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                                                                                           Issues in Architectural
                                                                            Director’s     Conservation in the
                                                                                           Twenty-first Century

                                                                                           Growing problems in protecting
                                                                                           the character of historic
                                                                                           buildings and cities is a common
                                                                                           theme in three keynote
                                                                                           addresses Professor Ronald
                                                Director’s Message                         Lewcock has been asked to
                                                                                           give in the Middle East this
                       Fall 2004                Welcome to the first issue of the PhD       year. Lewcock’s lectures have
                                                Newsletter. I am excited about sharing     centered on two different
                                                with you the varied activities of the      issues. The first, which he calls
                                                students and faculty in the College of
                                                                                           the poetics of conservation,
                                                Architecture PhD Program at Georgia
                                                Tech. As the program continues to
                                                                                           is critical of over-restoration:
                                                grow, the activities have increased        the increasing tendency to
 In this Issue                                  in their impact and intellectual           renew buildings—including
                                                contribution. The faculty have been        the imaginary recreation of
                                                exploring ways for this exciting work      missing parts—rather than
 Director’s Message P. 1                        to become better known to our friends      respecting their integrity and
                                                and supporters. This newsletter is one     the qualities of venerable
 Issues in Architectural                        of the methods we have created to          aging. The second concerns
 Conservation in the Twenty-first                share our work. We plan to publish
                                                                                           the need for flexibility in
 Century P. 1                                   the newsletter “hard copy” in the
                                                fall, winter and spring, and it will
                                                                                           applying traditional conservation
 A Rapid Performance Assessment                 also be available on the Architecture      principles to the fabric of living
 Toolkit for Buildings P. 2                     PhD website. The newsletter is an          historic cities–contrasting the
                                                ongoing and continuously evolving          goal of many conservators: the
 Steel Industry Leads the                       diary of the research and scholarly        open-air museum, suitable for
 Construction Market in the                     activity of the PhD program. It is         son et lumiere evocations of a
 Adoption of Building Information               our hope that alumnae who have left        romantic, imaginary past (see
 Modeling P. 3                                  Georgia Tech will report back to us        figure below) with the more
                                                any noteworthy activities in which you
                                                                                           progressive and vital goal of a
 How Does Space Affect Visitors in              have been involved, so the information
                                                can be shared in later issues. We are
                                                                                           continuing real and prospering
 Museum Environments? P. 4
                                                very enthusiastic about the activities     city, which yet accommodates
 Research on Public Architecture:               described here. We hope you will join      the fabric of its historic past.
 Studying and Documenting                       us in that enthusiasm.
 Innovative Federal Offices and                                                             Lewcock cites a concern with
 Courthouses P. 4                               Sincerely,                                 integrity as the central issue
                                                Chuck Eastman                              of conservation, which does
 Ph.D. News     P. 5                            Director, COA PhD Program                  not exclude the possibility of
                                                                                           judicious face-lifting, providing
                                                                                           that that is done transparently
                                                                                           with thorough documentation
                                                                                           and display. Integrity is,
                                                                                           however, quite difficult to
                                                                                           maintain when conservation
                                                                                           is combined with adaptive
                                                                                           reuse. For this reason, Lewcock
                                                                                           argues that the latter should
                                                                                           be advocated only when
                                                                                           buildings are not of supreme
                                                                                           importance because of their
                                                                                           quality, uniqueness, or historical
                                                                                           associations. Architectural
                                                                                           masterpieces have to be treated
                                                                                           with the respect accorded to the
                                                                                           Parthenon or the Sistine Chapel;
                                                                                           in their case reuse is out of the
                                                                                           question. For other buildings,
                                                                                           varying degrees of modification
                                                                                           are conceivable, and, in the
                                                                                           case of houses and ordinary
                                                                                           buildings, only the facades
                                                                                           need to be kept faithful to their
Samarkand: The Registan, Timur’s market square, is now empty and isolated and used as an
open-air museum and for son et lumiere displays.                                                                                1
                                                                                      A Rapid Performance
                                                                                      Assessment Toolkit for Buildings

                                                                                      Organizations feel an increasing
                                                                                      need for actionable and up-to-date
                                                                                      information about their buildings.
                                                                                      Whereas owners are beginning to
                                                                                      view their building portfolio as a vital
                                                                                      production factor, commissioned
                                                                                      surveys routinely reveal serious
                                                                                      building deficiencies, maintenance
                                                                                      backlogs, and unsatisfied occupants.
                                                                                      It is now well recognized that
                                                                                      buildings should be constantly
                                                                                      monitored to verify that they offer
                                                                                      a safe, healthy and productive
                                                                                      environment to their occupants and
                                                                                      facilitated processes.

