Liquefied Natural Gas LNG Terminals Liquefied Natural Gas LNG Terminals Kelly Fortin APS Katy Forney by ays20225

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									Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
         Terminals
        Kelly Fortin (APS)
       Katy Forney (APS)
     Stanley Krivo (AQMTS)
Liquefied Natural Gas

• Natural gas converted to liquid state
  – Negative 260F
  – Reduces volume by factor of 600

  – LNG is vaporized back to natural gas at import
    facility (i.e. platform, ship, onshore facility)
  – Transported to end user via pipeline (FERC)
Basic Configurations
• LNG carrier to onshore vaporization facility
  (ex. Elba Island, GA, Lake Charles, LA)
• LNG carrier to offshore gravitation based
  vaporization port (Main Pass, LA)
• LNG carrier to storage and regas vessel
  (Calypso LNG, FL)
• Transport and Regas Vessel (Calypso LNG,
  FL, Gulf Gateway)
• LNG carrier to Hi-load (TORP LNG, AL)
Examples of LNG Terminals
(Side-by-Side and Turret)
Examples LNG Terminals
(Onshore and Gravitational)
Region 4 Projects:
• Port Dolphin – Hoegh LNG - 23 miles offshore
    Tampa (final EIS)
•   TORP Bienville – 63 mi. offshore Fort Morgan,
    AL (revision w/ AAV 6/09)
•   Calypso LNG – Suez Energy – 8 miles offshore
    Fort Lauderdale (withdrawn 2/09)
•   Casotte Landing – Chevron- Pascagoula, MS
•   Gulf Energy – Clean Energy -Pascagoula, MS
•   Elba Island – El Paso Southern LNG- Savannah
    GA (existing expansion)
Examples of LNG Carriers
Hoegh Galleon
Carrier docked in Oman
Carrier in Alaska (Ships from US to Japan)
Carrier escorted into Boston Harbor (Everett, MA – Suez)
Regulatory Agencies’ Roles:
Offshore:

• USGC/MARAD Lead Agencies under DWPA and NEPA
• EPA is Cooperating Agency under NEPA
• EPA issues Air quality and Water permits and for NEPA
    review
•   DWP specifically grants EPA and the nearest State “veto”
    authority

Onshore:
• FERC Lead Agency under NEPA onshore
• EPA is cooperating agency under NEPA
• State Agency issues Air Quality Permits
Regulatory Authority Offshore
Authorized by the Deepwater Ports Act (DWPA)
  as amended by the Energy Policy Act

Deepwater Ports are located beyond State
  jurisdiction in Federal waters

Distinct from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)
  Sources – (OCSLA)
LNG Licensing Issues
Vaporization Process

         Open Loop - Heat obtained from sea water (Pelican, Compass)

         Closed Loop - Heat obtained from combustion of LNG
                  (current technology)
         Ambient Air Vaporization – Heat obtained from air
                  (Lake Charles, Clearwater, TORP)

LNG Carrier Emissions

         Offloading emissions are significant
         LNG carrier emissions - off loading, hotelling, maneuvering

Risk Assessment – Generally conducted by 3rd party/National Lab
Air Quality Impact Modeling Issues

       •    Site Boundary
       •   Air Quality Model
       •   Modeling Procedures
       •   PSD Class I and II Area Impacts
       •   Inventory of other sources
       •   Primary emissions include vessels

       •   Differences Between Air permit & NEPA EIS

       Best Advice: Submit Protocol in Advance!
LNG References

• http://www.ferc.gov/industries/lng.asp
• http://www.lngfacts.org/LNG-Today/Bringing-
    LNG.asp
•   “EPA’s Liquefied Natural Gas Regulatory
    Roadmap”
•   http://www.suezenergyna.com/ourcompanies/ln
    gna-calypso.shtml
•   http://www.torplng.com/

								
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