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Master Theses 1998 - 2002 by mxp28572

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									  Nr. 2/2003                                                            SIU
                                                                         Rapportserien




Master Theses 1998 - 2002
A Bibliography of Master Theses from the NORAD Fellowship Programme



Edited by Ken Erik Berntsen and Ellen Hagen




                                                                                                      ISSN 1503-2582




UNIVERSITETS- OG HØGSKOLERÅDET NORWEGIAN COUNCIL FOR HIGHER EDUCATION
SIU SENTER FOR INTERNASJONALT UNIVERSITETSSAMARBEID CENTRE FOR INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY COOPERATION
                                                                                                                                                     Table of Contents



                                                                     Table of contents


Table of contents ......................................................................................................................................................... 1

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 3

Chapter 1 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme in 2002 and 2001 ......................................................... 6
       Agricultural University of Norway ....................................................................................................................... 7
         M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics.............................................................................................. 7
           Master thesis 2002......................................................................................................................................... 7
         M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics.............................................................................................. 8
           Master Thesis 2001 ....................................................................................................................................... 8
         M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture...................................................... 11
           Master Thesis 2002 ..................................................................................................................................... 11
         M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture...................................................... 33
           Master thesis 2001....................................................................................................................................... 33
       Norwegian University of Science and Technology ............................................................................................. 61
         M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography).................................................................................... 61
           Master Thesis 2002 .................................................................................................................................... 61
         M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography).................................................................................... 65
           Master thesis: 2001...................................................................................................................................... 65
         M.Sc. in Hydropower Development................................................................................................................ 70
           Master Thesis 2002 ..................................................................................................................................... 70
         M.Sc. in Hydropower Development................................................................................................................ 72
           Master thesis 2001....................................................................................................................................... 72
         M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience................................................................................ 75
           Master Thesis 2002 .................................................................................................................................... 75
         M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience................................................................................ 77
           Master thesis 2001....................................................................................................................................... 77
         M.Sc. in Marine Technology........................................................................................................................... 79
           Mater Thesis 2002 ....................................................................................................................................... 79
       University of Bergen ........................................................................................................................................... 83
         Diploma / M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management ............................................................... 83
           Master thesis 2002...................................................................................................................................... 83
         Diploma/ M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management ................................................................ 88
           Master thesis 2001....................................................................................................................................... 88
         M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health)........................................................................................... 91
           Master thesis 2002....................................................................................................................................... 91
         M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health)........................................................................................... 93
           Master thesis 2001....................................................................................................................................... 93
         M.Phil. in Public Administration..................................................................................................................... 95
           Master thesis 2002....................................................................................................................................... 95
         M.Phil. in Public Administration..................................................................................................................... 98
           Master thesis 2001....................................................................................................................................... 98
         M.Phil. in Social Anthropology (Human Ecology) ....................................................................................... 101
           Master thesis: 2002.................................................................................................................................... 101
         M.Phil. in Social Anthropology (Human Ecology) ....................................................................................... 102
           Master thesis 2001..................................................................................................................................... 102
       University of Oslo ............................................................................................................................................. 104
         M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education .................................................................................... 104
           Master thesis 2002..................................................................................................................................... 104



                                                                                       1
                                                                                                                                                Table of Contents


         M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education .................................................................................... 108
           Master thesis 2001..................................................................................................................................... 108
         M.Phil. in International Community Health .................................................................................................. 109
           Master Thesis 2002 ................................................................................................................................... 109
         M.Phil. in International Community Health .................................................................................................. 113
           Master thesis 2001..................................................................................................................................... 113
         M.Sc. in Public Health (Information systems Track) UWC, South Africa ................................................... 114
           Master thesis 2002..................................................................................................................................... 114
       University of Tromsø ........................................................................................................................................ 115
         M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management............................................................................................... 115
           Master thesis 2002.................................................................................................................................... 115
         M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management............................................................................................... 119
           Master thesis 2001..................................................................................................................................... 119

Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002 ............................ 122

Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country .............................................................. 143

Tables and statistics ................................................................................................................................................ 165
       Table 1.Master theses submitted in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by course and year ......................... 166
       Table 2. Master theses submitted in the period from 1998-2002 by country ................................................... 167
       Table 3. NORAD Fellows enrolled in the programme from 1998 - 2002 by gender and country ................... 168




                                                                                    2
                                                                                        Introduction




                                         Introduction


The Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation (NORAD) has been supporting
competence building in the South since 1962. Over 3000 students from NORAD’s co-operating
partner countries have achieved their diplomas or master’s degrees in Norway. Initially this effort
was called the Educational Fund, but has later developed into the professional and reputable
programme we know today as the NORAD Fellowship Programme. The programme is based on
vision that good educational opportunities at universities and university colleges in Norway can
contribute to increased competence in developing countries. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
(UD) and NORAD have over 40 years of experience in competence building and transfer of
knowledge, and regard this as a vital part of development co-operation.


Since 1998, the Centre for international university cooperation (SIU) has on behalf on NORAD,
been responsible for managing the NORAD Fellowship Programme. The programme
management is regulated by an agreement between NORAD and the Norwegian Council for
Higher Education (UHR). The fellowship programme is based on a de-centralised model, where
course programmes are offered at the Agricultural University of Norway (NLH), the Norwegian
University of Science and Technology (NTNU), the University of Bergen (UiB), the University
of Oslo (UiO) and the University of Tromsø (UiTø). For a number of years, the Norwegian
Shipping Academy was also offering courses in the fellowship programme.


Universities and university colleges in Norway offer a wide range of international diploma and
master`s degree courses of two years duration. For a number of years the fellowship programme
offered courses specially designed for students from the South. At present the fellowship
programme priorities course programmes that are open to both students from the South and
Norway. NORAD fellows attend lectures and work together with Norwegian students as well as
other international students.




                                                3
                                                                                       Introduction


The NORAD Fellowship Programme offers course programme of strategic importance to the
recipient countries, by offering education in areas where Norwegian universities and university
colleges hold a particular high international standing. The course programmes are designed for
an international market and should be relevant for the fellows' home professions. The course
programmes that require examination by thesis, provide the fellows with an opportunity to
choose a theme relevant to their home professions, and carry out research in their own country.
Approximately 100 NORAD fellows are enrolled each year on degree courses and submit a
thesis as part of their master’s degree.


The objective of this bibliography is therefore to show the extensive quantity of research, with
regard to both dimension and quality, that NORAD fellows have generated during their studies.
Research at master’s level represents by large some of the most creative and prominent sources
of knowledge production at institutions of higher learning. The bibliography does not, however,
intend to be exhaustive with regard to the information generated throughout the entire time
period of the fellowship programme. It is rather an attempt to provide the reader with an insight
into the vast array of knowledge production generated by NORAD fellows and the relevance this
research has for development in the South.
This bibliography is based on registered data procured from the participating institutions in
Norway. SIU has registered a total of 300 theses in the period from 1998 – 2002.


The first section of this bibliography contains a presentation of all master’s theses submitted in
2001 and 2002. The information is organised by institution of learning in Norway, course
programme, year of submission, and name of author. In addition to this the reader will also find a
summary of the theses. The second section is providing a list of all master theses submitted under
the NORAD Fellowship Programme from 1998 to 2002. The presentation is organised
alphabetically by name of author. The third section is organised alphabetically by country of the
students, by name of author and title of thesis.


All master’s theses submitted under the NORAD Fellowship Programme from 1998 and
onwards, are also available online at SIUs web pages www.siu.no/norad




                                                   4
                                                 Introduction




 Tom Skauge               Hanne Karlsen




head of section       senior executive officer
     SIU                       SIU




                  5
Chapter 1. Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme in 2002 and 2001




    Chapter 1 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme in 2002 and 2001


In this section of the bibliography, the reader will find a presentation of all master’s theses
submitted in 2001 and 2002 under the NORAD Fellowship Programme. 96 submitted their
master’s thesis in 2001 and 111 in 2002.


The information is organised by institution of learning in Norway, course programme, name of
author and year of submission.


Each author is presented by his/her full name, nationality, and title of thesis. A summary of each
thesis has been included, when this was available in the NORAD Fellowship Programme
database. For students who have published their thesis in full text on the internet, a reference to
their unique URL is also included.




                                                    6
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway               M.Sc in Development and Resource Economics 2002




                            Agricultural University of Norway
                           M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics

                                               Master thesis 2002


Anh, Le Thu
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        The Importance of Access to Land and Land Location for Income
        Generation. A case study at Masindi District in Western Uganda.

Aryal, Baikuntha
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Are trees for the poor? A study from Budongo Forest, Uganda.
Summary: The thesis is available in full text at:
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2002/nlh/thesis01/

Aryal, Jeetendra Prakash
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Unequal Distribution of Land and Its Impact on Land Productivity
        and Land Use Intensity: The case of Western Development Region of Nepal

Busagwa, Prossy
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        How sweet is sugar? The impact of Kinyara Sugar outgrowers scheme
        on the welfare of local households.

Mukorera, Odreck
Nationality: Zimbabwe
Title of thesis:
        The Economic Impact of Smallholder Tobacco in Masindi District,
        Uganda

Turyasiima, Milton
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Analysis of Marketing Constraints to Maize in Masindi District.




                                                       7
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway               M.Sc in Development and Resource Economics 2001




                          M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics

                                               Master Thesis 2001

Debela, Adane Tuffa
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
         Impact of liquidity and credit constraints on soil conservation investments and farm
        productivity: The case of Western development region of Nepal.
Summary:
The use of credit programme as a policy instrument to increase productivity requires accurate
assessment of the expected productivity gains from such a policy. In this study, a two-stage
switching regression model based on farm level data was used to determine the impact of credit
use and liquidity on farmers investment in soil conservation and output supply in Kaski district of
Nepal. Based on the responses from the household level survey, farmers were classified into two
groups, credit constrained and credit non-constrained. Most of the loans were taken for purposes
other than production and soil conservation investment. There was a significant relationship
between farmers credit constraint condition and borrowing status: borrower farmers were more
likely to be credit non-constrained. Credit use and liquidity explained variation in soil
conservation investment on both classes of farms-both credit constrained and non-constrained.
Credit use and liquidity was also a significant explanatory variable for farm output supply on
both classes of farms. The marginal contribution of credit use was higher on farms classified as
credit constrained, indicating the difference in the tightness of the constraint on the two classes of
farms. Although credit explained variation in conservation investment and farm output supply,
the marginal contribution was small, possibly indicating that credit was used for purposes other
than investment and current production. Providing credit for investment and production to small
farmers at affordable terms will have significant impacts on both soil conservation investment
and productivity, especially for farmers classified as credit constrained.


Kebede, Tewodros Aragie
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Farm Household Technical Efficiency: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
Summary:
Efficiency measurement has been the concern of researchers with an aim to investigate the
efficiency levels of farmers engaged in agricultural activities. Identifying determinants of
efficiency levels is a major task in efficiency analysis. Empirical studies suggest that farmers in
developing countries fail to exploit fully the potential of a technology making inefficient
decisions. This study attempts to measure technical efficiency of rice farmers in the mid hills of
Nepal, identify its determinants, and establish its relation to farmers environmental orientation.
There are various methodological matters to consider in estimating technical efficiency. This
study has a specific objective of assessing various distributional assumptions made on the
estimation of stochastic frontier models and compare estimation results for technical efficiency.


                                                       8
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway         M.Sc in Development and Resource Economics 2001


More over, attempt is made to demonstrate the alternative approach to estimation of normal-
gamma stochastic frontier model based on the method of simulated maximum likelihood
estimation as in Greene (2000). The results of this study suggest a useful extension of the
stochastic frontier model, empirically supporting the operational aspect of the model. Maximum
likelihood estimates of technical efficiency are obtained from the half-normal stochastic frontier
model. Results show that the average paddy farm is 71% efficient, implying that improvements
in technical efficiency are still possible. Large elasticity of labour with high statistical
significance shows that labour is an important input in paddy production. Technical efficiency
effects are modelled as a function of farm-specific socio-economic factors, and environmental
factors. Farming experience, and education are both significant variables for improving technical
efficiency. In addition, credit is found to be an important variable determining the level of
efficiency. Facilitating the availability of credit for farm households, for instance through
promotion of credit cooperatives, can serve as a useful policy aimed at increasing agricultural
productivity. Geographic location is found to be a very important variable that should be taken
into account in trying to measure the level of efficiency. In this study, the interaction between
technical efficiency and environmental variables has been assessed. In the study area, it is found
that farmers with poor quality of soil are technically efficient. The direction of causality between
technical efficiency and quality of oil could not be determined. Future research is called up on to
look into identification of this relationship. The relation between farmers environmental
orientation and level of technical efficiency is also investigated in this study. Farmers with
efficiencies below 71% (the mean technical efficiency level), are found to be overwhelmingly
concerned about the environmental degradation on their farm and are willing to forgo some
income to protect soil degradation. This recommends that policies designed to increase technical
efficiency, and hence agricultural productivity may take environmental considerations into
account.

The thesis is available in full text at
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2001/NLH/thesis01.pdf


Sesabo, Jennifer Kasanda
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Assessment of the impact of labour out migration on household agricultural production
        and income distribution. A case study of Mardi Watershed in West
Summary:
The migration of labour out of agriculture can have a profound effect on agricultural production,
consumption and income distribution in rural areas of third world countries. This study examines
the effect of labour-out-migration in Mardi watershed area in Nepal. The study was based on the
data collected through a formal questionnaire administered to 200 households selected randomly
from three Village Development Committees (Lwang-Ghalel, Lahachowk and Rivan). Informal
interview was also used to collect relevant data and information from key informants, which
included village elders and local officials. The study revealed that out of 200 surveyed
households, 96 (48%) were found to have at least one migrant. Of these households, 53
households receive remittances from their migrant members. Most of migrants went to find jobs
in Middle East countries. Econometric models were used to investigate the characteristics of



                                                 9
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway        M.Sc in Development and Resource Economics 2001


migrants households and the effect of migration on rice production, total expenditure, and
income. The decomposition of the coefficient of variation and Gini coefficient were used to
assess the effect of migrants income (remittances) on income distribution. A probit model was
used to examine the factors influencing the decision to migrate. The probit results indicated that
households with more adults and educated members have high probability of migrating. The
greater the amount of credit obtained, the higher was the probability of migration. The increased
per capita off-farm incomes lead to the lower probability of migration, which was against my
hypothesis. However, this was in line with the economic theory that migration income and off
farm income obtained locally considered to be substitute goods. In evaluating the impact of
migration and remittances on rice production, three stage least square (3SLS) method were used.
The results indicated that the number of migrants per households has positive impact on the
production of rice and vice where by the households with migrants tend to hire labour and hence
increase rice production. Furthermore, households with migrants tend usually have more
members, and so the movement of one member does not affect the supply of labour for rice
production. Nevertheless, availability of remittances for the households with migrants makes
them less dependent on agricultural income, and usually they use remittances to finance their
personal expenditure or invest in other profitable activities. In consumption analysis migration
was found to have a positive effect on per capita expenditure, in that 63.3% of households
receiving remittances use the money for personal consumption, 30.5% to pay back loan and
remaining percentage used in starting businesses or buy land. While migration increases the per
capita income, remittances have negative effect on income distribution among the households.
Most of households who received remittances were from the upper income group.




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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




            M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture

                                               Master Thesis 2002

Abu-Shaban, Bayan
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
        The effects of wastewater on the ecological integrity of Wadi Gaza Wetland, Gaza Strip,
        Palestine. An ecological and socio-economical study
Summary:
This study examined the effects of wastewater discharged into Wadi Gaza watercourse on the
ecological integrity of Wadi Gaza Wetland, which is located in Palestine near to the coast of the
Mediterranean Sea. The aim of this study was to look at effects of water pollution on water
quality and the biodiversity of Wadi Gaza Wetland. To investigate the effect of wastewater on
water quality, selected parameters were divided into three groups, physical parameters, chemical
parameters, and one biological parameter. The parameters were analysed at four stations in
August through December 2001. Changes in water quality in both temporal and spatial patterns
were studied. An internationally accepted wetland water quality standard is not available. Typical
composition of untreated domestic wastewater standard was used for comparison. The general
spatial trend of water temperature, which was influenced by atmospheric temperature, decreased
slightly from upstream to downstream and from October to December. A decreasing trend was
observed for electrical conductivity from October through December and from upstream to
downstream. A decline in total solids was observed in December for stations I, III, and IV, which
could be due to water dilution by rainwater. Dissolved oxygen decreased over time, which could
be due to the oxygen consumption by micro-organisms. A slight increase in pH along a transect
in the direction of water flow with a pH range of 7.7 to 9.0 probably had no significant effect on
aquatic life of the Wadi. High concentrations in biochemical and chemical oxygen demand were
observed downstream, which indicates a higher level of pollution. Nitrogen concentrations varied
temporally and spatially, and increased during December. A sharp increase in phosphorus
content was recorded in September, and then a slight decrease was recorded from October
through December. Chloride increased towards the coast and decreased progressively during the
last three months of the study. A sharp increase in fecal coliform was observed in most of the
stations from September until November.
A socio-economic study was simultaneously conducted in Wadi Gaza Wetland area to explore
the perceived causes of deterioration and to identify significant problems that affect people’s
lives in the area. It was found that 96% of respondents were cognisant about the existing flora
and fauna. Respondents ranked wastewater as the highest cause (35%) that threatens biodiversity
and existence of flora and fauna. Local municipalities and local people have been discharging
wastewater for the last 15 years. Wastewater evidently has a negative impact on both people and
nature. Finally, it is concluded that a cooperative management approach should be developed in
order to bring all parties together to negotiate about ways to solve the wastewater problem in the


                                                      11
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


Wadi area. An integrated Wetland Management Strategy is also recommended, which would
provide a framework and process for linking various disciplines and governance levels in order
to approach the state of sustainability.
Key words: Wadi Gaza, wetland, biodiversity, water quality, pollution, socio-economic study

Amamure, Juliet
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Utilisation and sustainable management of wetland resources in
        Lemwa and Kawi Catchment areas in Pallisa District, Uganda.
Summary:
The study was undertaken to study the utilisation and sustainable management of wetland
resources in Pallisa District. Particularly the socio economic effect of exploiting wetlands were
investigated and their ecological implications. Two catchment areas of Kawi and Lemwa were
chosen from which 180 respondents were identified but only 131 respondents participated in the
household survey. The selection of the households was based on utilisation of the wetland
resources and on the wealth accumulated using the criteria given by the respondents during the
community survey. Three wealth categories were identified: rich (1), poor (2), and very poor (3).
Data on how and why the wetlands are exploited, monetary value of benefits accrued from
wetland, problem experienced and the coping strategies were sought. The data was analysed
using pressure state response model (Pieri 1995) and standard statistics. It was used to examine
the pressure factors leading to conversion of wetland resources. It was used to assess the state
factors, which are indicators for the condition of wetland resources after a disturbance and the
responses indicators showing how the different wetland managers have acted given the state of
the wetland ecosystem. The pressure factors leading to exploitation of the wetland resources
include: need to increase income levels, decreasing soil fertility in the upland soils, recurrent
drought episodes and increasing land scarcity in the upland. Traditionally wetland products such
as fish, papyrus reeds, crafts and thatching materials were harvested and locally woven into
utensils like baskets mats. The wetlands were also used as grazing ground for the cattle. These
products were locally consumed and the surplus was sold to earn income. But due to population
pressure related reasons such as land scarcity, low soil fertility the wetland functions and services
have been hampered due to excessive harvesting and vegetation clearing for cultivation.

Consequently, the state of the wetland ecosystem changed from the natural to modified state. The
state indicators show that the wetland resources need immediate attention. Biodiversity has been
lost. The fish, animals like antelopes, monkeys, and hippopotamus have disappeared, the thorny
trees, shrubs and grasses have been cleared for cultivation purposes. Consequently there is
shortage of pastures and water. Wetland exploitation and particularly cultivation has been noted
to be associated with food security, health and environmentally related problems. Cultivating
wetlands is labour intensive and thus affects the labour required for food production. Women
reported that they are over worked, do not get ample time to tidy them and look after their young
ones. Wetland cultivation is very risky because of unreliable weather pattern. On positive side
however, the rice cultivators have had tremendous increase of their income levels compared to
non-rice cultivators. They have retail business; built iron roofed houses instead of depending on
grass thatched ones,, sleep on sponge mattress instead of papyrus woven mats. In response to
deteriorating wetland ecosystem, the local people graze the animals after harvesting the crops.



                                                 12
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                     M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


The animals are often transferred to floodplain where pastures are abundant. They opted for
reduction of the number of animals. Have built iron-roofed houses because thatching grass has
been cleared. The government has formulated policies for wise use of wetlands. The awareness
campaigns are in progress. In conclusion pressure factors to exploit wetland resources have been
agents for change towards its conservation. The findings of the study have shown that there is
growing concern to conserve the wetlands. AT community level, indigenous knowledge and
innovations are being used to conserve the wetlands such as shifting from degraded wetland to
virgin wetlands for wetland products like fish, pastures and wood, using industrially
manufactured good other than depending on wetland related products. However the conservation
practices and innovations are still rudimental for its impact to be felt. At district and government
level, conservation measures are deliberately put in places so as to halt the unwise land use of the
wetland resources. However enforcement of the government formulated policies is still a
dilemma. Therefore innovations and potential conservation practices should be identified and
developed so as to enrich the knowledge base of wetland managers. Site-specific pressure state
response indicators should be developed. These indicators will be a basis for monitoring wetland
utilisation and management towards sustainability. Given the complexity of wetland ecosystem,
concerted effort to restore wetland resources should be put in place. In addition to awareness
campaigns and collective action, alternative means of generating income should be identified.
This will reduce pressure on wetland resource extraction. Otherwise the viscous circle of wetland
degradation will continue.

Araya, Simret Ghebremariam
Nationality: Eritrea
Title of thesis:
        Water resources for irrigation in Upper Gash, Eritrea
Summary:
Irrigation is an indispensable means to increase agricultural production in Eritrea, and it is highly
dependent on availability and quality of water. In this study, the amount and quality of the
irrigation water as well as its management have been evaluated for upper Gash, South-western
part of Eritrea. This is done to examine the potential of the available source of water in relation to
expansion of irrigation land. Hydrological data of the area were analyzed using: rainfall-runoff
model to estimate the volume of runoff, CROPWAT model to determine the potential crop water
requirement, and an irrigation model to estimate the potential land that can be irrigated with the
available water. Besides, water samples were collected for chemical analysis and different
individuals were interviewed. Problems like river bank erosion, soil salinity/sodicity and flooding
were identified in the area and due attention should be given for their remedy. Mereb-Gash River
is the main source of irrigation water in the area with average annual runoff volume of 700 mill
m3. If the flow of the river is regulated and evenly distributed over the year, an area of 30,000 ha
could potentially be irrigated. The quality of the water is also suitable for irrigation, with very
low salinity and no toxicity problem. This is favourable for further expansion of irrigation
schemes in Upper Gash.




                                                 13
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                 M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Berhe, Biniam Constantinos
Nationality: Eritrea
Title of thesis:
         Developing methodology to assess gully processes using GIS in a dryland, Khanasser
         Valley, Syria
Summary:
The study was carried in Khanasser valley, one of ICARDA`s research sites that covers about
200 km2 area. There is widespread land degradation in Khanasser valley, caused by a number of
factors one of which and most important is the gully erosion. Consequently, the productivity of
the land, soil fertility and productivity has been declining dramatically. Therefore the problems
of gully erosion and erosion in general were focused more and more by several researchers.
There comes a need to understand and assess the gully processes. Thus the major focus of this
study was developing methodology by which assessment of gully erosion would be promising.
To this end the interface of ArcView GIS and the natural characteristics of the area was the main
thing that had to be done prior to all watershed characterization approaches. From the ArcView-
DEM interface it was possible to derive drainage patterns, delineate streams and watersheds,
derive other important inputs some of the erosion models and watershed features. The collected
data have been incorporated to the ArcView GIS and drainage or watershed delineation
approaches were tested. The GIS based methodology for describing gully formation in dry area
was developed. The methodology in small sub-watersheds was tested. A user-friendly tool for the
identification of run-off and erosion processes has been developed. The effect of different land
and water-use practices and scenarios using GIS-based watershed modelling was developed and
plausible recommendation have been made. The impact of different management practices
assessment towards soil erosion in focus to gully processes was tested. For example, parallel
tilled field were more liable to gully erosion than plots tilled across the gully.

Bhattarai, Kiran Kumari
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
         Gender Dynamics in Crop Production in the Hills of Nepal.
         Feminisation of Agriculture?
Summary:
A study was conducted to provide research based information for formulating gender sensitive
strategies and approaches to enhance crop production and seed management in the hills of Nepal.
Gender research done so far is mostly concerned with analysis of gender roles. The gender
related information on access to and control over resources and benefits, and decision making is
still limited. Gender analysis regarding the staple crops rice and maize, and garden crops potato
and ginger was done in Indo-Aryan and Tibeto – Burman communities. Task, resource and
benefit analysis were done in focus groups to understand current gender profiles. Elderly key
informants were interviewed to understand the change in gender profiles over the past four
decades. Household surveys were used to triangulate the information generated from the focus
group interviews and to compare gender access to and control over resource and benefits among
households with three different wealth status. Qualitative information were analyzed and
interpreted based on theories while quantitative information were analyzed using statistical
methods. Results show that women’s involvement in crop production is higher than men’s in
both Indo-Aryan and Tibeto-Burman communities. Women equally involve in rice production


                                               14
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


while they involve more in maize, potato and ginger production than men. Their involvement in
coop production than men their involvement in coop production and seed management has
increased over the past four decades. The change that is mainly caused by men’s migration for
off farm employment has led to feminization of the agriculture. Women’s access to resources and
benefits has increased but control particularly that involve cash is still with men. Compared to
Indo-Aryan women, Tibeto-Burman women have more access to and control over resources and
benefits in all the crops. Gender access to and control over resources and benefits associated with
crop production are independent of the economic status of households, but women’s access to
and control over resources and benefits increases with the decrease in wealth status. Although
women’s involvement in crop production has increased, they still have to seek decision from
men. Women ever involved in seed management tasks and their decisions on these tasks have
increased. It indicates that women are the main custodians of local seeds and thus have
significant contribution in maintaining local crop diversity. Agriculture research and extension
programs should be targeted towards women who are the real actors. Women empowerment
should be integrated with crop production and seed management programs. Since men control
most of the benefits from crops, women have limited opportunities for income generation
particularly through the sale of the products. Therefore, implementation of women’s income
generation programs should be supportive to promote women’s access to and control over
resources and benefits associated with coop production. Further research is needed to understand
gender access to and control over all the available resources and distributions of benefits at
household level.

Chakurira, Mugove Kwashirai
Nationality: Zimbabwe
Title of thesis:
        The impact of Mwenezi Ward 8 Integrated Development Programme on
        Poverty Alleviation and Household Entitlements, Zimbabwe

Gedebu, Rahel
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Sustainability of Minimum Tillage Practice in Ethiopia: Agronomic
        and socio economic implication




                                                15
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Ha, Nguyen Thi
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Land use changes and poverty reduction following land allocation
        in Northern Mountainous Area of Vietnam
Summary:
Although obtaining of initial achievements of socio-economic and environmental improvement,
land allocation in the highland of Vietnam has not get desired results because of geographical as
well as socio-economic difficulties. The objective of this study was to determine the process of
land allocation and its effects on land use and poverty reduction in the Northern Mountainous
Area of Vietnam. Six villages in two communes of the northern mountainous province of Tuyen
Quang were studied. Secondary data was collected from state offices from central level to local
level and NGOs. The primary data was collected through interview of key informants and
participatory rural appraisal with villagers and field observations. Land allocation has contributed
to the reduction of poverty, improve living standard of households with paddy land. However,
there is no clear improvement of living standard for households that have been allocated forest
land. Food security increased in all villages from 1996 to 2001. Land use by households was
intensified and diversified to meet market demands and avoid risks. The land allocation process
has reduced the number of disputes over land boundaries, both within villages and among
villages. There is a lack of crop land for newly-formed households and there is no land to plant
fodder for livestock. The actual quantity of allocated forest land to households is very small in
relation to the overall quantity of forest land within the communes. Inequity in access to forest
land, market for cash crops, gender imbalance to participate in land allocation process were
discovered.

Jayawerdana, Amitha Kumari
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis:
        Constraints to Crop Diversification and Intensification in Dry
        Zone of Sri Lanka
Summary:
This study was carried out in Dambulla area that belongs to the dry zone of Sri Lanka. It focuses
on crop diversification and intensification. Crop diversification and intensification are
multipurpose strategies of households taken up in order to reduce production and price risks, and
to diversify income sources, as a response to agro-ecological and socio-economic heterogeneity
within a geographical area. The objectives of this study are to investigate present adaptation
levels of crop diversification, to identify general constraints and key production constraints of
farm households, and give recommendations. Descriptive statistics shows differential access to
resource uses among farm households. Regression analyses were used to find out constraints to
increased crop diversification and to crop intensification. ANOVA and comparative analysis
were used to find out profitability among different types of farmer groups. This study confirms
that farmers practising crop diversification received significantly higher per capita net income in
the yala season than non-diversified farmers. Per capita net income from diversified lands was
also governed by level of crop diversification and intensification, because of only a limited
amount of area was used to cultivate while most of land area under fallow. It was found that



                                                16
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


labour and capital are major constraints to increased crop diversification and intensification.
Moreover these crops are totally dependent on market conditions, and farm households must take
on risks of holding the produce until an outlet is found. Especially for big onions and chillies face
the problem, as these are more labour and capital intensive and big onion is more perishable than
other crops. As a diversified crop, sweet potato plays a key role in yala season. A crop mix
pattern with sweet potato is most popular among farmers in the area since it exhibits less cost of
cultivation and considerably higher profits. Crop diversification and intensification could be
promoted by providing proper market and credit facilities with strong extension services for
farmers regarding the knowledge and nature of market demand. An effort has to be made to use
the experience and institutional arrangement practised for diversified crops. In addition to supply
of water facilities, post harvest food processing systems and availability of good planting
material is essential to encourage crop diversification and intensification during the yala season
in the dry zone.

Jayawickrama, Idam Gedara Premasiri
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis:
        Willingness to pay for better air quality and energy choice for
        electricity generation in Sri Lanka
Summary:
A study was carried out to incorporate the environmental costs into power sector decision-
making in Sri Lanka. Among available energy options, coal based electricity generation was
identified as a least cost option regarding only conventional costs. Considering environmental
impacts related to electricity generation, air pollution was identified as a main environmental
problem with regard to coal and other thermal options. Contingent valuation method was used to
estimate the value of air quality. Through household questionnaire survey willingness to pay was
estimated. The survey was conducted in Dabulla municipal council area with 242 randomly
selected electricity consumers. The survey results revealed that fuelwood is the dominant energy
source for both cooking and water boiling in the households. Household income showed
considerable effect to change the consumption pattern of energy from fuelwood to modern fuel
such as electricity and LPG. Most of the respondents (76.76%) have knowledge about
environmental impacts of the thermal electricity generation. Therefore majority of the
respondents (71%) were willing to pay for better air quality as a part of their monthly electricity
bills. It was found that household willingness to pay averaged Rs: 71.41 per month. The
willingness to pay was regressed against the socio economic characters of the household. Factors
that affected willingness to pay positively were monthly household income, education level of
the respondent and additional cost during power cut. The fitted model is fairly good to explain
people’s willingness to pay.

Considering country population as an affected group, mean willingness to pay was aggregated to
household number and air pollution cost of fossil fuel based electricity generation was estimated
as Rs: 1.57 per KWh. The environmental costs were added to the conventional costs using cost
effectiveness approach and results indicated that dendro thermal based electricity generation is
the least cost option.




                                                 17
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Karadzandima, Mary Mazvita
Nationality: Zimbabwe
Title of thesis:
         The survival of Socio-cultural Beliefs and Local Knowledge about
         Management of Natural Resources in an Aids-affected Community in Zimbabwe
Summary:
Local knowledge has contributed to the conservation and management of natural resources
through belief systems and cultural norms that were expressed in traditions and myths. The
environment was well understood from a close interaction between people and the natural
resources and judicious measures that ensured resource sustainability were taken. The survival of
local knowledge is being threatened by various interacting factors that do not promote its
utilization and transmission. This scenario was observed in a study done in Mutare Rural District,
Manicaland Province in Eastern Zimbabwe. The main objective of the study was to assess the
survival of socio-cultural beliefs and local knowledge about management of natural resources
and in a community that has been devastated by HIV/AIDS. Data was collected through
questionnaire interviews, household surveys and a field survey of the physical environment. The
responses from the questionnaires yielded data on peoples perceptions of local knowledge and
how it has been employed in conservation and management of soil, water, forest resources and
wildlife. The field survey was used to identify the vegetative composition and physical attributes
of Marange Communal Area, which is party of Mutare Rural District. The study supported
earlier work that had shown that the people in this community possess a lot of local knowledge
about management of natural resources and socio-cultural beliefs, but the use of this knowledge
is decreasing from generation to generation. There is great knowledge possession, which is
shared to a lesser extent. The impact of HIV/AIDS is affecting family structures and changing
peoples roles, behaviour and responsibilities. The epidemic is interacting with effects of gender
differences, age, church membership and external systems in militating against the transfer and
survival of local knowledge. The study highlighted the important role the community and the
extended family safety network play in teaching local knowledge to orphans. The study also
showed that local knowledge management issues continually change in response to coevolving
social, economic and ecological systems. Changes in local knowledge were observed in that,
between formal and informal theories, processes of replacement, incorporation and
reinterpretation were taking place. These processes are driven by overpopulation, resource
depletion, new technologies, marketing and other economic factors, making it imperative to
adopt changes to development and extension approaches in the community. Using the
complementarity of the informal and formal knowledge networks can help achieve this goal.
Adaptive management offers an opportunity to cope with these changes in a way that improves
livelihoods for the present and future generations. The local knowledge that has been gathered
through numerous research projects needs to be documented, revised and reviewed so that the
dynamic nature of local knowledge is captured. Extension work should be used to promote
information flow. This extension service should encourage communities to promote the usage of
local knowledge that improve livelihoods, food security and health.




                                               18
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Kiyingi, Isaac Robert
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Valuation and assessment of the ecological impacts of ecotourism
        in Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda
Summary:
This thesis contains two papers. In Paper 1, tourist’s and local respondent’s perceived benefits
and valuation of forest conservation were compared using contingent valuation method. In
Paper2, impacts of ecotourism through trampling, vegetation removal and litter disposal were
assessed in the three campsites, trails and off-trail sites. Regression was used to determine the
factors that influenced respondents WTP for forest conservation (Paper 1). The perceived
benefits of the two groups were significantly different. The largest percentage of the local
respondents was either interested in direct use values or none. The tourists were more interested
in the indirect use values such as ecosystem services and non-use values. Regression revealed
that perceived benefits and attitude to ecotourism influenced respondents WTP for forest
conservation (Paper 1). The impacts of ecotourism on the campsites and trails were significant in
terms of increased soil bulk density, reduced soil organic matter, litter disposal and reduced plant
species diversity (Paper 2). Thus, whereas ecotourism offered benefits in terms of local
community development and forest conservation, it also caused negative ecological impacts. The
present study did not include environmental degradation and total financial returns from
ecotourism into the valuation. Therefore, to fully understand the net impact of ecotourism
requires conducting a cost-benefit analysis including, environmental impact assessment, social
impact assessment and financial analysis.
Keywords: Ecotourism, valuation, perceived benefit, ecological impact

Mahmood Hossain, Sheikh
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        Human Vulnerability due to Natural Disasters in South Asia: A GIS Aided
        Characterization of Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh
Summary:
Human society and the natural environment have become increasingly vulnerable to natural
hazards, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, and flooding. The situation is particularly
acute in south Asia, which is one of the most disaster-prone regions of the world. Bangladesh
where natural disasters events are so common that it's fair to say such events have become a part
of everyday life, continually testing the resiliency of a resilient people. Despite our recent modest
measures of success, we still have a long way to go. "Nevertheless, we should be proud of the
science-based progress that has recently been made in dealing with the inevitable risks that
Bangladesh experiences due to an unusual mix of natural and social conditions that, in turn, have
created an unusual set of challenges for a nation struggling to improve the quality of life for its
people" (Choudhury, A.M. 1999). Bangladesh is grappling with the largest mass poisoning of a
population in history because groundwater used for drinking has been contaminated with
naturally occurring inorganic arsenic?, the monthly bulletin of the United Nations World Health
Organization (WHO) reports in September 2000. This study particularly describes with human
vulnerability to natural disaster in South Asia and in the case study addresses of the pioneering



                                                 19
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


efforts of GIS applications in human vulnerability due to arsenic contamination in Bangladesh. It
is becoming increasingly recognized that computer methods such as models and Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) can be valuable tools for analysing a geographical area in terms of its
hazards vulnerability. Certainly, as long as society insists on occupying hazardous land, a good
understanding of the risk involved makes sense. The introduction of computerized assessments
(in this study using of GIS), which are designed to provide and analyse detailed information
about natural disaster patterns and potential arsenic-related impacts and human vulnerability in
Bangladesh, have become such a welcome addition to the nation's long-standing battle against
nature's fury.

Manikrama, Ajitha
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis:
         Factors affecting the adoption of IPM by Farmers in the Dry Zone
         of Sri Lanka
Summary:
In order to minimize the ill effects of pesticides the Department of Agriculture in Sri Lanka
implemented the Integrated Pest Management program for rice growing farmers in collaboration
with the FAO on a pilot scale in 1984. Overall the adoption of IPM is still poor among the
farmers. The present study attempted to analyse factors influencing the adoption of IPM. For the
purpose of the study 6 Agricultural Instructor divisions were selected randomly in Anuradhapura
district of Sri Lanka. In all 120 farmers from the 6 AI divisions were interviewed using stratified
randomised sampling procedures. The sample included both trained and untrained farmers. A
questionnaire survey was done, followed by field observations and focus group discussions. The
study revealed that training is one of the factors influencing adoption of IPM. The IPM adoption
for trained farmers was higher than untrained farmers. Knowledge of IPM, attitude towards IPM
and risk bearing ability are the other important factors influencing adoption of IPM. However,
trained farmers had not adopted to some IPM activities due to various reasons and these are
common for both trained and untrained farmers. These reasons are lack of family labour, lack of
knowledge of some pest management techniques, lack of availability in inputs, insecticide usage
by neighbouring farmers, insufficient water for irrigation associated with erratic weather
condition in the area and sales promotion by chemical companies. Trained farmers? productivity
was higher than untrained farmers. The total cost of cultivation for trained farmers was lower
than untrained farmers. IPM training is an important factor that influenced farmers? attitudes
towards IPM. The study revealed that training increased the knowledge levels of farmers.
However, despite training, the farmers? adoption of IPM still remained poor and was influenced
by other constrains. For better adoption of IPM, improving the efficiency of the extension service
is essential. There should be more focus on pest management techniques in the ongoing training
program. Farmers` continuous participation for the training is essential. Some form of incentives
may motivate farmers in this context.