                                                                                      To respond to this need, Georgia
A recently paved street flanked by screen walls to provide increased security for      Tech has developed a set of
market gardens, measures which have recently proved necessary in San’a’, a            objective and quantitative measures
surviving medieval city.                                                              of building performance. The
                                                                                      development team consists of
                                                                                      Professor Fried Augenbroe and
original character; internal                   When it comes to the size, density,    his recent graduates (now post-
changes should be allowed to                   speed, and parking of modern           doc) Dr. Cheol-Soo Park, with GRA
accommodate the new functions                  motorized vehicles in old cities,      support from Mate Thitisawat and
so important to the continuation               the great architectural historian C.   Shariar Makarechi, PhD students in
of prosperous urban life.                      G. Argan long ago laid down the        the PhD Program. The measures
                                               policy that has saved many Italian     have been harnessed in a toolkit
The pressures for change                       cities—no concessions at all!          for rapid and efficient deployment.
in living in old cities in the                                                        The method assesses a building in
modern world are enormous.                     But Argan’s policy is now              its actual setting and usage, based
Dealing with them forces                       inadequate, and strategies such        on performance indicators that
conservators to compromise                     as the use of vehicle-restricting      provide cost-effective, quantitative
many of their principles—if                    hydraulic bollards, the taxation       predictions and assessments of how
the historic areas are not to                  of vehicles entering historic          well a building supports specific
die. But, unfortunately, much                  zones, and the provision of            client functions. They can both
of conservation theory has yet                 parking on the periphery are           be used to state requirements
to come to terms with these                    essential. Lewcock stresses that       (expectations) as well as quantify
new pressures and evolve                       conservation activities are under      actual performances (fulfillments).
satisfactory compromise                        pressure as never before. Now,         The current version of the toolkit
solutions. Lewcock cites three                 principles of conservation need to     contains measures for energy,
cases in point: motorized traffic,              be re-examined and revalued—           lighting, thermal comfort and
parking, and the need for                      with more stringency at one            maintenance, embodied in a set of
increased security. Motorized                  extreme and provision for more         performance indicators (PI) based
traffic in narrow streets,                      flexibility and change at the other.    on normative calculation routines.
which were traditionally used
by pedestrians and slow-                       Professor Lewcock has been             The building performance toolkit
moving small vehicles, can                     technical coordinator of several       offers a vital instrument for
be oppressive and ultimately                   World Bank conservation projects       continuous commissioning strategies
destructive. One of the first                   in the Middle East, of two UNESCO      and tactical services management
issues motorized vehicles bring                international campaigns for urban      over a building’s service life. It has
is the need for tough paving.                  conservation, and of a recent          already been benchmarked on 10
Traditional streets were cobbled               UNDP initiative in Uzbekistan. He      large office buildings in Georgia and
with small stones, if they were                serves on the UNESCO Committee         is currently being used in the trial
paved at all. Lewcock argues                   of Experts on the safeguarding of      phase of an energy and sustainability
that cities must find a way                     the historic city of Jerusalem.        initiative on the Georgia Tech
to provide vehicle-resistant                                                          campus. The toolkit development
paving which is stouter than the               One of his books on a historic city
                                                                                      was funded by the General Services
original, but not too dissimilar in            and its conservation has been
                                                                                      Administration (GSA). It was officially
scale and character—certainly                  published on the Internet this
                                                                                      launched in a GSA hosted summit
not using smooth, polished, or                 year: (
                                                                                      meeting in Washington DC on 8 and
alien modern materials (see                    ebooks/unescopdf/sana_eng.pdf)
                                                                                      9 June 2004.
figure above).

