                                                  a




                                                                                                                                                                 2
                                                                              4
        al
  Pe 
                                                                                                                                                           0.6




                                                                                                                                                                          3
                                                                              3

       A P                                                                   2
                                                                                                                                                           0.4




 Diffusivity
                                                                                                                                                           0.2
                                                                              1


                                                                              0                                                                            0
                                                                                                      4            4             4            4            4
                                                                                  0            1 10            2 10          3 10          4 10        5 10
                                                                                                                      Time (s)


        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                                                        13
                                                        Distribution network
                       Assess the effect of H2 on ageing of PE
       Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
       Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




  Ageing testing

  Impact of H2 on
   residual
   properties


Chemical link                             Macromolecular chain                                          Microstructure     Macroscopic behaviour




   IRTF                                                 TREF                                                  DSC          Mechanical properties
                                                        DMTA                                                  SAXS         Permeation behaviour
            NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
            for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                               14
                                                    Distribution network
                             Assess the reliability of gas meters
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Purpose = identify the leakage of gas (safety) and
  assess the metering
 Scope = domestic gas meters
  with polymer membranes
   G4 (up to 6m3/h)
    and G6 (up to 10m3/h)
   European manufacturers
             • Actaris
             • Elster
             • Kromschroeder
             • Nuovopignone

        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                15
                                                                             Inner grids
                                         Assess the permeability of PE
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Testing materials & devices used in houses
 Scope = gas-valve combination, connection
  between end-using devices and house
  installation, and whole end-using device (like
  boiler)
 Metals : copper, steels, cast iron, ductile iron, etc.
 Polymers : PE, PVC, elastomers, etc.

 This task starts at month 18 (October „05):
  definition of test conditions

        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                16
                                    Durability Assessment Tool
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




 Develop new software tool for predicting damage
  impact on pipeline strength
 Verification of software simulation : estimation of
  lifetime of networks
 User guide for operation with NG/H2 mixtures

 The results from the WP3 “Durability” will be used
  in the WP4 “Integrity” for updating the
  inspection, repair and integrity management tools


        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                17
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




         Operational Management of
                  Integrity


                                                      TNO – Jan Heerings



     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
                                                                                                                    18
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)
                                     Balance between Integrity
                                         controlling factors
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                                    Material                                                            Mechanical
                                  Performance                                                           loading (operations)
                                                                                Structural
                                                                                Reliability
                                                                                    or
                                                                                   PoF


                                                                                    Defect
                                                                                     size
                                   Inspection                                                         Repair
                                   requirements                                                       requirements

Changing material performance          changing acceptable defect size
     modified operating window
     modified inspection & repair requirements
        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                        19
                                           Potential Effect of Hydrogen,
                                          in terms of maximum acceptable defect size
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                           Example of typical result :
                                                                                                                                                Various
                                                        Maximum allowable dimension of                                                          safety margins
                                                               corroded spot
                           8
                                                                                                                                        Rc = 1.0 MAOP
                           7
                       d




                                                                                                                                        Rc = 1.5 MAOP
Depth of corroded spot c




                                                                                                                                        Rc = 1.7 MAOP
                           6
                                                                                                                                        Rc = 1.9 MAOP
                           5

                           4
                                                                                                                                     MSYS = 369 MPa
                           3                                                                                                         MSUTS = 520 MPa
                           2

                           1

                           0
                               10                                                               100                                                     1000
                                                             Defect length L (axial direction) [mm]


                      NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
                      for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                                          20
                                        Inspection requirements
 Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
 Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                                                                                 Which requirements are needed ?
MFL                                                                              Which improvements are possible ?



                                                                                             MFL Inspection –        most frequently used technology
                                                                                                                                MFL tools have around
                                                                                                                                80% of the world wide
                                                                                                                                Inspection market

                                                                                                                                Plus -
                                                                                                                                • Robust
                                                                                                                                • Works in liquid or gas
                                                                                                                                • Tolerant to dirt
                                                                                                                                • High speed 4m/sec
                                                                                                                                • Good detection & sizing (+/-
                                                                                                                                  10% wt @ 80% confidence)
                                         Data from GE PII                                                                       • Good for small pits (>7mm dia)
UT                                                                                                                              Minus
                                                                                                                                • Indirect measure of wall
                                                                                                                                • Not good for axial defects
                                                                                                                                • Not good for gradual thinning




      NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
      for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                                                              21
                                                    Repair requirements
   Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
   Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                                                                                               Which requirements are needed ?
                                                                                               Which improvements are possible ?
 Grinding

 Weld deposit

 Metallic sleeves (bolted or welded)

 Composite sleeves

 Advanced metallic sleeves (GE PII ESR)

 Cut and replace defective section of pipe
        NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
        for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                      22
                                            Integrity Management
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                                                            Threat Identification




  Repair &                                                                                                               Integrity (PoF) &
  Mitigation                                                                                                             Consequence (CoF)
  Measures                                                                                                               Assessment




             Inspection &                                                                                           Risk
             Monitoring                                                                                             Evaluation

     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                                   23
                                                Challenge in Naturalhy
    Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
    Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




Translation of changed material properties towards
Decision-making on WHEN and HOW to INSPECT and REPAIR

                     Main deliverables:
                     • Improved inspection methods
                     • Improved repair methods
                     • Integrity Management Tool & Resource Allocation

                                                                      Taking account of:
                                                                      • Percentage of hydrogen in mixture
                                                                      • Material of construction
                                                                      • Operating conditions
                                                                      • Age of pipeline, historical inspection data
                                                                      • CP measurement data and level of protection
                                                                      • Coating survey measurements

         NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
         for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                24
Preparing for the Hydrogen Economy by Using the Existing Natural Gas System as a Catalyst
Project Contract No.: SES6/CT/2004/502661




                                                                THANK YOU




     NATURALHY is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission’s Sixth Framework Programme (2002-2006)
     for research, technological development and demonstration (RTD)                                                25

								
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