                                                20
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Mbangwa, Obed Festo
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of Thesis:
        The local communities and Nile Crocodile in Lake Rukwa Southern
        Tanzania: Can they co-exist?
Summary:
Most local communities affected by problem animals are those in proximity to protected areas,
lakes and rivers. Conflict exists between local communities living adjacent to Lake Rukwa and
Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Lake. The objective of this study was to examine the
nature and extent of conflict between local people and crocodile in Lake Rukwa. The major
activities causing conflict were identified, the number of people and livestock killed by crocodile
and number of crocodile killed were quantified. The attitude and perceptions of local
communities towards crocodiles were also examined. This study was conducted from August to
November 2001 in local communities living adjacent to Lake Rukwa in southern Tanzania. Four
villages and four fishing camps were surveyed with structured questionnaire. They were:
Mtowisa, Uzia, Muze, Kalumbeleza, Malangali, Kichangani, Kwa Haule and Mtakuja
respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 208 households, as well as District Game
Officers, Fisheries Officers and crocodile ranchers. The Rukwa Game Reserve staff, key
informants, hunting company and village leaders were also consulted. Secondary information
was collected from libraries, local, regional and state archives. Fishing activity in Lake Rukwa
was shown to be a major cause of conflict between local people living adjacent to the Lake and
crocodiles. Most damages to human life and peoples’ property occurred during fishing (85%).
Damage to fishing nets (38%), competition for fish (31%) and killing/wounding people (16%)
were the most serious problems mentioned. The results reveal no significant relationships
between number of people killed/wounded and crocodiles killed /wounded in defence. More
people were killed than crocodiles killed in defence during the period of 1996-2001. In the study
area, an average of 11 people were killed or wounded by crocodiles each year during the period
of 1996-2001, but less than an average of four people per year were reported to the District Game
officers. The results also show that data on number of people, livestock and crocodiles killed or
wounded in the study area held by Wildlife Division headquarters are far less than those revealed
by both survey and interviews of District Game Officers and of data collected from local people.
The difference in records is believed to be due to the difficult in reporting by local people and
poor response by the wildlife authority; both problems reflecting the remoteness of the areas. The
majority of respondents perceived wildlife as a source of benefit to the nation but not to
themselves (66%). However, the hunting company and ranchers reported benefiting from
crocodiles. It has been proposed by the present study that Lake Rukwa continue as a multiple
land use area. Ongoing activities such as hunting and fishing could then continue at a level that
ensures a sustainable population of crocodiles.




                                                21
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Mbelwa, Rhoda John
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Improving Beach Management: an Analysis of the Role of the
        Government and Local Community in Management of Beach Areas in Dar es
        Salaam, Tanzania
Summary:
Beach erosion, pollution and stranded litters along the beaches are some of the environmental
problems which affect the quality of most beaches in Tanzania that need an appropriate
management system for their sustainability. An interview survey as well as literature reviews
were used to determine the importance of having clean beaches, local people involvement in
beach management, beach user’s willingness to pay in order to have clean beaches and policies
governing beach management. The study was conducted along the Kunduchi beach areas in Dar
es Salaam between July 2001 and January 2002. The cleanliness of the beach was stated by most
of the tourists as the important factor influencing their willingness to pay. The tourists were
willing to pay an average of US$ 13.16 per month due to the pleasure they get when spending
their time in the clean beaches. However, they were willing to pay an average of only US$ 6.6
per month due to government intention of increasing tax in order to have clean beaches. Almost
70 % of local people residing close to the beach areas are prepared to spend an average of 1,446
Tanzanian shillings (1.5 US$) per month in order to pay for the cleanliness and environmental
protection of the beach areas. Lack of funds and political interference were stated as some of the
problems that affect the municipal council performance in the study areas. The poor
performance by the municipal council was stated by the local Tanzanian beach users as one of
the factor that affect their willingness to pay for having good beach environment. They were
willing to pay an average of 3.7 US$ per month in order to contribute for beach management
only if the municipal council assures them with proper management of the funds. Furthermore,
policies which governed the management of beach areas need to be amended, as the involvement
of resource users in the current structure is very minimal resulting in beach degradation. Lack of
the sense of appropriateness and ownership among beach users contributes to a poor management
of the areas. The impact of beach degradation on the country economy could cause a loss of more
than US$ 700 million each year.

Mohamed, Manal Hassan Abdel
Nationality: Sudan
Title of thesis:
        Forced Migration and Socio-cultural Changes in a Nomadic
        Pastoralist Community: the Case of the Hawawir in Northern Sudan
Summary:
This thesis deals with forced migration and socio cultural change of the Hawawir nomadic
pastorlaist, who affected by the drought of 1984 and forced to move to the Nile area.
The thesis discusses why the migration of the Hawawir is perceived as forced. It identifies
whether and to which extent the Hawawir migrants integrate in the hosting community in the
Nile area. It explores how the Hawawir migrants construct their identity as nomadic pastoralist,
while they settle in the Nile area. Moreover it identifies changes in gender relation due to the




                                               22
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


Hawawir forced migration to the Nile. And finally the thesis studies socio cultural changes of the
Hawawir in a context of forced migration, with focus on change in marriage institution.
The main methodology used in this study was participant observation. The fieldwork went over a
time span of four month from August to December 2001. The fieldwork took place in El Zoma
village, at the Eastern side of the Nile, in Korti town, in the Western side of the Nile, and in Um
Jawasir area in Wadi El Mugadam, in Byoda desert. The main findings of the thesis, it shows that
the migration of the Hawawir considered as forced. The situation of the Hawawir after the
drought of 1984 became one of hunger and poverty. Because of the Hawawir loss of livelihood
many among the Hawawir, saw no other possibility than migrating to he Nile valley area. In the
Nile area, some of Hawawir integrated in the hosting community, the Shaigyia, while some still
has not. Integration is a gradual process that has been taken place as both the Hawawir and the
Shaigyia learn about each other and developed a mutual respect to each other. The Hawawir who
are more integrated in the Shaigyia community are those who migrated early in 1984 drought and
before that. Those who live close to where the Shaigyia lives inside villages and towns are also
integrated. And those who study in schools with the Shaigyia in addition to those who are able to
find jobs in the Nile area and are economically secure are more integrated. Living a settled life
in the Nile area the Hawawir reproduce their identity as nomadic pastoralists. They reproduce
this identity by keeping strong kin relations and by living in the outskirts far from where the
Shaigyia live.
The Hawawir community in the Nile remains to a large degree unchanged in terms of gender
relations. What women and men do, their social activities, are to a larger extent unchanged.
Concerning socio cultural change due to forced migration, Hawawir mostly resent changing their
customary practices. Although some changes have identified in regard to wedding rituals, the
main parts of the marriage have not changed.

Motsumi, Sekgowa S
Nationality: Botswana
Title of thesis:
        Seasonal Population Density and Distribution of Gallinaceous Birds in Relation to
        Habitat Types and Large Herbivore Impact in N. E. Chobe National Park, Botswana
Summary:
Four species of gallinaceous birds were studied in north-eastern part of Chobe National Park,
Botswana from October 1998 to February 2002; helmented guinneafowl (Numida meleagris),
red-billed francolin (Francolinus adspersus), Swainson`s francolin (Francolinus swainsonii) and
crested francolin (Francolinus sephaena). Population densities and distribution were documented
in relation to habitat types. Population densities of four species of gallinaceous birds were
estimated using line transect method of distance sampling. The densities of the four species
fluctuated seasonally. Helmented guineafowl had the highest overall density (84.9 birds/km2),
followed by red-billed francolin (22.9 birds/km2), then Swaison`s francolin (13.1 birds/km2)
whereas crested francolin had the lowest density (5.2 birds/km2). Densities were higher in the
riverine shrubland, an area with high elephant impact, intermediate in the mixed woodland where
elephant impact was also high and the densities were the lowest in the Baikiaea woodland, an
area least affected by elephants. The population structure of the gallinaceous bird population in
the study area was; 67.3% helmented guineafowl, 18.1% red-billed francolin, 10.4% Swainson`s
francolin and 4.2% crested francolin.




                                                23
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


In paper II structural features of the vegetation in all the habitat types were assessed in the whole
study area together with sites used by birds and random sites in the high bird density habitat. The
effects of elephants through their cumulative impact on the vegetation and production of dung
were also investigated. Gallinaceous birds preferred areas with less horizontal and vertical cover.
The habitat with more cover (Baikiaea woodland) was rarely used, whereas the mixed woodland,
which had intermediate cover, had intermediate densities, and the shrubland had the highest
densities (Paper I) and least cover. The densities were high in habitats with a higher degree of
elephant impact (shrubland and mixed woodland) and lower in habitat with least elephant impact
(Baikiaea woodland). Densities were also higher in areas with more elephant dung (shrubland
and mixed woodland) and low in the Baikiaea woodland which had the least number of elephant
dung. In the shrubland, where bird densities were higher, birds used areas with less horizontal
and vertical cover at lower levels in the dry season and selected areas with more cover at these
levels in the wet season, possibly due to change of anti-predator tactics. Different species used
patches with different structural features. Guineafowl used areas with less horizontal cover at all
levels and less vertical cover from 0-10 m, Swainson`s francolin used areas with intermediate
cover and red-billed and crested francolins used more dense areas. This is consistent with the
niche separation theory. Guineafowls formed bigger groups whereas other species formed pairs.

Mugabi, Paul
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Assessments of human impacts and potential uses of the
        under-utilised timber species in Budongo forest reserve, Uganda
Summary:
In the first study, assessment of human impacts and the potential uses of under-utilized (less
valuable) timber species (Paper1) were assessed. In the second study the physical properties of
the under-utilized species in comparison to selected preferred species (i.e. most used for
commercial timber) in Uganda’s Budongo forest (Paper2) were determined. The assessments
were conducted in two forest compartments, N1 (buffer zone) and N2 (Exploitation area) and
evaluation conducted in terms of tree species composition by age size classes (i.e. seedlings,
saplings and mature), wood volume, and species diversity index. In the first study again, the
neighbouring local communities who exploited the forest resources were also interviewed to
understand their use of the forest (Paper 1). The percent utilization of both valuable and less
valuable species was analysed using nested plots established along series of transects located in
the two forest compartments. In the second study basic density and strength properties of the two
under-utilized and equal numbers of most preferred species: Cynometra alexandri and Celtis
durandi (less valuable), and Maesopsis eminii and Milicia excelsa (valuable) were selected from
Budongo forest (Paper 2). For each tree species, three trees were sampled, with the first, second
and third tree being in diameter (DBH) classes 60-69 cm, 70-79 cm and 80-89 cm respectively.
The preparation of samples for determination of basic density and strength properties was done
according to standard methods and procedures (Paper 2).
There were greater numbers of seedlings, and greater species diversity index in the forest
compartments N2 than in N1. However, greater wood volume was found in the N1 than in N2,
this being due to greater composition of mature trees in the former. Less valuable species were
predominantly used for NTFP, although the local communities harvested some for low quality
timber. The local communities were mostly involved in non-timber harvesting of the Budongo



                                                 24
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


forest (Paper 1). Although the categorisation of the preferred and under-utilized timber species
promoted by the Forestry Department was based on arbitrary qualities of timber such as the
physical quality of the species, the current study did not confirm this (Paper 2). This was shown
by the overall mean density (BD) for Cynometra alexandri and Celtis durandi which though
categorised as less valuable were: 738 and 519 kg/m3. Other quality indices that were tested
were modulus of elasticity (MOE) (7945 vs. 8245 N/mm2), (modulus of rapture (MOR) (79 vs.
70 N/mm2), work to maximum load (Wmax) (0.093 vs. 0.074 N/mm2), (maximum compression
strength (MCS) (51.04 vs. 35.72 N/mm2) (maximum shear strength (MSS) (18.31 vs. 11.97
N/mm2), (cleavage (CLR) 20.62 vs. 16.28 N/mm) almost all of which were superior to those of
preferred species such as Maesopsis eminii and Milicia excelsa [(BD: 359 vs. 463 kg/m3, MOE
9066 vs. 6634 N/mm2, MOR: 51 vs. 58 N/mm2; Wmax : 0.034 vs. 0.061 N/mm2, MCS: 29.2 vs.
33.68 N/mm2, MSS: 6.99 vs. 10.19 N/mm2, CLR: 8.62 vs. 11.51 N/mm, respectively)]. These
properties varied from one individual tree to another of the same species, and from species to
species but overall, less valuable species had higher values of strength properties than the
valuable species. The results of the study clearly dispelled the myths about the superior qualities
of the valuable species than less valuable species (Paper 2). Since both valuable and less valuable
species can be used to produce timber (Paper1), coupled with high strength property values
observed in the selected under-utilized species (Paper 2), the study concludes that an advantage
should be taken of this potential to broaden the range of species exploited for timber production
thereby reducing the pressure on the usually preferred tree species. This will have important
implications for the conservation of the Budongo forest reserve in Uganda.

Mwakatundu, Irene Simalike
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Resource Use, Environmental Change and Food Security in Dodoma
        Rural District, Tanzania

Nakakaawa, Charlotte Anne
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Carbon Sequestration Potential and Economics of Improved Agroforestry Fallow System
        for restoring Degraded Soils in Kigezi Highland, Kabale District,
Summary:
Over the past years, inappropriate land use and soil mismanagement through continuous
cultivation have caused a decline in the once fertile Kigezi highlands. Declining crop yields due
to soil degradation, resulting in soil nutrient depletion, reduced carbon store and accelerated
erosion due to steep slopes have caused a major threat to food production and to the ever-
increasing subsistence dependant rural population. The present socio-economic conditions and
associated indirect large carbon "cost" during manufacture and transport do not favour fertilizer
application for restoring the degraded soils. Efforts are already underway to restore the degraded
soils through agricultural intensification based on adoption of various agroforestry practices
recommended by previous researchers. A confluence of interest exists between the need to
restore productivity of the degrading lands and society’s need as a whole to mitigate changes in
the earth’s climate through decreasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), by
sequestering carbon in soil and biomass. This study was conducted on farmers’ fields in Kigezi



                                                25
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


highlands, where the upper degraded part of the terrace is being restored using rotational
woodlots/improved fallows (also used as a source of fuel wood). It consists of two parts. In
section 1, carbon storage in soil and above ground biomass, variations in mineral nitrogen and
crop yields in three improved agroforestry fallow systems of Sesbania sesban, Calliandra
calothyrsus and Alnus acuminata were estimated and compared to the continuous cropping
system. There were significant increases in soil carbon due to improved fallows but no
significant variations in the different improved fallow system as was the case with carbon
accumulation in woody biomass. Alnus had the least woody biomass carbon and highest soil
carbon while Sesbania had the least soil carbon and least woody biomass carbon. There were
significant variations in mineral nitrogen levels. Sesbania had the highest and Calliandra had the
least anaerobic mineral nitrogen. There was also a strong (r = 0.66) correlation between mineral
nitrogen and soil carbon. In addition, farmers reported higher yields from areas with improved
fallows than from the continuously cropped areas. In section two, the overall objective was to
assess the comparative economic advantage of the different improved tree fallows/rotational
woodlots against the traditional continuous cropping system with or without a carbon market and
identifying factors influencing their adoption. The potential future economic contribution of
carbon fixation in the different improved fallow agroforestry systems was also estimated. The
results from the cost benefit analysis indicated that with or without a carbon market, improved
fallow agroforestry systems are more profitable than the continuous cropping. On comparison, it
is more profitable for farmers to invest in a Sesbania improved fallow system than in Calliandra
and Alnus. However, there has been limited adoption of the technology and results from the
econometric analysis indicated that most of the suggested explanatory variables did not have a
significant influence. Most likely, it is the cognitive competence of the farmers rather than the
household assets that prompt farmers to adopt improved fallows.
From the farmers’ point of view and given the uncertainties in the functioning of an anticipated
future carbon market, the Sesbania improved fallow system may be more profitable and
sustainable. However, for international investors with an overall aim of increasing carbon stocks,
the Alnus system may be more attractive. As a policy measure and for purposes of sustainable
development, Sesbania improved fallows may be more appropriate for meeting the requirements
of both the local people and the society at large. Thus promotion of improved fallows should put
more emphasis on increasing soil carbon storage since it results in both agronomic and
environmental benefits.

Pant, Laxmi Prasad
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Linking Crop Diversity with Food traditions and Food Security in
        the Hills of Nepal.
Summary:
A study was conducted to assess livelihood resources of subsistence farmers in the Hills of Nepal
in relation to their livelihood outcomes. The livelihood resources considered for this study are
crop landraces, knowledge associated with crop landraces and food traditions, and exchange of
such knowledge. The links of these resources with livelihood outcomes such as food security and
maintenance of food tradition are explored. The main purpose is to provide basis for adding
value of crop landraces to farmers as an incentive to maintain diversity on farm. Although crop
landraces have been cultivated for ages, the dynamics of knowledge and tradition associated with



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


such resources is little known. Past studies for assessing links between crop diversity and food
security are limited. The study was undertaken in collaboration with the in situ crop conservation
project of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. Qualitative and
quantitative research methods were used. Initially, exploratory techniques such as direct
observations, key informant surveys and focus group interviews were conducted, followed by
more structured techniques such as individual interviews and a socio-metric survey to assess the
distribution and transfer of knowledge and skills concerning the use of crop landraces in
traditional foods across caste groups, gender and generation. Finally, a household survey was
employed to assess links between crop diversity and food security. These techniques provided an
opportunity for method triangulation. The information was analysed from agronomic,
ethnographic, and socio-economic perspectives. The results show that the Tagadhari caste group
has more knowledge and tradition of using rice landraces than Matwali. The Matwali caste group
has stronger tradition of using kodo millet. Elderly people are more knowledgeable than younger;
and women are more knowledgeable than men. Moreover, women have stronger network of
knowledge and skill transfer concerning traditional food preparation than men. Food secure
households grow higher number of rice landraces but in small patches compared to food insecure
households. They grow higher number of modern rice varieties in larger area. They have diverse
land types and hence grow a number of landraces for food preferences as well as adaptation to
marginal lands. Food insecure households grow few landraces with specific adaptation to
marginal ecological conditions. However, food secure and insecure households grow almost
equal number as well as area of kodo millet landraces. Hence, there are specific categories of
people who deserve recognition for conservation and use of crop landraces.
Food traditions partly determine on farm conservation of crop landraces. In one hand, the higher
the number of foods prepared from a given landrace, the greater the chance of maintaining the
landrace. If specific foods can be prepared from a particular landrace, food traditions provide a
strong incentive for conserving such a landrace. On the other hand, the greater the number of
preferred landraces for a specific food, the lower the incentive to maintain the landraces through
the promotion of food traditions per se. If there is price differentiation across landraces as
evident from socially superior crops such as rice, premium landraces are likely to be conserved.
However, such an incentive is absent in socially inferior crops such as kodo millet. Further
research is needed to assess contribution of crop species and varieties to food security in terms of
quality, quantity and diversity, particularly for food deficit households.

Pham Phuoc, Nhan
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Effects of exogenous ascorbic acid application on citrus tolerance
        to flooding, Vietnam
Summary:
Annual flooding causes deaths of trees that lead to serious economic losses for fruit growers in
Mekong Delta, especially for citrus gardeners. In this study, effects of ascorbic acid (AsA) on
tolerance of citrus to flooding have been evaluated on 4 species. Plants were exposed to artificial
flooding with water 5 cm above soil level. Plants were sprayed with AsA at concentrations of
500 ppm and 1000 ppm in addition to control treatment plants sprayed with distilled water at the
same time every week in a period of 5 weeks. Leaf chlorophyll measured as a chlorophyll meter
value, leaf AsA, and root carbohydrate were recorded once every week as criteria for survival



                                                27
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


evaluation of citrus under flooding. Over flooding time, chlorophyll and root carbohydrate level
decreased significantly. Plants sprayed with AsA had slightly, but significantly, more chlorophyll
than the control plants, while AsA spraying had no effect on root carbohydrate level. A marked
increase in AsA levels in the leaves measured a week after spraying shows that AsA is taken up
by the leaves. Mat orange and Duong madarin had lower root carbohydrate than Volcka melon
and Con. Root carbohydrate depended on the species storage ability before flooding occurs and
the rate of using it during flooding time. Until end of experiment, Con and Volcka did not show
any symptom of visible root injury contrary to mat orange and Duong mandarin which showed
visible damage after 3 weeks flooding. Volcka and Con can therefore be classified as more
flooding tolerant than Mat orange and Duong mandarin.

Rupakheti, Kamala Gautam
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry and Annual Cropping System in
        Inner Tarai, Central Nepal
Summary:
The change of land use system especially from conventional annual cropping system to agro
forestry system has major impacts on global carbon (C) cycle. Such conversion can be expected
to increase C stored in above and below ground biomass and in soil.
Only very limited research has been conducted on carbon sequestration in Nepal. This study was
carried out to determine carbon sequestration and analysing the cost and benefits of different land
use system in two hamlets Mujurdhap and Nayabasti of inner Tarai in Central Nepal.
The study was carried out in six farms. Among them, agro forestry system was practised in three
farms whereas in the rest, conventional annual cropping system was applied. The land use
systems are naturally grown forest, orchard and plantation, cereal crops growing farms,
vegetables and spices growing fields and fallow lands. The orchard and plantation consists of
Mango orchard, Dalbergia sissoo and Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation. The major cereal
crops were rice, maize and millet. The vegetable and spices consists of the green vegetable and
the turmeric intercropped with taro grown plots. The fallow land consists of the streamside and
the plot, which was previously cultivated but remained fallow for more than 5 years. In each type
of land use system, two quadrates of (10x10) sq. m were randomly selected for measurement of
tree biomass. Within each quadrate two sub quadrates of (1x1) sq. m. and five soil sample pits
(20 cm deep) were randomly selected. The measurement of biomass of under storey grasses,
crops, twigs, litters were taken within the sub quadrates. Five soil samples were taken from each
quadrate and analysed as a composite sample. The biomass of the tree was calculated using the
allometric equations. The total biomass was converted to organic carbon assuming that 43% of
the dry biomass would be the organic carbon. The soil organic carbon was measured by using the
Walkely-Black method. The highest total organic carbon (sum of total biomass organic carbon
and total soil organic carbon) was found in natural forest (98 ton/ha). The total organic carbon
content range from 33.2 to 55.5 ton/ha and from 35 to 74.6 ton/ha in annual cropping system and
in the plantation and orchard respectively. The soil organic carbon was highest (53.2 ton/ha) in
naturally grown forest followed by 52.6 ton/ha in vegetable grown field and least in streamside
(3.6 ton/ha). There were differences between the farms with regards to stock of organic carbon.
The average carbon content on the farms adopting agroforestry was 50.3 ton/ha whereas it was in
average 44.8 ton/ha on farms practising annual cropping. The cost benefit ratio and the net



                                                28
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2002


present value were determined to assess the profitability of each system. To determine the NPV
and cost benefit ratio all the nominal costs and income from each land use for twenty years were
discounted to present value. In this study, the highest NPV was found for rice cropping whereas
it was least for vegetables and spices. The rice cropping system had cost benefit ratio 8.47 and it
was only 0.27 for mango orchards. It is not appealing for the farmers practising rice cultivation to
invest in carbon sequestration. If compensated for carbon sequestration it might be an interesting
alternative to them who are applying annual cropping system on uplands.

Shapi, Martin Kasanga
Nationality: Namibia
Title of thesis:
        Local perspectives on Inland Fisheries in Kavango River, Namibia:
        a socio-economic and ecological approach
Summary:
From ancient time fisheries has been a major source of food for humanity and provider of
employment and economic benefits to those engaged in it. Namibia is an arid country and with
limited freshwater fisheries, chiefly found in the northern part of the country (Kavango and
Zambezi River in the Caprivi region). Although freshwater fisheries is limited in Namibia, it
serves a vital societal role in terms of food security and source of income.
This study attempts to describe the status of Kavango fisheries from local people’s and
ecological perspectives. The study further attempts to analyse historical development of fisheries
in Kavango and relate it to questions of sustainable resource utilisation in terms of ecosystem
dynamic, socio-economic processes, institutions and rules and regulations. This was done by
looking at the rationale behind the use of different types of gear (traditional and modern), socio-
economic characteristics of fishing population, people’s perception about the carrying capacity of
fish resource and most efficient way of managing the resource (i.e. traditional, government or
both). The results of this study indicated that some fish species have declined, and there is a
growing awareness among local people that modern gears are the cause. People in Kavango
seemed to prefer traditional over modern gears. There seemed to be few formal employment
opportunities in the area, and the sale of fish as source of income has increased and to continue to
increase further in the future. Both traditional and government laws and regulation are poorly
enforced. However, the local people preferred fishing to be traditionally regulated. As is often
the case in rural communities in Africa, women have the main household responsibility for food
security and they tend to fish more than men. Co-management (where functions, rights and
responsibilities of resource management are shared among stakeholders), provision of good
storage and transportation of fish and diversification of agricultural production are among the
recommendations made to relieve pressure on the resource.
Key words: Kavango, Freshwater fisheries, Traditional Management, Sustainability, Fish species
and Laws.




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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Sheuyange, Asser
Nationality: Namibia
Title of thesis:
        Landscape level vegetation change in relation to fire history in
        eastern Ohangwena region, Namibia

Shrestha, Bharat Man
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Land Use Effect on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gases Flux in a
        Mountainous Watershed of Nepal
Summery:
The effect of land use on soil structural quality, soil organic carbon (SOC) stock and fluxes of
carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) was studied in Mardi watershed of Nepal. Soil
samples were collected from forest, grazing land, Khet (irrigated rice-wheat on level terraces)
and Bari (upland maize-millet on sloping terraces). The flux of greenhouse gases in the field was
measured biweekly and production of CO2 and consumption of CH4 in soil was measured in
incubated samples in the laboratory.
The average SOC content (Mean ±SE) was higher in forest (2.9 ± 0.18 %) followed by Bari (2.5
± 0.15 %), grazing land (1.7 ± 0.28 %) and Khet (0.5 ± 0.11 %). Soil bulk density was
significantly higher in Khet than in other land uses, and it was further increased with soil profile
depth. Soil pH was near neutral in Khet (6.7 ± 0.15), while acidic in other land uses. Soil
aggregation was better in Bari than in natural soils (grazing and forest). However, aggregates of
cultivated soils were less stable in water than the aggregates in natural soils. Better structural
quality of natural soils indicates higher potential of C sequestration through aggregation. The
SOC content in macroaggregates were higher in forest followed by Bari, grazing land and Khet
and it was decreased with soil profile depth. Microaggregates had significantly higher SOC
content than macroaggregates regardless of the depth and land uses.
The SOC stock (mean ± SE, kg C m-2) in the topsoil (0-10 cm) of grazing land (3.4 ± 0.1) was
comparatively higher followed by forest (1.4 ± 0.2) and cultivated lands [Bari (2.0 ± 0.2) and
Khet (1.2 ± 0.2)]. The total SOC stock in the soil profile (to 1 m depth) in the entire watershed
was estimated to be 721 498 MTC (metric tons of carbon) and its distribution was 52, 30, 11 and
7% in forest, Bari, grazing and Khet lands, respectively.
Field CO2 flux (mean ± SE, mg CO2 m-2 h-1) was significantly higher in Bari (569 ± 56)
followed by forest (406 ± 39), Khet (283± 34) and grazing land (282± 32). In incubation, CO2
release rate was decreased with soil depth for all the land uses. The release rate of CO2 was
increased with increase in soil moisture level, incubation temperature and addition of glucose.
During the field research, CH4 emission was observed in Khet, while upland Bari and grazing
soils exhibited net uptake of CH4 except during the monsoon period. In case of Forest soil, it
acted as sink for the entire research period. In the incubation, addition of (NH4)2SO4 inhibited
CH4 oxidation in all soils indicating negative effects of N fertiliser input on CH4 uptake. In
result, agroforestry promotion in the watershed could have beneficial impact in mitigating
greenhouse effect.
Key words: Carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas, land use, mid-hill watershed, Nepal, soil
aggregates, soil organic carbon



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Suliman, Fadi
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
         Evaluation the phosphorus retention capacity of Filtrate-P for the
         use in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands, Palestine
Summary:
Constructed wetlands have proven their efficiency in treating wastewater and reducing pollutants
like BOD5, SS, N, P and pathogens in both warm, and cold climates when providing enough
insulation and enough retention time during the cold weather. Phosphorus sorption capacity is
often considered as one major factor when selecting filter media for use in constructed wetlands.
Filtralite-PTM is a lightweight aggregate especially made for use in constructed wetlands. This
study investigates the potential removal of P under different loading rates with different inlet P
concentrations in a laboratory lysimeter experiment. Ca, Mg, pH, EC and TP were the main
parameters measured. Further, the hydraulic loading was monitored to enable calculation of the
mass flow of the P into the lysimeters. pH showed a trend of decreasing by time due to the
release of hydrogen ions from the KH2PO4 that was used as source of P and the reaction
between Ca and P to form a precipitate. High amounts of Ca and Mg were leached out under high
loading rates and inlet P concentration. Calcium and Magnesium concentrations in the effluent
showed an opposite behaviour with Mg increasing after Ca had decreased. Electrical conductivity
showed the same trend as the Ca and decreased with time. The outlet phosphorus content was
increasing by time; this increment was associated with the mass load of P. Generally, the
Filtralite-PTM showed a very good P removal with an average removal rate of 83.50% under the
loading rate of 1.25 l/d. The P removal in this experiment was dependent upon the pH and inlet
the P concentration. Precipitation of calcium phosphate minerals has been suggested as a main
removal mechanism for the P in Filtralite-P since the initial pH of the media was >10. The
resting period of 42 days din not have a significant effect on the regeneration of P-sorption
capacity l. This is probably due to the very low amounts of Fe and Al oxides, which normally
play the major role in enhancing the regeneration capacity when drying the media for a while.
According to batch experiment, the maximum P sorption capacity of the Filtralite-P is 3.33 gm
P/kg Filtralite-PTM. According to the lysimeter experiments the batch experiments overestimate
the P-sorption capacity of the filter media. However further experiments have to be carried out to
elucidate this relationship.

Vaidya, Bunu
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Livelihoods and sustainability aspects of non timber forest
        products in Gorkha district, Nepal




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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2002




Yesuf, Siraj Seid
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
         Social and Economic Features of Urban Farming: A Case from Addis
         Ababa, Ethiopia
Summary:
This study was carried out to assess the existing urban farming scenario in Addis Ababa.
Household level analysis of the situation is emphasized paying particular attention to households
sex and age composition, marital status, household size, educational and occupational
background and region of origin. Level and magnitude of animal production is also assessed in
association with the level of input use in the farming practice under consideration. Ways of waste
disposal emanating from these urban farms and ways of cattle feeding among the urban farmers
is also explained in an effort to show the level of health hazard and environmental contamination
posed to the urban area. Moreover importance of urban farming in its contribution to income and
food availability is analyzed and lastly public attitude towards urban farming is evaluated.
At the outset of the research a structured questionnaire was prepared to gather information from
160 households from four different woredas. Each woreda thus had the corresponding number of
respondents according to the population in each woreda under study. Results are then tabulated in
the form of averages and percentages under each section. It is learned from this study that women
slightly outnumber men in their participation in urban farming. Moreover it is found that those
able-to-do age groups and with relatively big sized family and married households are more
inclined to be engaged in urban farming. In addition it is indicated that urban farming is not a
poor man’s occupation; it is handled by all from academic and professional backgrounds. And in
fact it is found that urban farmers may have different regions of origin as anybody else in the
city. Urban farming is found to be important for those household engaged in it to reduce
economic hardships, supplementing family food demands and reducing cash expenditures on
food. It is observed that it is land acquisition problem that is the most acute one even though
farming households also suffer from lack of capital, theft and vandalism and scarce availability
of inputs. It is also learned that even though many farmers recycle their farm wastes in one way
or another, there is risk of pollution in the city because a sizeable proportion of the farmers just
damp their wastes anywhere and also let their cattle to graze in any vacant area available.
Even though there is ample evidence that urban farming supports families which are engaged in
it and the clear health and environmental hazard it poses if handled improperly, it seriously
suffers from being widely unrecognized and unassisted by public officials.




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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2001




            M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture

                                               Master thesis 2001

Asefa Teklehaimanot, Dereje:
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
         The Socio-Economic effects and Environmental Impacts of area Enclosures in Hauzien
         Wereda, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia.
Summary:
This study was undertaken to evaluate the socio economic and environmental effects of area
enclosures in Hauzien district (Wereda), Tigray, North Ethiopia. Area enclosures are degraded
lands protected from human disturbance and livestock grazing. Questionnaire survey and field
assessments were used in data collection. Socio economic survey results indicate that farmers are
aware of land degradation in their local environment. There is widespread erosion (gullies and
rills), poor vegetation cover, poor quality pastures and small number of wildlife population as
compared to the situation 50 years ago. Poor vegetation cover and productivity of land, presence
of gullies and rills, shallow soil depth and stoniness of land, the need of too much fertilizer, and
low water holding capacity of soils are mentioned as indicators of land degradation. These
indicators, slope and distance from settlements are considered for choosing land to be enclosed.
Area enclosures have increased pasture productivity, enhanced species regeneration, reduced
erosion, and improved food security. Temporary grazing land shortage, penalty, guarding costs
and in some cases conflicts are reported as negative effects. Comparing the positive and negative
effects most farmers support the establishment of new area enclosures in the open degraded
grazing lands of Hauzien district in Tigray. The cost benefit analysis showed that enclosures that
were terraced and enriched with reforestation have a higher NPV followed by terraced and non-
terraced enclosures. Terraced and enriched enclosures have NPV of Eth. Birr 10468 ha-1 (IRR =
32 %), while enclosures with terracing structures have Eth. Birr 9664 ha-1 (IRR = 35 %).
Enclosures without terracing and enrichment plantation have also a positive NPV (Eth. Birr 6745
ha-1) (IRR = 33 %). Therefore terracing can be recommended in non-terraced enclosures, but
enrichment plantation can be done depending on the objectives of enclosures. If it is for pasture
production, it can be disregarded, and if the ultimate goal is wood enrichment can be
implemented. Species that have been lost or reduced in abundance are reappearing and increasing
inside the enclosures. Total herbs, bush and tree species richness and diversity in open
management were less than those in enclosures. Herb species diversity increased from 1.62 ±
0.04 in the open land to 1.71 ± 0.03 species m-2 in enclosures, while bushes increased from 0.59
± 0.05 to 0.9 ± 0.04 species plot-1. Tree species diversity was less in open lands (0.49 ± 0.09)
compared to enclosures (1.05 ± 0.06 plot-1). Similarly, herb and tree densities in the open
management were less than those in the enclosures. However, the bush plant density had not
increased in the enclosures compared to open lands. Age of enclosure affected species richness,
diversity and density of the three plant life forms (i.e. herbs, bushes and trees). The maximum
herb species richness (15.64 ± 0.28 m2), diversity (2.22 ± 0.05 m2) and density (317 ± 12.2 m2)
were obtained at 3-year-old enclosures and declined with age of enclosures. In the open


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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


management herb species richness were higher than that of older enclosures. Bushy species
richness and diversity also increased during the first six years and declined thereafter. However,
bush plant density did not show changes in relation to age of enclosures. By comparison, tree
species richness and diversity increased with age up to the 3rd year and reduced in the 5th year
but followed by an increase. Tree density progressively increased with the age of enclosures as
compared to the herb and bushes. The lowest tree density was recorded in the open land (37 ±
18.4 plot -1). Herb species diversity increased for the first 3 years of the enclosures and reduced
with age, while bush species diversity increased until the 6th year. The coverage of rills and
gullies has been reduced significantly in enclosures since the vegetation protected soil surface
and intercepted runoff. As a conclusion, degraded land in Hauzien was being rehabilitated
through the natural regeneration programs undertaken throughout Tigray region. This study
shows enclosures are efficient in averting environmental degradation and contributing to the well
being of the farmers. Therefore area enclosure projects can be recommended for other regions of
Ethiopia, specifically in the highlands, where extreme cases of land degradation persists.

Chifungwe Chibinga, Oswin
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis:
        Social Economic and Nutritional Aspects of Poultry (Broiler) Rearing Among the Small-
        Scale Farmers in Monze, Zambia.
Summery:
This study was conducted to find out how socio-economic and nutritional factors of poultry
(broilers) farming affect the small-scale farmers. A questionnaire survey was used to collect
information about the social and economic aspects of broiler production and an experiment on
the substitution of maize by sorghum in broilers was the nutritional part. The study revealed that
small-scale broiler farming is on the increase. The majority of the farmers interviewed (75%)
started production in the last five years. All farmers used family labour for rearing the birds.
Average household size was 5.56 and consisted of 54% women. Women are playing an
increasing vital role in broiler production. The majority of the farmers keep between 50 and 200
birds per batch and rear 6-7 batches per year. The major constraints faced by respondent broiler
farmers were cost of stock-feeds, market for their broilers and lack of credit facilities. Cost
benefit analysis of the broiler farms shows that, the enterprise is still very profitable. The net
income per bird ranged between ZK2,300 and ZK4,043.33. This study shows that broiler
production is a good venture for small-holders which can help to generate income for the families
and improve their standard of living. In order to study the nutritional aspects, an experiment was
conducted to investigate the impact of dietary substituting of maize with white sorghum, on
performance and carcass characteristics of broilers. In the experiment 253 1-day-old Arbor Acre
boilers(straight run), and five diet treatments (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% sorghum in both starter and
finisher diets) were used. Four replicates(12-13 birds each) were allotted to each treatment. Body
weight, feed intake and feed efficiency ratio were measured weekly. Weight gain, daily feed
intake, feed conversion at 4 weeks and at 6 weeks, were not significantly affected by sorghum
level (p > 0.05). Carcass yield and mortality were also not affected by sorghum level. Feed cost
calculations showed that there were no significant differences among the starter diets (p>0.05). In
the finishing period the 40% sorghum diet cost ZK 1631.4 per gram weight gain and was
significantly cheaper (p< 0.05) than all the other diets except the 30% sorghum diet. The results
of this experiment indicate that broiler chickens perform positively on different levels of white



                                                34
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                     M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


sorghum in comparison with maize based diets. Increasing use of sorghum in place of maize also
helps to reduce feed costs.

de Barbentane, Sigrid
Nationality: Angola
Title of thesis:
        Seeds, Storms and Strategies A study on decision-making processes in seed supplies and
        seed distribution interventions in emergency situations.
Summery:
The aim of this study is to investigate the processes lying behind the choice of activities
implemented in emergency agricultural restoration projects after Hurricane Mitch in Honduras.
The collection of the data was based on interviews with people working in the local, national and
international organisations that were directly or indirectly involved in the emergency agricultural
restoration projects. Hurricane Mitch swept through Central America in October 1998, and led to
a spectacular mobilisation of the international community and relief institutions to rebuild the
agricultural sector of the country. The general assumption among the agencies was that a disaster
like Hurricane Mitch destroys all possibility of small farmers to recover their own stock of seeds
for the next sowing season in May. Starting with this assumption, agencies implemented seed
activities as the main priority of their emergency projects. The study reveals that seed activities
implemented in the communities were dependent on many factors inter alia:

-       The goal of the agencies: Did the agencies aim at restoring the farmers' seed stocks with
seeds available through the national market? Did they aim at improving the farmers' seed system
by introducing improved varieties they considered better adapted to marginal conditions? Or, did
they try to promote local varieties and develop activities to support the local production?
-       The understanding of the agencies about the loss and the need for seeds within the
farming systems;
-       The level of access to seeds and varieties through the different channels of the formal and
informal systems;
-       The time frame.