  Steel Industry Leads the                             for fast and reliable data                      applications to build up a
  Construction Market in                               exchange. Currently fifteen                      repository model of a complex
  the Adoption of Building                             applications, spanning 3D steel                 steel structure and all its design,
  Information Modeling                                 structural design, structural                   analysis, detailing and production
                                                       analysis, steel detailing                       information. Such “building model
  Over the last eight years, the                       and fabrication, production                     repositories” are expected to be
  North American steel industry has                    management and erection                         the ultimate replacement of a set
  shown the rest of the construction                   applications have been integrated               of drawings in the future. This
  industry the time and productivity                   using CIS/2.                                    summer, the team and Georgia
  benefits of parametric 3D                                                                             Tech licensed the intellectual
  modeling. For steel fabricators,                     The CIS/2 data model is a data                  property for the repository
  similar to the automotive and                        exchange standard for steel                     database system to a company
  aerospace industries, the best                       structures. In some ways, it is                 who is planning to develop a
  practices in building structural                     similar to Rich Text Format (RTF)               Building Model Repository system
  steel involves design and                            but more complicated, allowing                  for the steel industry.
  fabrication based on 3D modeling                     passing of complex structural
  systems, with integrated structural                  steel information between                       Currently, the GA Tech team is
  analysis, integration with                           applications. The Georgia                       undertaking a harmonization
  Computer-Aided Manufacturing                         Tech team provides technical                    project between CIS/2 and
  (CAM), with later transfer to                        support for software developers                 the Industry Foundation Class
  materials management systems.                        implementing translators using                  (IFC) product model, developed
  These different computer systems                     CIS/2, undertakes testing of                    by the International Alliance
  have all been integrated using a                     candidate translators, undertakes               for Interoperability (IAI). The
  building product model, allowing                     workflow analyses of selected                    IFC has become the standard
  valuable workflow benefits.                            steel production operations, and                product model in the architecture
                                                       develops prototype software                     and construction parts of the
  Ph.D. Program faculty and                            for enhancing data exchange.                    building industry. The goal of
  students in the College of                           For example, Joon You has                       this effort is be to allow smooth
  Architecture at Georgia Tech have                    developed software allowing very                exchange between architect,
  played strategic roles in helping                    different applications to exchange              contractor and steel fabricator,
  the American Institute of Steel                      data iteratively, without the data              using any of a wide variety of
  Construction (AISC) to realize                       from either application being                   3D applications. Will 3D digital
  these goals. Under the guidance                      dropped. Called incremental                     models of steel structures of
  of Professor Chuck Eastman,                          update and merge, this capability               buildings replace traditional
  Ph.D. students Joon You, Frank                       allows richer and more complex                  construction and shop drawings?
  Wang, Donghoon Yang and                              workflows to be carried out                      Recently, the AISC has amended
  Jaemin Lee have worked since                         automatically. The team has                     its Code of Standard Practice
  2000 to spread the use of 3D                         published four research papers                  to support the use of modeling
  modeling applications and their                      on their work so far. In addition,              files in place of drawings within
  integration, using the CIMsteel                      the student team has developed                  construction projects. Similar
  Integration Standard, Version 2                      a database implementation of                    work is underway to develop
  (CIS/2) building product model,                      CIS/2, allowing all the CIS/2                   new standard contracts by the
                                                                                                       American Institute of Architects.

Model of Soldier’s Field in Chicago and corresponding photo. All aspects of the steel cut pieces, connections, stiffeners and other detailing
were used for NC production and drawing preparation (courtesy Thornton Tomasetti Engineers).
How Does Space Affect
Visitors in Museum

Museums have always played
an important role in the cultural
and intellectual life of nations.
Some museums may focus
on culture, for example the
High Museum of Art in Atlanta,
Georgia, and the Tate Gallery in
London, England, while others
may stress the importance of
science or industry, such as the
Natural History Museum in New                 Great Lakes Science Center, ZAP                    Great Lakes Science Center, ZAP
York, and the Victoria and Albert         Layout Shaded by Projection Polygon Area                      Voronoi Regions
                                                                                                    Delaunay Trinagulation
Museum in London. Educating
visitors has increasingly become
                                                    Analytical Representation of Spatial Structure for an Exhibision Setting
an important mission for