Most seed suppliers based their emergency programs on the production and the multiplication of
a few improved varieties with a focus on bean seeds. These varieties are Tio Canela and Dorado
for beans and Dicta Guayape, Hb 104 for maize. The reason given by many seed suppliers was
that improved varieties were considered more suitable to improve the local production of the
small farmers than the old landraces. Only a few agencies promoted local varieties as part of their
emergency projects, although FAO highlighted in 1996 in its "Global Plan of Action for the
Conservation and Sustainable Utilisation of Pant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
(PGRFA)" the importance of promoting local varieties in seed activities. Seed distributors , that
distributed improved varieties, stated that it was easier and less risky to purchase improved
varieties than local varieties since the first were produced in large quantities and certified by seed
suppliers. The lack of time during the emergency, the necessity to supply large quantities of
seeds and the advantages that may have good quality seeds of improved varieties were also given
as explanations for choosing improved varieties. This study also shows that seed distributors with
existing projects before the hurricane were more likely to engage in activities aimed at
strengthening of local capacities (training of the farmers, formation of local groups), than



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


agencies that implemented projects in new areas. These activities were rooted in a knowledge of
the local needs and local farming systems. Most of the agencies that arrived after Mitch,
however, implemented short-term projects through a one-time donation of improved varieties
supplied by well-known institutions to farmers sampled at random. The organisational aspect of
the emergency programs was, to a large extent, characterised by a lack of coordination between
the different actors and a lack of transparency in the activities. The absence of a national
coordinator controlling the agricultural restoration projects during the emergency, and the arrival
of a large number of new relief agencies, increased the confusion already present after Mitch.
This confusion was further exacerbated by the lack of monitoring and evaluation systems for
some emergency projects. Agencies active before Hurricane Mitch occurred were those least
complaining about the lack of coordination and the difficulty of implementing emergency
agricultural restoration projects, a fact that indicates that their experience of working in the area
was an advantage. In a last part, this study discusses some challenges that actors involved in
emergency agricultural restoration projects have to cope with. These are the difficulty to assess
the needs, to evaluate the loss of seeds, and to choose the best practices to restore or improve the
food security of a country. It also questions the impacts of emergency seed activities projects on
PGR vulnerability and on the food security at the local and national levels. The study concludes
with a number of suggestions for actions to improve the agricultural restoration projects in
countries susceptible to disasters. This actions concern the importance of implementing pre-
disaster as well as post-disaster strategies. The section discusses the importance of strengthening
local capacities and clarifying the role and scope of the different institutions concerned with
agricultural restoration programs that includes the formal and the informal seed systems in times
of crisis.
Key words: emergency agricultural restoration project, seed supply, seed distribution, informal
seed system, formal seed system, plant genetic resources, international community, government,
relief agencies, local community, Zea mayz, Phaseolus vulgaris, Hurricane Mitch, Honduras

Dhoubhadel, Sunil Prasad
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Leasehold Forestry and Livelihoods (Cases from the Mid-Hills of Nepal).
Summery:
Most of the rural people in the mid-hills of Nepal live in conditions characterised by deprivation
and poverty. Generally, the rural population need external assistance in the form of
developmental interventions to improve their livelihoods. Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage
Development Project (HLFFDP) is one of such interventions, which intends to reduce the
poverty of the marginalized sections of the rural population in the mid-hills of Nepal by
improving mainly the management of natural capital such as forest and livestock. The HLFFD
has adopted the conventional 'poverty line' approach to poverty. However, the more recent
approach to poverty reduction emphasizes the development of the capabilities of the poor for
sustainable reduction of poverty. The approach advocates expansion of people's access to
various resources (capitals) that they use to build their livelihoods. Hence, an assessment of
poverty from capability perspective may provide different results compared to one based on the
income criterion. This study has adopted a capability perspective to assess poverty. The study is
an attempt to assess the impact of HLFFDP activities on the rural poor in the mid-hills of Nepal
with reference to access to various forms of capitals and their subsequent impact on the



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


livelihoods of the rural poor. Case studies were carried out in two project Village Development
Committees (VDCs) in Kavrepalanchok district of Nepal. Moreover, a non-project VDC in the
same district was also included in the study for comparative purposes. The sample households in
each of the study VDCs were selected randomly. Primary data were mainly obtained from
sample household survey and group discussions with the study households. The sources of
secondary information were various reports published by the project and other relevant
documents. The findings of the study indicate that there are some constraints in present HLFFDP
policies that are preventing the inclusion of the poorest of the poor households as project
beneficiaries. In addition, some of policies of the project have not been that favourable to
enhance diversification of the livelihoods of the leasehold households. The constraints pertaining
to these policies need to be relaxed so that the leasehold households realise full benefits from the
project activities. Similarly, some shortcomings have been observed in the implementation of the
project activities also due to which the project households have not made anticipated progress in
accumulation of all forms of capital that is needed for livelihoods improvement. The impact of
the project activities on natural capital (especially in forest and forest products) accumulation has
been encouraging. However, similar distinct progress in other capitals (especially financial,
human and physical) of the leasehold households has not been observed. The formation of
leasehold groups has helped to promote social (cultural) capital of the households. However, still
there is a need for further strengthening of institutional aspects of leasehold groups in order to
ensure the sustainability of the leasehold activities and the improvement of the livelihoods of the
leasehold households even after the termination of the project.

Gebrehiwot, Awet Kidane
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Crafting Institutions for Water Management and Willingness to Pay for Water Services in
        Northern Namibia.
Summery:
The thesis focuses on management of rural water supply on the Cuvelai pipeline scheme. the
scheme serves the northern region of Namibia where more than half of the population of the
country stays. The study was conducted in two villages in Uuvudhiya constituency. The thesis is
presented in two parts. The first part of the study is an attempt to assess this situation by using
Ostrom's design principles. Ostrom (1990) came up with eight design principles that
characterized management of successful long enduring self-organized common pool resources.
Currently the government is implementing a community based water management policy to
achieve sustainable rural water supply. New community-based institutions are being designed to
take up this challenge. The institutions are expected to have legal recognition and ownership
right over their own water supply. Community members are expected to take part in decision
making in the designing, implementation and modifying their own rules-in use. The study
conducted in Omapopo and Onkani villages found out that the design principles were found to be
applicable in most cases. The second part of the study was conducted to elicit the respondents'
willingness to pay for improved water services in Onkani area. The water points around Onkani
have some construction defects that they tend to get less or no water during the dry season. The
study was conducted by using survey questionnaires with discrete and open-ended questions. The
result revealed that households are willing to pay 13.87 Namibian dollars per month for an
improved water supply. Factors that affect households willingness to pay positively were



                                                 37
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


identified as having additional income sources from off-farm activities, previous experience of
paying for water and having female-headed households. The Random utility Theory (RUT) was
used as a theoretical basis for the model specification. Interval regression (i.e. maximum
likelihood regression) and simple regression models were used to analyse the bids and the
maximum willingness to pay respectively. The results indicate that the models are good to
explain people's responses to the WTP questions and are in line with economic theory. The
results of this study in dictate that CVM properly designed and controlled for all possible sources
of bias can give us robust results. It proves to be an important tool for valuation of public and
environmental goods with missing markets.

Gurung, Shova
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Local Ecological Knowledge about Management of Tree Fodder Resources in the
        Western Mid-hills of Nepal.
Summery:
Tree fodder is a primary constituent of animal feed, especially in hill areas in Nepal. The farmers'
efforts to meet the demand for fodder often result in an increasing exploitation of all available
sources of fodder. There is evidence that increasing scarcity of tree fodders from public forest is
an obvious motivating factor for farmers to intensify tree fodder cultivation and management on
private land. The thesis presents an investigation into local ecological knowledge about the
management and use of farmland tree fodder resources in a rural context in the western mid-hills
of Nepal. The farmers' perceptions on tree fodder cultivation, management and use on farmland
was acquired and analysed. Furthermore, the underlying knowledge systems the farmers used in
managing tree-crop interactions and fodder quality evaluation in their tree-crop and livestock
based farming system was examined. The local ecological knowledge about tree fodder
management was acquired and evaluated in terms of the extent to which the knowledge is
distributed amongst different categories of informants with specific reference to gender, caste
and age. The tree fodder knowledge base acquired from key informants was evaluated in terms of
the extent to which it was complementary and/or contradictory to professional knowledge held
by the development professionals operating in the study area. At present, there is a worldwide
recognition of the significance of utilizing local knowledge together with scientific knowledge
stressing hybridity. Thus, the farmers' and development professionals' perceptions about local
knowledge, scientific knowledge and combination of both forms of knowledge were examined.
The research relied upon the concepts and approaches in knowledge acquisition developed in the
field of anthropology and ethnography. A multi-method research strategy, composed of methods
like household survey, individual interview, focus group discussion, key informants interview
and direct observation, was employed. A knowledge based systems approach was adopted in the
study in order to provide a framework for systematic means of collating, recording and
evaluating farmers' ecological knowledge about management and use of farmland tree fodder
resources. Such a strategy and approach adopted in the study facilitated the exploration of the
central body of knowledge from different sources for diverse purposes and overcome many of
the limitations of traditional survey research. The research demonstrated that the farmers
possessed an extensive ecological knowledge of tree crop interactions, fodder quality evaluation
and tree fodder management techniques, which they used in management of tree fodders on
farmland and in formulating feeding strategies. This study has revealed the value and potentiality



                                                38
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


of gathering local ecological knowledge and using it as a basis for developing appropriate
research and development design and strategies in order to make them responsive to the needs of
local community. The present study has demonstrated the existence of both unique and common
domains of knowledge about tree fodder management between men and women, dalit and non-
dalit, and young and old informants although distinct knowledge gap was observed between
young and old informants. The study has also indicated that there is often differences in the
understanding of processes, tree attributes and terminologies used by development professionals
and farmers in managing tree-crop interactions and in determining the fodder quality. The
farmers' knowledge has shown a potential to improve the understanding of the development
professionals with regard to the complex interdisciplinary field of tree fodder resources. The
research revealed that the farmers did not perceive the knowledge hybridity as equally important
as the development professionals. The study has shown several key issues having direct
implications for designing research and development programs on tree fodder resources in Nepal.
It has also shown that local knowledge system research can further our understanding of complex
rural farming system. It is thus, likely that an interdisciplinary rather than multi-disciplinary
research strategy needs to be applied. Key considerations for further research into local
knowledge are also indicated.

Hailu Feyisa, Taye
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Cultivation of Chat and Its Impacts in the Farming System, Household Economy and
        Food availability. A case study in Malkaa balloo and Ifa gamachu Pas
Summery:
Chat (Catha Edulis), a mild stimulant evergreen tree, is produced and consumed in areas
extending from east to South Africa, Madagascar and the Arabia peninsula. It grows under wide
climatic and soil conditions, and tolerates drought for several months. The cultivation is believed
to begin in Ethiopia in the early of the 14th century. The eastern part of Ethiopia is the main
producing area. Currently, it is expanding in different parts of the country. However, the
consequences of the expansion for sure have not been studied. Hence, the main objective of the
study is to assess the trend of chat production and its impacts on the farming system, the HH
economy and food availability. The study was conducted on 60 peasants in two main chat
producing PAs of Habro district, Western Hararghie Administrative zone. Besides, discussions
were carried out with farmers, consumers and traders. The result of the study indicates that chat
production has expanded very rapidly in the last 30 years. It was a temporary solution to break
the vicious circle of rural poverty that binds to drought. It later turned out to be a risk aversion
strategy to risks related to cereals failure from ecological degradation (declining productivity of
land, weed problem, pest and diseases incidences), lack of ox and recurrent droughts. The
expansion is facilitated by the improved infra structure, roads and popularity of the habit. It is
expanding at the expense of food crops, coffee, trees and grazing lands. It has constrained
livestock production, which depends on annual croplands for forage source. The farming system
has shifted from mono cropping of diverse crops to intercropping of maize and sorghum between
rows of chat. The spacing determines the intensity of intercropping and maize production is
reduced by 47 % in average compared to mono cropping system. Nevertheless, the income from
the intercropping system is 2.64 times higher as compared to mono cropping of maize with an
average income of 3453 Br (417.5 USD) and 1306 Br (158 USD) per ha respectively. Food self-



                                                39
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


sufficiency is more dependent on the production from intercropping system. 10 % of the
households are self-sufficient in food production. The vast majority supplement the food demand
with purchased grains and spends 50.6 % of their income on grain purchase in average. However,
49 % of the households still have food deficit for 2.7 months in average. The cultivation of chat,
indeed, has increase the household income and many have improved their life style in many
aspects but increased income have not demonstrated increased investment in cereal production
nor solved the household food deficit. They starve to meet other livelihood needs and to preserve
their asset. Chat sale makes up more than 70 % of the household income, but the general
observation indicates that the income from chat is declining year after year due to over
production emanated from lack of information. Chat is becoming increasingly risk full. Many
farmers have faced difficulties of marketing their chat. As a result, they sell livestock to offset
the income loss. Chat growers are subjected to insidious impoverishment while trying to offset
the on going decline in the income from chat. The study suggests farmers to diversify their
income and increase cereal production in order to be self-reliant in food production. Increased
cereal production can safeguard them from losing their asset when there is loss of income from
chat. Government should use tax revenue from chat in assisting chat growers to diversify their
income and raising awareness among farmers on the risk and opportunities of chat production.
Government also has to check further expansion of chat anywhere in the country since the socio-
economic and environmental impacts of chat are so diverse and complex in nature.

Herrera Scott, Edgard
Nationality: Nicaragua
Title of thesis:
        Parrots trade in Nicaragua, from the forest to Managua. Assessment of the geographical
        origin, capture methods and financial benefits of the activity.
Summery:
This research was carried out in Nicaragua, to assess the geographical origin, capture methods,
and financial benefits for the exportation and local sales of parrots (psittacidae) following the
commercial chain from the countryside to the capital city. The country harbours 14 species of
parrots, 12 of which are currently traded in more or less degree. Several areas such as Bosawas
and Indio-Maiz reserves and the provinces of Carazo and Managua city were surveyed. The main
site for wildlife trade is Managua. It was estimated that a total of 7,205 parrots were locally sold
and exported during the study period (jul-nov 2000). The commercial chain involves mainly a
trapper, one or several middlemen and a local dealer or exporter. The revenue for the exportation
of parrots in Nicaragua is distributed in such a way that trappers share 3 %, middlemen 7%,
government 11% and exporters 79%. In the case of the local market, for some small and less
valuable species, the commercial chain is limited to the trapper and the local dealer. Five out of
the 12 species currently on trade (Amazona autumnalis, Amazona farinosa, Amazona
auropalliata, Ara macao and Ara ambigua) are collected from the remaining forested areas in the
Caribbean slope of the country, including the protected areas of Bosawas and Indio-Maiz. These
species are the most endangered at a local level and the three Amazona species are the most
exported. Though they constitute only a 39 % of the locally sold parrots, they account for a 74%
of the local sales, in terms of revenue. A.canicularis, A.finschii, A.holochlora, A.albifrons and
B.jugularis are collected from the pacific and central part of the country in primarily human-
modified ecosystems. These species are the least exported and less endangered at a local level
than the five species mentioned above . Though they account for 61 % of the individuals locally



                                                40
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


sold, in terms of revenue they account only for a 26 % of the local sales. The distribution of the
collection points for 10 species traded in the country is presented in maps. The capture methods
differ according to the region where the parrots are collected. In the Indio-Maiz region, parrots
are trapped mainly by cutting the tree down and therefore destroying the nest. In the Carazo
region, parrots are trapped using elaborated techniques focused on adult individuals without
affecting nest availability. This research generated new information about parrot's trade in
Nicaragua, in an attempt to understand better this complex activity. It is proposed here that the
government could entitle local communities to manage their own natural resources as an option
in protected areas where parrots are harvested in an open access situation.

Hongslo, Eirin
Nationality: Namibia
Title of thesis:
        Landscapes and land reform Narratives by commercial farmers in Namibia.
Summery:
This paper examines the narratives on land reform, landscapes and desertification by commercial
farmers in Namibia. The analysis is based on interviews with commercial farmers in the Kuiseb
area. In 1991 the first conference in Namibia on land reform took place which started the land
reform process. A decade later, land reform is still a controversial issue. In the narratives
presented by the commercial farmers, landscape is used as a parameter for good management.
Good management does, according to the commercial farmers, lead to a landscape looking like
their own farms. On the contrary, bad management leads to an overgrazed landscape of 'nothing',
like the communal farming areas in the north of Namibia. The argument goes that if commercial
ranches are redistributed to be used communally, the 'desertification' of the north will spread to
new areas. The paper will demonstrate how these conclusions of good and bad management are
presented as neutral scientific facts, when they in fact are normative and used politically for
certain purposes. The commercial farmers use scientific concepts and theories which are
contested among ecologists today, to argue that the practices of the African farmers are
ecologically disastrous.

Huy Tai, Nguyen
Nationality: Angola
Title of thesis:
        Characteristics, Distribution and Productive Status of the Local Mango Varieties in the
        Mekong delta, Vietnam
Summary:
This study was carried out to identify characteristics of the local mango varieties, suitable
varieties and resources of plant materials for breeding and propagating to develop mango
production in the Mekong delta. The study works took place in the Mekong delta during period
from June 2000 to January 2001. The collective investigation of local mango varieties and
evaluation of productive status is implemented at commune level with interview of 120
household heads. Characteristics and evaluation descriptors for mango used according to
International Board for Genetic Resources (IBPGR) and A Systematic Description of Mango
Clone in Peninsular Malaysia (MARDI). Twenty-four local mango varieties were described and
evaluated. Plant morphological characters such as trunk growth, tree habit, bark texture and
branching habit do not discriminate clearly between varieties. Morphological characteristics of



                                               41
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


leaf and fruit have specific distinct traits. By qualitative characters assessed, some mango
varieties have good quality characters and high potential for commercial production. The mango
varieties are adapted to their ecological settings and are subject to human. Some varieties are
identified as suitable under environmental conditions of the area and could be used for breeding
and propagating.

Kajubi, Elijah
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Non-formal Environmental education: A Strategy for Promotion of Agroforestry for
        Improved Household Livelihood. A case of The Swedish (Vi) Agroforest.
Summery:
Uganda government has embarked on agricultural modernisation plan, which will ultimately
transform livelihoods of resource for poor small-scale farmers. Agroforestry as a land use system
has emerged in response to land degradation. Non-formal education is one of the educational
approach used in promoting agroforestry, through fostering a shared learning process between
farmers and extensionists for effective adoption of recommended practices. Farmer's increased
skills in agroforestry land use practices for better production is what agricultural modernisation
plan entailed. The study focused on the role of non-formal environmental education in promotion
of agroforestry among peri-urban and rural farming households. The objectives of the study
were; to assess agroforestry practices that are recommended and the contributions they offer to
household livelihoods, the non-formal environmental education methods and approaches that are
used by educators/extensionists in educational process and also the relative importance of various
non-formal educational methods in agroforestry promotion for effective learning and adoption.
The study was conducted in Southwest Uganda (Masaka district) from August 2000 to January
2001.Household survey was the main method used in collecting qualitative data. A sample of
160 randomly selected households was surveyed randomly in peri-urban and rural farming areas.
Two focus group discussions were held for farmers and extensionists. A flexible research design
involved observation, semi-structured interview of individual household members and groups of
farmers. The 98% of households in both peri-urban and rural areas had on-farm sources of
income. The 77% of households were engaged in off-farm variety of activities, pursued
simultaneously or one at time during the year for better livelihood. The study findings showed
that, a household participation in agroforestry was influenced by various factors; formal and non-
formal education, size of the land, land tenure systems and on-farm decision-making. The 66% of
households were land insecure, being occupant on mailo land, however their land user rights
were subjected to negotiations with rightful landowner with title deed. Land was acquired
through; purchase, inheritance and others were given. Ownership of land was therefore an
important condition that affected agroforestry adoption. There was a significant difference in
educational levels attained between peri-urban and rural households (p<0.05). Formal education
was found to have a significant influence on members of household decision-making in
participation and adoption of agroforestry (p<0.05). Agroforestry had been practised for over 20
years by 40% of households in the study area. Farmers had different understanding and
perceptions of what agroforestry means amongst households. The empirical findings and
analyses demonstrate a number of important conclusions; agroforestry contributes to house
livelihood in several ways; it offered fruit production for home consumption and cash income,
crop-pest protection with locally made concoction from trees leaves, liquid fertiliser/manure



                                               42
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


making from tree leaves and livestock waste, provision of easy access to fuel wood and nutritious
fodder availability at household. Different information sources on agroforestry were government
departments, NGOs, CBOs and individual farmers. The opportunities offered by multiple
information channels contribute greatly to agroforestry promotion in peri urban and rural farming
areas. However, the best training and effective learning for farmers is achieved through a
multiple combination and flexible use of training methods. The agroforestry needs assessment
showed that, 96% of households were interested in learning more skills pertaining to sustainable
agriculture. It was therefore concluded that farmer's training needs assessment is a necessary
prerequisite in order to have a cost effective learning and adoption of agroforestry.

Karim, Ziaul
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
         Analysis of the Present Production and Marketing Systems of Bananas in some Selected
         Areas of Mymensingh and Bogra Districts of Bangladesh
Summary:
Banana is the most important fruit crop in Bangladesh and has a potential to reduce dependency
of rice. Rice is the dominant crop in Bangladesh. Increased production of rice alone, however,
will not be sufficient to meet the food requirements of the growing population. In attaining self-
sufficiency in food supply in Bangladesh, priority has shifted from the mono crop approach to
diversification of crop production. The study was conducted at Muktagacha, Churkhai area of
Mymensingh district and Chopinagar, Khottapara areas of Bogra district during August 2000 to
December 2000, to analyze the present production and marketing system of banana, identify the
variables that influence production and marketing techniques and to find out the main problems
of the production and marketing systems. The purpose was to investigate socio-economic
characteristics of the banana farmers and traders, and to improve the existing production and
marketing system with the final goal to improve livelihoods of small-scale farmers and
traders.120 banana farmers and 20 banana traders were selected from four areas of Mymensingh
and Bogra districts through purposive random sampling. A combination of tabular and statistical
techniques was used to analyze the data. Results from the four study areas in two districts
showed that the 120 surveyed banana farmers cultivated 25.4 hectare land of banana in 1999, in
2000 the same farmers cultivated 28.1 hectare land of banana. The study showed that cultivated
area is increasing. It was also found that average age of banana framers were 42 years, average
family size were 6 persons, and average education level was up to 5th grade. Average land
holding was less than 1 hectare. Average experience as a banana farmer was 9 years and average
yield was 13.5 tons, which is less than national average. National average is 16 tons per hectare.
It was clear that banana farmers were small-scale farmers with medium education level. They
have some ideas about banana cultivation, but limited access to training and improved
technology. Only male farmers were involved in banana production and marketing activities. The
study showed that average age of a banana trader was 45 years, their average education was up to
5th grade, their average family member were 5.3 persons, average land holding was less than 1
hectare, average working capital was around 79 thousand taka and average experience in banana
trading was 6.5 years. It was clear that banana traders were small-scale business traders with a
medium education level. Farmers have developed a common practice for banana cultivation. At
first farmers select the suitable land, and then they cultivate land, collect suckers, dig pits, and
use fertilizer as early dozes and some top dressing. They often do weeding and desuckering.



                                                43
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                   M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


During rainy season farmers do earthing up practice side-by-side propping. During winter
farmers do irrigation in their banana fields. If pest attacks, farmers use pesticides. Farmers
usually do removal of male bud and floral remnants. Removal of dried and decayed leaves and
plant parts are not a common practice. Farmers have little knowledge about how to clean and
ensure healthy plantation and less attack of pests and diseases. There are five types of market
participants usually found in banana business in Bangladesh. They are called Farias, Beparis,
Aratdars, Paikers and retailers. Banana marketing channels usually start from the growers level
then shift gradually to Farias, Beparis, Aratdars, Paikers, retailers level and ends at consumer
level. The farmers identified some major problems in the banana production, including non
availability of good quality seedlings, non availability of inputs at a fair price and in time,
absence of institutional credit, lack of operating capital, low price of their product, fluctuating
price and demand, dominance of intermediaries, lack of market information, lack of farmers
organization and inadequate transport facilities. The banana traders identified some major
problems of banana marketing, including lack of operating capital, fluctuating prices and
demands, risk of high losses, high market tax/commissions, lack of shade/space, high carrying
cost, lack of institutional credit, rapid spoilage and under developed communication system.
Findings of the study suggest that, for reducing unemployment, malnutrition and considering the
importance of banana as a major horticulture crop, the government should supply financial and
technical support to small-scale banana farmers and traders. Ensuring adequate and timely supply
of inputs, easy access to institutional credit by the farmers and traders, formation of effective
production and marketing co-operatives by the banana producers and traders may improve
productivity and marketing of banana in Bangladesh.

Karki Adhikary, Radha
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Contribution of Agroforestry to Farmhousehold Income and Community Forestry
        Management.
Summary:
Agriculture and forestry are closely related with livelihood of the rural households of Nepal and
so are agriculture and forest with each other. Various studies have showed that one-hectare of
agriculture land needs 2.8 to 18 hectare of forest to maintain agricultural productivity. Forest
resources are decreasing every day and the most of the village forests are transferring to the local
users for the management as well as for utilization purposes. Because of the extensive use of
agricultural land there is reduction in production and land fertility. The number of livestock has
also decreased due to less availability of feeding resources from agriculture land. Therefore it
shows, there is a dynamic relationship between forestry, livestock and agriculture, so till and
until the forest is protected and managed, the agriculture system will continue to be effected and
hence the livelihood of rural people. This study, Contribution of Agroforestry to Farm household
Income and Community Forestry Management, mainly focuses on effects of Agroforestry
practices on community forests management and income of farmers. The objectives of the study
are; 1) to document the existing agricultural systems in the study area, 2) to describe traditional
and new Agroforestry practices, 3) to find the effects of Agroforestry on community forestry
management, 4) to identify major components contributing to farm household income from
Agroforestry systems and 5) to suggest suitable Agroforestry systems that can be useful in the
study area. The research was carried out in three wards of the Panchkhal Village Development



                                                44
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


Committee of the Kabrepalanchok district of Central mid-hills of Nepal to know the contribution
of Agroforestry to farm household income and community forestry management. A total of one
hundred eleven households were surveyed systematically. Semi structured questionnaires; key
informant interviews, direct observation, group discussion and informal interviews were
employed as well as a questionnaire survey to collect in-depth information about community
forests and adoption of Agroforestry practices by the farmers. Available literature from various
organisations were studied and collected. The information collected from the study was about
basic information of households, existing agricultural systems, traditional and new Agroforestry
practices, effects of Agroforestry on community forestry management and different sources of
income from Agroforestry practices. The results revealed that milk from livestock, timber and
off-season vegetables were the main sources of cash income of households. The large
landholdings had traditional forestland whereas small land holdings had also multipurpose tree
species of fuelwood, fodder, fruit and timber in bonds, terrace risers, gullies and uncultivated
land. The main seasonal sources of livestock feeds such as fodder from private land as well as
community forests and crop residues were based on agricultural land. The analysis also showed
that farmers having a number of livestock in the household had fodder trees in private land and
had planted improved grasses. Generally households were planting trees species in the part of
non-irrigated land, but not in irrigated land because of perception of shading and root
competition to the agro-crops. The major sources of trees seedlings and technical assistance for
planting were from Love Green Nepal, but farmers already had traditional knowledge of planting
trees in their own land. Market seemed to have influenced directly to the household income with
opportunity to market off-season vegetables. Because of the shortage of forestry products and
also for the easy management of community forest, Agroforestry is a suitable practice in the mid-
hills of Nepal. Planting more multipurpose trees in private land has helped in managing
Community Forest and fulfilling the demands of farmers. Therefore the whole analysis showed
multipurpose trees in private land promoting the livelihood of the farmer and assisting to the
management of Community Forest, besides helping indirectly to control environmental
degradation as well.

Maskey, Yubaraj
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Fund of Community Forest: Consent and Satisfaction.
Summery:
Handover of national forest to user groups as a community forest is the main thrust of forest
policy of Nepal. Community forestry of Nepal has been acknowledged as the most successful,
most innovative and truly community oriented programme of its kind in the world. Conceptually
a participatory approach, community forestry has been perceived as the most effective strategy
for restoring, managing the forest and fulfilling the subsistence needs of the forestry products to
the rural people. After achieving the goal of what community forestry is envisaged to fulfil and
since potential is high to generate income and users are able to generate considerable amount of
money, community fund is now focal point of government, donors and other concerned agencies.
This study titled 'Fund of community forestry: Consent and Satisfaction' mainly concentrates on
community fund, especially its sources and participation, consent and satisfaction of users on
fund mobilisation. The objectives of the study are




                                                45
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


i) to identify the sources of income and areas of expenditure; ii) to assess the user's perception on
decision-making processes of community fund iii) to identify the elements governing the user's
participation in fund mobilisation and iv) to assess the sustainability of income and activities of
community forestry. Case study approach was adopted. Two community forests Aakase and
Kattikepakha of Ramecchap district were purposively selected based on specific criteria viz. i)
Forest User Groups handed over more than five years ago; ii) which were neither extremely
active nor passive and ii) which were relatively accessible. Formal and informal methods were
employed to gather information from sixty users, each from Aakase and Kattikepakha
community forests comprising thirty males and thirty females. Wealth ranking was conducted to
segregate users into rich, middle and poor wealth categories. The study found that the fund has
been generated through internal and external sources. External sources of income such as His
Majesty's Government grants used to contribute highest share in the past but since last two years,
internal sources of income has become the major contributor in FUG fund primarily from the sale
of timber. Community fund thus generated are being utilised in different forest and community
development activities. The study revealed that area of expenditure is governed by the sources of
income. Higher external sources are directly proportional to higher expenditure on forestry
development. Increase in the income from internal sources has resulted in higher expenditure on
community development. Community development activities are concentrated on construction of
drinking water, temple, community building, schools, maintenance of roads etc. Attendance of
poor and women at assemblies has not ensured the participation of them in discussion,
acceptance of their views at assemblies and thus resulted in unequal participation in activities of
FUG. Key factors identified for the low participation in the part of poor and women were
education, poverty, traditional customs and low representation in decisive power structure. The
study concludes that despite low inputs to forest development and increasing amount in the
community fund from internal sources shows that community forestry is approaching to attain
ecological and financial sustainability. Due to dominance of certain powerful elite groups in the
decision-making and fund mobilisation it is, however, too early to stipulate that they also have
gained institutional sustainability.

Mapinduzi, Arnold
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Indigenous Knowledge of the Maasai Pastoralists for Biodiversity Conservation in Mt.
        Komoloniki (Monduli) Ecosystems, Northern Tanzania.
Summery:
Biodiversity conservation enhances ecosystems resilience to continue offering ecological
services, which are vital for human survival. The role of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK)
in biodiversity assessments and conservation especially in the grazing lands of East Africa has
been less understood by researchers. This study focussed on the traditional ecological knowledge
(TEK) of the Maasai pastoralists of Mt. Komoloniki ecosystems in Monduli district, Northern
Tanzania. The main goal was to use TEK in landscape classification and assess changes in
biodiversity induced by changing land use patterns. The study used traditional landscape
assessment methods the way the Maasai range scouts used to do. The Maasai classified resources
into macro and micro landscapes based on vegetation, soils, local climate variability and altitude.
Macro landscapes were classified into endim (forest), osupuko (cool wooded grasslands of the
highlands) and orpurkel (arid and semi-arid lowlands). Micro landscapes were classified



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                 M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


according to topographic differences that distinguished uplands from the valley bottomlands. For
example, the uplands were called orkung'u, the valley bottoms called ayarata, while the valley
slopes were called andamata. For the Maasai the three ecological zones (orpurkel, osupuko and
endim,) were linked through the wet, dry and drought grazing cycle. The survey was conducted
in the endim landscapes (n = 131 plots, measure 10 m x 10 m with an interval of 40 m) and
osupuko landscapes (n = 667 plots, measured 1 m x 1 m) to assess rangeland biodiversity. The
study revealed that, the Maasai perception on rangeland biodiversity was based primarily on
pastures quality. Cover, bareness and species composition and other factors mainly influenced
the Maasai perception of landscape use. They used knowledge of indicator species, altitude and
slope to assess livestock suitability. Cover was negatively correlated to bareness, and that crop
cultivation adversely affected cover, hence, negatively affecting rangeland biodiversity, as well
as livestock suitability. Cattle suitability was negatively affected by bare ground, altitude and
woody species. The Maasai perceived that increase in woody species and bareness indicates
deteriorating range condition. They preferred to graze in orkung'u landscapes, as they were less
woody compared to ayarata and andamata landscapes, which were relatively woodier. However,
the ayarata landscapes were preferred during dry season. The most important management that
contributed to conservation of the biodiversity of the grazing lands was the calf pastures
(alalilia). Generally the endim and calves grazing landscapes had good status of biodiversity due
to the strength of traditional regulations. By contrast the agro landscapes were perceived to be
unsuitable for grazing and were more adversely affected in terms of loss of biodiversity. The
study showed that the traditional resources management was effective in promoting conservation
of biodiversity.

Meela, Josephine Theobald
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Local Communities Participation in the Management of Coastal Resources Through
        Integrated Coastal Resources Management ('The Stakeholders Approach').
Summery:
This thesis is based on a study conducted in three villages located in Menai Bay Conservation
Area of Zanzibar, Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to examine participation of the local
communities in management of vital resources in the Coastal Zone of Tanzania. The special area
of focus was three communities in Menai Bay Conservation Area. The main objective was to
examine the level at which local people participate in Management of Coastal Zone Resources
through Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) policy that advocates 'stakeholders approach'.
Specifically the study intended to examine the level at which people of certain local coastal
communities participate in management of coastal resources as well as examining their
ownership rights and obligation with regard to rational utilization of coastal resources.
Furthermore, I wanted to assess people's perception and attitudes towards participatory
management of the coastal resources, the role of local knowledge in integrated management of
coastal resources and to identify local mechanisms through which environmental knowledge is
transferred. Methods used for data collection were participatory observation and semi-structured
questionnaire for primary data. Furthermore, I used written materials relevant to the study
purpose for secondary data. While reflecting on the objectives of the study, concepts and
approaches were developed through theoretical framework and policy analysis. I used Minitab 13
and Excel programmes in order to perform data analysis. The justification for undertaking the



                                               47
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


study is the fact that, the study will provide information that will bring feedback to those
concerned with conservation of resources through local communities. This information is
afterwards expected to provide a key to facilitation of the necessary improvements that may be
required as far as communities' involvement in conservation activities through ICM approach is
concerned. The study found that, ICM policy considerations, introduced in Tanzania, are
applicable in Menai Bay Conservation Area of Zanzibar. There are varieties of entities
(stakeholders) involved in conservation of coastal resources in Menai Bay Conservation Area.
This situation suggests presence of elements of ICM. Although there are ICM related activities
going on in the studied villages, the majority of villagers do not hold extensive knowledge about
ICM policy and strategy. It is also claimed by villagers that they are not involved in the policy
making process. However, villagers do have an opportunity to make decisions about
conservation activities undertaken by both villages and conservation projects in their area.
Despite of the fact that villagers are not involved in the policy making process at the national
level, their knowledge concerning ecosystem behaviour and management skills is importantly
used in the conservation project activities. Traditional Environmental Knowledge is offered
through informal and non-formal set-ups, among coastal communities of Zanzibar. There is no
integration of traditional knowledge in the formal school curriculum. Despite people's
knowledge, destruction of ecosystem is evident. This is due to ecological factors that lead to
economic constraints. Nevertheless, practices that have destructive effect on the ecosystem are
also due to economic development. Villagers claim that, communities are represented by Village
Conservation Committees in ICM related activities. However, village conservation committees
have so far not been successful to constantly mobilize all categories of community members
towards active and continuous participation in management of coastal resources. Consequently,
villagers' attitude is such that, it is the role and responsibility of the Village Conservation
Committees to handle all conservation activities on the ground. A resource ownership right is
another critical aspect to participation issues. While the state grants private ownership rights to
resources such as cultivated crops and bought pieces of land, important resources such as public
land, forests and ocean are perceived by villagers to be state property. There seems to be a link
between private ownership and people's willingness to conserve resources that constitute part of
privately owned property. Moreover, according to respondents, it seems that, people are not
willing to conserve state owned resources because of lack of ownership feeling. On the other
hand, while Institutions such as Forestry Department fails in taking a full participatory approach
in management of forestry resources, WWF Menai Bay Project in collaboration with villagers,
Fisheries Department and KMKM managed to improve the status of marine ecosystems such as
fishing grounds. However, villagers' participation is not sufficiently emphasized on the practical
level. Political tension prevalent in Zanzibar was also identified as one of threatening factors to
implementation of ICM approach.

Mombo, Felister Michael:
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Incentives for local Participation in Community Based Forest Management.
Summery:
Forest and trees are major natural resources in Africa as they contribute to human welfare and
protection of natural systems. However these resources are fast disappearing in arid and semi-
arid areas due to over utilization influenced by societal demand for forest products and



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


agricultural expansion. The disappearance has grave economic, social and environmental
consequences locally, regionally and world wide. To curb with the problem some of initiatives
have been tried by some countries in the region. In Tanzania for example some initiatives have
been tried with varying success under the Community Based Forest Management (CBFM)
model. However such initiatives are pursued with the spirit of rescuing patches of forested land
without prior considerations on the possible socio-economic implications of such undertakings.
In many cases the legal status, incentive systems, responsibilities and benefit sharing for such
initiatives are poorly defined, a feature, which threatens the sustainability of CBFM in the
country. The study was done in Duru Haytemba at Babat district in Arusha region as one among
the pioneers of CBFM in the country; to identify and evaluate the constraints to locals'
participation in CBFM. The data was collected by the use of questionnaires survey, key
informants interviews, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and literature surveys. The data
revealed that although Natural Resource Committee (NRC) is the legitimate organ under village
government institution, the locals have more respect and acceptance to a local institution called
"Haymanda". Moreover there is a big gap between the committee and the forest users such that
the people do not accept the rules and regulations governing the resource use. There is also
minimum involvement of locals in decision making to matters pertaining to CBFM as 70% of the
respondents claim main decisions to be made by village officials. The incentive which are in
place are such as use of forest products for subsistence and very little for selling. The forests are
also used for cultural purposes. Moreover more than 50% have shown the need for more
incentives and improvement of the present ones. Most of the people have also shown their
dissatisfactions to undefined incentives for the guards beside that of exemption from communal
work. The committee members have also raised a concern about much use of time in CBFM
without any realised direct benefit beside that of conserving the environment and resources. The
study has also revealed that the community of Duru Haytemba are proprietors of the forestland.
Although these people have management and use rights, the forest policy does not state clearly
how that management and use should be carried out, a thing which has created a loophole of
unaccountability to some of the people who are directly involved in CBFM. The study has
recommended measures to be taken such as researching for proper institution accepted by the
locals, extension services to the locals to raise their awareness, government involvement into
CBFM and revision of the policies to suit the present need so as to have sustainable development
of CBFM in Tanzania.

Moyo, Clyton
Nationality: Zimbabwe
Title of thesis:
        Integrated Pest Management as a strategy to manage development of insect.
Summery:
The rising costs and overuse of pesticides in cotton production and associated problems such as
development of insect resistance, resurgence of secondary pests due to destruction of natural
enemies and the increased pesticide burden on the environment have necessitated this study.
There is a lot of pesticides use in Gokwe where cotton is the main economic activity. The main
objective of the study included identifying problem pests in cotton, and coming up with holistic
pest management strategies that keep the pest populations below economically damaging levels.
The specific objective included monitoring cotton pests and predators over a growing season,
identify and examine the extent of farmer knowledge in IPM, make inventories of the history of



                                                 49
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                 M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


pesticide use and the development of pest resistance to insecticides as well as assess the
participation of women in pest management. The study took place between July 2000 and
January 2001 in ward 16 in the south of Gokwe district. A total of 78 households were
interviewed out of the planned hundred due to unforeseen constraints. Both qualitative and
quantitative methods of data collection were used. The study revealed that there is an over-
reliance on chemical pest control at the expense of other methods such as biological control,
breeding for resistance and good agronomic practices. The study also showed that cotton attracts
a wide range of pests with the bollworms being the most economically damaging. It was also
revealed that the cotton agro-ecosystem attracts a wide range of natural enemies such as
coccinelidae beetles e.g. Cheilomenes lunata Exochomus flavipes, and Adonia variegata, green
lacewings such as Chrysopa boninensis, C. congrua, and C. pudica and arachnidae spiders and a
variety of parasitic wasps. Decisions to spray were not based on scouting information but more
on routine spraying calendars. The research also revealed that pesticide safety is not a priority
among farmers with only a minority having protective clothing. The role of women was found to
be more in terms of actual work in the field but less in decision making in as far as crop
protection is concerned. The study concluded that pesticides are a necessary part of crop
protection strategies and must be integrated together with other control methods. The chemicals
should only be used as a last resort and in such a way as to minimise development of resistance
and environmental pollution.

Mpindi, Harriet
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Displacement and Resource Conflicts: A Study of Internally Displaced People (Idps)-
        Host Community Relations and the Role of NGOs in Kabarole District.
Summery:
Forced displacement has been a result of the internal and external insecurity going on in the
western part of Uganda bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo since 1996. Currently
approximately twenty thousand people have been internally displaced in Kabarole district. The
majority are the Bakonzo and Batooro from the foothills of the Rwenzori mountains. Some
Bamba were equally displaced. During late 1996, armed clashes between the government troops
and the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) intensified and forced many households to
displacement. Most of these displaced people moved to camps in safer areas in Kisomoro and
Buheesi sub counties, which lie within the insecure area. The study examines the consequences
of forced migration on the livelihoods of Internally Displaced Persons and the impact on host
communities in Kabarole district. It also examines IDP/ host community relations with reference
to access to land, fuel wood, water, services and socio- economic differences among
communities in the study area. After looking at accessibility of resources by IDPs and hosts in
Kisomoro and Buheesi, the study focuses on the conflicts encountered in sharing the resources
and services between the IDPs and the host communities. Problems arising due to scarcity
within the camps and between hosts and IDPs with reference to access to resources, social
services, sanitation, and health, are also looked at. The study looks at the role played by non-
governmental organisations and the government with reference to provisioning relief to IDPs and
hosts, provisioning services, resolving conflicts between the two parties (hosts and IDPs). An
overview of relief from the government and non-governmental organisations targeted exclusively
for IDPs and distributional problems encountered is given. The study shows that the long-term



                                               50
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


presence of IDPs in camps and within the host areas in Kabarole district has overstretched the
traditional coping mechanisms and constrains the livelihoods of the affected communities.
Despite a degree of integration between the IDPs and hosts, conflicts have occurred and may
escalate due to over stay of displaced people in the study area. Unequal access to land remains a
problem. With reference to health, there is need to expand the health facilities in the area. The
livelihood patterns of both communities of IDPs and hosts have been affected by the insecurity in
the area and have affected the economies of these people and the entire district. Agriculture
production in the area has equally been affected. While the government and non-governmental
organisations are trying to provide relief and services to improve on the livelihoods of the IDPs
and the hosts in the study area, there have not been proper government policies to solve the IDP
problems. There is a co-ordination problem between the NGOs and the government. The
government failed to see the long-term implications of displacement, the challenge of moving
from relief to development looks large if not addressed, conflicts will continue. The insecurity
continues to affect trade, agriculture, investment, culture, community and overall livelihoods of
the community.

Nangula, Selma
Nationality: Namibia
Title of thesis:
        Effects of artificial water points on the communal rangelands of the Uuvudhiya
        constituency, North-Central Namibia.
Summery:
Development of artificial water points in arid zone rangelands is the main course of degradation.
They concentrate livestock population into limited area as well as disrupting the traditional
patterns of rangeland grazing. In north-central Namibia extensive development of permanent
water points were aimed at providing people and livestock with clean water. But the outcome,
ecologically at least, may have caused undesirable changes in rangeland biodiversity. In this
study I investigated effects of artificial water points on changes in biodiversity. The study was
conducted in the Uuvudhiya constituency of the Oshana region in the north-central part of
Namibia. The study used the Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and field measurements
to assess landscape level changes in biodiversity. I chose six water points that corresponded with
six settlements. The Oshakati-Omapale pipeline and other two other pipelines supplied the water.
Three water points from each landscape (i.e. Grasslands and Mopane shrubland) were chosen for
the study. In addition, an area 5 - 7 km way from the water points was selected from the
grassland and Mopane landscapes. Data from the villages was collected using questionnaires,
group discussions and key informants interviews. The effects of water points on vegetation were
assessed by using the point method and the biomass in 1 x 1 m quadrants were clipped and
species richness determined at 100, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m intervals from the source of the
grazing pressure. The landscape data was gathered through road transects and by using the
knowledge of the pastoralists. A total of 530 km was covered for the landscape survey. The study
revealed that species richness between the two landscape types did not differ significantly. A
strong correlation was found between species richness, cover and biomass. Water points in the
grasslands had a high cover and biomass of herbaceous species. Distance from water point
affected the bare ground cover, but not the herbaceous species cover, richness and biomass.
Similarly, sites 5 km away from water points were found to have a high vegetation and low bare
ground cover, while older water points had a high bare ground cover compared to the new water



                                               51
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


points. Local people claimed that water points are few and as result the grazing resulted in
degradation. According to the local herders use of well spaced water points were less harmful to
the environment as opposed to the few that created pressure on the range. The community
analysed the depressions and non-depression micro-scale patches and showed greater plant
species richness in the depressions. This confirmed the greater values the herders attached to the
depressions they called uudhiya. . The pastoralists also showed that range conditions and grazing
suitability varied between the landscape patch types. However, grazing capacity between the
landscape patch types did not differ. Implications of the study for conversation and proper use of
water points is discussed.

Picado Cajina, Maria Victoria
Nationality: Nicaragua
Title of thesis:
        Economic Valuation of Natural Forest as Water Retainer Case Study: Nature Reserve
        Datanli-El Diablo Jinotega, Nicaragua.
Summery:
The main objective of this study is to estimate the economic value of Datanli-El Diablo forest
reserve, as water retainer. The reserve is located in the North Center part of Nicaragua,
presenting a beautiful cloud forest landscape. Exotic species such as the Quetzal (Pharomacrus
mocino) and Panther (Panthera onca) have been reported. One of the major problems of the area
is the illegal deforestation and the potential expansion of agriculture practices. The study
measures the willingness to provide area (WTPmz) and labour (WTPlab) for the forest
conservation in the reserve to guaranty the water supply. The study was carried out through the
application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a method to value non-marketed goods
such as environmental amenities. Very few such studies have been undertaken in the region,
especially of forest conservation. 158 farmers were in-person interviewed; the majority of them
are cropping coffee. 68% of farmers were willing to provide area, with a mean area of 1.97mz.
(Equal to 1.38 ha). Farmers with larger farm sizes were willing to give up more land than those
with less area. Interestingly, 100% of the farmers who have noticed a reduction of the water
source in the area links that to deforestation causes. However, this variable (noticing water
reduction) had no significant effect on the willingness to provide area and labour. 86% of farmers
were willing to provide labour. Both WTP measures represent a total annual benefit of
US$247,756.00. Which can be considered as the local farmers valuation of the forest.

Samaranayake, Wedage Ranjanee
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis:
        Impact of landuse changes on watersheds in Dry and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka.
Summery:
Upper watersheds are sensitive ecosystems. The watersheds of Dry and Intermediate zones of Sri
Lanka make vital contributions to the major irrigation systems in the country. However, they are
under threat from in various factors, especially, land encroachment and deforestation
This main objective of the study was to investigate the direct and indirect causes of land
encroachment in the watershed area and its impact on reservoir replenishment and farming
practices downstream. This study was carried out in the Hakwatune Oya watershed, in the
northwestern part of Sri Lanka. It focused on three main areas; namely Hakwatune Oya



                                               52
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


watershed (KP Reserve area), Hakwatune Oya command area (major irrigation scheme), and
Reservoir. Three surveys were conducted to identify the social, economic, institutional and
political aspects related to the problem of encroachment in these three different topographical
system. The study showed that land encroachment is positively correlated with degradation of
environmentally sensitive areas of Kahalle-Pallekele forest reserve, which is watershed of
Hakwatune Oya. The study has identified several factors that cause encroachment of this area.
One of the major factors was population pressure caused by in migration from far away places as
well as nearby villages. Among the encroachers were trader-farmers who cultivated the tank bed
by using 'hired-farmers. Study showed that high rate of soil erosion occurred in the watershed
and, it had negative effects on the reservoir performance and the irrigation system. The findings
confirmed the main hypothesis of the study that upstream land encroachment and cultivation
practices contribute to the failure of reservoir replenishment that leads the water scarcity in the
downstream. Sedimentation analysis was showed that loss of reservoir capacity led to scarcity of
water and loss of cultivation area in the command. This situation caused serious
socio-economic problems to mainly permanent paddy farmers and several other users of the
reservoir such as fisheries, livestock keepers, and households. The environmental indicators
show the long-term negative impacts of the land encroachments in the upper Hakwatune Oya
watershed. These negative impacts are land use changes, scarcity of water, depletion of forest,
pollution of surface & ground water, poaching, problem of wildlife, and related changes of micro
climatic factors. The institutional arrangement dealing with land alienation and encroachment
suffer from several inadequacies, which have to be reviewed by appropriate reform. Strong
political will is a necessary condition to deal with such a complex situation in order to protect the
watershed as a viable ecosystem yielding

Siame, Davy
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis:
        The Impact of Participatory Forest Management on Peoples Livelihoods in Kapiri-
        Mposhi District in Central Zambia.
Summery:
Zambia like many other African countries is facing many challenges in the area of forest cover
degradation. This problem is more pronounced in the gazetted forest reserves and in open areas
surrounding the urban areas and village communities. The major causes of this forest degradation
are illegal exploitation of timber, illegal production of charcoal, forest encroachments in forest
reserves and open areas, agricultural expansion of fields for production of food and uncontrolled
forest fires. This forest cover loss has led to a change in surrounding ecosystems leading to loss
of biodiversity of major forest products such as timber and fuelwood and minor forest products
such as charcoal, grass, caterpillars, medicinal plants, mushrooms, honey, leaf litter and fodder
which has led to a negative impact on the livelihoods of local people who depend on them. It is
from this perspective that participatory forest management (PFM) was introduced in Zambia in
1995 with the aim of promoting sustainable utilisation of forest produce by empowering the
village communities around the forest resources by redefining user rights to these forest
resources. This is an effort to try and improve peoples livelihoods through promotion of other
sustainable village forest based activities such as bark-hive honey production, tree planting, pit-
sawing, nursery establishment and raising of forest nursery seedlings. Therefore this study tries
to investigate the effects of PFM on people's livelihoods, on the condition of the forest resources



                                                 53
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


and on the effectiveness of forest management institutions in the pilot area of Sokoni and Juda
village community on the fringes of Chibwe forest reserve in Kapiri-Mposhi district in Central
province of Zambia. The pilot area was purposely selected as Sokoni and Juda village
community because its one of the pilot areas where PFM has been implemented in the country
and that in this area, the forestry department experiences a good working relationship with the
village community and other stakeholders such as politicians and traditional structures such as
the chief, the village headmen and the village local committees. The field data was collected by
means of questionnaire surveys, focus group discussions, interviews with selected community
members and line government staff, discussions with some key informants, direct field
observations and use of remote sensed data in particular satellite data. Interpretation of data was
done using Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access and geographical information systems (GIS) for
satellite data. Results reveal that since the inception of participatory forest management (PFM),
there has been a makeshift of activities from that of excessive charcoal production and illegal
exploitation of timber to traditional bark-hive beekeeping, pit-sawing, nursery establishment, tree
planting, home gardening and collection and sale of minor forest products. Minor forest products
include thatching grass, grazing grass, fibre, medicines, wild fruit, wild vegetables, firewood,
caterpillars and mushrooms. These activities have proved to be more sustainable over the five
years period than charcoal production and have also increased household income levels to about
double because of their high market values. The health status of household members has also
improved because the production capacity of the forest for non-timber forest products has
increased. This is because illegal forest clearances in the area have reduced leading to improved
accessibility and time needed to acquire the forest products. PFM has narrowed the gap between
the poor and the rich in the village community through empowerment/participation of the people
at grass-root level by promoting other off-forest activities such as sweet beer and medicinal sales
and other income generating ventures such as small scale trading through small retail village
shops for basic needs and luxuries. PFM has also increased awareness levels, knowledge and
perceptions of villagers about the values and importance of forests surrounding them. This has
led to a positive change in people's attitudes towards illegal activities such as charcoal
production, traditional hunting using fire, farming in forest reserves and theft of timber species.
Although PFM has only been implemented for a period of five years, it had a positive influence
on people's livelihoods and on the condition of the forest resources. This was achieved through
interactive participation between the local people and the forestry staff. In management of the
forest resources, rules and regulations of the revised Forest Act of 1999, Chapter 199, Section
311 of the Laws of Zambia were used. There were no new formal rules put in place to pave way
for PFM but informal rules that were not legally binding and specific only to the pilot area were
used. These informal rules through the village forestry committee were supported by the
traditional structures, the forestry department and the community members. Even though PFM
has been recorded as a success in this pilot area, there are a few elements that need to be taken
into consideration and these have been put as recommendations.




                                                54
Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001




Singano Magili, Gerald:
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Farmers' Seed Systems in Maize (Zea Mays L.). Gendered Aspects of Local Seed Systems
        in Ruangwa and Nachingwea Districts, Southern Tanzania.
Summery:
The formal seed system has received substantial support from the government but has failed to
meet the farmer's seed requirements. The farmers' seed system, on the other hand has continued
to supply more than 95% of the seed sown by farmers. Despite the important role of the farmers'
seed system, very little has been done to understand how the farmers' seed systems work. A case
study was carried out in Ruangwa and Nachingwea districts in Southern Tanzania with the aim of
increasing the understanding of the farmers' seed systems in maize so that appropriate measures
could be taken to improve seed security. Ruangwa and Nachingwea districts were chosen
because they are the main maize producing areas in the Southern zone, where as maize was
chosen because it ranks first and fourth as food and cash crop respectively. Primary data was
collected using semi-structured interviews with key informants and focus groups, where as, a
structured questionnaire was used to collect information from individual survey. Four villages
were surveyed two from each district. The villages were purposively selected to assess the impact
of seed fairs in improving access by farmers to seed of both improved and local varieties. The
villages were selected such that one village was a seed fair site and the other a non-seed fair site.
Data was coded and analyzed using Minitab 13 software package. The results showed that maize
cropping in the Southern zone was mainly dominated by the farmers' seed system using local
varieties. The formal seed system was non-existent and the small quantities of improved maize
seed diffused through Kilimo, research and very recently from seed fairs. Major sources of seed
were farmers' own saved and other farmers through informal exchange networks. There was a
significant difference between seed fair villages and non-seed fair villages in obtaining seed of
improved varieties. Seed fairs have improved the availability of seed, both of local and improved
varieties. Very few farmers were using improved varieties because they were not available and
few farmers were aware of them. Maize cropping was gendered; with seed selection, processing
and storage being women activities where as, initial field preparations and diffusion were men's
activities. There was no land specifically identified for maize, and multiple cropping was a
common practice. Majority of farmers cultivated more than one variety in one field, while few
cultivated different varieties on separate scattered plots. Seed selection was mainly done prior to
planting 74% compared to 26%, which was done prior to harvesting. Women did seed selection
in the store and the large well-filled undamaged cobs were chosen. Majority of farmers kept seed
and grain together except in bad years when the harvest was low or, when there was a danger of
prolonged drought, farmers separate seed from grain hang them above kitchen place. Others
threshed the seed, treated it with ash of herbs and sealed it in a pot until next planting. Seed
diffusion was mainly through farmer-to-farmer exchange through gifts, swaps and by purchase.
Major problems were identified as storage pests and rodents, unavailability of improved seed and
poor agronomic practices. Based on the findings three recommendations were made. These are
improvement of farmers' seed systems; improve availability of seed and improvement of the
agronomic practices. On-farm seed production by smallholder farmers, continuation of seed fairs
and training of farmers on seed production are some of the ways to improve the farmers' seed
systems.



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001




Singh, Mamta
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Land-use Changes and Pollution of the Nakkhu Khola River in Nepal. An ecological and
        socio-economic study.
Summery:
The principal recent changes in rural land-use in the Kathmandu valley of Nepal is that rural
areas are being absorbed into growing towns and cities. This conversion of rural into urban land
has several impacts on river water quality because of developments such as industrial
installations, which are located along the banks of environmentally vulnerable rivers. The
Nakkhu Khola river, which is one of tributaries of the River Bagmati flowing through the heart
of Kathmandu valley, was studied to evaluate the effect of changes in land-use in agricultural and
urban areas on water quality. The land-use patterns at three sampling sites (up-stream, mid-
stream and down-stream) were studied and the ratio of rural to urban land was established based
on a topographical map. It was found that the highest percentage of agricultural land was in the
up-stream station, which was not yet influenced by industrial pollution. Less agricultural land
existed in the mid-stream station, which was a newly formed urban area with domes
tic and industrial effluents as a major source of river pollution and the down-stream station
experienced medium load of pollutants from domestic and industrial effluents. To investigate the
effect of land-use on water quality, selected physico-chemical parameters including temperature,
transparency, velocity, pH, specific conductivity, flow discharge, total alkalinity, nitrate-
nitrogen, total ammonia, total phosphate, chloride, Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical
Oxygen Demand were analysed at the three sampling stations both during the monsoon and the
post-monsoon periods and these values were then compared with the land-use estimated values
of each station. The results revealed that the up-stream water quality was best while it was
degraded in mid-stream and somewhat improved in the down-stream. This showed the positive
relationship with the estimated rural: urban land-use values of the three stations. The water
parameters results of each station were then compared with the EC standards for surface water
 quality for drinking water abstraction, WHO drinking water standards and Global Average Most
Common Natural Concentration where ever found relevant. It was found that the concentration
of chloride, phosphate, nitrate nitrogen and ammonia in the mid-stream, during the post-monsoon
period exceeded the standards of Average Most Common Natural Concentration and also the
concentration of most of parameters such as specific conductivity, TDS, BOD, COD were
highest in the mid-stream during the post-monsoon period, which stated that water in mid-stream
was polluted. The over all chemical analysis results revealed that water of the Nakkhu Khola
river after proper treatment (if chloride, nitrate nitrogen, phosphate and ammonia) could be used
for public purpose. In the present study, the water quality of the river Nakkhu Khola was
compared with the River Bagmati based on the secondary information and it was found that
water quality of this river was not necessarily worsening as it flowed down-stream, which was in
contrast to the case of the River Bagmati. The water of the river was productive since it
supported several fish species especially in the up-stream location. To interlink the technical
findings with the socio-economic condition of the local communities, a social survey was
conducted among the residents of the three sampling sites viz. up, mid and down-stream and
respondents sex, age and education level were considered as their characteristics. It was found
that none of the communities were now dependent upon the river as a drinking water source,



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                    M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


although the river was used for various other purposes such as irrigation, water and bathing of
livestock, industrial use, waste disposal site, pebbles collection, fishing, etc. The study found out
that although people were aware of pollution, their awareness was not yet translated into action,
which was mainly because of lack of integrated institutional mechanisms, regulation, planning,
monitoring, and implementation for setting industrial effluents standards. Finally, it was
concluded that public participation with effective institution support could help in controlling
domestic and industrial effluents discharged into the river, towards abatement and control of
river pollution.
Key words: water quality, land-use, river pollution, socio-economic, Kathmandu, Nepal

Subedi, Naresh
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Status and ecology of nilgai in Nepal with particular emphasis on Royal Bardia National
        Park.
Summery:
The status of nilgai was assessed in the Nepalese lowland Terai during November-December
2000. Various methods ranging from secondary information, office records, key informants
survey, direct field observations through transects and machan to total block counts were used to
estimate the number of nilgai in different localities. Opinions of different people were collected
through semi structured open-ended questionnaires and group discussions with key informants.
Between 241 and 338 animals were estimated to exist within the Terai region in Nepal,
indicating a very critical situation. Sub populations in Parsa Wildlife Reserve (29-35 animals),
Bardia National Park (36-54 animals) and Suklaphnata Wildlife Reserve (35-47 animals) may
continue to exist if and only if immediate management actions are taken. The rest of the
fragmented populations are in process of local extinctions. Poaching, predation by tiger, habitat
destruction and habitat structural change through succession, foot and mouth disease and flood
were main causes of decline. Effective enforcement of wildlife protection rules in combination
with some conservation training and awareness programmes to the local people and government
staff and creation of more openings in the main nilgai hotspot habitats with continuous
monitoring of influencing factors are the immediate recommended actions.II: Ecology of nilgai
in Royal Bardia National Park, lowland Nepal:
An adult radio-collared female nilgai and her associated group members were studied for a year
(Feb 2000-March 2001) in the southwestern corner of Royal Bardia National Park. A habitat map
was prepared based on a transect survey in the study area and then digitised by using ArcView
3.2 GIS programme. Seasonal home ranges, habitat use and activity pattern were analysed using
the radio data. Food plants, breeding behaviour and group dynamics were recorded from
observations of the radio-collared animal group. The seasonal home ranges for the monsoon, cool
dry and hot dry seasons were 6.9 km², 5.6 km², and 10.0 km², respectively using 95% Kernel
analyses. Seasonal change in home range size was observed with the seasonal change in
availability of food plants. Imperata cylindrica dominated small phantas were preferred during
the whole year period. Dense sal, open sal and phanta were preferred for cool dry season whereas
there were no significant differences between availability and usage of different habitats during
monsoon and hot dry seasons. The animal group was more active during the monsoon than in the
hot dry and cool dry seasons. Forty-four species of plants were recorded consumed by nilgai
during the monsoon. December-January and September-October were the peak breeding and



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                 M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


calving season, respectively. An adult male was segregated from females except during breeding
season. Only the female and her calves maintained a stable group, other group were less stable.
Active habitat management, which includes creating openings and reducing the understory
vegetation within the sal forest complex, will probably improve the habitat quality for nilgai in
the park.




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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001




Thu Thi Ha, Tran
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        The Role of New Land Policies in the Reforestation of the Northern Mountainous Region
        of Vietnam.
Summery:
This study evaluates how the individualized land use rights have affected deforestation in the
Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam during the period 1992 to 2000. The study is based on
a survey of 55 households, key informants from commune-level, and from authorities at local
level to national level. Data on forest cover, quality of forest, and soil conservation were
collected. After allocation of forest land to households, almost all barren hill area was re-
greening, and degraded forests were re-growing under household management, through tree
planting, enrichment of natural regeneration, and protection. Increasing biomass of forest, more
diversity of species, soil conservation, and higher density of high value were recorded after eight
years of land allocation. Other economic reforms and the national forestry development
programmes had been strongly supportive of the new land tenure policies. As a result, the new
land policies of distribution of individual land use rights of barren hills and degraded forests to
households and supportive policies have to reversed the trend of deforestation to a trend of
reforestation in the Northern mountainous region of Vietnam. Simultaneously with the
reforestation activities, the living condition of the upland inhabitants has improved, however,
inequalities in income and access to resource increased within communities during the land
allocation process.

Ukbaab Baraki, Fikre
Nationality: Eritrea
Title of thesis:
        Household Livelihood Security with and without development project: Case study of Zula
        Plain and Shebah-Demas Plain in Eritrea.
Summery:
This research was conducted to assess the households' livelihoods security with and without an
integrated rural development project in the case of Zula Plain and Shebah-Demas area in Eritrea.
The research hypothesis is that after the introduction of the project in the Zula plain, there is a
significant difference between the two survey sites. The Zula Development project is assumed to
contribute towards the livelihood security of the households of Zula Plain community.
The principal objective of this study is to assess the livelihood situation of two similar areas
where improvement came due to the existence of development project having the other
externalities constant and similar for both areas. This study assesses the livelihood situation of
the two similar areas, where the external factors that could bring improvement of the household
livelihood of the respective areas are taken into consideration. The study has taken the
households of the project as target population and the area without project as control.
A survey questionnaire containing structured, semi structured, and open-ended questions was
used to interview 200 households from the two areas. Informal surveys were carried out using a
non-structured questionnaire in the group discussion and interviews to collect primary data.
Secondary data were obtained from relevant ministries, institutions and existing literature. Both
quantitative and qualitative data was obtained in the survey. Data were coded and analysed using



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Chapter 1. Agricultural University of Norway                                  M.Sc in MNRSA 2001


both Spreadsheet Excel and Minitab, and the result were presented in tabular form and figures.
This study has assessed four aspects of securities, Health, Food, Education and Economic
securities that determine the overall household livelihood security. The findings revealed that the
livelihood in Zula Plain households have improved after the intervention of the project in the area
regardless the external factors, which are common in both areas. The study revealed that the two
study areas are similar in terms of physical demography and agro ecological factors, which
determines the livelihoods of the households. These factors include age distribution, ethnic
composition, family size, climate, and farming system. In addition to these, both areas are found
in the same administrative region, Northern Red Sea Region. In this aspect, the governmental
contribution in the improvement of the livelihood has the same impact to the households of the
surveyed areas.
The project has contributed in improving the households' health, food, economic and educational
securities. However, in both cases the majority of the households are still under poverty. About
69 % of the households in the project area and 96% in the non-project area have per capital
income under the national GDP level (US$200).




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology             M.Phil in Social Change 2002




               Norwegian University of Science and Technology
                       M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography)

                                            Master Thesis 2002

Ahmed, Quamrun Naher
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        How gender awareness is created among women through credit-based
        income generating programme: A case study of the role of NGOs in three
        villages
Summary:
It is often suggested that interventions at the grassroots level by Non-Governmental
Organisations (NGOs) empower and enhance the quality of lives of the rural poor, particularly
women. Women’s empowerment is believed to be necessary to eradicate the types of poverty and
injustices that poor women face. Credit-based income generating programmes of NGOs play an
important role in the empowerment of the women. Poor women in Bangladesh often face many
economic and social constraints, and access to credit is an important means to alleviate many of
these constraints. The study makes an attempt to examine how credit-based income generating
programs of BRAC and PROSHIKA have helped the creation of gender awareness,
empowerment in rural women in three villages in Barisal, Bangladesh. women’s empowerment
has been the principal objective of NGO involvement in Bangladesh. The term women
empowerment generally tries to capture not only economic but also socio-political
empowerment. Indicators of empowerment through economic intervention included increases in
women’s income, women’s share of household income, women’s greater awareness of their
economic contribution, access to and control over credit facilities: ability to bargain; and
increased self-esteem and confidence within and out side home. As the theoretical basis for the
study is the concept Feminist Geography-WID, WAD, GAD. Humanistic Geography is also used
to examine women’s involvement in credit-based income generating programme of NGOs.
BRAC and PROSHIKA have experimented with alternative development approaches to create
the awareness among rural poor women through credit. The primary data for this study was
obtained from about two months? of fieldwork in Bangladesh. This data was compiled through a
combination of non- scheduled structured interviews, personal observations, in-depth interviews,
key informant interviews and informal discussions. It is evident from the study that that NGOs
have been able to bring about substantial changes in the lives of its programme participants at
both the individual and family levels. Women who were previously not involved in any income-
earning activities have now begun to participate in them. In many cases, they have now become
engaged in non-traditional activities or in more than one income-earning activity throughout the
year. In terms of asset ownership, it is clear that the longer a woman is involved in NGO-
sponsored activities, the more employment opportunities she has and the greater are her chances
of being able to purchase economic assets. However, women’s control over these assets is still
limited, since they tend to consider them as household, rather than personal assets


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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                  M.Phil in Social Change 2002


In addition, owing to their involvement in NGOs, women have begun to acquire positive self-
perceptions of their abilities. These self-perceptions allow them to assert themselves and make
demands for their rights within the household and without. It is also apparent that many men
have begun to appreciate the benefits of having their wives involved in NGOs.
The study has suggested some ways of improving the economic and social conditions of poor and
vulnerable women in the interest of national development.

Assefa, Aliyu Faris
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Decentralisation and local development in Ethiopia: The case of
        Assosa District
Summary:
This study focuses upon the impacts of decentralization on local development, particularly on
how the local people perceive the decentralization policy in their own perspectives. It also
assesses how they involve themselves in the program as well as whether the policy has improved
their living conditions since its introduction in 1992. It was based on a field survey of the four
peasant associations in Assosa District of Benishangul Gumuz Region.
The outcomes of this study show that there has been little or no effort made to achieve a genuine
decentralization aimed at changing the living conditions of the local people. The local people are
not involved in decision-making that affect their lives. The involvement of the local people is a
false impression of participation in decision making through meetings without the consideration
of their views at all. There is no well established framework whereby the people and the
government discuss local problems, issues and policies which are affecting the local people.
Besides, the local people do not trust the government due to their experiences in the past regimes.
The Ethiopia`s decentralization policy has also been challenged by problems of skilled
manpower and resource constraints as well as lack of leadership and planning institutions at local
levels. Due to its greater emphasis on ethnicity and language as bases of regional governments?
formation, these problems adversely affect remote regions like Benishangul-Gumuz which lack
the basic infrastructures for the execution of its development programmes.
Thus, the study portrays with conceptual and empirical facts that the impacts of the
decentralization program on local development in Ethiopia is very marginal. Central tradition,
the political culture i.e. the culture of silence among the people on political issues and the culture
of unaccountability among the officials and ethnicity greatly influence peoples perception and
behaviour in the country. It is recommended that to achieve local development and democracy,
political will and commitment are very essential.

Mohamed, Juveyria
Nationality: Maldives
Title of thesis:
        Causes and consequences of Rural to Urban Migration in Maldives: A
        case study of Migration from Seenu Atoll to Male?
Summary:
Migration continues to be responsible for some of the momentous social, economic and political
changes in the world today, like in many parts of the developing world; the trend of migration in
Maldives is from rural to urban area. This has largely resulted from the imbalance in



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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                M.Phil in Social Change 2002


development between rural and urban areas. The Maldives is an island nation comprised of 1200
islands. The national economy is based on tourism and fishing. Apart from the natural beauty of
the islands the country is left with hardly any natural resources. Despite the limited resource and
vulnerability to external shocks, Maldives has experienced an average annual growth of 10%
over the last fifteen years. Associated with this growth, the Maldivian economy has undergone a
major structural transformation, from an economy relying mainly on the primary sectors to a
service sector based economy driven by tourism. With the expansion of tourism, a new phase of
very aggressive economic development began in the country. The government has heavily
invested in the public infrastructure and services in Male' (the capital city) to accommodate and
facilitate this economic activity. The better social services, health and education and other
infrastructure have resulted in even greater inward migration that has placed unsustainable
demands on the resources of Male'. The aim of this study was to have a greater understanding of
internal migration in Maldives namely from Seenu Atoll to Male'. The study was based upon the
analysis of secondary information as well as the findings of the fieldwork. According to the
findings of the study rural urban migration in Maldives is a consequence of the development
initiatives that were implemented in the country towards its socio-economic development. Rural
people move in order to get access such facilities. To use the migration terminology these
migrants can be classified as opportunity seekers, because they have a choice to stay in the island
and continue with their life or go to Male' and get access to the newly created facilities in Male'.

Nyambe, Friday
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis:
        Challenging urban design as a consequence of crime: A case of
        Lusaka city, Zambia.
Summary:
Planning for urban places has for some time now remained a challenge in developing countries.
In most cases this has been a result of rapid urbanisation resulting from internal migration in
search of employment. The growing populations in urban areas are not usually matched with
infrastructure and other relevant social services thereby forcing some city dwellers to resort to
makeshift structures like those found in unplanned settlements.
In most urban places especially in developing countries today, even where planned designs
existed, these have in some cases been challenged by factors that are beyond planners such as
crime, unplanned settlements, political interference and lack of resources. These challenges in
some cases have led to design changes, which have been conducted independently of planners by
city dwellers. This study looks at crime as one of the emerging challenges to the design of
Lusaka city in Zambia. As a result of crime, Lusaka city is quickly being transformed from being
an open city to one buried in the architecture of boundary walls as city dwellers struggle to
secure their property and lives from perceived growing rate of crime. Neighbourhoods that were
well integrated, where people enjoyed social integration, have now been separated by opaque
physical boundaries. Schools, shops and other public infrastructure are now all designed in a way
that allegedly mitigates crime. While these changes continue to take place, city planners have
watched helplessly as some of the problems that necessitate the changes are beyond their control.
The study explores the interplay of crime and planning for city design. This has been done
qualitatively through results of interviews that were conducted with various stakeholders in
Lusaka city. These included city planning authorities, security authorities, city dwellers from



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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                 M.Phil in Social Change 2002


three residential areas within the city and inmates convicted for selected crimes from the prison
in order to establish the extent of the challenge. The results of the study indicate that there are
several challenges to urban design in Lusaka city besides crime such as over-population,
unplanned settlements, political interference, and general lack of resources to carry out day to
day planning functions. It was further established that the physical measures people have
employed do not necessarily solve the crime problem but have actually worsened it in some
cases. These measures have also changed the appearance of most of the city infrastructure such
that planned patterns especially in housing and several other public buildings are now hard to
see. By implication, this effectively means that city planners are no longer entirely in charge of
city design, which is a result of several other factors. This therefore is a challenge to planners.

Thapa, Mahendra Kumar
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        A case study on challenging social integration in changing social
        values in the life world of Sainbu village, Lalitpur District, Kathmandu
        Valley
Summary:
Change is an everlasting element of this world. Change occurs everywhere and at all times.
Alterations in the patterns of culture, structure and social behaviour of any society are
acknowledging as social change. Among various causes, urbanisation is one of the principle
factors of social change. Although, migration and natural growth both contribute to physical and
demographic change in a place, migration is particularly influential. From 1980s began the
processes of urbanisation in Sainbu, Nepal and the rate of process has been rapid. Within twenty
years the population of Sainbu has become one with as equal balanced of indigenous and
migrants. This study is aimed at examining the level of integration situation on changing values
in the life world of Sainbu's people. For this purpose, neighbourhood, socialisation, solidarity in
community and sense of place are used as indicators. Qualitative approaches with semi-
structured questionnaires were employed for data collection. Local teachers, politicians,
graduates as local elite and women, residents, youth and untouchables were interviewed. The
analysis is based on a structure and agency approach. A model on socio-geographical perspective
on social integration is formulated. To conclude, there is neither conflict nor a harmonious
relation between newcomers and the indigenous/local community, but there is some kind of
latent or unshaped conflict between them. Differences in religion, ethnicity, cultural, social
norms and values, economic status and education of people have resulted in differences in many
other ways, such as thinking, perceiving, analysing perceived information and interpreting them,
which results in difference traits, preferences and goals of individual people. Because of diverse
ethnicity, growing trends in consumerism and capitalistic behaviour - money is everything -
people are becoming individualistic which limits social harmony and solidarity. Thereby, the
community has lost the principles of 'all for one and one for all' or 'love thy neighbour as thyself'
or 'happiness and prosperity for all'. Gradually social polarisation is distinct; consequently, local
subgroups are emerging. This may cause potential future conflicts.




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                 M.Phil in Social Change 2001




                       M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography)

                                             Master thesis: 2001

Isolo, Mkwaya Paul
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis
        Urban sprawl and the challenges of public transport services delivery/provision in
        Kampala City – Uganda.
Summary:
The spread and enlargement of urban areas with a corresponding increase in population results in
the need to extend transport services to the population. The growth not only generates more trips
but also creates longer trips a basic knowledge oft the characteristics of urban travel is
undoubtedly a necessary pre-requisite to proper planning and development of transport system in
the general framework of urban planning. Kampala is spreading over progressively wider area
and increasing in its residential population. This study examines the focus underlying these
trends, analyses some of the main implications for public transport delivery and provides a
framework for studying public problems in grater depth. The study identifies the major transport
needs of households in four sprawling areas of Kampala, in order to ascertain the ability of the
public transport system to satisfy those needs. The study is carried out at more disaggregated
level, with households as units of analyses. This level proved to be the foremost source of
exploring the nature and extend of public transport problems, as well as the starting point of any
intervention actions. From the data obtained in the study of household travel characteristic
carried in four areas of Kampala, the findings are assumed to be characteristic and reasonable
representative of conditions in the entire Kampala City. As the city expands into neighbouring
parishes, with the increasing concentration of activities the centre of the city, the need for a well
function public transport system becomes important. The study shows that the majority of trips
are made on foot followed by public transport. The users of the system are largely people on low
income, who are largely dependent on the quality and accessibility of the system. This directly
impacts on their activity patterns. What emerges from the study is that there has been complete
withdrawal of the public sector in town planning and transport provision. The present public
transport system has developed in a chaotic manner and no attempt has been made to plan a co-
ordinated and rational use of the mode and routes. The public transport infrastructure has also
suffered from negligence and erosion the result in the sprawling city is that overall unfavourable
operating conditions ensure that transport operators are concerned about little more than survival
of their transport business. The challenge is to keep and increase public transport patronage and
not basically shifting the modal split from the car mode to public transport mode. Insight drawn
from the result of the study potentially has implications for transport and urban policy debates in
Kampala and many other towns in Uganda. The challenge is to keep and increase public
transport patronage and not basically shifting the modal split from the car mode to the public
transport mode.