A team of researches at Georgia            More specifically, measures of                      The exhibitions were studied
Tech, led by Dr. John Peponis,             accessibility predict the degree to                in different settings, and host
has collaborated with a team               which visitors will become aware of                institutions, to determine the
of researchers at the University           single exhibits, while measures of                 effects of alternative layouts. The
of Michigan, Led by Dr. Jean               visibility predict the degree to which             locations were: the Great Lakes
Wineman, to model how layout               they will actively engage with them.               Science Center in Cleveland, Ohio,
affects the manner in which
                                                                                              the Tech in San Diego, California,
visitors explore exhibition spaces         Further, the movement choices                      and the Carnegie Science Center
and engage individual exhibits.            that visitors make are influenced                   in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The
Their work makes an important              by the extent to which exhibits are                project was funded by a National
contribution to museum studies,            manifestly grouped into thematic                   Science Foundation grant (through
because previously the focus of            units according to color, adjacency, or            the Informal Science Education
research was on how to improve             other architectural devices.                       Program).
individual exhibits, and now it
becomes possible to assess the             These results were obtained by                     A paper reporting the main
layout of exhibitions as well, in          studying two traveling science                     findings was recently published in
order to improve overall design.           exhibitions from the Carnegie Science              Environmental and Planning; see
Studies show that layouts                  Center.                                            publication section.
influence visitor behaviors in
subtle ways, even when there is            One exhibition was devoted to
no attempt to direct visitor paths         advanced surgery technologies (ZAP!
or frame views.                            surgery), and the other to robotics.