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                M.Phil in Social Change 2001




Kenate, Asaminew Melese
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis
Wild life and people: The human dimension of fragmentation and wildlife loss, with assessment
                of potential for restoration.
Summary:
Conservation of wildlife today is facing a great challenge both of global, national and local
levels. Particularly prominent is loss and fragmentation of wildlife habitat. Today's conservation
efforts rely in scientific issues and autocratic management by governments and NGOs. It also
considers protecting wilderness areas and establishing parks the best methods of conservation,
omitting wider societal dimensions. This study begins arguing against this approach and its
inability to solve the wildlife problem in the study area. The theoretical framework discusses the
failure of this "old paradigm" and the evolution of the new one. Though Ethiopia is well
endowed with a natural resource it faces severs environmental degradation and shares the
aforementioned conservation failures. Development policies prioritise food security and
alleviation of famine. The transfer of people is the major strategy to the way out of these
problems. The guiding theoretical framework to this strategy is the neo-Malthusian environment
narrative. This study tried to point out the irrelevance of its basic assumptions and the failure of
this theory to solve the prevailing problems of Ethiopia. As a result of the above strategy, the
western and south western regions are facing severe environmental degradation. Among which is
Guttin - the study area. The population increase, mainly through immigration and resettlement to
this area, has led to land use change, such as settlement and agricultural expansion. The
immediate effect of this is seen in the fragmentation of the once continuous habitat into number
of isolated patches and shredded landscapes that in turn results in local extinction and/or
migration of mammalian species. However, the problem is not intensified by mere increase in
population but by other human factors. As a result of increased human pressure along with its
accompanying change in the way of life in the region: the episode of 'the tragedy of the
commons' has been much worsened; there is an environment-culture clash on the side of the new
settlers while trying to adjust themselves with the new homeland; unsustainable agricultural
transformation is on the way; and the traditional authority and cultural values of the indigenous
people that were friendly to the environment are being eroded away. The indigenous people also
claimed that these factors have been further intensified by lack of belongingness or absence of
sense of local identity on the side of the new settlers and immigrants in relation to wildlife. The
most important solution for the current wildlife degradation, as agreed upon by the respondents
of the local people, is to restore the fragmented mountain habitat through reclamation of
corridors and through ecological recovery thereby recreating an anthropological reserve. This is
believed to be the antithesis of the old paradigm. Potential for this have been examined and
analysed. The practicality of this remedy presupposes local responsibility of the residents, which
again calls for the revival of traditional authority and the indigenous cultural values. Thus the
paper also reviewed the past and the present situations of the native cultural values advocating its
revival in the future.




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                   M.Phil in Social Change 2001




Kinabo, Aberta Ndesario
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis
        Privatisation policies and their effect on the gender gap in the Tanzanian labour market.
Summary:
Many African countries had their independence in the 1990s, a period after these countries
started to experience economic deadlines. At this time many leaders were of the opinion that
state capitalism was the solution and therefore, so much involved on state sponsored
industrialisation. Unfortunately, this type of industrialisation was not sustainable; it ended up
leading the economies into stagnation. The stagnation was a factor of external as well as internal
political, natural, plus socio-economic and environmental problems. Most of these countries had
almost all their economic indicators negative, therefore resorted to borrow from the IMF and the
World Bank. Again another problems emerged, the debt crisis. Within later developments, most
of these countries had to shift to free market economies and rolling back states, hoping to solve
the dept crisis. New conditionalities for borrowing money were made under the Structural
Adjustment Programmes; among witch economise reforms featured, privatisation was prominent.
In Tanzania, these policies were introduced from the early 1980`s. Just like in many other
African countries, the effect of these policies became a talk of the day for many people; they
actually had a complicated nature. While they were expected to bring about economy
advancement in the long run, they had some negative impacts on the people in the short run and
some even had longer lived negative impacts. In this study, the impact of privatisation policies on
women employees in Tanzania is assessed. This assessment helps to visualise the gender gap in
the labour market.

Shahi, Sally
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        So near - Yet, So Far? The farmers and the State of Agriculture in a Transforming,
        Urbanizing Kathmandu Valley. A case of Bungamati VCD.
Summary:
The valley of Kathmandu was described as the jewel among Nepalese hill settlements. This vale,
isolated by a ring of mountains and endowed with deep, fertile soil, nurtured the first urban
civilisation in Nepal. But not anymore, or so it seems. Today urban Kathmandu means different
things to different people. To the immigrant, it is the "land of opportunities". To the poor man
running away from poverty in his hill village, it is a market where he can sell his labour cheaply.
To the tourist, it is still a fascinating place to visit (though he may have to cover his nose and
look away more often than not). To the environmentalist and the urban planner, it is a living
nightmare. To the politician, it is the seat of his power. And to the farmer of the valley, its land is
his home, his hearth, and his sources of livelihood. Urbanisation has been principal driving force
for the transformation of the valley landscape. The rapid growth of population in the valley in the
past three decades has led to an unprecedented level of urban expansion. Much of this growth has
occurred without effective urban planning and management causing serious problems, including
environmental pollution, rising unemployment, inadequate infrastructure services, and
conflicting land use demands. The main issue is that due to the accelerated urban growth, the
valuable agriculture in the valley is being rapidly converted to urban use. Consequently the



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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology                 M.Phil in Social Change 2001


traditional farmers of the valley, who have tilled these prime agriculture lands for centuries, are
facing the real prospect of losing their sources of livelihood. In the urban periphery, only several
kilometres away from the country's largest urban centre, lie rural settlements where the primary
occupation of the inhabitants is agriculture. The majority of people in these settlements are poor,
subsistent farmers. Their farming practices are poor and traditional, and agriculture production
low. Bowed down by their economic hardships, they are unwilling to risk any change to the
unknown, and hence unable to benefit from advances in modern agricultural technologies. The
potential of these rural farmlands to supply high-value agricultural products to the huge market
exists nearby remains unexploited. They look to the big, modern city not far away, which they
have seen grow and change and become a symbol of a better, richer world. They remain at the
periphery of the modern world, looking in and hoping that one day the city will come to them
and change their lived. It seems so near. Yet, it is so far. One such rural settlement is Bungamati.
This is their world. This is their story.

Shakya, Prabin
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        Impact of Social Transformation and Women's Autonomy on fertility.
Summary:
This study attempts to access the fertility situation in Nepal linking it with some specific
variables of women's autonomy and social transformation such as, education of woman,
occupation of woman, age at marriage of woman and spousal age difference. It has mainly two
objectives. Firstly it aims at accessing magnitude and direction of variation in the above selected
variables of social transformation and women's autonomy between ever married women aged 20
to 49 years. Secondly and more importantly, it attempts to access impact of these variables on
cumulative fertility. For the measurement of fertility, a simplest measure known as number of
children ever born (CEB) is applied. The study is based on the quantitative and qualitative data
collected from the field survey in two different areas within the Kathmandu valley: Kathmandu
Metropolitan Ward Number 21 and Bungamati village Development Committee. The first area is
selected to represent a typical urban city and second is selected to represent a typical village. The
key concepts used in the study are social transformation and women's autonomy. Social
transformation is conceptualised as change in some elements of social structure and over and
capability of achieving some critical resources or events like education, occupation and marriage.
Empirical evidence observed in the study indicates that there have been significant improvements
in women's education and occupation outside home over time. There is not much improvement in
age at marriage between the study population. The average age at marriage is about 18.5 years
age, mean number of CEB is about 2.6. The completed fertility observed for women aged 40- 49
years is nearly equal to the total fertility of the country (4.6) the level of education, age at
marriage and type of marriage have shown strong and inverse relationship with fertility. These
three variables together explain nearly 10 percent of fertility variation in the study population.
When age of women is included, the strength of explaining variation in fertility increased to 46
percent. Spousal age difference is not significantly correlated with fertility. Based on the findings
of the study, it suggests that education is a key factor for raising the status of women and their
access to and control over other resources to manage their lives and reproduction independently.
By providing a high degree of independence for women enhancing their access to and control




                                                     68
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology             M.Phil in Social Change 2001


over critical resources like education, marriage arrangement and marriage timing not only helps
to meet welfare goals, but also helps to reduce fertility.




                                                     69
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology         M.Sc in Hydropower Development 2002




                                 M.Sc. in Hydropower Development

                                             Master Thesis 2002
Chandra, Pradeep Gajurel
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Planning and design of headworks for dry season diversion of
        Yangri and Larke rivers to Melamchi river in Nepal.

Jemal Mohammed, Fedlu
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of Thesis
        Hydrological Studies for Hydropower Development in Ome-Gibe Basin on Gojeb River
        Hydropower Project in Ethiopia

Jjunju, Emmanuel
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Karuma Falls Hydropower Project. Preliminary assessment of tunnel
        design and numerical modelling of surge and tailrace tunnel options.

Kassana, Leonard
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Analysis of water leakages at Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project,
        Tanzania

Khoa, Nguyen Tien
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Pre-feasibility Study of the Upper Kotum Hydropower Project in
        Vietnam.

Mbuta, Moses Pascan
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis:
        Dam Safety and Emergency Planning and Training, Kafue River in
        Zambia

Mohammed, Fedlu Jemal
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Hydrological Study for Hydropower Development in Omo-Gibe Basin on
        Gojeb River Hydropower Project in Ethiopia



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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology         M.Sc in Hydropower Development 2002




Mutumba, Charles
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Hydrological Study for Small Hydropower Development in rivers
        draining Mt. Ruwenzori in Western Uganda.

Seneviirathne, Lalitha P.
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis:
        Pre-Feasibility Study of the Sudu Ganga Small Hydropower Development Project in Sri
        Lanka.

Sharma, Shankar
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Pre-feasibility study report for the Nyadi Khola, Nepal

Simainga, Mundia
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis:
        Pre-feasibility Study for further Hydropower Development on
        Lusiwasi river, Zambia

Vu Huu, Phuc
Nationality: Vietnam
       Pre-feasibility study on the CA river in Vietnam.

Yadav, Shyam Kishor
National: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Hydrological Analysis for the Bheri-Babai Hydropower Project, Nepal
Summary: The thesis is available in full text at:
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2002/ntnu/thesis01/index.html




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology         M.Sc in Hydropower Development 2001




                                 M.Sc. in Hydropower Development

                                             Master thesis 2001
Daniel, Tilahun
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis
        A Study of the Engineering Geological Analysis of Gilgel Gibe Hydropower Project,
        Ethiopia.

Hamududu, Byman H.
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis
        Hydrological Studies for Hydropower Development in Kafue River, Zambia

Katule, Jasson J.O.
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis
        Pre-Feasibility Study of Kiwira Hydropower Project in Tanzania

Md. Rafiqul, Islam Khan
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis
        Expansion of Kaptail Hydroelectric Project in Bangladesh

Nawaratne, A.L.D.K.
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis
        Reservoir Sedimentation and Sediment Control in Laxapana Pond, Sri Lanka.

Phuyal, Tulsi Prasad
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        Sediment Monitoring at Khimti I Hydropower Plant, Nepal

Sapkota, Tara Nath
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        Accumulation and Removal of Air and Sediments from The Melamchi Diversion Tunnel,
        Nepal.

Shrestha, Hari Shankar
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        Sedimentation and Sediment Handling at Kulekhani Reservoir, Nepal.


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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology      M.Sc in Hydropower Development 2001


Trinh, Quoc Nghia
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis
         A Study of the Tunnel & Underground Powerhouse for Rao Quan Multi-Purpose Project
         Quang Tri, Vietnam.
Summary:
The Rao Quan Project is located in the centre of Vietnam, in Quang Tri province about 68 km
west of the provincial capital of Dong Ha. This project is combined between hydropower,
irrigation and flood control. In 1996-97, further studies of feasibility study phase I were carried
out by Statkraft Engineering in association with Electrowatt Engineering. After the study, the
power plant was defined with the following parameters:
- Maximum head: 450,8 m
- Discharge: 19,6 m3/s.
- Installation capacity: 2 x 35 MW
The Norwegian approach in designing underground structures had been introduced briefly, and
from that, the tunnel, the pressure shaft and the powerhouse of Rao Quan hydropower project had
been redesigned. The headrace and tailrace tunnels are optimised and designed as an unlined
tunnel. The Q method was used to classify the rock mass and the tunnels support was designed
based on this method. The design procedure was introduced in this section. Numerical models
are also established to analyse the stress situation around tunnels, pressure shaft and powerhouse.
Due to low stress, the headrace tunnel should be lowed down to the elevation of 350 m and the
pressure shaft should be relocated or inclined. The result also indicated that the powerhouse is
located in relative good area. The construction of tailrace tunnel may face the stability problem
due to high concentration of stress. The numerical models also looked into the influences of the
weakness zones to stress distribution. The weakness zones created discontinuity in stress pattern.
This influence is very clear near the weakness zones and it is dampening with the distance. Some
recommendations were made in order to improve the models by taken into account some factors,
which had not been involving in the created models. The factors can be the water table, the
excavation of the opening and the support methods. In order to reduce numbers for the
assumptions in the analyses, some recommendations about the geological investigation were also
made.

Wijayakumara, Janaka P.
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis
        Pre-Feasibility Study of Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project (Yoxford Option), Sri
        Lanka.

Wondiye, Wogayehu Bezabih
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis
        Hydrological Studies in Upper Wabishebele River Basin. Melkawakena, Ethiopia.




                                                     73
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology   M.Sc in Hydropower Development 2001


Zimba, David
Nationality: Zambia
Title of thesis
        Pre-Feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development at Mambilima Gorge, Luapula
        River, Zambia.




                                                     74
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology          M.Sc in Petroleum Engineering 2002




                     M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience

                                            Master Thesis 2002

Abedin, Mobinul
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        Seismic interpretation of the base cretaceous unconformity in the
        Northern Sea.

Abera, Dawit Mamo
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        A study of aeromagnetic, gravity and seismic data from the
        Mid-Norwegian continental shelf.

Ahmed, Newaz Khalis
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        Sequence stratigraphic analysis of part of Mid-Norwegian
        continental shelf.

Aqil, Sanaa
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
        Estimation of viscosity from NMR.

Beyene, Binyam
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Combined gravity, magnetic and seismic data interpretation from
        the North-eastern Greenland shelf.

Bhuiyan, Md. Anwar Hossein
Nationality: Angola
Title of thesis:
        Sea bed logging (SBL), a technique for mapping of subsurface
        resistive structures.

Karmacharya, Shailesh Kumar
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        The filling history of the quaternary Kathmandu lake




                                                     75
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology             M.Sc in Petroleum Engineering 2002


Obedi, Noel Neligwa
Nationality: Angola
Title of thesis:
        Gas leakage in the overburden layers of the Gullfaks Field, North
        Sea.

Shrestha, Manohar
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Comparative study of capillary pressure measurements by Hassler
        Cell and porous plate.

Singh, Shova
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Study of tertiary fault reactivitation, mud diapirism and gas
        migration in 3D seismic data of the Gullfaks field.

Tullu, Wubishet Legesse
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Crustal structures in the Lofoten area interpreted from
        aeromagnetic, gravity and seismic data.

Vu Anh, Tuan
Nationality:Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Integration of natural tracer data in reservoir simulation.




                                                     76
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology           M.Sc in Petroleum Engineering 2001




                     M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience

                                             Master thesis 2001

Afework, Yohannes
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis
        Improvement of traveltime approximation

Chowdhury, Md. Anwar
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis
        The neutron porosity tool and its ability to predict porosity in Gullfaks wells 34/10-14
        and 34/10-c-26.

Ghimire, Jay Raj
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        Analysis of mercury porosimetry data and BSE images of Danish outcrop chalk sample.

Hoque, Md. Rownshonul
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis
        Productivity losses due to condensate accumulation near the wellbores in Kailastila Gas
        Field, Bangladesh.

Ibna-Hamid, Md. Latif
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis
        Application of two-phase capillary pressure to gravity stable tertiary gas injection having
        three-phase flow.

Ishengoma, Edward
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis
        Wettability characteristics on Berea sandstone and chalk carbonate reservoir rocks and
        their role on oil production
        Summary: The thesis is available at Department library

Kayastha, Birendra
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis
        Grain Chrushing druing compaction of sand and sandstones




                                                     77
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology          M.Sc in Petroleum Engineering 2001




Mawejje, Joseph
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis
        Permeability Estimation in the Gullfaks Field based on investigations from well 34/10-C-
        26 (COOK 2 formation)

Mekonnen Tache, Tesfaye
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis
        Gas Well Deliverability - Togi Design Project

Musomba, Kapuulya
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis
        Hole cleaning in horizontal wells

Pham Ngoc, Khue
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis
        Characterization of lithofacies based on textural analysis of dipmeter curve.




                                                     78
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology              M.Sc in Marine Technology 2002




                                      M.Sc. in Marine Technology

                                             Mater Thesis 2002

Hoque, Md. Hedayatul
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        Resistance of Stiffened Plates and Pressurised Process Equipment Exposed to Blast and
        Fire
Summary:
Passive fire protections are used to a large extent for process equipment in offshore structures.
The major drawback of the application of insulation is made difficult to maintenance and
inspection. Therefore, it involves too high costs for application of insulation as well due to the
corrosion between insulation and metal reduces wall thickness crucially. The modern concept of
offshore structures allows large plastic deformations by transferring the forces to the main
supports structure without damaging the main structure. Passive Fire protections also limit the
deflection of structure because of its higher brittleness property than carbon steels, which leads to
insulation cracking. Pressure vessels and blow down pipe material loss strength at increased
temperature due to fire. Pressurised components exposed to fire may be ruptured if internal
pressure is not reduced as per requirements. The reduction rate of pressure depends on design
and operation system of depressurising system. If time is enough to arise at crucial temperature,
blow down system can be designed and operationed to reduce pressure accordingly within the
specified time. This means passive fire protection is not really need. In order to asses the
temperature rising and reserve material strength of pressure vessel or blow down pipe, need to
find critical temperature under certain pressure i.e. carry out fire analysis and also critical
pressure under certain temperature i.e. carry out explosion analysis. The care should be taken
about critical pressure and temperature coinciding. The report is containing fire analysis of
pressurised pipe including beam and shell modelling using uniform and non-uniform heating in
order to find crucial temperature by non- linear finite element analysis using USFOS and
ABAQUS code. It is also containing SDOF modelled, structures characterised by a single
stiffness (load-deformation) curve and the load characterised as a single time-varying quantity,
explosion analysis of stiffened plate to find static resistance and dynamic strength response of
structures. Analysis is carried out with symmetric and anti-symmetric 8 and 12 mm stiffened
plates considering plate pressure and stiffness pressure under different boundary conditions.
USFOS and ABAQUS/CAE code are applied in order to compare the static resistance and
dynamic strength behaviour. The static mechanism load and dynamic ductility strength are also
compared with simplified beam theory and numerical integration respectively.
The behaviour of resistance curve of stiffened plates is compared with large stiffened panel in
both computer codes.




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology              M.Sc in Marine Technology 2002




Madi, Akram K.M.
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
        Ultimate Strength Analysis of FPSO Hull Girder
Summary:
Structural failure of ship’s hull girder due to extreme bending moment is the most catastrophic
event. It is very important to estimate the true load carrying capacity of ship’s hull as a whole
from the view points of safety and economy. For this purpose, this piece of work deals with
evaluating the ultimate strength capacity of FPSO hull girder. A simplified method (Smith’s
Method) to estimate the ultimate strength of ship`s hull girder from progressive collapse analysis
is proposed. For this purpose, the FPSO hull girder modelling as follow, the cross-section of a
FPSO hull is divided into stiffened plate elements composed of a stiffener and attached plating.
Firstly, the average stress-average strain relationships for individual elements under axial
compression are derived using non-linear finite element analysis (ABAQUS) considering the
buckling and post-buckling behaviour. The numerical analysis for the individual element is
applied taking into account the influences of initial imperfection (initial deflection and welding
residual stress), combined in-plane loading and lateral pressure. The progressive collapse
analysis is performed assuming that the plane cross-section remains plane during progressive
collapse. A curvature is imposed incrementally. In this elements are assumed to behave following
their average stress-average strain relationships, and the shift of neutral axis of the cross-section
caused by buckling and yielding of the element considered. It was found the full plastic strength
of FPSO hull girder under vertical bending moment can not be attained under both sagging and
hogging conditions due to elasto/plastic buckling of the compressed structural elements. The
minimum ultimate bending moments under sagging condition carried by the cross-sections is less
than 28.5% of the initial yielding strength and the sagging capacity is lower than the hogging
capacity. In addition, it’s found the most important for influence in evaluating the ultimate
bending moment is the characteristic of the individual elements curves.

Mohamed, Muawiyath
Nationality: Maldives
Title of thesis:
         Fatigue strength of side longitudinal/transverse frame connection of a ship
Summary:
The main aim of this thesis is to make an assessment of ?fatigue strength of side longitudinal
stiffeners and transverse frame connection of a ship and this particular detail is of a Floating
Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO).
Finite element modelling and analysis of the considered geometry was carried out using
computer program SESAM and verified against the experimental stress data. The results were
analysed using the DNV fatigue design procedure based on finite element analysis.
Unlike the traditional ships, now a days explicit fatigue design criteria has to be taken in to
consideration as the development of high strength steel for weight reduction and reduced
operation costs leads to increase stress level and reduced fatigue life and the need for a higher
level of safety. In fatigue strength analysis of ship structural details generally a major uncertainty
is related to the definition of ?fatigue life?




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Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology             M.Sc in Marine Technology 2002


Since the hot-spot stress range approach has been suggested as the most promising design
approach for ship structures, already published hot-spot extrapolation procedure, particularly the
DNV rules, has been followed.
The results of the FE modelling and analysis suggested that there wasn’t much difference
between the hot-spot stress from the SESAM and ABAQUS. Furthermore these two results are in
the acceptable range when compared to with the results of the experiment.

Nguyen, Trung Thanh
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Dynamic analysis of very large floating structures
Summary:
A concept of large floating structure, as futuristic as it sounds, could be used for floating cites,
airfields, ports, bridges or manufacturing facilities. Many large airports area at or near capacity,
struggling to handle increased air traffic. As the price of land going sky high and the land getting
scarcer, we have to eventually use waterways for runways, apartments and industry. In addition,
entering new century, the human beings have tog o further offshore to look for natural resources.
Obviously, large floating structures will be a solution to those problems.
In this Thesis, the concept of Mobile Offshore Be (MOB) developed by Moss Maritime know as
Seabase is investigated. A MOB is a self-propelled, modular, floating platform that can be
assembled into lengths up to 2 kilometres, as required, to provide logistic support of U.S. military
operations where fixed bases are not available or adequate. A MOB would house personnel,
accept cargo from rotary and fixed bases are not available or adequate. A MOB would house
personnel, accept cargo from rotary and fixed wing aircraft and container ships, maintain
equipment, and discharge resources to the shore via a variety of surface vessels and aircraft.
The Seabase consists of 3 conventional semi submersible connected by 2 Flexible Bridges. Due
to flexibility of the Flexible Bridges, these modules experience large dynamic stress thus causing
the structures to fail by fatigue in the harsh environment of North Atlantic. In order to reduce the
forces attributed to wave action and to improve the dynamic stresses and hence the fatigue life, a
large number of structural damping elements is introduced in the Flexible Bridge.
In this study, an investigation on how the damping coefficient and damper geometry
configuration affecting the fatigue life of the Flexible Bridges will be carried out. An additional
study on the damper stroke and associated dissipated energy will be carried out as well.

Shainee, Mohamed
Nationality: Maldives
Title of thesis:
        Analysis and design considerations for the mooring line of a surface buoy.
Summary:
Fish Aggregating devices or FADs are offshore structures moored in the ocean to attract fish.
FADs play a vital role in the economy of the Maldives. While fishery is the second major source
of foreign income in the Maldives, it is still considered as the major employment sector for the
local people. Since FADs as its name aggregate fish, this cuts down the search time for fish
school while cutting down the cost of fuel dramatically. Due to its important role in the economy
of the country the government of the Maldives have been constructing and deploying these
devices since 1981. FAD’s being such an important device, one of the major challenges faced by



                                                     81
Chapter 1. Norwegian University of Science and Technology            M.Sc in Marine Technology 2002


the FAD installation project is to sustain these devices for a long time span. Premature loss of
FADs has been a problem since the start of this project. Due to lack of resources a detailed
analysis of the system has not been carried out yet. Since the mooring system of FAD is one of
the most important parts of these devices, mooring analysis of the two mooring systems, namely
nylon rope and nylon/wire rope consisting mooring, used in the Maldives are analyzed in this
master thesis. First catenary equations were studied and applied to the nylon rope consisting
mooring system. Lot of simplifications were used in deriving a formulae system for the system
since it was cumbersome to handle the original equations. Since computer programs like
RIFLEX and MIMOSA are available for the analysis, all the analyses were carried out in these
two computer programs. The results of the analysis are presented in the text, appendices and in
the electronic format. This study showed that mysterious loss of FAD could be due to the fact
that the anchor is not large enough to resist the tension at the anchor and hence dragging the
system into deeper water and finally loss of the device. The results also shows that the ropes used
are strong enough to withstand the tensions and there is no immediate worry regarding the
buoyancy of the buoy used.




                                                     82
Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2002




                                  University of Bergen
               Diploma / M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management

                                        Master thesis 2002


Louw, Granville Gary
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Distribution and feeding patterns of mixed-species pelagic shoals
Summary:
A total of 5112 catches taken during the period 1987-2001 were examined for this study. These
catches consisted of trips where only one throw was taken to allow investigation of a single fish
assemblages. This study shows that mixed pelagic shoals were as prevalent as pure shoals off the
south-west coast of South Africa. Mixed shoals of anchovy and sardine exhibited a seasonal
distribution pattern. These shoals consisted of heterogeneously sized species with both juveniles
and adults in mixed shoals. A highly skewed species ratio in terms of abundance was found.
Furthermore, the dominant anchovy and subordinate species were more or less of equal lengths
when shoaling together as a mixed shoal. Conversely, when anchovy were subordinate in a
mixed shoal, they were smaller. Sardine was the largest fish in a mixed shoal, whether they were
dominant or subordinate. An attempt was made to describe the ecological causes giving rise to
such effects whereby fish assort themselves by species and size to reduce their risk to predation.
Based on these findings, there are potential benefits to be gained by the pelagic fishing industry
regarding their management strategies. These include increasing the revenue whilst at the same
time reducing the bycatch by modifying the manner in which the fish are being landed at the
harbours.


Mqoqi, Mandisile
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Feeding ecology of Sepia australis along the south coast of South Africa
Summary:
The feeding ecology of Sepia australis was studied qualitatively and quantitatively along the
south coast of South Africa. The influence of environmental factors on the abundances was also
studied. Samples were obtained from May/June (winter) of 1988 and August/September (spring)
of 2001 using bottom trawls. The circulation patterns along with temperature differences in the
two years have influenced the distribution pattern in abundances. The results showed that the
abundance, but also the mantle lengths of females of S. australis increased towards east in 2001
whereas the abundance was higher and the females larger in the west in 1988. Females were
always larger than males in S. australis. The observation of largest individuals deeper than 100 m
and at low temperatures (>10 degrees C) of the western region in 1988 supports the idea that



                                                83
Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2002


adult Sepia overwinter offshore in deep waters. The more shallow distribution of the large S.
australis in 2001 and the lower abundances suggest that higher temperature (13.8 C) may have
accelerated up reproduction and post spawning mortality of the larger Sepia and attributed to
lower abundances measured in the west in spring 2001. The main preys for S. australis were
crustaceans for all size groups and maturity stages. The results show that the frequency of
occurrence of Sepia with full stomachs increases towards evening suggesting that the distribution
of S. australis may follow the same vertical migration pattern and activity of its main prey
(euphasiids) on the south coast. Their prey congregates at the surface at night and stays deeper
during the day. The total consumption was associated with environmental variables, but there
was no correlation between abundances and any of environmental factors (temperature, oxygen
and salinity). The stomach content relative to total weight was higher in the west and it increased
with temperature, salinity and depth in 2001. Increased temperature could mean increased
activity and increased foraging space and more food could be encountered. The animals with full
stomachs probably descend to deeper depths where there is less visibility in order to avoid their
predators. As an opportunistic feeder S. austrails, is likely to feed more on the west region where
environmental productivity is high and supports dominant zooplankton like euphasiids. There
were no size related changes in diet in S. australis between smaller (<_40 mm) and larder (>40
mm) individuals. The diet composition was also most similar between maturity stages 2 and 3 for
S. australis as suggested by high diet overlap. From this study, it appears that S. australis, is an
opportunistic feeder dependent on what prey is abundant in the ecosystem.


Nguyen, Bat Khac
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Individual growth patterns and mortality of mitre squid (Photololigo chinensis Gray,
        1849) in the Tonkin Gulf of Vietnam based on statolith microstructure
Summary:
A total of 264 mitre squid P chinensis from the Tonkin Gulf of Vietnam was subject to statolith
increment analysis. Length frequency of total 10525 squids from surveys data were converted to
age-frequency by regression from direct ageing for total annual mortality estimation. P chinensis
has a rapid growth and an estimated short life span. The oldest individual collected in the
autumn season was 194 days old. Size-at-age was best described by exponential growth model
for individuals growing in the summer-autumn time while it was best described by linear model
in the winter-spring time. Mitre squid exhibited sexual dimorphism in mantle length growth,
males grew faster in length compared to females while weight growth rates were similar for both
sexes. Males could attain longer mantle length compared to females. At the same length, female
squids around matured sizes are heavier than males. Seasonal factors strongly influenced growth
of squid. The squids growing in the warm water season have faster growth rates and shorter life
span compared to those living at colder water temperatures. Maximum size attained in the
summer population was about 430 mm while it was about 300 mm in the winter-spring
population. Maximum age was estimated to be 196 and 214 days old, respectively. Furthermore,
regional factor does not seem to influence growth patterns during the summer-autumn season.
There was evidence for selective mortality in this species. Faster growing squid most likely
recruited sooner to the fisheries. Total mortality was estimated to be 11.4 per year and it was not
much different between fishing seasons in the Tonkin Gulf area. Biomass varies from season to



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Chapter 1. University of Bergen              M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2002


season with estimates ranging from 16,004 tons to 4,368 in the spring and autumn, respectively
Total production was estimated to be 116,120 tons per year for the whole Tonkin Gulf region.


Nondumiso, Gloria Sikiti
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Preliminary studies in broodstock management and larviculture of the clam (Mactra
        glabrata) for technology transfer to coastal communities in the West Coast of South
        Africa
Summary:
This study is aimed at investigating the potential culture of hard clam Mactra glabrata using
techniques that can be easily transferable to small-scale farmers, including broodstock
conditioning, controlled spawning and larviculture. One part of this study is biology and one part
is social survey. Seven batches of broodstock were collected in Langebaan lagoon on the West
Coast of South Africa from September 2001 to March 2002 and maintained at 16-18 degrees C
during transportation. The initial mean shell length and mean weight of all batches were linearly
related at R2 = 0.82. The mean weight of clams decreased in weeks below 200 g. Mortality
mean weight of clams was below 100 g. Clams were fed on mixed algae diet of Skeletonema
costatum and Tetraselmis suecica, Chaetoceros meulleri and Tetraselmis suecica, and Isochrysis
galbana and Tetraselmis seucica at maximum concentration of 45 000 x 10 3 Cells/L. Induced
spawning with temperature shock was used on broodstock. A mixture of clams from batches 4
and 5 were left to spawn over 24 hours and produced gametes that only survived to straight hinge
stage at 22 degrees C. In batch 6 gametes developed to straight-hinge veliger stage at 26 degrees
C. A day after collection, batch 7 produced gametes that developed from egg (50 um) to about
120 um pediveliger stage in 11 days at 24 degrees C. Before the larvae reached the settlement
stage there was complete mortality in the rearing tanks. Gametes were not measured before and
after fertilization and there were no density measurements taken for Nannochlropsis oculata,
Chaetoceros meulleri and Skeletonema costatum algae given to larvae after 24 hours.
Two communities from the West Coast, Saldanha Bay and Hondeklip Bay were interviewed to
investigate the interest of clam culture in small-micro medium enterprise. Both communities
were interested in aquaculture development and coastal upliftment using easily transferable
techniques. However, methods used in the laboratory were not easily transferred.

Staby, Arved
Nationality: Namibia
Title of thesis:
        Spatial and temporal variation in the biology of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)
        occurring off Namibia
Summary:
An exploratory fishery on orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus Collett) off Namibia started in
1994. By 1997 it had developed into a commercial fishery, with four fishing areas: Johnies,
Frankies, Rix and Hotspot. From 1997 to 2001, the orange roughy abundance, distribution and
biology were monitored by annual hydro acoustic- and swept area biomass assessment surveys
on all fishing grounds, except Hotspot. During the same period, biomass and CPUE decreased
on these grounds. The main objective of this study was to compare sex ratios, length-frequency



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Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2002


distributions, length-at-maturity estimates, and length-weight relationships (condition factors) of
orange roughy, collected from 1997-2001 on Johnies, Frankies and Rix during the spawning
season. Comparisons of these basic biological parameters were done on a spatial and temporal
scale, with the emphasis on whether any changes observed could be linked to the observed
decline in biomass and CPUE. The second objective was to estimate fecundity of orange roughy
on Johnies and Frankies, and assess the effect of closing Frankies for commercial fishing in
1999. Over-exploitation of a fish resource can reduce a population to such a level that induces a
decrease in mean length, mean weight and length at maturity. Although some analysis revealed a
decreasing trend of these parameters, the majority of findings showed little variation, and it will
be argued that these trends are not solely associated with the effects of commercial fishing. I
found sex ratios to be significantly different between areas and years, while this was the opposite
on Frankies and Rix in most years. The male dominance in catches on Johnies, and the related
sex segregation by depth, could be due to a possible difference in spawning behaviour and timing
in sampling, as well as spawning condition.
Overall length frequency distributions exhibited limited variation over time on Johnies and
Frankies, but showed a significant decrease on Rix for both sexes between 1997 and 1999.
Fishing might have caused this decrease on Rix. Orange roughy were in general smallest on
Johnies, and females were larger than males on all grounds, most likely due to differences in
growth rates. A shift in the size distribution by depth strata is visible on Johnies over time, with
a simultaneous decrease and increase in mean length at depths < 700 m and > 700 m,
respectively. This shift could be indicative of a relocation of the spawning area to deeper waters.
Esimates on length at maturity (L 50) showed no consistent trend on Frankies and Rix, but a
decrease in L50 was observed on Johnies between 1997 and 2001. This unusual high variation in
L50 was not expected, and it is uncertain what might have caused this.
Length weight relationship and condition factors showed no apparent trend over time on Johnies
and Rix. A marked drop in mean weight and condition factor on Frankies was observed in 2001.
Usually, a decrease in biomas results in an improved fitness of fish, which is not the case here.
Therefore this drop is likely to be natural fluctuation of orange roughy in 2001, length frequency
distributions and length at maturity did not change after closure.
It is suggested that the observed variations can not be attributed solely to the effects of fishing
and that natural fluctuation of these parameters, due to differences in habitat, growth and
spawning behaviour, is an additional source of variation.

Songore, Newman
Nationality: Zimbabwe
Title of thesis:
        Fish diversity development in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, from 1960 to 2001
Summary:
The objectives of this study were to describe the fish species diversity changes over the four-
decade period the man made Lake Kariba has been in existence and to relate the observed
changes to biotic and abiotic factors in order to possibly understand the mechanisms behind the
dynamics. The findings are compared with earlier predictions and theoretical attributes for the
measuring ecological succession and stability.
Time series data, covering the period 1960 to 2001, which is included experimental gill net,
hydrological and air temperature data were used in this study.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2002


Succession in Lake Kariba with regards to fish diversity apparently took approximately three
decades to finalize. While certain fish species disappeared from the lake basin itself already at an
early stage, many more species have become established, some of which have been introduced
by man. The general notion that man-made reservoirs may reduce species diversity seems not to
hold for the fish community in Lake Kariba.
Diversity changes in Lake Kariba are significantly negatively correlated to mean annual lake
level changes and the abundance predator of Hydrocynus vittatus and these can be regarded as
disturbing agents of the system that play a regulatory factor.
According to some of the ecological attributes put forward as indicators of maturity of a system,
the Lake Kariba system with regards to fish species diversity is now a maturing system.

Thai, Chien Ngoc
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Scrimp farming in Central Vietnam - A model for growth estimation of Tiger shrimp
        (Penaeus monodon) as a function of abiotic and biotic factors
Summary:
The aim of this study was to determine some key factors associated with growth of Tiger shrimp
in Dong Bo area, Vinh Thai commune, Khan Hoa province, central Vietnam. Shrimp growth and
water quality parameters were recorded from 7 crops in 7 different shrimp ponds and two water
reservoirs. The 9 ponds were set up at 3 different locations with different culture operations: At
location A, water was treated by Clear 80 chemical in the reservoir before rearing, zero-water
exchange systems were applied, while water was not treated at location B and was treated
slightly at location C (by Neguvon chemical). The results in this study indicated that it was very
risky to rear shrimps in untreated water due to possible contamination by polluted water disease
discharged from surrounding farms.
Algal identification was carried out at the beginning, middle and the end of each crop, the
purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between algal growth and water
transparency. The trends of algal development over cultured time were also investigated. It was
apparent that algal density was associated with water transparency and algal density increased
through the crops. More important, algal identification discovers harmful algal communities in
connection with shrimp growth. A new growth model was employed in this region. This model
was derived from Gompertz model and it helps to understand how environmental factors and
stocking density affect shrimp growth. Water temperature, ammonia concentrations, water depth,
transparency level, and stocking density were found to significantly affect growth rates.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), hydrogen sulphide and salinity
also affect growth, but their affects are non-significant. This model can be used to predict shrimp
production and it can be a useful management tool for farm managers and help in sustainable
aquaculture development.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2001




               Diploma/ M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management

                                         Master thesis 2001

Goodman, Mark
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Aspects of the life history of the South African hottentot Pachymetopon blochii (Val.)
Summary:
The sparid Pachymetopon blochii is an important linefish off the South African west coast;
average commercial catch is approximately 540 tons per year (1990-1995). Although there have
been two previous studies on the growth of hottentot, both were based on age estimates derived
from whole otoliths. The objectives of this study were to age hottentot using sectioned otoliths,
and then to investigate growth, mortality and reproduction between males and females from
various fisheries landing sites. Fish were underaged using whole otoliths. Females were more
abundant in the catches than males and were also larger. Ages ranged from 2 to 21 years. The
von Bertalanffy parameters l (mmFL)=398.77, K=0.13/year and to=1.29. Both males and females
showed a decline in maturity from July to October. L for females was approximately 202 mm FL
(4 years), which is equivalent to the minimum size limit. The estimate for total mortality rate was
0.203year-1 and 0.254year-1. The estimates for natural mortality rate were M =0.37year-1,
M=0.29year-1 and M=0.12year-1. Although fishing mortality could not be estimated, it was
considered to be low.

Khanyile, Jimmy Phumlani
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Gear selectivity of West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii in aquarium and in field.
Summary:
The west coast lobster, Jasus lalandi, has formed an integral part of the fishing culture in the
southern part of Africa since the 19th century. This study examines the influence of the
morphological characteristics of J.lalandii in relation to escapement from traps with mesh sizes
of 60, 75 and 100 mm. From the traps currently used by the commercial fishery (100 mm mesh),
it is apparent that some of the legal sized lobsters (75 mm CL) do escape. Finding a suitable
mesh size to allow undersized lobsters to escape, whilst retaining legal sized ones is
important, because it will reduce handling of undersized individuals by fishers, so eliminating the
risk of injuiry. The optimum mesh size should be related to the morphological parameters
carapace length (CL), carapace width (CW) and carapace depth (CD). Laboratory and field
studies were conducted using lobsters of sizes from 30 to 91 mm CL. In the laboratory three traps
of 100, 75 and 60 mm mesh sizes were used, whilst in the field only the 60 and 100 mm mesh
size were used. Escapement from the 60 mm (0.8%) and 75 mm (18.6%) mesh size traps was
considerably lower compared to the 100 mm (46.8%) mesh size trap. The relationship between
CL and CW showed a coefficient of determination from the regression of 96%, which denoted a
very close relationship between CL and CW. This finding also indicated that for a lobster having


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Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2001


any given CL, the estimated CW is larger than the corresponding CD. CD measurements became
increasingly variable with increasing CL and its value as a regulatory measure is less than that of
CL. The selectivity curves for the three meshes showed that selection range (SR) was lowest for
CW, suggesting that CW is the most limiting for lobster escapement. Furthermore, at the overlap
regions found using the 75 mm and 100 mm mesh size traps, where lobsters either escaped or
remained in the trap, escapement varied for each morphological parameter used. In terms of CL
the mean size of the escapees at this region was 75.5 mm from the 100 mm mesh size. About
18.3% of escapees at this region was 75.5 mm from the 100 mm mesh size. The selectivity
curves of the 100 mm meshes for the lab and field indicated CL50s of 77.6 and 79.6 mm,
respectively. Smaller CL50s were estimated for the 75 and 60 mm meshes 59.0 mm and 43.0
mm, respectively, indicating their unsuitability for commercial fishing. For the 60 and 75 mm
mesh sizes it was indicated that lobsters with relatively small CDs might be favoured for escape
at probabilities of escape 50%. From the survey data, the catches by 100 commercial traps, of
undersized lobsters contributed 35.2%. Therefore, further investigations should be made to
improve the current commercial 100 mm mesh by paying particular attention to parameters like
CW, which determine lobster escapement.

N'singui, Kumbi Kilongo
Nationality: Angola
Title of thesis:
        Feeding of Benguela hake (Merluccius polli) on the commercially resources off Angola.
Summary:
Data on Benguela hake (Merluccius polli) stomach contents collected during research surveys
conducted by R/V "Dr. Fridjof Nansen" during summer (warm season) and winter (cold season)
off Angola were analyzed. The analysis was based on season and depth by 10-cm fish length
groups. The feeding intensity, pattern and preys of commercial interest were defined, and the
daily ration and total consumption were estimated. The feeding intensity was found to be higher
and more diverse during the cold season and the diversity of the diet increased with increasing
size and depth. According to the index of relative importance, Benguela hake feed mainly on fish
(72%) and fish are the most important prey for the majority of length groups and depths. Shrimps
represent 25% of the diet, and cephalopods 3%. The index of relative importance for the
commercial shrimps Aristeus varidens and Parapenaeus was 3% and 6% respectively, while for
Myctophidae, the most consumed fish during both seasons, the value of the index was 82%.
Cannibalism was not an important factor (0.04%). The total food consumption by Benguela hake
was estimated to be 488344 tons per year, of which 36% was consumed during the warm season
and 64% during the cold season. The consumption of P.longirostris did not vary during both
seasons (2957-2993 tons), while the consumption of A.varidens increased by a factor of two
during the cold season (1451 to 4928 tons). Because the consumption estimates were
considerably higher than both the swept-area biomass estimates and the total commercial catch of
these species, it indicates a possibly significant impact by Benguela hake on the abundance of
these commercial species. Management regulations should take into consideration this lower
biomass and, in order to insure the sustainability of the shrimp resource, the accompaniment of
the trends of catch per unit of effort (CPUE) will be of high benefit.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen               M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management 2001




Vo, Dung The
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Evaluation of length-based stock assessment methods using silver carp in Eakao
        Reservoir, Vietnam.
Summary:
This study is an empirical test of the accuracy of length-based stock assessment methods using
data on silver carp (Hypophtalmichtys molitrix) in Eakao reservoir, Vietnam. The evaluation is
possible because silver carp is artificially stocked every year and the number of fish stocked is
known. This species does not reproduce naturally in the reservoir and since Eakao is a closed
system, the fish cannot migrate out. Growth parameters were estimated using tagging recapture,
length frequency data from commercial fishing and experiment fishing. Natural mortality was
estimated using the empirical equation of Pauly (1980) on the corresponding growth parameters
and the mean ambient temperature. Length-based virtual population analysis (VPA) as
implemented in FiSAT (Gayanilo et al., 1996) was performed on the commercial catches under
the assumption of steady state (constant parameters system) and on the individual stocked
cohorts. Growth from the commercial length frequency data was estimated with reasonable
accuracy when the catches were splitted into cohorts, but appeared underestimated under the
assumption of steady state. The estimated numbers of recruits from the VPA were in general 2-3
times higher than the known stocked number. The results indicate that natural mortality in
general was overestimated for silver carp in Eakao, resulting in an underestimation of the fishing
mortality and exploitation rate.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                       M.Phil. in Health Science ( International Health) 2002




                          M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health)

                                          Master thesis 2002

Gabaake, Kebabonye Priscillah
Nationality: Botswana
Title of thesis:
        Exploring the Namibian refugees' experience with camp life: The
        case of Dukwi Camp, Botswana
Summary:
This study is based on methodological triangulation in which both qualitative and quantitative
research designs were used. The quantitative study employed convenience and networking
sampling designs to recruit 108 respondents. A structured questionnaire was used to gather
information relating to the socio-demgraphics, socio-economic aspects of the camp and the
refugees` experience of symptoms of distress.
The qualitative part of the study used purposive sampling procedure to co-opt eight information
rich informants. An interview guide comprising of semi-structured open questions was used to
obtain information from informants through in-depth interviews. Additional data for this part of
the study was gathered through the researchers` personal observation of the camp environmental
conditions and informal conversations with some camp authorities.
Results Respondents comprised mainly of the Lozi (75%) ethnic group from Namibia. The
participants` age ranged from 15-54 year and the majority (68%) were males. Most (43%) were
single and the majority (58%) of the married ones left spouses at Namibia. The modal level of
education for the respondents was secondary. The majority of respondents scored the following
services as ?very poor? 77% for sanitary facilities, 67% for housing and 60% for the food ration.
Qualitative data complement these findings.
Refugees expressed frustration with the camp facilities and services. Key informants for the
qualitative study often referred to food rations as inadequate particularly in quality and quantity.
Sanitary facilities were often perceived as no services. Regarding housing, informants often
complained about extreme discomfort they experienced with living in tents.
Respondents experienced a large variety of symptoms of distress. Scores for the experience of
symptoms of anxiety and depression were considerably high. Many informants described their
state of health in terms of a fast heartbeat and a disruption in normality of life processes. For
many informants recovery from these ailments encompassed restoring normal social and
economic function.
Conclusion Findings from this study revealed the Namibians refugees at Dukwi camp to be a
highly needy community. The neediness of the Namibians was found to be related to the effects
of migration on a number of welfare domains such as poor material wellbeing and stress of
family relations. The present study documents the experience of high levels of distress among the
Namibians. The distress symptom scale captured the experience of high symptoms of depression
and anxiety.

Joshi, Sunil Kumar
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:


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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                     M.Phil. in Health Science ( International Health) 2002


        Analysis of possible occupational related lung cancer among the
        patients attending Bhaktapur Cancer Centre, Bhaktapur, Nepal. A pilot study

Kelaeng, Oukame Moses
Nationality: Botswana
Title of thesis:
        Safety performance in building construction industry. The effect
        of feedback using scaffolds as an example
Summary:
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of feedback on the safety standard of the
scaffolds in the two major cities of Gaborone and Francistown. An observation safety inspection
method was used. A checklist was drawn using the appropriate sections of the factory
regulations, dealing with scaffolds. Feedback was given to the intervention construction sites and
no feedback was given to the control construction sites. The results of this study showed that
there was an improvement in the safety standard of the scaffolds after feedback.

Mwanza, Jean Claude
Nationality: Congo-Kinshasa
Title of thesis:
        Neuro-Ophthalmologic disturbances and visual evoked potential in
        Konzo, a neurologic disorder in Sub-Saharan Africa
Summary:
Background: Konzo is a para/tetraparesis of sudden onset associated with consumption of
insufficiently processed bitter cassava combined with low protein intake. Patietns also report
mvisual disturbances. Aim: To investigate the neuro-ophthalmological manifestations and assess
whether or not visual evoked potentials (VEP) are abnormal in konzo, and to correlate the
findings to the clinical picture of the disorder. Methods: Twenty-three Congolese konzo patients
(9 men and 14 women, mean age: 22.8+`/-10.1 years) underwent a complete neuro-
ophthalmological examination. VEPs were also recorded in
onclusion: Konzo was associated with optic neuropathy and a few number of subjects had
nystagmus. VEPs were symmetrically abnormal in nearly half of the patients. The most common
VEP pathology was a prolongation of the Ploo latency. Almost all patients with abnormal VEPs
had abnormal visual fields. Clinically, this optic does not resemble the features of the epidemic
neuropathy, tobacco amblyopia and vitamin B deficiency optic neuropathy. Overall, these
findings seem to suggest loss of axons in the visual pathways of konzo subjects. Large and fast
concting axons are probably the most affected.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                       M.Phil. in Health Science ( International Health) 2001




                          M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health)

                                          Master thesis 2001

Chamorro Ibarra, Alexandra
Nationality: Nicaragua
Title of thesis:
        Satisfaction with Dental Care in Nicaragua: A Study among Non-Civil Workers at the
        Mauricio Abdalah Dental Clinic in Managua, Nicaragua.
Summary:
The study examines the level and determinants of satisfaction with oral health care services
among male employees attending Mauricio Abdalah Dental Clinic in Managua, Nicaragua. The
survey instrument employed was a structured interview schedule and the study obtained an
excellent response rate. All patients attending the clinic in the given period responded to the
survey. The results of the study suggests that patients overall satisfaction with the oral health care
provided in Mauricio Abdalah Dental Clinic is linked to the quality of previous treatment in
general and to respectful interaction between dentist and patient in particular. Moreover,
convenience aspects of the oral health care facilities, such as waiting time and suitability of
appointment for the working schedule, contributed significantly to overall satisfaction ratings. If
patient satisfaction is to be accepted as an integral part of quality of oral health in Nicaragua,
reinforcing personal care and making the dental office hours more suitable for its users might be
ways of increasing this quality.

El-Kord, Eyad
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
        Effect of Sulfur, Seleno-Substituted Fatty Acids on Superoxide Radical Generation in
        Polymorphonuclear Cells.
Summary:
The purpose of the study was to investigate the ability of Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and
tetradecylselenoaceticacid (TSA) to stimulate resting polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) to relase
superoxide. Effects on these fatty acid analogues on superoxide from stimulated PMNs were also
studied in order to investigate their antioxidant properties in different systems. Effects of these
fatty acid analogues were compared to effects of palmitic acid as normal saturated fatty acid.
Conclusions: Both TTA and TSA acted as normal saturated fatty acid and did not stimulate the
release of superoxide radical from resting PMNs. TTA was unable to exert any inhibitory effect
on O2 release from PMA-stimulated PMNs by using the two forms of TTA. While albumin
bound TSA exerted antioxidant effects by decreasing amounts of 02 produced from the
stimulated cells, and the mechanism might be the ability of TSA to scavenge or react with O2.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                      M.Phil. in Health Science ( International Health) 2001


Lemma, Be-Ede
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        International Prostate SymptomScore and Uroflowmetry for Ethiopean Patients with
        Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Urethral Stricture.
Summary:
Fifteen benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 44 urethral stricture patients, and 34 controls were
studied to describe uroflowmetry findings in patients and normal subjects in Addis Abeba from
April 2000. Normal values for average and maximum urine flow rate are determined. The data in
the study supports the use of uroflowmetry in initial assessment of bladder outlet obstruction.
Future study aming at description of sensivity to change, to major treatment intervention is
recommended. Especially in the treatment of urethical stricture patients, uroflowmetry has
immense importance as most patients require multiple treatment schedules and evaluation.

Puso, Kwele Kegalale
Nationality: Botswana
Title of thesis:
        The Magnitude of Injury Problem at Botswana Meat Commission Plant in Lobatse.
Summary:
The objective of this project was to study the hazards, magnitude of injuries, and risk factors for
occupational related injuries at Botswana Meat Commission plant in Lobatse.The study also
planned to establish information that could be used to reduce the risk of injuries at the same
industry. The injury case data was retrieved from the recording files of health and safety office
within the industry and was entered in the survey form. The study revealed a cumulative injury
incident rate of 68.2 per 1000 workers per day. This was a low rate compared to similar
industries in Botswana and led to the conclusion that Lobatse meat processing industry is a
relatively safe place to work.

Segokgo, Morgan Odirile
Nationality: Botswana
Title of thesis:
        Noise Exposure, availability and use of Hearing Protection Devices among Blue-Collar
        Workers in Textile Factories in Botswana.
Summary:
The objective of this research was to study the noise level in two selected factories in Botswana,
and to determine the occurrence of noise related subjective symptoms and the availability and
extend of use of hearing protection devices in the factories. A structured interview Questionnaire
was used to study subjective symptoms. All participant (control group and exposed group)were
randomly selected. The noise exposure levels (dBA) were measured by using an Integrated
Sound Level Meter. A relation between reports on each of the subjective symptoms and noise
exposure levels was studied. 48 % of the sampled high noise exposured group were provided
with hearing protection and 35.7% of these used it "always",41% "sometimes" and 23.2%
"rarely" The study shows that annoyance, somatic complaints and post work irritability among
the workers are associated with high noise exposure levels. The majority of workers in high noise
level departments were aware of the hazards associated with high noise exposure.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                                    M.Phil. in Public Administration 2002




                                  M.Phil. in Public Administration

                                          Master thesis 2002

Acharya, Hari Raj
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
         Decentralization in Developing Countries: Acase Study on
         Decentralization in Nepal
Summary:
Climate change policy-rhetoric or reality? Spanish climate change policy strategy at the pre-
Kyoto and post-Kyoto stages. Many developing countries, including Nepal, have introduced
different reforms and approaches in order to secure better forms of governing people. Among
such newly introduced reforms is the decentralization of local self-governance. In most
developing countries the issue and process of decentralization concerns not only about the model
of administration, but they also show their direct relation to other issues and processes having to
do with the political, economic, and developmental as well as socio-cultural issues. Accordingly,
the purpose of this study is to explore the process of decentralization in Nepal, and identify the
inhibiting factors that pose problems and remain as constraints to this process. In this respect, this
study reviews how district governments are making and implementing their development plans
and programs with reference to the two sample districts, namely Arghakhanci and Lalitpur.
Further, this study has identified and analyzed the process of decentralization within the
framework of four main factors, they are (1) The legal\ policy framework (current status) for the
decentralization and local government, (2) Organizational and institutional structures as well as
the capacity of the district level authorities, (3) Financial arrangements and the capacity of the
district government, and (4) The national, political, socio-economic and cultural contexts.
In Nepal, the planning process intends to involve ordinary people as much as possible, but, in
practice, the process of development planning and budgeting for the district development has
been largely influenced and directed by the central government. As for the overall comments
from the situation, which this study has observed, it can be said that the district governments are
still not in the condition for making their plans and managing the budget, and implementing
them. The study shows that there is a real lack of grass root participation when it comes to
district development planning. In fact, the presence of central government in planning process
diminishes the scope of public choice. One of the crucial aspects seems to be the financial
condition of the district. The financial provisions for the district governments are very limited.
Thus, the autonomy of the district government to make plans and programs seems more limited
in reality as compared to the intentions provided by the law. In short, this study has identified
why the decentralized local government in Nepal is still partially centralized in reality. The main
reasons for such a situation are the institutional and political contexts, and the resource
dependency on the central government. These factors make the district government less capable
to formulate and implement their own plans and programs within the district. As a result, the
local governments experience difficulties and low efficiency in performing their duties and
responsibilities to promote the effective involvement of the local people in the district
development planning process.


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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                                  M.Phil. in Public Administration 2002




Ahmed, Nasim
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
         Privatization of state owned enterprises (SOE's) in Bangladesh: A
         study on policy implementation
Summary:
The study is an attempt to explore and examine different aspects of policy implementation
regarding privatization of State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) in Bangladesh. For the purpose, the
study sheds light on the theoretical and conceptual issues of policy implementation, actors and
factors that contributed to the initiation and persuasion of privatization policy regarding SOEs in
Bangladesh, organizational as well as procedural arrangements involved in the implementation
process, strategic tasks related to privatization of SOEs, out put of policy implementation
(implementation result), and major impediments of policy implementation regarding
privatization of SOEs in Bangladesh. The study finds that failure of the nationalization policy of
industries in Bangladesh, poor performance of SOEs and heavy financial burden on the state
exchequer, influence of structural adjustment program and international donors, impetus for trade
liberalization, and usual political course of the successive governments have contributed to the
initiation and persuasion of privatization policy regarding SOEs in Bangladesh. Here it is
assumed that policy implementation regarding privatization of SOEs is a long process which
involves various actors and stages and requires strategic tasks as well as resources for its
accomplishment. It is argued that privatization of SOEs largely depends on choice, preference,
and determination of the party in power. Furthermore, the study observes that lack of political
commitment of the party in power and bureaucratic and procedural complexities have been the
dominant impeding factors towards implementation of privatization. The study also finds that
policy objectives of increasing the number of privatized enterprises and earning of government
revenue have been realized to some extent while the policy objectives concerning employment
generation and improvement of the overall economic performance of privatized enterprises have
largely been non realised. Development of the private sector, entrepreneurial skill and risk taking
initiative of the business community are required to realize the later two policy objectives.
Concerning the approaches to policy implementation, it is observed from theoretical point of
view that the ?policy-action continuum? has emerged in Bangladesh now a day. It is found that
successive governments have been pursuing the privatization policy by taking lessons from
?policy learning?. The study gives emphasis on the development of public-private partnership
and increase of remuneration packages as well as other motivating factors of public officials for
fostering congenial environment for privatization in general and for removing the
bureaucratic/procedural obstacles towards privatization in particular. Strong and persistent
political commitment of the party in power is also considered essential for successful policy
implementation regarding privatization of SOEs in Bangladesh.

Fundi, Saida Seleman
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Community Participation and its Impact on School Performance




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                                  M.Phil. in Public Administration 2002


Mwella-Mshomi, Emma Evelyn
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        An analysis on the effect of Tanzanias ‘cost sharing’ in the
        education policy for primary schools (1999 batch)
Summary:
The aim of this paper is to make an analysis of the effect of cost sharing as one the major
components of Tanzania`s education policy of 1995 for primary education. Samples from two
regions of the country where taken (Dar es salaam and Dodoma) as a representation of both rural
and urban areas of the country. Basically what was understudied was the number of dropouts
within all the six primary schools and compared the number before and after the introduction of
cost sharing. This paper has 3 major hypotheses, including:-

(1) There is a relation between the introduction of cost sharing and dropouts.
(2) There is a relation between the economic condition (household income) and dropouts.
(3) There is relation between the culture of the society and dropouts.

When we talk of Cost sharing we talk of an introduction of a new education financing system in
Tanzania. This system came as a result of the IMF and WB conditional ties through the
Structural Adjustment Programs introduced early 1990s. In that case cost Sharing in Education
provision and financing has been a case for discussion.
The following theories will be used as a framework of this paper and this includes

1             Political Regime
2             Urban-rural perspective
3             Social economic perspective
4             Theory of Culture
5             Gender and Education

An observation will be on the rationality behind the choice Tanzania made by imposing on
parents in contributing to primary school financing? If cost sharing is a rational choice then the
collective should benefit. Is this what is happening? Knowledge of the local conditions such as
the economic conditions of the parents (these represent the ?collective?) in relation to the amount
of financing expected from them.




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                                  M.Phil. in Public Administration

                                          Master thesis 2001
Gautam, Bharat Raj
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Reforming the public sector: A study of administrative reforms in Nepal.
Summary:
The major objective of this thesis is to examine the content, nature and implementation of
administrative reforms in Nepal in the period 1990 and onward. The study also looks at the
background and challenges of the change process. The research design of the study is based on
qualitative case-oriented method. On the one hand, reform initiative of 1990 and onward was
backed by the global wave of reform during the 1980s. On the other hand, the reform process
was initiated after the transition from autocratic political order to multiparty democracy in 1990.
The study found that the reform process had introduced some of the measures of the New Public
Management with emphasizing on market, participative, flexible, and deregulated form of
governance. For example, limited role of government, rationalization of public administration,
right sizing of the bureaucracy, procedural simplification and effective public service delivery.
However, very few of them are implemented and most of them remained non-implemented.
Successful implementation depends on a series of independent variables e.g. objective of the
reform, resources, communication nature of implementing agencies, socio-cultural and political
situation of the country, and the disposition of the implementers. Factors affecting in achieving
or non-achieving the reform objective and target vary with the nature of the reform phenomena.
For examples, in the case of rationalization of public administration by reducing the public
organization, political condition of the country was major influential factor. In the case of
rightsizing the bureaucracy, the strategies taken to meet the target, and socio-economic condition
became major, while in service delivery, disposition of the implementers became principal factor
for non-implementation. For all reform phenomena political factor became more influential. This
is because change in public sector is the subject matter of political discourse and debate. The
study sees the challenges of reform in twofold i.e. historical institutional and administrative
culture. According to historical institutional perspective, once a path is designed it is difficult to
redesign. For example, hierarchy in administrative structure and pay according to hierarchy is the
path chosen during the 1950s now has been difficult to change. Power-distance between boss and
subordinate is the challenge for participation of the junior level in the public organization. New
Public Management argues the people as customer. In opposite, public officials treat to people as
subject in Nepal. The study concludes the change in public sectors is the matter of political
discourse. Thus the success of administrative reform needs to be backed by clear political vision
and mandate.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                                  M.Phil. in Public Administration 2001


Hari, Paudel
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        The implementation of privatization policy in Nepal : is privatization a viable policy
        option?
Summary:
The focus of this thesis is on the implementation process of the privatization policy and its
impacts in Nepal. Implementation theory especially the interactive model of implementation
presented by Grindle and Thomas (1991) and the literature on privatization have been chosen as
the analytical framework. So an attempt has been made to assess the implementation process of
the privatization policy employing the interactive model presented by Grindle and Thomas in
general and two cases have been discussed in specific. Similarly changes brought after the
privatization have been discussed to examine the impact of the policy. Three arenas of policy
making are identified and discussed: i.e. agenda setting, decision making and implementation.
The professionals and bureaucrats have dominated the policy process in all three areas and
politicians especially in decision-making arena. The role of the international community
specially the World Bank, IMF, USAID, and ADB were influential to setting the agenda. In the
agenda setting arena, administrative reform commission and a series of seminars/workshops,
have had a key role in formulating the national policy goals. In the decision-making arena
resources allocation and administrative measures have been integrated into the national planning
process through a five-year plan. And in the implementation arena the privatization committee,
the privatization cell and finally the cabinet are responsible in carrying out the privatization of
the PEs in case-by-case method. The main barriers to implement the policy are political
instability, political commitment/consensus, lack of capital market, lack of fund (privatization
fund), lack of investors, lack of transparency, employee related problems, lack of monitoring and
evaluation systems etc. All in all, seventeen PEs have been privatized so far. In terms of data
analysis two cases have been discussed. The first case Harisiddhi Brick and Tile Factory (HBTF)
shows that there has been positive changes in this company on investment, production, sales,
employment, technology improvement etc. however, on profit, environment protection and
capacity utilization, the picture is disappointing. The second case Nepal Film Development
Company (NFDC) also shows a positive change on most of the sectors studied. Thus the picture
of these cases shows a mixed result. The overall impact of the policy is also mixed. To examine
the overall impact of the policy, six variables have been chosen i.e. production, sales, profit,
employee/labor productivity, government subsidies and the employment generation. From the
production and sales point of view, performance of privatized enterprises is in a very good
situation. In terms of profit, employee/labor productivity and employment generation, the picture
is not satisfactory. In terms of subsidies, the picture is, again, disappointing though the capital
subsidies have been reduced.

Kijakazi Rajabu, Mtengwa
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Constitutional problems of unbalanced federal systems: An insight of union problems of
        the united republic of Tanzania and their implications to democracy.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                                    M.Phil. in Public Administration 2001


Md. Amran, Hossain
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        The Nomination Procedures of Candidates Selection for the Jatiya Sangsad (National
        Parliament) Election: A Comparative Study of Two Major Political Parties.
Summary:
CHAPTER-1:             comprises background of the study, research problems i.e. significance of
the study, objectives, goals and rational, hypothesis, research questions, in/dependent variables,
methodologies, theoretical approaches and devises, data collection, literature review and a list of
sources of data-information including operational strategies. CHAPTER-2: is elaborately
discussed and analyzed theoretical framework in relation with proposed field of study. Three
theories have been discussed viz, "candidates and ambition", social biases and eadership theories.
A self-planned model entitled ?”A model of candidates” recruitment/nomination? has been
delineated including its triadic territories basing of empirical observation and theoretical building
blocks. CHAPTER-3: A detail notion of two major political parties in Bangladesh (AL and BNP)
as a case study for nomination procedures is provided. Evolution, growth, programs, founding
leaders, organizational structures and splits and factions of both parties have been depicted.
Moreover, theoretical definitions of political parties as well as a panorama including numerical
quantity of political parties have also been discussed for an overall perception of party politics in
Bangladesh. CHAPTER-4: is              embellished      with     the    formal     procedures      of
nomination/recruitment for candidates? selection in view of four institutional perspectives such
as, nomination procedures of AL and BNP based on their Constitution and Manifestos including
a comparative discussion as well as formal procedures of Bangladesh Constitution, rules and
regulations of the Bangladesh`EC as a separate Constitutional institution for conducting JS
election have been discussed. In addition a brief idea of legislative branch of the government has
also been put forwarded before analytical discussion of contents. CHAPTER-5: Socio-economic
background of aspirants and candidates of two Constituencies including a general background of
MPs entitled ?The motivation and inspiration to be self-selected: Secret mystery of aspirants?
comprising reasons of self-selection of aspirants, their biography, brief notion of selected two
Constituencies, as well as influential factors behind the candidates i.e. strong social biases and
compositions based on responses by target group-two (aspirants and candidates of two
Constituencies). The views of rural intellectuals and local Committee Members about the reasons
of inspiration to be motivated for candidacies have also been placed at the end of this chapter.
CHAPTER-6: An analytical discussion of authoritative role and reality of both parties on the
basis of candid views (through questionnaires) of target group-one (nomination board of both
parties) and substantial pertinent social biases, how they, considered these factors to nominate
candidates? for the Jatiya Sangsad (National Parliamentary) election have elaborately enlightened
under the title of ?In search of nominating ?best fit? candidates: Who gets nomination?
CHAPTER-7: Summary of empirical research findings and concluding remarks.




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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                    M.Phil. in Social Anthropology ( Human Ecology) 2002




                          M.Phil. in Social Anthropology (Human Ecology)

                                         Master thesis: 2002
Anwar, Anisa Nayeema
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        From Conceptual to Birth: Meaning and Management of a Fundamental
        Process in Individual and Social Life

Hossain, Tania
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        "Blood of Pollution, Body of Fear" A Study of Beliefs and Rituals
        connected with Menstruation, Gestation and Parturition among the Mal Bedey

Kyakuwa, Margaret B.M.
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Lovers' Lust and Mothers' Milk: Pathways of Hiv Transmission and
        Re-Conceptualization of Family Relations among the Basoga of South-eastern Uganda

Mariano, Esmeralda
Nationality: Mozambique
Title of thesis:
        Childlessness: Whom to blame and how to cope - Symbolic
        representations and healing practices among the Shangana of Southern
        Mozambique

Oyango, Eria Olowo
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        "Primordial" and "Instrumental" concerns and their relevance for understanding Ethnic
        Processes: A Case Study of Ethnic Relations among the Banyole of South Eastern
        Uganda

Saha, Tirtha
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of Thesis:
        “Life is a Gamble” Marriage, Games and Healing among the Mal
        Bedey, a Migration Healer Community of Bangladesh




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                          M.Phil. in Social Anthropology (Human Ecology)

                                         Master thesis 2001
Bateganya, Fred Henry
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Masese Fishermen and traders. Competition, Cooperation and exploitation in Lake
        Victoria Fisheries.

Bhattarai, Hari Prasad
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Identities in the making: Cultural Pluralism and the Politics of Imagined Communities in
        the Lowlands of Nepal.

Gurung, Poonam
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Bungamati. The life world of a Newar Community explored through the natural and
        social life of water.

Huang, Jian Sheng
Nationality: China
Title of thesis:
        Tradition and Transformation. A Research into the Change of Inter-Personal Relation in
        Dujia.

Kakuru, Doris Muhwezi
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Too Many Tasks. Managing a family and coping with water requirements among a Bairy
        community.

Kattel, Shambhu Prasad
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Development and its victims. From pottery Makers to Porters: The Changing Life-World
        of the Kumals of the Arun Valley, Eastern Nepal.

Otim, Peter Omurangi
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        The Iteso and Their Uncles. The Political and Social Contexts of Karimojong Dry Season
        Grazing in Teso.


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Chapter 1. University of Bergen                  M.Phil. in Social Anthropology ( Human Ecology) 2001




Shafie, Hasan Al
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        The Murucha of Chats. Matrilateral cross-cousin marriage in ritual and politico-
        economic context.

Subedi, Madhusudan Sharma
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Medical Pluralism in a Culturally Complex Asian Civilization: Searching, Understanding
        of and Cure for Body Afflictions in Newar Town of Kirtipur.

Thapa Magar, Shyamu
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Cardamom in the Forest: An Attempt towards maintaining Income Generating Activities
        and Sustainable Forest Management. A Case study of Chichila Mats.




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Chapter 1. University of Oslo                      M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education 2002




                                      University of Oslo
                         M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education

                                          Master thesis 2002

Matimbo, Fulgence John
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of Thesis:
        The Growth of Private Universities and Private University Colleges
        in Tanzania
Summary:
Reforms to education have tended to focus on two key areas: the structure of schooling and the
content of the curriculum (Whitaker, 1995:5). According to Whitaker, the third dimension that
has been probably neglected is the process of learning. This is concerned with the ways in which
learning is organized and the means by which learners are helped to apply their potentials. The
Brazilian education Paulo Freire (1993) has highlighted three vital elements in the learning
process namely praxis, problematization and conscientization. As he asserts, learning is
meaningful only, if it emancipates the learner from forces of oppression. The present study is a
case study that attempted to find out what is going on in the recently established private
universities and private university colleges in Tanzania with regarding to teaching methods. The
study is guided by ideas on globalization, quality control principles, the philosophy of Education
for Self-Reliance, and higher education teaching methods. Being a qualitative study, it presents a
thick description of what is happening in the two institutions so as to allow events an situations to
speak for themselves rather than be largely interpreted by the researcher (Greetz, 1973, in Kohen,
Manion and Morrison, 2001). Data gathering was based on interviews, questionnaires and
analysis of documents. Robert Yin (1994) and John Creswell (1998) argue that when conducting
case studies it is important to use multiple sources of information so as to yeld improved result.
Analysis of data has revealed that despite the limited resources, teachers in the studied cases
strive for better quality. There is good a teacher-students relationship, which together with the
small class sizes, stimulate that use of teaching methods that allow dialogue. However, despite
the anticipated improvement in private higher education institutions, the study reveals the need to
solve the problem of the medium of instruction.

Mkwizu, Mary Alphan
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        The Pedagogical Implications of Using English as the Medium of
        Instruction in Teaching Civics in Tanzania Secondary Schools
Summary:
In May 1993 the Ministry of Education and Culture issued the education circular No
ED/OKE/S.4/25 that introduced the subject Civics in Tanzania secondary Schools. This subject
is taught in English, the language that researchers such as Brock-Utne (2000). Roy Campell and


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Chapter 1. University of Oslo                     M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education 2002


Qorro (1997), Mlama and Materu (1978), have proved that it has ceased to be a viable medium of
instruction in Tanzania secondary schools. Before that the subject was called Elimu ya Siasa
(Political Education) and it was taught in Kiswahili. This language is spoken by more than ninety
percent of the Tanzania population, and it covers all spheres of life. This study focuses on the
pedagogical implications of using English in teaching Civics in Tanzania secondary schools. The
study attempts to answer four questions: How well can Form I and Form IV students in Tanzania
express themselves in English? What differences have teachers in Tanzania noted between
teaching Elimu ya Siasa and Civics? How well are Civics teachers in Tanzania able to express
themselves in English? What are Civics teachers views on the use of English as the medium of
instruction in secondary schools in Tanzania? The study adopts qualitative approach in data
collection, analysis and presentation. Data was obtained through the use of interviews and
cartoon pictures. In addition to these, various documents have been analysed including the
Education and Training Policy, Cultural Policy and Civics syllabi. The study is guided by three
theories: Problem posing Education, Education for Self Reliance and Linguistic human rights.
Based on these theories, the data analysed has revealed that students learn very little during
Civics lessons due to the language barrier. Data gathered through the cartoon pictures have
proved that students express themselves better in Kiswahili than in English. Stories that are
written in Kiswahili are long, detailed and very interesting. Students have proved to be
competent in both vocabulary and grammar. In contrast, stories written in English are very short,
lacking details, and rarely comprehensible. Since students lack sufficient vocabulary, they tent to
repeat words. The number of grammatical errors is very high. In addition to that, it has been
found that many Civics teachers lack competence in English thus resulting to mixing English and
Kiswahili while teaching. The study has further revealed that those who are directly affected by
the change of policy (that introduced to Civics) such as students and teachers were not involved
in the process of decision making. Many of the interviewed Civics teachers have indicated their
preference to use Kiswahili in teaching the subject. Their suggestions are based on their
experience, because these are ones who are teaching Elimu ya Siasa in Kiswahili.
The study also includes a brief comparison of Zubedia Desai´s South African study (Desai 2001),
from which the cartoon pictures have been adopted. In her study, Desai compared Xhosa and
English competence between grade seven and grade four pupils. My study compares Form I and
Form IV students´competence in Kiswahili and English. The findings she has come up with are
similar to those in this study.

Mustafa Al Dasooqi, Ghada
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
        Quality Assurance in the Palestinian Higher Education
Summary:
Nowadays, HE institutions are struggling for legitimisation in a national, regional and
international context in order to make themselves not only appealing to students (called
customers in the new paradigm) to increase enrolment levels but also to society itself to
legitimise their existence within it. One of the major issues these institutions are focusing on to
achieve this legitimisation has to do with academic quality. When trying to put together the
issues that shape the Palestinian higher educational system and academic quality, many questions
come into collation: Are there any international standards for the assessment of academic quality
used to measure the Palestinian system? HE in Palestine has started only three decades ago, with



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Chapter 1. University of Oslo                      M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education 2002


a very high enrolment rate 70 % of high school graduate are admitted to HE institutions. In the
financial terms also in the sense of their management, we could say that they are private
institutions, funded by philanthropic organizations, and do not follow any governmental
regulation in their management. They experienced hasty expansion in its size with substantial
number of students accompanied by declining in resources, which created a lot of problems that
affected its performance. These issues and others will be presented and discussed in this paper, in
the scope of related issues and debates in the international arena about higher education.
This thesis is a theoretical analytical study aimed at giving relatively comprehensive knowledge
of quality assurance in higher education; its theoretical and interpretations, the direct and indirect
actors affecting it (such as globalisation and issue of good governance etc), and the varied
systems used for assessing and improving it. The other main objective was to give a focus
discussion of the Palestinian Higher Education system, in the context of quality assurance,
addressing its problems and perspectives in achieving the national objectives


Ortega, Yamileth Raquel Sequeria
Nationality: Nicaragua
Title of thesis:
        The Case of Nicaragua in the Light of the Central American
        Regional Integration and the Influences of NAFTA and the European Union
Summary:
World economic trends are affecting all aspects of higher education institutions in Central
America, making them re-consider their aims and roles in today’s society. While it has been
acknowledged that without a qualified system of higher education both developed and
developing countries are less likely able to solve issues that could improve human conditions and
combat poverty, the process to reach this aim requires the study and addressing of very complex
and diffuse issues necessary to make of higher education a tool for "real" world development.
One of those issues has to do with economics, as globalization in the form of trading blocs and
market regions seems to be the main element shaping the new direction of higher education
trends. However, education is not only economics, it also carries with it cultural, political and
moral aspects and cannot be obviated. Within these global economic issues, it is important to
analyze what has been the impact of regional integration, as a trend of the new global economy
(or what I will call here the globalization of regionalization) on higher education. Specifically,
how has globalization in the form of regional integration, affected the social role of higher
education in Nicaragua in the light of the Central American Regional Integration and the
influences of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the European Union. Is higher
education in Nicaragua concentration on the demands of the market; therefore, losing its
legitimacy as a social agent capable of bringing about social change for the benefit of the most
impoverished ones? This thesis aims to explore, describe and discuss these questions, specifically
referring to the way higher education actors in the Central American and Nicaraguan context are
addressing them in the light of external pressures




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Chapter 1. University of Oslo                     M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education 2002


Yehuala, Dessalegn Mulaw
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        The Provision of Technical and Vocational Education and Training
        by NGOs: A case Study and Three Centres in Addis Ababa
Summary:
After the launching of the Education and Training Policy in 1994 the Ethiopian Government has
paid due attention to Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). This program is
offered by the government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)and the private sector. The
general objective of this study is to assess the role of NGOs in the provision of the Technical and
Vocational Education and Training in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. The Study is
conducted in Three NGOs, namely Hope Enterprise, SOS and Selam TVET Centres. SOS is
registered as International NGO while the other two are local NGOs. These Centres are selected
because they got recognition from the Ministry of Education to provide training at 10+2 level
according to the education policy mentioned above.
Interview of NGOs and government officials, trainers, students and document consultation were
the main sources of the data. The study revealed that although these NGOs play a pivotal role in
the skilled manpower development of the country the Centres don’t have the required manpower
set by the Ministry of Education. This will indisputably have a negative impact on the training
program. Therefore, upgrading and the educational qualification of trainers and assignment of the
right individuals on vacant leadership positions is indispensable so as to produce efficient,
effective and competitive skilled labour. The overall condition of the Centre’s physical facility is
satisfactory to the TVET program. These NGOs do have almost equal number of boys and girls
in their Children Villages. To increase the enrolment rate in general and female trainees in
particular an awareness creation program should be a priory task. It is also recommended that the
Centre’s should be closer to the world of work in order to identify market needs better and offer
programs that can meet skilled man power requirements of the city and the country in general.