Research on Public                          For the past three years, this                     wide range of kinds of information
Architecture: Studying and                  group has been developing a                        at different scales, from courtroom
Documenting Innovative                      web-accessible best-practices                      lighting, acoustics and sightlines
Federal Courthouses and                     database for the General Services                  within courtrooms, to urban design
                                            Administration (GSA) and the                       strategies for new courthouses,
                                            Administrative Office of the US                     and other relevant data.
The PhD program at Georgia Tech is          Courts. This database CourtsWeb
becoming one of the principal centers       houses considerable information                    One of the principal researchers on
in the United States to focus on public     describing and assessing federal                   the CourtsWeb project, Debajyoti
architecture. Dr. Craig Zimring, Dr.        courthouses. This very highly secure               Pati, recently defended his
Thanos Economou, Professor Michael          website allows design teams for                    dissertation where he conducted
Gamble, and graduate students in the        new federal courthouses to see                     post-occupancy evaluations (POEs)
program have been focusing on issues        plans, photos, analyses, and also                  of some 32 additional courtrooms,
that range from asking fundamental          provides a “lessons learned” section               focusing on users’ evaluation of
questions about the nature of public        for architects, facilities’ managers,              lighting and acoustics and physical
buildings post 9/11 to what new tools       and other personnel. The site allows               measures of those qualities.
need to be developed by designers           comparisons between forty recently
to assist in the planning, design and       built federal courthouses. These
management of public buildings.             comparisons can be made for a                                        Continue in Page no.5
Continued from Page 4:                       Sacks R, Eastman CM, and Lee G,          Lyon E, “Artificial Intelligence
                                             (2004), “Parametric 3D Modeling in       and Emergence in Architecture:
He developed a data structure that           Building Construction with Examples      A Multi-Agent Based Model for
allows future users of the data to           from Precast Concrete,” Automation       Design Processes,” Proceeding of
make flexible inquiries and analyses          in Construction, 13: 291-312.            the VIII Congreso Iberoamericano
of the data, and particularly to link                                                 de Grafica Digital SIGRADI, Porto,
physical measurements to users’              Sanford JA, Jones M, Daviou P,           Alegre, Brasil, November 2004.
evaluations. This data structure is          Grogg K, and Butterfield T, (2004)
                                             “Using Telerehabilitation to Identify    Lyon E and Knoespel K,
a considerable advance because
                                             Home Modification Needs,” Assistive       “Autopoiesis and Emergence in
it points toward a new way of                Technology. 16(1):43-53.                 Architecture,” Proceeding of the
conducting POEs and particularly                                                      Enacting New Synergies in Arts and
for making the results usable for            Park CS, Augenbroe G, Messadi T,         Sciences Conference, Third Society
subsequent decision-making.                  Thitisawat M, and Sadegh N, (2004),      for Literature and Science, Paris,
                                             ”In-situ Calibration of a Lumped         France, June 2004.
PhD Program researchers and                  Simulation Model of Smart Double-
students have also worked                    Skin Façade Systems,” Energy and         Moon HJ, “Experimental
extensively with the Public                  Buildings, 36: 1117-1130.                Comparison of Thermal
Buildings Service of the US General                                                   Environment between Ceiling-based
Services Administration to evaluate          Conference Proceedings                   and Floor-based System with CAV
                                                                                      HVAC System,” Proceeding of the
workspaces that intended to support          Eastman CM, Sacks R, and Lee G,          9th International Conference on
new modes of knowledge workers               Strategies for Realizing the Benefits     Air Distribution in Rooms, Coimbra,
that are more interactive, dynamic           Implementing 3D Parametric               Portugal, September 2004.
and agile. Research Scientist Dr             Modeling in Technical Areas of
Mahbub Rashid has analyzed the               Construction – a Case Study,             Patterson L and Green Leigh N,
layouts and work behavior in several         Proceeding of the CIB International      “Sustainable Redevelopment and
innovative federal offices and has            Conference, W78, Toronto, Canada,        Deconstruction,” Proceeding of
observed the behavior of work.               May 2004.                                the Deconstruction and Building
                                                                                      Materials Reuse Conference,
He has found that layout predicts            Eastman CM, Sacks R, and Lee G,          Oakland CA, September 2004.
movement and interaction. He is              “Functional Modeling in Parametric
working with the planning and                CAD Systems,” Proceeding of              Patterson L and Green Leigh
architecture firm DEGW to create              the Generative CAD Conference,           N, “Public Role in Promoting
a new method of observing people             Carnegie-Mellon, USA, July 2004.         Deconstruction for Local Economic
in workspaces using hand-held                                                         Development,” Proceeding of the
computers. Faculty member Dr                 He W, “Otherness in Hejduk’s Poetry      International Urban Planning and
Sonit Bafna and PhD Student Ranah            and Architecture,” Proceeding of         Environment Symposium, Louisville,
                                             the ACSA Central Regional Meeting,       USA, September 2004.
Hammash are working with GSA’s
                                             Elgin, USA, June 2004.
innovative WorkPlace 20.20 Program                                                    Shakoorian A and Sadri S,
to integrate spatial analysis and            He W, “When the Body in Poetry           “Application of Total Building
particularly space syntax into the           Meets the Body in Architecture:          Commissioning in Performance
federal government’s office planning          Reading John Hejduk’s architectural      Based Building Procurement
process.                                     space of the Diamond Museum and          Strategy,” Proceeding of the 12th
                                             the Wall House 2 through the lens of     National Conference on Building
                                             his poems on paintings Conversation:     Commissioning, Atlanta, USA, May
                                             Enacting New Synergies in Arts and       2004.
                                             Sciences,” Proceeding of the Third
                                             SLS European Conference, Paris,          You S-J, Yang D, and Eastman CM,
  Ph.D. News                                 France, June 2004.                       “Relational DB Implementation of
                                                                                      STEP based product model,” CIB
  Journal Publications                       Lee G, Sacks R, Eastman CM, and          T6S7 Information technology in
                                             Wessman R, “Development of an            construction, Proceeding of the CIB
  Augenbroe G and Moon HJ (2004),            Intelligent 3D Parametric Modeling       International Congress, Toronto,
  “An interoperability workbench for         System for the North American            Canada, May 2004.
  design analysis integration”, Energy       Precast Concrete Industry: Phase II,”
  and Buildings, 36: 737-748.                Proceeding of the 21th International     Wang FL and Eastman CM, “A
                                             Association for Automation and           Framework for Developing a
  Peponis J, Conroy-Dalton R, Wineman        Robotics in Construction, Jeju, Korea,   3D Graphic Query System on a
  J, and Dalton N, (2004), “Measuring        September 2004.                          Generic Product Model Repository”.
  the Effects of Layout Upon Visitors’                                                Proceeding of the Generative CAD
  Spatial Behaviors in Open Plan             Lyon E and Peponis J, “Surface,          Conference 2004. Pittsburgh, USA,
  Exhibition Settings,” Environment and      Disjunction and Interiority: Francis     July 2004.
  Planning (B): Planning and Design, 31:     Ford Coppolas Apocalypse Now as an
  253-273.                                   Image of Space,” Proceeding of the       Yang D, Eastman CM, and You
                                             Enacting New Synergies in Arts and       S-J, “Exchangeable Subset of
  Peponis J, (2004), “Spatial Intentions,”   Sciences Conference, Third Society       Product Model,” Proceeding of
  Architecture in Greece, 38: 66-67.         for Literature and Science, Paris,       the Generative CAD Conference,
                                             France, June 2004.                       Carnegie-Mellon, USA, July 2004.