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                         M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education

                                          Master thesis 2001
Alamgir, Md.
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        Sexual Harassment on Campus. A Case Study: University of Dhaka
ISBN 82 569 5923 1

Ambaye, Tilaye Gete
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        The Implementation of Problem Solving Approach in Ethiopia: A Case Study in Four
        Primary Schools Around Bahir Dar Area.
Summary:
In Ethiopia there have been growing concerns to prepare the young generation who can solve life
problems by conducting PSA (Problem Solving Approach) in a classroom instruction. This study
examines how PSA was implemented in Ethiopia. The general aim of the study is to assess how
PSA is implemented in the four primary schools around Bahir Dar in Ethiopia and suggest ways
and means of effective implementation.
ISBN 82 569 5943 6

Baryathua, Fredica Baguma
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Ugandan Women in Public Higher Educational Leadership: Trends and Schools
ISBN: 85 569 5930 4

Choeden, Yamyang
Nationality: Bhutan
       Privatisation of Upper Secondary Schools in Bhutan
ISBN 82 569 5931 2

Mwinsheikne, Halima
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Science and the Language Barrier.
ISBN 82 569 5934 7




                                                 108
Chapter 1. University of Oslo                               M.Phil. in International Community Health 2002




                                M.Phil. in International Community Health

                                            Master Thesis 2002
Ali, Muna Obied
Nationality: Sudan
Title of thesis:
        The prevalence of tuberculosis with drug-resistant strains of
        Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Khartoum, Gazira and camps for displaced
        people, Sudan.
Summary:
RESEARCHER: Muna Obied Ali
SUPERVISORS: M.D., Ph.D., Professor Gunnar Bjune; M.D. Per Sandven
The financial support was provided by (NORAD) Norwegian Agency for Development
Cooperation
DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
SETTING: Khartoum, Gazira and camps for displaced people
OBJECTIVES: To find the extent of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Sudan and to estimate
the association between drug resistance-TB and proportion of new cases and previously treated
cases. And to identify medical, social and demographic factors associated with the development
of drug-resistant TB
DESIGN: Strains isolated from 144 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were studied for
susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs by the BACTEC method.
 Data collection forms were filled, to identify factors associated with drug resistance.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven strains (50%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Thirty-one (22%) were multi-drug resistant. With exception of only 2 cases, all MDR were found
among previously treated cases. The highest rate of mono-drug resistance was observed for
streptomycin in both groups of patients (new and previously treated patients). 22 (23.6%) strains
collected from new and 8 (15.6%) of strains collected from previously treated patients were
resistant to streptomycin respectively. Resistance to ethambutol was only seen in multi-drug
resistance strains. With the exception of only one strain, all strains resistant to rifampicin were
multi-drug resistant. In Khartoum 24 (26.4%) were multi-drug resistant, in Gazira 4 (16%) and in
the camps for displaced people 3 (10.7%) were multi-drug resistant.
A history of previous treatment for tuberculosis, being more than 40 years of age, having long
duration of symptoms, low weight and household contact of a TB patient were significantly
associated with resistance to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug and multi-drug resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin
also in new patients; drug resistance except for streptomycin among new cases is a rare
phenomenon in Sudan, which indicates a low rate of transmission of resistant strains. Drug
resistance among previously treated patients is present at an alarming level.




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Chapter 1. University of Oslo                           M.Phil. in International Community Health 2002


Itshekeng, Edwin Monclaro
Nationality: Botswana
Title:
        The Role of Family Background on HIV/AIDS Awareness and Condom use
        among Secondary School Students in Selibe-Phikwe (Botswana)
Summary:
Background:
This study investigated the relationship between family background and adolescent sexuality
among secondary school students in Botswana.
Objective: Controlling for individual, household, and community level variables, the main goals
of the study are to determine the role of family background variables [at age 11, which
significant adult did the subject live with, presence/absence of communication on sexuality with
either co-resident and non-resident family members or both, presence/absence of punishment, for
sexually-related behaviour, from resident adult family members] on awareness of HIV/AIDS and
condom use among Secondary School students.
Design: The study is cross-sectional and used a combination of both quantitative and qualitative
methodologies. The main data source are the responses to the current and retrospective questions,
obtained via self-administered questionnaires which were distributed among a selection of 531
students attending purposively selected Secondary Schools in Selibe-Phikwe, in 2001. Data from
key informant interviews with Headmasters and other community leaders was also collected.
This information was bolstered by that obtained from focus group discussions with the students.
SPSS v-11.0 was employed to obtain bivariate analysis of the data, and to estimate logistic
regression equation of the likelihood of the dependent variable. These findings are interpreted in
combination with the information obtained qualitatively.
Results: Compared to living in a family of orientation that included both parents, living in a
family of orientation that included ?other? adults, other than mother, father, or grandparents, at
age 11, significantly reduced the likelihood of condom use at first sexual encounter among
adolescents. Also, communication on sexuality issues with a co-resident parent significantly
increased the likelihood of both HIV/AIDS awareness and condom use at first sexual encounter
among adolescents. The likelihood of condom use increased very significantly when
communication was with a grandparent than with a parent(s). On the other hand, punishment for
sexually related behaviour by a resident adult family member significantly decreased the
likelihood of condom use at first sexual encounter among adolescents.
Conclusion: On the basis of these results, it is concluded that communication about sexual and
reproductive health issues by significant adult family members with their children should be
promoted.

Jilleh, Claire Issac
Nationality: The Palestinian Territory
Title of thesis:
        The Interaction between Health Service providers and People with
        Diabetes in Palestine
Summary:
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing in the whole world and in Palestine.
Prevention of the disease would help to stop the epidemic. Education is an important element in
diabetes prevention and treatment. OBJECTIVES: Study the inter-linkage between diabetes



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health education and diabetes patients? self-management practices, to detect main barriers
between educational intervention and the final outcome of controlling diabetes. DESIGN AND
METHODS: 152 diabetes patients with an age ranges between (35-65), selected from three
different unspecialised health clinics were interviewed, using pre-prepared questionnaires. The
data was analysed by using SPSS. In addition to 2 focus group discussion held at the clinics,
where 12 diabetes patients participated in it. 12 health workers were interviewed as well, using
in-depth interviews and an interview guide. The data collected was analysed qualitatively.
RESULTS: Out of 152 people with diabetes, 71% were females. 55% of the participants aged
over 55 years old. The majority of the patients did not attend educational sessions at the clinics
they visited because there were no scheduled educational session held there. 20% of the patients
believed that diabetes education is important because it will help them to know how to control
their disease. The knowledge of people with diabetes was considered good in some areas
concerning diabetes, such as diet and feet care. There was no significant association between
patients? level of knowledge about diabetes complications and the patient’s educational
background and duration of having diabetes. But the results showed significant association
between knowledge of feet complications and the knowledge of feet care with the fact that the
patients developed feet complications. Patients adhere well to prescribed medications but they do
not emphasise on practising other means of self-management to combine with the medication
treatment. The current crisis was considered the major barrier to diabetes education and self-
management. CONCLUSION: People with diabetes recognise the deficit in diabetes education in
their clinics. They wanted to learn more about diabetes and its management. The health workers
wanted to improve diabetes education provided in their clinics, but all the efforts are postponed
till the situation in Palestine gets better. There were no significant differences between the three
clinics concerning diabetes education and the way it was performed.

Muhammad, Rahim Abdur
Nationality: Bangladesh
Title of thesis:
        Diabetes in Bangladesh: Prevalence and Determinants
Summary:
Objective: The study was designed to estimate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the urban
slum population and to make a valid comparison of differential prevalence along with its risk
factors. Further, the agreement between of FBG and 2-h BG were also examined.
Methods: The study utilized two sets of data, one including the prevalence of type 2 diabetes
among the urban slum population in Dhaka city, and a previous study conducted in selected rural
areas. The rural study was performed among 5000 individuals (aged >20 years) both males and
females in 1999. The urban study was conducted among the urban slum dwellers (migrants) from
those specific rural areas. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1555 slum population
both male and females aged >20 years in 2001.Capillary fasting blood glucose levels, and 2-h
post glucose test after a 75-g glucose drink were measured for a number of selected subjects from
both urban (n=476) and rural (n=1046) population. Important anthropometrical indicators
(Height, weight, waist and hip circumference) including blood pressure and socio-demographic
information were collected.
Results: A higher prevalence of diabetes was found among the urban subjects 8.1 percent
compared to rural population 2.3 percent. The study population was lean both for urban and rural
with mean BMI (rural 20.2 and urban 19.4). Female had higher prevalence of diabetes compared



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to male both in urban and rural (urban female-8.5%, male 7.7% and rural female-2.5%, male-
1.9%). Age, sex and waist to hip ratio for male were found to be significant risk factors following
FBG and 2-h glucose values adjusted for a number of confounding variables. Poor agreement
was observed of between FBG and 2-h BG values.
Conclusion: Increased risks for the development of diabetes were observed among the urban
subjects compared to its source population. The risk factors were mostly similar for both urban
and rural subjects. This may indicate that we are representing a unique form of type 2 diabetes in
our lean population without obesity and hypertension. Applicability of universal cut-off points
for obesity status may call for an examination in order to classify the people at risk. Further FBG
did not appear to provide an under estimation of DM prevalence compared to2-h BG.
Key words: Age, sex, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, type 2 diabetes, prevalence, urban,
rural, Bangladesh.

Tessema, Zewditu Kebede
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Husband-Wife Communication About Family Planning in Assosa Town,
        Ethiopia
Summary:
A cross sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches was carried out in
Assosa Town, Ethiopia (2001-2002) to investigate what proportion of couples were discussing
about family planning, if there was any association between husband wife communication and
contraception, and couple? s opinion about the subject.
Among the 264 couples interviewed 10% had never heard about family planning. Among those
who had heard about family planning in 98% of couples both wife and husband knew at least one
modern method of contraception and approved of family planning. In 82% of couples one or both
partners reported having discussed family planning with their partner in the past year. 67% of
couples were using contraception at the time of interview. Multiple logistic regression showed
that wife’s perception of her husband’s approval of family planning and discussion about family
planning were significantly associated with contraceptive use.
Men and women tended to realize the economic disadvantage of having many children. Women
believed that husband has a dominant role in the family and makes decisions regarding most
family matters including family planning. However, they thought that husbands are being
changed in relation to fertility issues which they equated with the economic pressure. The
implications of the study results are discussed.
This Study, which was on Husband-Wife Communication about Family Planning, was financed
by NORAD and NIHA. The researcher was the master student, Tessema K. Zewditu. The main
supervisor was Johanne Sundby while Joar Svanemyr and Odd O. Aalen were co-supervisors.




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                                M.Phil. in International Community Health

                                            Master thesis 2001
Agizew, Tefera Belachew
Nationality: Ethiopia
Title of thesis:
        Client Satisfaction, Primary Health Care & Utilization of Services in Sidama District,
        Southern Ethiopia 2000.

Kebalepile, Tapiwa Mavis
Nationality: Botswana
Title of thesis:
        An Evaluation of the Quality of Care Midwives Provide During the Postpartum Period in
        Northern Botswana.

Nasambu, Rebecca Acen
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Obstetric Care at Mbale Regional Hospital, Uganda.

Ndenzako, Fabian Nicholaus
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Male Contraceptive Prevalence and Factors associated with Contraceptive use among
        Men in Ngara, Tanzania.

Thapa, Suraj Bahadur
Nationality: Nepal
Title of thesis:
        Psychiatric Disability among Bhutanese Refugees Living in Nepal and their Perception of
        Mental Illness and Disability.




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Chapter 1. University of Oslo                                           M.Sc. in Public Health 2002




             M.Sc. in Public Health (Information systems Track) UWC, South Africa

                                        Master thesis 2002

Asiimwe, Sarah
Nationality: Uganda
       Use of health information for operational and strategic decision-making by divisional
       level managers of Kampala City Council Health Department in Uganda

Paul, Ashis Kumar
Nationality: Namibia
Title of thesis:
        Addressing perinatal and maternal mortality through perinatal audit in Gobabis Hospital
        in Namibia.

Tsoka, Joyce
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Evaluation of the malaria information system in the Kwazulu-Natal province of South
        Africa

Wagner-Meyer, Rolene
Nationality: South Africa
Title of thesis:
        Designing, developing and evaluating a management information system for vitamin A
        supplementation programme managers in the Eastern Cape province in South Africa
        through action research




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                                   University of Tromsø
                            M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management

                                         Master thesis 2002
Kyomuhendo, Peter
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        A bioeconomic model for Uganda’s Lake Victoria Nile Perch Fishery
Summary:
After an evaluation of this Nile perch fishery for the period 1986-2000, when it constituted more
then 60% of the catch, it is evident that a severe over fishing problem exits and that the fishery
has never been managed for economic efficiency. All economic rent from this fishery has been
and continues to be dissipated. The effort in 2000 is 64% higher than that required to take MEY
and 44% higher than that required to harvest MSY. The total cost of fishing effort at OAE is 44%
higher than that at MSY and 62% higher than that at MEY. The total cost of fishing effort at
MSY is 33% higher than that at MEY. This open access fishery is the victim of excess fishing
effort which, seems to be growing even further whilst harvests plummet. The objectives of
fishery management often based but not entirely on political considerations, should be subjected
to economic analysis to determine their consequences on the fishery. The resultant optimal
management strategy should in addition incorporate views of all stakeholders in both design and
implementation.

Maguza-Tembo, Francis
Nationality: Malawi
Title of thesis:
         Bio-economics of common resource over exploitation: case of Lake
         Malombe chambo (Oreochromis sp. Cichlidae) fishery in Malawi.
Summary:
Increased attention has been paid over recent years to the Over exploitation of small-scale fishery
resources. This paper offers a simple bio-economic model of fishery exploitation orientated
towards both Lake Malombe Chambo (Oreochromis sp.) and the Whole Lake Malombe Fishery.
The catching of Chambo in Lake Malombe has historically been important to Malawi Fisheries,
and the changes that have taken place in the Fishery have had major social and economic
consequences on communities around the Lake. Bioeconomic exploration of this fishery has been
based on the catch, effort and price data from 1976 to 1999. It has been demonstrated here that,
Chambo. Fishery provides a unique illustration of the economic and biological effects of
technological (gear type) change in situations where access to the natural resource remains
virtually unrestricted (open access). The components of the model are explained with reference to
their guiding economic (Maximum Economic Yield) and biological (Maximum Sustainable
Yield) reference points. And it is estimated in the study that if yield of Chambo falls below 6900
tons and 14 621 tons for the Whole fishery, then the rate at which the population regenerates
itself falls below the rate of extraction. The paper also draws the problem of effort over capacity


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Chapter 1. University of Tromsø                         M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management 2002


as the current capacity exceeds, by a wide margin, the capacity that would be required to harvest
a sustained yield. In addition to the over capacity is the problem of selectivity in the gear types.
Such over capacity and non-selectivity in fishing gear makes control of catch and efforts difficult
and threatens the fishery.

Mai, Tai Van
Nationality: Vietnam
Title of thesis:
        Fisheries Co-Management in Vietnam: A Case Study of the Tam Giang
        Lagoons of Thua Thien Hue Province (Central).

Msigwa Chando, Catherine
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Role of Gender in the Fishing Industry of Tanzania.
Summary:
Women play crucial roles in fisheries, particularly on the post harvest level. Despite this, they are
noticeably absent from the discussion of many development programmes in fisheries. The focus
is mainly on the needs and interests of men, neglecting women. Women are hardly involved in
the planning and decision making or in the implementation and management of the projects.
Therefore this study examined the importance of involving both women and men equally during
planning of the fishery projects. The study tried to relate to different theories on women in
development (WID), gender and development (GAD) and women, environment and alternative
development (WED). A total of 88 persons in connection with Mbegani Fisheries Development
Centre (Mbegani FDC), Mafia Island Marine Park (MIMP) and with people in villages where
these institutions have been involved: Mlingotini and Bagamoyo nearby Mbegani FDC and Juani
and Jibondo at Mafia. The findings show that the involvement of women and men in the planning
of the projects varied. At Mbegani FDC a female orientation has been weak and women’s
participation in planning have been lacking from the very beginning and until to day. The same
can be said about the projects in Bagamoyo and Mlingotini although the projects were aimed at
women and sometimes both at men and women. However, women have participated in the
implementation processes. In the projects related to MIMP, women have been integrated in the
planning process from the very beginning and at all levels as a result of planned actions. Women
are members in steering committees and leaders of their groups. There is a special gender officer
in the MIMP structure as well as in the villages. Women have also been well trained. In this way
their income generating projects are successful and reflect the sustainability of the resources.
Some of the women have also involved themselves in other kind of development activities. I
have therefore concluded that awareness of women’s needs and participation of women and men
in the planning process seem crucial for the success of the fisheries projects.




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Chapter 1. University of Tromsø                         M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management 2002


Sequeira, Karen S. Marie
Nationality: Nicaragua
Title of thesis:
        Development of Artisanal Fisheries in the Community of Rama Cay,
        Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua.
Summary:
Development is a term that evokes powerful images. It speaks to the collective aspiration of the
people for a life of meaning and dignity. It inspire the hope to achieve what develop countries
have achieved and what the poor may one day obtain. This thesis is the first study of Rama
indigenous people focussing and its fishing activity in the community of Rama Cay. It examines
the fundamental of the incongruities that has kept back the development of the fishing sector in
Rama Cay. The problems that have concurred on the appropriate use of the resource such as
transportation, processing methods and marketing. This study combines secondary sources with
fieldwork notes based on interviews and discussions with members in and out of the community
that are involved with the fishery. It provides information on type of fishing gears and boats in
numbers and percentages. Women participation and how the cooperative system and problems
related with processing activities can be improved. It is observe that trade off at community level
can be relatively different in comparison of the national and regional level. This trade off happen
because of pursuing multiples objective that cannot be fulfilled at full extent. Therefore,
Nicaragua has participated in many fisheries development project that evidently show that fish
product from artisan fishers can be sell to local market and the industrial production for export
markets. Co-management is one of the alternatives that Nicaragua itself should develop to the
national extent and also regional, so that a small community such as Rama Cay can also be
include in the management system.


Msigwa Chando, Catherine
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Role of Gender in the Fishing Industry of Tanzania
Summary:
Women play crucial roles in fisheries, particularly on the post harvest level. Despite this, they are
noticeably absent from the discussion of many development programmes in fisheries. The focus
is mainly on the needs and interests of men, neglecting women. Women are hardly involved in
the planning and decision making or in the implementation and management of the projects.
Therefore this study examined the importance of involving both women and men equally during
planning of the fishery projects. The study tried to relate to different theories on women in
development(WID), gender and development (GAD) and women, environment and alternative
development (WED). A total of 88 persons in connection with Mbegani Fisheries Development
Centre (Mbegani FDC), Mafia Island Marine Park (MIMP) and with people in villages where
these institutions have been involved: Mlingotini and Bagamoyo nearby Mbegani FDC and Juani
and Jibondo at Mafia. The findings show that the involvement of women and men in the planning
of the projects varied. At Mbegani FDC a female orientation has been weak and women’s
participation in planning have been lacking from the very beginning and until to day. The same
can be said about the projects in Bagamoyo and Mlingotini although the projects were aimed at
women and sometimes both at men and women. However, women have participated in the



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Chapter 1. University of Tromsø                       M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management 2002


implementation processes. In the projects related to MIMP, women have been integrated in the
planning process from the very beginning and at all levels as a result of planned actions. Women
are members in steering committees and leaders of their groups. There is a special gender officer
in the MIMP structure as well as in the villages. Women have also been well trained. In this way
their income generating projects are successful and reflect the sustainability of the resources.
Some of the women have also involved themselves in other kind of development activities. I
have therefore concluded that awareness of women’s needs and participation of women and men
in the planning process seem crucial for the success of the fisheries projects.




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Chapter 1. University of Tromsø                          M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management 2001




                            M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management

                                          Master thesis 2001
Japhnet Mulyila, Esther
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
        Socio-Economic Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: The Case of Mafia Island Marine
        Park in Tanzania.
Summary:
Though biological importance of marine protected areas has repeatedly been studied, less is
known on how this management approach relates with socio-economic aspects of coastal
communities that depend on utilisation of resources. Through survey and participant observation,
this study has investigated socio-economic impacts of Mafia Island Marine Park to show how it
changes resource use behaviour, culture and related socio-economic issues. The study survey
requested the information sources about community member's dependency on resources, their
attitudes and perceptions towards the marine park and conservation issues. Immediate and long-
term effects of the marine park vary with villages and both have benefits and consequences to
communities. Marine Park is acknowledged for stopping dynamite fishing and there is an
increasing trend of fish landings following the establishment of Marine Park after continuous
drastic decrease for several years. Though there is significant support of community members to
the marine park, concerns have been raised about alternative sources of their livelihood.
Communities have high dependency on marine resources. Jibondo village has highest
dependence on resources, strongest supporters of conservation but verified difficulties in
complying with regulations. To a great extent Mafia Island Marine Park has managed to
influence resource use behaviour of Mafia coastal communities. Community education,
community involvement and alternative income generation activities are important for success of
multiple use marine protected areas. Institutional capacity building is a key to achievements of
desired goals.

Kabege, Juliet
Nationality: Uganda
Title of thesis:
        Industrial fish processing and the sustainability of Uganda's Nile Perch Fishery.
Summary:
Within a supply chain of reducing quantities of fish available, it is important to consider ways in
which value might be added to the output entering into the processes of exchange. Most often,
this takes the form of industrialisation, modernisation and increased capital investment in the
fishery. Industrialisation of the Nile perch fishery on Lake Victoria following the development
and expansion of export markets increased the profitability and returns from the fishery. The
impact of these developments on the entire fishery system however not only depends on the
economic benefits or returns on resource use but also on the other systems of the fishery. In this
study, the relative sustainability of this fishery pre- and post industrialisation is assessed based on
the `precautionary approach' principle.




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Chapter 1. University of Tromsø                        M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management 2001


Simple, rapid, cost-effective and multi-disciplinary methodologies were adopted given the low
availability, low reliability and disperse nature of data collected from focus-group interviews and
secondary data to show significant trends in the fishery. A defined set of attributes adopted from
the RAPFISH model and FAO Code of Conduct were scored to allow comparisons within and
between economic, socio cultural, technological and ecological systems of the fishery pre and
post industrialisation. Results show a transformation of the fishery from an underexploited,
underdeveloped and unsustainable system towards over exploitation, increased distortion and
diminishing sustainability. The socio-economic system was disrupted the most with the evolution
of an export-oriented processing sector affecting local resource users, the resource (biodiversity),
technology development and adoption, and the socio-economic systems. It shows a compromise
of issues like distribution of benefits, stock conservation, food security, employment and well
being of the communities that depend on the fishery over national measures to increase the most
needed foreign exchange from the export of Nile perch products to international markets.

Kaigarula Lutakumwa, Leonida
Nationality: Tanzania
Title of thesis:
         Barriers to Aquaculture Development: With Special Reference to Pond Culture.
Summary:
Tanzanian government had been trying her best to promote aquaculture through pond culture
especially to small scale fish farmers. With all efforts done, production from ponds had not been
encouraging. This study was carried out to identify problems and the ways at which social,
economic, technical and environmental problem., undermine efforts of aquaculture development
in four regions. These regions cover a wide range of agroclimate, South (Songea), Central
(Morogoro), Coast (Pwani) Region in coastal area and Northwest (Mwanza). Data collection was
done in mid June through mid August 2000. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained from
fish farmers, fisheries offices and reports from previous works. Information about Research
centre's, Universities and Training institutions was obtained from visits and libraries search. A
total of 18 farmers in Songea, IO fish farmers in Morogoro, 3 fish farmers in Coast (Pwani), 2
fish farmers in Mwanza including new entrants, Fisheries institutions were visited. A total of 7
fisheries officers/extension officers in corresponding areas, aquaculturists and non farmers were
interviewed as well. Economic data used were obtained from farmers, previous work and from
literature available. The collected data were cross checked, analysed and tabulated to draw
conclusive remarks. Results shows that the introduction of fish farming in Mwanza by
institutions was to restock Lake Victoria though few residents had ponds that diminished due to
lack of deliberate extension work toward aquaculture. It was learned that small scale fish farmers
are not efficiently utilising inputs in their ponds and they stock poor quality Tilapia fingerlings.
Lacks of full technical know how, capital, unfavourable conditions, credits, source of reliable
quality fingerlings and feed, nPc .ssary training and long term guidance through extension work
constrained the pond culture practices and are barrier to new entrants. Findings show that higher
productions can be attained through integrating aquaculture with other farm activities. It was
learned that Fisheries Training Institutes and Universities provide training in aquaculture subjects
that are biased on theoretical and theory oriented practical.
Government budget allocation to fisheries development activities is normally insufficient making
difficult to implement its policies. There is lack of collaboration, co ordination and information
exchange between national and regional aquaculture institutions and agencies that facilitate a



                                                120
Chapter 1. University of Tromsø                       M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management 2001


better development. The media and popular literature are not utilised to publicise success stories
and achievements in every field which encourage constructive imitation to quicken successful
initiatives.
To sum up, if pond culture as a provider of an affordable source of much needed high quality
animal protein, it is essential that government encourage the further development of pond culture
systems targeted toward production of lower value herbivorous and/or omnivorous finfish
species that feed low in the aquatic food chain with resources that are available Needless to say,
extension services should be given high priorities as much of developments are required to be
skewed to the needy masses. Further, there must be a tradition of collaboration, co ordination and
information exchange aquaculture institutions as well as involve fish farmers knowledge in
development plans.

Samaraweera, Visakha
Nationality: Sri Lanka
Title of thesis:
        Strategy for community based management through co-management for sustainable
        fisheries. A case study in Sri Lanka.




                                               121
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002




 Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme
                                  1998-2002

In this section of the bibliography, all theses submitted in the period 1998 – 2002 under the
NORAD Fellowship Programme, are listed in alphabetical order by name of author. The titles of
theses are added. In total, 364 students submittet a master`s thesis in this time period. For
students who have published their thesis in full text on the internet, a reference to their unique
URL is also included.




Acharya, Hari Raj
      Decentralization in Developing Countries: Acase Study onDecentralization in Nepal
Abdulkader, Amina Nurhussien:
      Assessing Maternal Mortality in Afabet Sub-District, Northern Red Sea Zone, Eritrea
Abu-Shaban, Bayan
      The effects of wastewater on the ecological integrity of Wadi Gaza Wetland, Gaza Strip,
      Palestine. An ecological and socio-economical study
Abedin, Mobinul:
      Seismic Interpretation of the Base Cretaceous Unconformity in the Northern Sea
Abera, Dawit Mamo:
      A study of Aeromagnetic, Gravity and Seismic Data from the Mid-Norwegian Continental
      Shelf
Abu-Shaban, Bayan
      The effects of wastewater on the ecological integrity of Wadi Gaza Wetland, Gaza Strip,
      Palestine. An ecological and socio-economical study
Adhikari, Bishnu:
      Pore geometry Analysis from Thin Sections of Reservoir Rocks and their Correlation with
      some of the more relevant Well Log
Adya, Sushma:
      Determinants and Measurement of Crop Diversification: A Study in Wondo Genet,
      Southern Ethiopia
Afework, Yohannes:
      Improvement of Traveltime Approximation
Agizew, Tefera Belachew:
      Client Satisfaction, Primary Health Care & Utilization of Services in Sidama District,
      Southern Ethiopia 2000
Ahmed, Anwar:
      Trap Efficiency and Deposition Pattern Study of Cheves Hydropower Project, Peru



                                                   122
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Ahmed, Nasim
       Privatization of state owned enterprises (SOE's) in Bangladesh: A
       study on policy implementation
Ahmed, Newaz Khalis:
       Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Part of Mid-Norwegian continental shelf
Ahmed, Quamrun Naher:
       How Gender Awareness is created among Women through Credit-based Income
       Generating Programme: A Case Study of the Role of NGOs in three Villages
Akanda, Md. Zakir Hossain:
       Problems and Prospects of Smallholder Dairying. A Case Study in Manikganj District,
       Bangladesh
Alamgir, Md.:
       Sexual Harassment on Campus. A Case Study: University of Dhaka
Ali, Ehtesham:
       Simulation of Water and Gas Tracer Flow in the Snorre Field
Ali, Muna Obied:
       The Prevalence of Tuberculosis with Drug-resistant Strains of Mycobacterium
       Tuberculosis in Khartoum, Gazira and Camps for Displaced People, Sudan
Alula, Habtegiorgis Kidane:
       Subsidence, thermal and Maturity Modelling on the Northern North Sea
Amamure, Juliet:
       Utilisation and Sustainable Management of Wetland Resources in Lemwa and Kawi
       Catchment Areas in Pallisa District, Uganda
Ambaye, Tilaye Gete:
       The Implementation of Problem Solving Approach in Ethiopia: A Case Study in Four
       Primary Schools around Bahir Dar Area
Anh, Le Thu:
       The Importance of Access to Land and Land Location for Income Generation. A Case
       Study at Masindi District in Western Uganda
Anwar, Anisa Nayeema
       From Conceptual to Birth: Meaning and Management of a Fundamental
       Process in Individual and Social Life
Aqil, Sanaa:
       Estimation of Viscosity from NMR
Araya, Simret Ghebremariam:
       Water Resources for Irrigation in Upper Gash, Eritrea
Aryal, Baikuntha:
       Are Trees for the Poor? A Study from Budongo Forest, Uganda
Aryal Dahal, Usha:
       Access to Forest and Sustainability of Livelihoods. A Case Study of Bara District, Nepal
Aryal, Jeetendra Prakash:
       Unequal Distribution of Land and Its Impact on Land Productivity and Land Use
       Intensity: The Case of the Western Development Region of Nepal
Aryal, Pravin Raj:
       CFD Modelling of Flow Pattern in the Sand Traps of Khimti Hydropower Plant, Nepal




                                                   123
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Asefa Teklehaimanot, Dereje:
       The Socio-Economic Effects and Environmental Impacts of Area Enclosures in Hauzien
       Wereda, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Asfaw, Fenta Gugsa:
       Intensification and Responses of Smallholder Farmers to Productivity Decline in North-
       eastern Ethiopian Highland. A Case Study from Tehulederie District
Assefa, Aliyu Faris:
       Decentralisation and Local Development in Ethiopia: The Case of Assosa District
Asiimwe, Sarah
       Use of health information for operational and strategic decision-making by divisional
       level managers of Kampala City Council Health Department in Uganda
Barthakur, Devajyoti:
       An Evaluation of TBM Performance in the highly jointed Anisotropic Rocks of the
       Himalayas
Baryathua, Fredica Baguma:
       Ugandan Women in Public Higher Educational Leadership: Trends and Schools
Bateganya, Fred Henry:
       Masese Fishermen and Traders - Competition, Cooperation and Exploration in Lake
       Victoria Fisheries
Belayneh, Mesfin:
       Gas Hydrate Finite Difference Modeling ODP Leg 146 Site 892
Belete, Kiflom:
       Pre-feasibility Study of Bega River Basin for Hydropower Development in Ethiopia
Berhe, Biniam Constantinos
       Developing methodology to assess gully processes using GIS in a dryland, Khanasser
       Valley, Syria
Beyene, Binyam:
       Combined Gravity, Magnetic and Seismic Data Interpretation from the Northeastern
       Greenland Shelf
Bhatt, Alpana:
       Prediction of Porosity, Permeability and Organic Contents from Well Logs using a
       Neural Network Approach
Bhattarai, Hari Prasad:
       Identities in the Making: Cultural Pluralism and the Politics of Imagined Communities in
       the Lowlands of Nepal
Bhattarai, Kiran Kumari:
       Gender Dynamics in Crop Production in the Hills of Nepal. Feminisation of Agriculture?
Bhuiyan, Md. Anwar Hossein:
       Sea Bed Logging (SBL), a Technique for mapping of Subsurface Resistive Structures
Bhushan, Yatindra:
       Simulation of Gas Injection in Fractured and Hetrogeneous Reservoirs
Bishaija, Kahitwa M.:
       Mhangasi River Hydropower Potential Study, Ruhuhu Basin, Tanzania
Bishwakarma, Meg Bahadur:
       Sediment Exclusion Optimisation Study, Jhimruk Hydropower Plant, Nepal




                                                   124
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Booi, Kwanele:
       Characterization and Comparison of Diets of Anchovy and Sardine Pre-recruits Shoals in
       the Southern Benguela Ecosystem
Burmeister, Liza-Mare:
       Survey based Assessment of the Stock Identity of Merluccius paradoxus (Franca) in the
       Benguela
Busagwa, Prossy:
       How sweet is Sugar? The Impact of Kinyara Sugar Outgrowers Scheme on the Welfare of
       Local Households
Bux, Mohammad:
       Management Issues in Basic Education in Thardarkar (disserted area) in Sindh, Pakistan
Chakurira, Mugove Kwashirai:
       The Impact of Mwenezi Ward 8 Integrated Development Programme on Poverty
       Alleviation and Household Entitlements, Zimbabwe
Chamorro Ibarra, Alexandra:
       Satisfaction with Dental Care in Nicaragua: A Study among Non-Civil Workers at the
       Mauricio Abdalah Dental Clinic in Managua, Nicaragua
Chanda, Ben:
       Effects of Weir Fishing on Commercial Fish Stocks of the Bangweulu Swamp Fisheries,
       Luapula, Northern Zambia
Chandra, Pradeep Gajurel:
       Planning and Design of Headworks for Dry Season Diversion of Yangri and Larke Rivers
       to Melamchi River in Nepal
Chaudhry, Ehsin Sadiq:
       Gomal Zam Multipurpose Project for Flood Control, Irrigation and Hydropower,
       N.W.F.P. Pakistan
Chibinga, Caroly E.:
       "They Make the Policies? We Just Follow"- The Political Ecology of Poverty: Maternal
       Child Welfare, Health and Nutritional Aspects
Chifungwe Chibinga, Oswin:
       Socio-economic and Nutritional Aspects of Poultry (Broiler) Rearing Among the Small-
       Scale Farmers in Monze, Zambia
Chitrakar, Pushpa:
       Khimti I Hydropower Project. Tunnel Support Systems Anticipation and Reality
Choeden, Yamyang:
       Privatisation of Upper Secondary Schools in Bhutan
Choudhury, Shah Farid:
       Nuclear Magnetic Resonnance (NMR) Echo Amplitude Summation used as a
       Permeability Indicator
Chowdhury, Md. Anwar:
       The Neutron Porosity Tool and Its Ability to predict Porosity in Gullfaks Wells 34/10-14
       and 34/10-c-26
Ciremel, Joseph Mathew:
       Effects of a Low Lipid Experimental Feed on the Growth, Survival and Body Composition
       of First Feeding Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Alevin




                                                   125
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Daneji, Umar Ibrahim:
       Investingating the Effect of Gravity in Reservoir Fluid Flow
Daniel, Tilahun:
       A Study of the Engineeering Geological Analysis of Gilgel Gibe Hydropower Project,
       Ethiopia
Dealie, Frances Felicitee:
       Effects of Temperature and Feeding Conditions on the Age of 1st Check & 1st Visible
       Increment Formation, Somatic & Otolith Growth of NSS Herring Larvae
de Barbentane, Sigrid:
       Seeds, Storms and Strategies: A Study on Decision-making Processes in Seed Supplies
       and Seed Distribution Interventions in Emergency Situation. Case of Honduras in the
       Aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch
Debela, Adane Tuffa:
       Impact of Liquidity and Credit Constraints on Soil Conservation Investments and Farm
       Productivity: The Case of Western Development Region of Nepal
Dejene Asnake, Sileshi:
       Socio-Economic and Political Aspects of Environmental Degradation: Stakeholder
       Analysis. A Case Study from Entoto Area, Ethiopia
Dhakal, Bhuban Prasad:
       Engineering Geological Analysis of Nyadi Hydropower Project, Nepal
Dhakal, Resham Raj:
       Khimti Dhalkebar 132 kV Transmission Line, Nepal. A Study of Important Parameters
Dhakal, Sanjaya:
       Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation to Mothers in the Postpartum Period and their
       Infants at Routine Immunisation Contacts during Early Infancy. On Vitamine A Status at
       6 and 9 Months of Age: A Secondary Analysis of Data obtained in a Multi-centre Study
Dhoubhadel, Sunil Prasad:
       Leasehold Forestry and Livelihoods (Cases from the Mid-Hills of Nepal)
El-Kord, Eyad:
       Effect of Sulfur, Seleno-Substituted Fatty Acids on Superoxide Radical Generation in
       Polymorphonuclear Cells
Fundi, Saida Seleman
       Community Participation and its Impact on School Performance
Gabaake, Kebabonye Priscillah
       Exploring the Namibian refugees' experience with camp life: The case of Dukwi Camp,
       Botswana
Gajurel, Chandra, Pradeep
       Planning and design of headworks for dry season diversion of Yangri and Larke rivers to
       Melamchi river in Nepal.
Gautam, Bharat Raj:
       Reforming the Public Sector: A Study of Administrative Reforms in Nepal
Gebrehiwot, Awet Kidane:
       Crafting Institutions for Water Management and Willingness to pay for Water Services in
       Northern Namibia