Lectures and Presentations

Butterfield T, Ramseur JH, Endicott             Peponis J and Spanou I, “Feeling and        Bellal T, Winner of International
S, and Moscoso G, “Retrospective               Spatial Description”, 3rd International     Fulbright award from the Fulbright
Analysis of User Needs for Workplace           Conference, Society for Literature and      Foundation Program for Senior
Accommodations,” Rehabilitation                Science, Paris, France, June 2004.          Scholars in order to spend six months
Engineering Society of North America                                                       at Georgia Tech to work in association
Conference, June 2004.                         Peponis J, Main invited speaker,            with Dr. John Peponis, August 2004.
                                               Three day conference and workshop
                                                                                           Peponis J, Invited Juror in
Butterfield T, Ramseur JH, Endicott S,          on “Games- Architecture”, School of
                                                                                           Architecture Workshop: “Boundaries/
and Moscoso G, “A Study of Advanced            Architecture, University of Thessaly,
                                                                                           Transformations” at the Mediterranean
Manufacturing Technology as a Workplace        Volos, Greece, May 2004.
                                                                                           Center of Architecture in Chania,
Accommodation in a Manufacturing
                                               Rieke V, “Alternative contracting           Greece, August 2004.
Environment,” Rehabilitation Engineering
Society of North America Conference,           techniques and school building
                                                                                           Rieke V, Winner of the 2004-2005
June 2004.                                     construction,” presented at The
                                                                                           Urban Land Institute Kenneth M. Good
                                               Council of Educational Facility Planners
                                                                                           Fellowship, June 2004.
Craig R, “Maybeck and Nineteenth-              Conference, September 2004.
Century Theories of Empathy,” Southern                                                     Rieke V, Winner of the Doctoral
College Art Conference (SECAC),                Awards and Scholarships                     Student Research Grant, Department
Jacksonville, USA, October 2004.                                                           of Housing and Urban Development
                                               Han B, Winner of the first prize in the
                                                                                           (HUD), September 2004.
Craig R, “Meet Me at The Fair Louisiana        first annual Southern Design Competition
Purchase Exposition and the Arts and           at this year’s Southern Building
                                                                                           Contact Information
Crafts Movement on Display,” Invited           Conference in Atlanta, June 2004.
lecture, New York University 2004 Arts
                                               Keel TM, The chairman for the               Mercedes Saghini,
and Crafts Symposium held in St. Louis,
                                               Continental Automated Building              Ph.D. Academic Assistant,
USA: “Maybeck’s Principia: From Arts and
                                               Association (CABA), Intelligent and
Crafts to Pioneer Brutalism,” June 2004.
                                               Integrated Building Council, Task Force
                                               3, “Life Cycle Costs of Integrated and      Paula Peche,
Craig R, “Maybeck and Elsah,” Invited
                                               Intelligent Facilities,” August 2004.       Ph.D. Research Coordinator,
lecture, Landmarks Preservation Council
of Illinois, Illinois Statewide Preservation
Conference, Pere Marquette State Park,         Joseph A, Awarded a Dissertation
                                               Grant from The Robert Wood Johnson          Chuck Eastman,
Grafton, USA, June 2004.
                                               Foundation through its Active Living        Director, COA Ph.D. Program,
                                               Research national program for a study of
Han B, “A Space Syntax Study of the
Social and Spatial Networks in the             the environmental factors that promote
                                                                                           Mohammad Gharipour,
Traditional Neighborhoods in Beijing,          physical activity in older adults, August
                                                                                           Ph.D. Focus Student Coordinator,
China,” presented at 36th World Congress       2004.
of the International Institute Of Sociology,
Beijing, China. July 2004.                     Nicoll G, Awarded a Dissertation
                                               Grant from The Robert Wood Johnson          Email correspondence should be
                                               Foundation through its Active Living        addressed to: “paula.peche@coa.gatech.
Nicoll G, “ A Framework for the
                                               Research national program for a study of    edu” and paper mail correspondence
Assessment of the Environmental Factors
                                               the environmental factors that promote      should be addressed to: Ph.D. Office:
that Influence Voluntary Stair Use,”
                                               voluntary stair use, August 2004.           Room 219, College of Architecture,
presented at the EDRA Conference in
                                                                                           Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, June 2004.
                                                                                           Georgia 30332-0155, USA.

  Ph.D. Office: Room 219
  College of Architecture
  Georgia Institute of
  Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0155