                                                   126
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Gebreselassie, Kidist:
       The Impact of Price and Trade Policy Reforms on Land Use Patterns and Sustainability
       Implications in the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia
Gedebu, Rahel:
       Sustainability of Minimum Tillage Practice in Ethiopia: Agronomic and Socio-economic
       Implication
Ghimire, Jay Raj:
       Analysis of Mercury Porosimetry Data and BSE Images of Danish Outcrop Chalk Sample
Goodman, Mark:
       Aspects of the Life History of the South African Hottentot, Pachymetopon blochii (Val.)
Gossoma, Roma Belay:
       Surgical Wound Infection and Bacterial Resistance in Sidama, South Ethiopia
Gunathilake, Shantha:
       Review of Tender Design for Kukule Ganga Hydropower Project and Modelling of the
       Underground Powerhouse
Gurung, Naba Raj:
       Forest Degradation/Regeneration in the Hills of Nepal. A Study at Watershed Level
Gurung, Poonam:
       Bungamati - The Life World of a Newar Community explored through the Natural and
       Social Life of Water
Gurung, Shova:
       Local Ecological Knowledge about Management of Tree Fodder Resources in the
       Western Mid-hills of Nepal
Ha, Nguyen Thi:
       Land Use Changes and Poverty Reduction following Land Allocation in Northern
       Mountainous Area of Vietnam
Haile-Giorgis, Tesfaye:
       Trap Efficiency and Deposition Pattern Study for Guder Hydropower Project in Ethiopia
       using the Numerical Modelling
Hailu Feyisa, Taye:
       Cultivation of Chat and its Impacts on the Farming System, Household Economy and
       Food Availability. A Case Study in Malkaa Balloo and Ifa Gamachu PAs
Hamududu, Byman H.:
       Hydrological Studies for Hydropower Development in Kafue River, Zambia
Hari, Paudel:
       The Implementation of Privatization Policy in Nepal: Is Privatization a Viable Policy
       Option?
Herrera Scott, Edgard:
       Parrots Trade in Nicaragua, from the Forest to Managua. Assessment of the
       Geographical Origin, Capture Methods and Financial Benefits of the Activity
Hoang, Hai Minh:
       A Chalk Field Compositional Simulation Study with Single/Dual Pososity Options
Hongslo, Eirin:
       Landscapes and Land Reform Narratives by Commercial Farmers in Namibia




                                                   127
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Hoque, Md. Hedayatul
       Resistance of Stiffened Plates and Pressurised Process Equipment Exposed to Blast and
       Fire
Hoque, Md. Rownshonul:
       Productivity Losses due to Condensate Accumulation near the Wellbores in Kailastilla
       Gas Field, Bangladesh
Hoque, Mohammad Zahurul:
       Micro-credit and Women's Empowerment: A Study on Grameen Bank in Rural
       Bangladesh
Hordofa, Getachew Ayana:
       Evaluation of Conventional and Alternative Tomato Diseases and Insect Pest
       Management Strategies as an Approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM). A Case
       Study in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Hossain, Md. Amran:
       The Nomination Procedures of Candidates Selection for the Jatiya Sangsad (National
       Parliament) Election: A Comparative Study of Two Major Political Parties (AL and BNP)
       in Bangladesh
Hossain, Tania
       "Blood of Pollution, Body of Fear" A Study of Beliefs and Rituals
       connected with Menstruation, Gestation and Parturition among the Mal Bedey
Huang, Jian Sheng:
       Tradition and Transformation. A Research into the Change of Inter-Personal Relation in
       Dujia
Huy Tai, Nguyen:
       Characteristics, Distribution and Productive Status of the Local Mango Varieties in the
       Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Ibna-Hamid, Md. Latif:
       Application of Two-phase Capillary Pressure to Gravity Stable Tertiary Gas Injection
       having Three-phase Flow
Iilende, Titus Ndakaola:
       The Dynamics of the Pelagic Component of the Hake Stocks off the Coast of Namibia
Ishengoma, Edward:
       Wettability Characteristics on Berea Sandstone and Chalk Carbonate Reservoir Rocks
       and their Role on Oil Production
Islam Khan, Md. Rafiqul:
       Expansion of Kaptail Hydroelectric Project in Bangladesh
Isolo, Mkwaya Paul:
       Urban Sprawl and the Challenges of Public Transport Services Delivery/Provision in
       Kampala City - Uganda
Itshekeng, Edwin Monclaro:
       The Role of Family Background on HIV/AIDS Awareness and Condom Use among
       Secondary School Students in Selibe-Phikwe (Botswana)
James, Khalid Reuben:
       Hydrogeology of Pre-cambrian Rocks in the Kihansi Area of the East-Africa Rift Valley
       Systems, and Associated Leakage Problems




                                                   128
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Japhnet Mulyila, Esther:
        Socio-Economic Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: The Case of Mafia Island Marine
        Park in Tanzania
Jayawerdana, Amitha Kumari:
        Constraints to Crop Diversification and Intensification in Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
Jayawickrama, Idam Gedara Premasiri:
        Willingness to pay for Better Air Quality and Energy Choice for Electricity Generation in
        Sri Lanka
Jayawickreme, Dushmantha:
        Fault Sealing Processes applied to Basin
Jemal Mohammed, Fedlu
        Hydrological Studies for Hydropower Development in Ome-Gibe Basin on Gojeb River
        Hydropower Project in Ethiopia
Jilleh, Claire Issac:
        The Interaction between Health Service Providers and People with Diabetes in Palestine
Jjunju, Emmanuel:
        Karuma Falls Hydropower Project. Preliminary Assessment of Tunnel Design and
        Numerical Modelling of Surge and Tailrace Tunnel Options
Joshi, Sunil Kumar
        Analysis of possible occupational related lung cancer among the
        patients attending Bhaktapur Cancer Centre, Bhaktapur, Nepal. A pilot study
Juma, Ali Khamis:
        Food Self-Sufficiency and Food Security. A Case Study of Agricultural Production for
        Food Security in Wollaita, Southern Ethiopia
Kabege, Juliet:
        Industrial Fish Processing and the Sustainability of Uganda's Nile Perch Fishery
Kafumu, George Revocatus:
        Charcoal Consumption, Its Socio-economic and Environmental Impacts: A Case Study
        from Dar es Salaam - Tanzania
Kagya, Silvery:
        Pre-feasibility Study Mandera Hydropower Project, Pangani River Basin, Tanzania
Kaigarula Lutakumwa, Leonida:
        Barriers to Aquaculture Development: With Special Reference to Pond Culture
Kajubi, Elijah:
        Non-formal Environmental Education: A Strategy for Promotion of Agroforestry for
        Improved Household Livelihood. A Case of the Swedish (Vi) Agroforestry Project in
        Masaka District, Uganda
Kakuru, Doris Muhwezi:
        Too Many Tasks. Managing a Family and coping with Water Requirements among a
        Bairy Community
Kallayil, Jawhar:
        Behaviour of Cod (Gadus morhua L.) towards Baited Gill Nets
Kapasa, Cyprian Kateule:
        Selective Fishing of Alestes macrophthalmus using Gill Nets of Small Mesh Sizes of Fish
        Aggregation (FADs) in the Mweru-Luapulu Fishery,Zambia




                                                   129
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Karadzandima, Mary Mazvita:
       The Survival of Socio-cultural Beliefs and Local Knowledge about Management of
       Natural Resources in an Aids-affected Community in Zimbabwe
Karim, Anwarul:
       Recent Structural Reorganization of Union Parishads (Council) in Bangladesh and Scope
       for Women's Participation - A Study of seven Union Parishads
Karim, Bazlul:
       Simulation of Water Tracer Flow in a Section of the Gullfaks Field
Karim, Kazi Abu Taher Ataul:
       Co-management as a Collaborative Planning Tool for Sustainable Fisheries: A Case
       Study of Bangladesh
Karim, Ziaul:
       Analysis of the Present Production and Marketing Systems of Bananas in some Selected
       Areas of Mymensingh and Bogra Districts of Bangladesh
Karki Adhikary, Radha:
       Contribution of Agroforestry to Farmhousehold Income and Community Forestry
       Management
Karmacharya, Shailesh Kumar:
       The Filling History of the Quaternary Kathmandu Lake
Kassana, Leonard:
       Analysis of Water Leakages at Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project, Tanzania
Kattel, Shambhu Prasad:
       Development and Its Victims. From Pottery Makers to Porters: The Changing Life-World
       of the Kumals of the Arun Valley, Eastern Nepal
Katule, Jasson J.O.:
       Pre-Feasibility Study of Kiwira Hydropower Project in Tanzania
Kayastha, Birendra Prasad:
       Grain Crushing during Compaction of Sand and Sandstone
Kebalepile, Tapiwa Mavis:
       An Evaluation of the Quality of the Care Midwives provide during the Postpartum Period
       in Northern Botswana
Kebede, Telila Denboba:
       Pre-feasibility Planning for Hydropower Potential of Upper Baro-Akobo River Basin,
       Ethiopia
Kebede, Tewodros Aragie:
       Farm Household Technical Efficiency: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
       Thesis available in full text at
        http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2001/NLH/thesis01.pdf

Kelaeng, Oukame Moses
      Safety performance in building construction industry. The effect
      of feedback using scaffolds as an example
Kenate, Asaminew Melese:
      Wild Life and People: The Human Dimension of Fragmention and Wild Life Loss, with
      Assessment of Potential for Restoration




                                                   130
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Khadka, Manohara:
       Are the Women and Poor better off? A Study on their Access to Resources and
       Participation in Decision-making in Community Forestry Management in Nepal
Khan, Mohammad Ali:
       Health and Living Conditions of Child Labourers: A Study in Dhaka City in Bangladesh
Khanyile, Jimmy Phumlani:
       Gear Selectivity of West Coast Rock Lobster (Jasus lalandii) in Aquarium and in Field
Kharal, Deepak Kumar:
       Diversity and Dynamics of Tree Species and Its Sustainability in Rural Farmland. A Case
       Study in Chitwan District, Central Terai of Nepal
Khoa, Nguyen Tien:
       Pre-feasibility Study of the Upper Kotum Hydropower Project in Vietnam
Kigadye, Peter Elias:
       Hydropower Projects in Pangani River, Tanzania
Kihame, Mbaraka B.S.:
       Pre-feasibility Study of Lower Kikuletwa Hydropower Project in Tanzania
Kinabo, Aberta Ndesario:
       Privatisation Policies and their Effect on the Gender Gap in the Tanzanian Labour
       Market
Kiyingi, Isaac Robert:
       Valuation and Assessment of the Ecological Impacts of Ecotourism in Mabira Forest
       Reserve, Uganda
Kobugabe, Gertrude Kahuzo:
       Assessment of Market Liberalization. Effects on the Welfare of Smallholder Farmers in
       Southern Ethiopia (Wondo Genet)
Kottagoda Gedara, Chandra Seneviratne:
       Impact of Land Encroachment on Upper Watersheds in Sri Lanka (A Case Study of Uma
       Oya Watershed)
Kullaya, Ruphina Michael:
       A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Monitoring, Control and Surveillance-system of Tanzania's
       Fishing Industry
Kwarteng, Alex:
       Water Coning in Vertical and Horizontal Wells
Kyomuhendo, Peter
       A bioeconomic model for Uganda’s Lake Victoria Nile Perch Fishery
Laksiri, Kamal:
       Operation Simulation for Multi-Reservoir Systems. Hydropower and Irrigation in
       Mahaweli River, Sri Lanka
Lambileki, Peter H.:
       Decision Making Process on Rock Securing Alternatives under Hydropower Tunnelling
       Contract
Lemma, Be-Ede:
       International Prostate Symptom Score and Uroflowmetry for Ethiopean Patients with
       Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Urethral Stricture
Liu, Xinjian:
       Stability Analysis of the Slopes at Intake Tower, Baise Multipurpose Dam Project, China



                                                   131
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Louw, Granville Gary
      Distribution and feeding patterns of mixed-species pelagic shoals
Madi, Akram K.M.
      Ultimate Strength Analysis of FPSO Hull Girder
Maganga, Gerald Mahinda:
      The Distribution and Depositional Environments for the "Silkesand" Gullfaks field
Maguza-Tembo, Francis:
      Bio-economics of Common Resource over Exploitation: Case of Lake Malombe Chambo
      (Oreochromis sp. Cichlidae) Fishery in Malawi
Maharaj, Genevieve:
      Fishing Effort and Fishing Capacity of the Chokka Squid (Loligo vulgaris reynaudii) Jig
      Fishery of South Africa
Mahmood Hossain, Sheikh:
      Human Vulnerability due to Natural Disasters in South Asia: A GIS Aided
      Characterization of Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh
Mai Van, Tai:
      Fisheries Co-Management in Vietnam: A Case Study of Fisheries Management in the
      Tam Giang Lagoon, Thura Thien-Hue Province, Central Vietnam
Makundi, Emmanuel:
      Community Social Valuation. Disability and Disease in two Selected Communities. A
      Study in Temeke and Moshi Districts, Tanzania
Manikrama, Ajitha:
      Factors affecting the Adoption of IPM by Farmers in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
Mankinga, Jacob Robert Mushi:
      Targeting the Food Insecure Households in Rural Areas. A Case Study in Hai District,
      Northern Tanzania
Mapinduzi, Arnold:
      Indigenous Knowledge of the Maasai Pastoralists for Biodiversity Conservation in Mt.
      Komoloniki (Monduli) Ecosystems, Northern Tanzania
Mariano, Esmeralda
      Childlessness: Whom to blame and how to cope - Symbolic
      representations and healing practices among the Shangana of Southern
      Mozambique
Mariki, Stephen Wingiasa:
      Assessment of Stakeholders Participation in Forest Conservation Programmes: A Case of
      Kilimanjaro Catchment Forest Management Project - Tanzania
Maskey, Yubaraj:
      Fund of Community Forest: Consent and Satisfaction. A Case Study of Aakase and
      Kattikepakha CFUGs of Ramechhap District, Nepal
Matimbo, Fulgence John:
      The Growth of Private Universities and Private University Colleges in Tanzania
Mawejje, Joseph:
      Permeability Estimation in the Gullfaks Field based on Investigations from Well 34/10-C-
      26 (COOK 2 Formation)




                                                   132
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Mbangwa, Obed Festo:
       The Local Communities and Nile Crocodile in Lake Rukwa Southern Tanzania: Can they
       co-exist?
Mbelwa, Rhoda John:
       Improving Beach Management: an Analysis of the Role of the Government and Local
       Community in Management of Beach Areas in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Mbewe, Mbamwai:
       Impact of Kapenta (Limothrissa miodon) Introduction on the Fish Community in Lake
       Itezhi-tezhi, Zambia
Mbogha, Ngelese Johnson:
       Resource Use and Access Conflicts. The Case of Rwenzori Mountain National Park and
       the Surrounding Communities, Western Uganda
Mbuta, Moses Pascan:
       Dam Safety and Emergency Planning and Training, Kafue River in Zambia
Meela, Josephine Theobald:
       Local Communities Participation in the Management of Coastal Resources through
       Intergrated Coastal Resources Management ('The stakeholders approach'): The Case of
       Menai Bay Conservation Area, Zanzibar
Mekonnen Tache, Tesfaye:
       Gas Well Deliverability - Togi Design Project
Mfaume, Rashid Mataka:
       Constitution Making in Tanzania: Insight of the Past and Present, and Implication to
       Democracy and Constitutionalism
Mgawe, Yahya Ibrahim:
       Trade-offs in Fisheries Development: The Case of Lake Victoria in Tanzania
Mittal, Sandeep:
       A Study of the Tunnel and Underground Power-House for TEESTA-V Hydro-Electric
       Project, Sikkim, India
Thesis available in full text at
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2000/NTNU/thesis01.pdf

Mkwizu, Mary Alphan:
     The Pedagogical Implications of Using English as the Medium of Instruction in Teaching
     Civics in Tanzania Secondary Schools
Mohamed, Juveyria:
     Causes and Consequences of Rural to Urban Migration in Maldives: A Case Study of
     Migration from Seenu Atoll to Male
Mohamed, Manal Hassan Abdel:
     Forced Migration and Socio-cultural Changes in a Nomadic Pastoralist Community: The
     Case of the Hawawir in Northern Sudan
Mohamed, Muawiyath
     Fatigue strength of side longitudinal/transverse frame connection of a ship
Mohammed, Fedlu Jemal:
     Hydrological Study for Hydropower Development in Omo-Gibe Basin on Gojeb River
     Hydropower Project in Ethiopia




                                                   133
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Mombo, Felister Michael:
      Incentives for Local Participation in Community Based Forest Management. A Case of
      Duru Haytemba, Babati District, Tanzania
Mosepele, Belda Quetina David:
      Assessment of the Species Penaeus latisulcatus and Penaeus japonicus in the Shallow-
      water Shrimp Trawl Fishery at the Sofala Bank, Mozambique
Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile:
      Preliminary Length Based Assessment of the Main Exploited Stocks of the Okavango
      Delta Fishery
Motsumi, Sekgowa S.:
      Seasonal Population Density and Distribution of Gallinaceous Birds in Relation to
      Habitat Types and Large Herbivore Impact in N. E. Chobe National Park, Botswana
Moyo, Clyton:
      Integrated Pest Management as a Strategy to Manage Development of Insect Resistance
      to Pesticides in Cotton Production in Zimbabwe. A Case Study for Gokwe District
Mpindi, Harriet Barunga:
      Displacement and Resource Conflicts: A Study of Internally Displaced People (IDPs)-
      Host Community Relations and the Role of NGOs in Kabarole District, Western Uganda
Mpofu, Soneni Eulodia:
      Water Pollution and People's Awareness at Hatcliffe Extension, Harare, Zimbabwe
Mqoqi, Mandisile
      Feeding ecology of Sepia australis along the south coast of South Africa
Msigwa Chando, Catherine:
      Role of Gender in the Fishing Industry of Tanzania
Mtengwa, Kijakazi Rajabu
      Constitutional Problems of Unbalanced Federal Systems: An Insight of Union Problems
      of the United Republic of Tanzania and their Implications to Democracy and the Future
      of the Union
Mugabi, Paul:
      Assessments of Human Impacts and Potential Uses of the Under-utilized Timber Species
      in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda
Muhammad, Rahim Abdur:
      Diabetes in Bangladesh: Prevalence and Determinants
Mujabi Mujuzi, Sarah:
      The Socio-economic Importance and Indigenous Management of Woody Perennilas in
      Mpigi District, Uganda. A Case of Nangabo and Kira Sub-counties
Mukasa, Stephen Mabira:
      Agricultural Intensification Process on Smallholder Farms in Uganda. A case of Mukono
      District
Mukorera, Odreck:
      The Economic Impact of Smallholder Tobacco in Masindi Distric, Uganda
Mulokozi, Charles Justin:
      Opportunities and Constraints of Crocodile Ranching in Tanzania. A Case Study of
      Kaole, Mamba and Tumaini Ranches
Musomba, Kapuulya:
      Hole Cleaning in Horizontal Wells



                                                   134
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Mustafa Al Dasooqi, Ghada:
      Quality Assurance in the Palestinian Higher Education
Mutonhori, Simon:
      Deforestation in Zimbabwe (Case Study from Chikomba district)
Mutumba, Charles:
      Hydrological Study for Small Hydropower Development in Rivers draining Mt.
      Ruwenzori in Western Uganda
Mwakatundu, Irene Simalike:
      Resource Use, Environmental Change and Food Security in Dodoma Rural District,
      Tanzania
Mwalimu, Silwembe:
      Pre-feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development at Mombotuta Gorge, Luapula
      River, Zambia
Mwella-Mshomi, Emma Evelyn
      An analysis on the effect of Tanzanias ‘cost sharing’ in the
      education policy for primary schools (1999 batch)
Mwinsheikne, Halima:
      Science and the Language Barrier
Nakakaawa, Charlotte Anne:
      Carbon Sequestration Potential and Economics of Improved Agroforestry Fallow System
      for restoring Degraded Soils in Kigezi Highland, Kabale District, Uganda
Namaalwa, Justine:
      The Profitability of Deforestation. A Survey of some Private Natural Forest Owners in
      Mpigi District, Uganda
Nangula, Selma:
      Effects of Artificial Water Points on the Communal Rangelands of the Uuvudhiya
      Constituency, North-Central Namibia
Nasambu, Rebecca Acen:
      Obstetric Care at Mbale Regional Hospital, Uganda
Nawaratne, A.L.D.K.:
      Reservoir Sedimentation and Sediment Control in Laxapana Pond, Sri Lanka
Ndenzako, Fabian Nicholaus:
      Male Contraceptive Prevalence and Factors associated with Contraceptive Use among
      Men in Ngara, Tanzania
Nderingo, George M.:
      Hydropower and Irrigation in Pangani river. Conflict or Cooperation?
Negash, Tewodros:
      Farm Size and Productivity in Ethiopian Smallholder Agriculture
Ngoma, Frank:
      Pre-feasibility Study of Hydropower Development for Kabompo River, Zambia
Nguyen, Bat Khac
      Individual growth patterns and mortality of mitre squid (Photololigo chinensis Gray,
      1849) in the Tonkin Gulf of Vietnam based on statolith microstructure




                                                   135
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Nguyen, Thi Dieu Thuy:
       Problems and Potentials in Fish Stock Assessment from Multi-species Fisheries in the
       Barents Sea based on Norwegian Commercial Catch and Effort Data
Nhgiem Thuy, Lan:
       Human Development and Poverty. A Study of a Rural Village and a Suburb Area in the
       Red River Delta, Vietnam
Nhuong, Tran Van:
       Coastal Aquaculture: Searching for Sustainable Management Strategies. Case Studies in
       the North and North Central of Vietnam
Nguyen, Trung Thanh
       Dynamic analysis of very large floating structures
Njamu, Mwape Fred:
       A Fracture Model of the Ekofisk Oilfield, Norway
Nondumiso, Gloria Sikiti
       Preliminary studies in broodstock management and larviculture of the clam (Mactra
       glabrata) for technology transfer to coastal communities in the West Coast of South
       Africa
N'singui, Kumbi Kilongo:
       Feeding of Benguela Hake (Merluccius polli) on the Commercially Exploited Resources
       off Angola
Nyambe, Friday:
       Challenging Urban Design as a Consequence of Crime: A Case of Lusaka City, Zambia
Nyirenda, Moses Amos:
       Ecological and Socio-economic Effects of Petroleum Spills in Fresh Water Systems: A
       Case Study of four Rivers affected by Oil Spills in Zambia
Obedi, Noel Neligwa:
       Gas Leakage in the Overburden Layers of the Gullfaks Field, North Sea
Okot-Okello, Paul:
       The Challenge of introducing Organizational Change: A Case Study of the Public Service
       Reform Program in Uganda
Oli, Bishwa Nath:
       Wood Products Marketing in Nepal: Through Public Agency or Private Agency?
Oyango, Eria Olowo
       "Primordial" and "Instrumental" concerns and their relevance for understanding Ethnic
       Processes: A Case Study of Ethnic Relations among the Banyole of South Eastern
       Uganda
Ortega, Yamileth Raquel Sequeria:
       The Case of Nicaragua in the Light of the Central American Regional Integration and the
       Influences of NAFTA and the European Union
Otim, Peter Omurangi:
       The Iteso and their Uncles - The Political and Social Contexts of Karimojong Dry Season
       Grazing in Teso
Padhi, Abinash:
       Genetic Structuring of the Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) at the Synaptohysin (Syp I)
       Locus along the Finnmark Coast of Northern Norway




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Pant, Laxmi Prasad:
       Linking Crop Diversity with Food Traditions and Food Security in the Hills of Nepal
Panthi, Krishna K.:
       Direct Link between Hetauda and Kathmandu, Nepal. Evaluation of Proposed Road
       Tunnels
Parajuli, Ganga:
       Interventions, Sustainability and Community Forestry. A Case study of Nepal Resources
       Management Project in Melewar Community Forest Users Group, Dhading District,
       Nepal
Pathak, Shubh N.:
       Rock Slope Stability Analysis of Tunnel Project
Patrick, Beatrice Kipobota:
       The Prospect of Women in the Civil Service: Analysis of Recruitment, Qualifications and
       Positions
Paul, Ashis Kumar
       Addressing perinatal and maternal mortality through perinatal audit in Gobabis Hospital
       in Namibia
Pham Ngoc, Khue:
       Characterisation of Lithofacies based on Textural Analysis of Dipmeter Curves
Pham Phuoc, Nhan:
       Effects of Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Application on Citrus Tolerance to Flooding,
       Vietnam
Phuyal, Tulsi Prasad:
       Sediment Monitoring at Khimti I Hydropower Plant, Nepal
Picado Cajina, Maria Victoria:
       Economic Valuation of Natural Forest as Water Retainer Case Study: Nature Reserve
       Datanli-El Diablo, Jinotega, Nicaragua
Pinto, Maria Ascensao:
       Gear Selectivity for By-catch Species in the Shallow Water Shrimp Trawl Fishery at the
       Sofala Bank, Mozambique
Plarre, Heidrun:
       Pilchard Spawning Dates and Recruitment in Relation to Environmental Parameters in
       the Northern Benguela Upwelling System
Puso, Kwele Kegalale:
       The Magnitude of Injury Problem at Botswana Meat Commission Plant in Lobatse
Ratnayake, Mudiyanselage Priyantha:
       An Assesment of Resource Management Competence of Major Irrigation Systems in Sri
       Lanka: A Study of Bureaucracy-Community Interface in the Redibendi-ela-Scheme
Regmi, Uba Raj:
       Status of Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and Livestock Depredation in Royal Sukhlaphanta
       Wildlife Reserve, Nepal
Rupakheti, Kamala Gautam:
       Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry and Annual Cropping System in Inner Tarai,
       Central Nepal




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Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Saha, Tirtha
       “Life is a Gamble” Marriage, Games and Healing among the Mal
       Bedey, a Migration Healer Community of Bangladesh
Samaranayake, Wedage Ranjanee:
       Impact of Landuse Changes on Watersheds in Dry and Intermediate Zones of Sri Lanka.
       Case Study from Kurunegala District
Samaraweera, Visakha:
       Strategy for Community Based Management through Co-management for Sustainable
       Fisheries. A Case Study in Sri Lanka
Sangroula, Durga:
       Physical Hydraulic Model Study of Energy Dissipation at the Himalayan Intake
Sapkota, Tara Nath:
       Accumulation and Removal of Air and Sediments from The Melamchi Diversion Tunnel,
       Nepal
Saran, Vijai:
       Three Dimensional Numerical Analysis of Underground Works at Xiaolangdi
       Multipurpose Project in China
Schneider, Peter Michael:
       Estimation of Size Selectivity of Sorting Grids for Namibian Hake
Segokgo, Morgan Odirile:
       Noise Exposure,Availability and Use of Hearing Protection Devices among Blue-Collar
       Workers in Textile Factories in Botswana
Seneviirathne, Lalitha P.
       Pre-Feasibility Study of the Sudu Ganga Small Hydropower Development Project in Sri
       Lanka.
Sequeira, Karen S. Marie:
       Development of Artisanal Fisheries in the Community of Rama Cay, Atlantic Coast of
       Nicaragua
Sesabo, Jennifer Kasanda:
       Assessment of the Impact of Labour Out Migration on Household Agricultural Production
       and Income Distribution. A Case Study of Mardi Watershed in Western Hills of Nepal
Shafie, Hasan Al:
       The Murucha of Cht's. Matrilateral Cross-cousin Marriage in Ritual and Politico-
       economic Context
Shahi, Sally:
       So Near - Yet, So Far? The Farmers and the State of Agriculture in a Transforming,
       Urbanizing Kathmandu Valley. A Case of Bungamati VCD
Shakya, Prabin:
       Impact of Social Transformation and Women's Autonomy on Fertility
Shainee, Mohamed
       Analysis and design considerations for the mooring line of a surface buoy.
Shapi, Martin Kasanga:
       Local Perspectives on Inland Fisheries in Kavango River, Namibia: A Socio-economic
       and Ecological Approach




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Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Sharma, Shankar:
       Pre-feasibility Study Report for the Nyadi Khola, Nepal
Sheuyange, Asser:
       Landscape Level Vegetation Change in Relation to Fire History in Eastern Ohangwena
       Region, Namibia
Shoko, Takella:
       Assesment of the Contribution of Agriculture, Non-agricultural Activities and Indigenous
       Woodlands towards Household Food Security. A Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in
       Mafunganye Village of Zvishavane District, Zimbabwe
Shrestha, Bharat Man
       Land Use Effect on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gases Flux in a
       Mountainous Watershed of Nepal
Shrestha, Hari Shankar:
       Sedimentation and Sediment Handling at Kulekhani Reservoir, Nepal
Shrestha, Manohar:
       Comparative Study of Capillary Pressure Measurements by Hassler Cell and Porous
       Plate
Siame, Davy:
       The Impact of Participatory Forest Management on Peoples Livelihoods in Kapiri-
       Mposhi District in Central Zambia
Simainga, Mundia:
       Pre-feasibility Study for further Hydropower Development on Lusiwasi River, Zambia
Singano Magili, Gerald:
       Farmers' Seed Systems in Maize (Zea Mays L.). Gendered Aspects of Local Seed Systems
       in Ruangwa and Nachingwea Districts, Southern Tanzania
Singh, Mamta Kumari:
       Land-use Changes and Pollution of the Nakkhu Khola River in Nepal. An Ecological and
       Socio-economic Study
Singh, Shova:
       Study of Tertiary Fault Reactivitation, Mud Diapirism and Gas Migration in 3D Seismic
       Data of the Gullfaks Field
Sinkala, Bornwell:
       Pre-feasibility Study of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydroelectric Project, Kafue River Basin,
       Zambia
Siriwardene, Primali S.F.:
       Pre-feasibility Study of Upper Kothmale Hydropower Project in Sri Lanka
Songore, Newman
       Fish diversity development in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, from 1960 to 2001
Staby, Arved
       Spatial and temporal variation in the biology of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)
       occurring off Namibia
Subedi, Madhusudan Sharma:
       Medical Pluralism in a Culturally Complex Asian Civilization: Searching, Understanding
       of and Cure for Body Afflictions in Newar Town of Kirtipur




                                                   139
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Subedi, Naresh:
       Status and Ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in Nepal with particular
       Emphasis on Royal Bardia National Park, Lowland Nepal
Sulaeman, Mr.:
       Population Genetic Studies of Mangrove Crab (Genus. Scylla) in Makassar Strait and
       Bone Bay, Indonesia
Suliman, Fadi:
       Evaluation of the Phosphorus Retention Capacity of Filtrate-P for the Use in Sub-surface
       Flow Constructed Wetlands, Palestine
Sultan, Md. Abdus:
       Structure and Stratigraph of the Northern Part of Horda platform, (60¤-61¤ N),
       Norwegian North Sea
Suriyaarachchi, Harsha:
       Modelling Flow around River Flood Protection Structures
Tache Mekonnen, Tesfaye
       Deliverability issues in the TOGI project
Tan, Vu Van:
       Pre-feasibility Study of the Raoqvan Hydropower Project, Vietnam
Teklu, Mussie Fesehaye:
       Time Laps Analysis of Gas Leakage
Tepula, Lawrence:
       Pre-feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development of Kalungwishi River, Zambia
Tessema, Zewditu Kebede:
       Husband-Wife Communication about Family Plannning in Assosa Town, Ethiopia
Thai, Chien Ngoc
       Scrimp farming in Central Vietnam - A model for growth estimation of Tiger shrimp
       (Penaeus monodon) as a function of abiotic and biotic factors
Thakur, Sanjeev Kumar:
       Excavation and Stability of Pressure Shafts. A Study based on Khimti Khola Hydropower
       Project, Nepal
Thanju, Rabinda:
       The Melamichi Tunneling Project in Nepal: Anticipated Geological Problems and Its
       Probable Solutions
Thapa Magar, Shyamu:
       Cardamom in the Forest: An Attempt towards maintaining Income Generating Activities
       and Sustainable Forest Management. A Case Study of Chichila Mats
Thapa, Mahendra Kumar:
       A Case Study on challenging Social Integration in changing Social Values in the Life-
       world of Sainbu Village, Lalitpur District, Kathmandu Valley
Thapa, Suraj Bahadur:
       Psychiatric Disability among Bhutanese Refugees living in Nepal and their Perception of
       Mental Illness and Disability
Thinley, Mr.:
       Pre-feasibility Study on Development of Hydropower in the Upper Khimti and Likhu
       Basin, Nepal




                                                   140
Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002


Thu Thi Ha, Tran:
       The Role of New Land Policies in the Reforestation of the Northern Mountainous Region
       of Vietnam
Tiwari, Sanhita:
       Study of Mass Transfer in a Fracture-matrix System due to Injection of Different Gases at
       Core Scale
Towo, Hillary:
       Pre-feasibility Study of the Paccho Tingo Hydroelectric Power Plant in Huaura River
       Basin, Peru
Trinh, Quoc Nghia:
       A Study of the Tunnel & Underground Powerhouse for Rao Quan Multi-Purpose Project,
       Quang Tri, Vietnam
Tsoka, Joyce
       Evaluation of the malaria information system in the Kwazulu-Natal province of South
       Africa
Tubagus, Nasiruddin:
       Experimental Study and Modelling of Permeability Reduction due to Clay Dispersion and
       Migration
Tullu, Wubishet Legesse:
       Crystal Structures in the Lofoten Area interpreted from Aeromagnetic, Gravity and
       Seismic Data
Turyasiima, Milton:
       Analysis of Marketing Constraints to Maize in Masindi District
Ukbaab Baraki, Fikre:
       Household Livelihood Security with and without Development Project: Case Study of
       Zula Plain and Shebah-Demas Plain in Eritrea
Vaidya, Bunu:
       Livelihoods and Sustainability Aspects of Non-timber Forest Products in Gorkha District,
       Nepal
Vo, Dung The:
       Evaluation of Length-based Stock Assessment Methods using Silver Carp in Eakao
       Reservoir, Vietnam
Vu Anh, Tuan:
       Integration of Natural Tracer Data in Reservoir Simulation
Vu Huu, Phuc:
       Pre-feasibility Study on the CA River in Vietnam
Wagarachchi, Ranjith:
       Pre-feasibility Study of Batal Khwar Hydropower Project in Pakistan
Wagner-Meyer, Rolene
       Designing, developing and evaluating a management information system for vitamin A
       supplementation programme managers in the Eastern Cape province in South Africa
       through action research
Wale, Adam Mulugeta:
       The Role of Irrigation in improving Food Security and Alleviation of Poverty in North-
       Western Ethiopia. A Case of Traditional Irrigation in Lobokemkem District




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Chapter 2 Theses in alphabetical order in the NORAD Fellowship Programme 1998-2002




Wijayakumara, Janaka P.:
       Pre-Feasibility Study of Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project (Yoxford Option), Sri Lanka
Wondiye, Wogayehu Bezabih:
       Hydrological Studies in Upper Wabishebele River Basin, Melkawakena, Ethiopia
Yadav, Shyam Kishor:
       Hydrological Analysis for the Bheri-Babai Hydropower Project, Nepal
Yangchen, Tsering:
       Tibetan Communities in Exile. A Case Study of the Tibetan Settlements in Karnataka
       State in Southern India
Yehuala, Dessalegn Mulaw:
       The Provision of Technical and Vocational Education and Training by NGOs: A Case
       Study and three Centres in Addis Abeba
Yesuf, Siraj Seid:
       Social and Economic Features of Urban Farming: A Case from Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
Yu, Fuhua:
       Sub-basalt Imaging with Wide-aperture Seismic Data
Zimba, David:
       Pre-Feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development at Mambilima Gorge, Luapula
       River, Zambia
Ziping, Huang:
       Ertan Hydroelectric Project. Analysis of Rock Slope Stability




                                                   142
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country




        Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country



In this section of the bibliography, all theses submitted in the period 1998 – 2002 under the
NORAD Fellowship Programme, are listed by nationality of the authors. The information is
organised in alphabetical order by country, name of author, and title of thesis.


Only candidates from NORAD’s collaborating partner countries are eligible for the fellowship
programme. The list of prioritised regions and countries is subject to changes in the Norwegian
foreign policies. During the period from 1998 to 2002, XX students from 26 different countries
have submitted their master’s thesis under the NORAD Fellowship Programme.


For students who have published their thesis in full text on the internet, a reference to their
unique URL is also included.




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Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country




ANGOLA:
Bhuiyan, Md. Anwar Hossein:
      Sea Bed Logging (SBL), a Technique for Mapping of Subsurface Resistive Structures
de Barbentane, Sigrid:
      Seeds, Storms and Strategies. A Study on Decision-making Processes in Seed Supplies
      and Seed Distribution Interventions in Emergency Situation - Case of Honduras in the
      Aftermaths of Hurricane Mitch
N'singui, Kumbi Kilongo:
      Feeding of Benguela Hake (Merluccius polli) on the Commercially Exploited Resources
      off Angola
Obedi, Noel Neligwa:
      Gas Leakage in the Overburden Layers of the Gullfaks Field, North Sea

BANGLADESH:
Abedin, Mobinul:
      Seismic Interpretation of the Base Cretaceous Unconformity in the Northern Sea
Ahmed, Nasim
      Privatization of state owned enterprises (SOE's) in Bangladesh: A
      study on policy implementation
Ahmed, Newaz Khalis:
      Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Part of Mid-Norwegian Continental Shelf
Ahmed, Quamrun Naher:
      How Gender Awareness is created among Women through Credit-based Income
      Generating Programme: A Case Study of the Role of NGOs in three Villages
Akanda, Md. Zakir Hossain:
      Problems and Prospects of Smallholder Dairying. A Case Study in Manikganj District,
      Bangladesh
Alamgir, Md.:
       Sexual Harassment on Campus. A Case Study: University of Dhaka
Anwar, Anisa Nayeema
      From Conceptual to Birth: Meaning and Management of a Fundamental
      Process in Individual and Social Life
Choudhury, Shah Farid:
      Nuclear Magnetic Resonnance (NMR) Echo Amplitude Summation used as a
      Permeability Indicator
Chowdhury, Md. Anwar:
      The Neutron Porosity Tool and Its Ability to predict Porosity in Gullfaks Wells 34/10-14
      and 34/10-c-26
Hoque, Md. Hedayatul
      Resistance of Stiffened Plates and Pressurised Process Equipment Exposed to Blast and
      Fire
Hoque, Md. Rownshonul:
      Productivity Losses due to Condensate Accumulation near the Wellbores in Kailastilla
      Gas Field, Bangladesh


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Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


Haque, Mohammad Zahurul:
       Micro-credit and Women's Empowerment: A Study on Grameen Bank in Rural
       Bangladesh
Hossain, Md. Amran:
       The Nomination Procedures of Candidates Selection for the Jatiya Sangsad (National
       Parliament) Election: A Comparative Study of Two Major Political Parties (AL and BNP)
       in Bangladesh
Hossain, Tania
       "Blood of Pollution, Body of Fear" A Study of Beliefs and Rituals
       connected with Menstruation, Gestation and Parturition among the Mal Bedey
Ibna-Hamid, Md. Latif:
       Application of Two-phase Capillary Pressure to Gravity Stable Tertiary Gas Injection
       having Three-phase Flow
Islam Khan, Md. Rafiqul:
       Expansion of Kaptail Hydroelectric Project in Bangladesh
Karim, Anwarul:
       Recent Structural Reorganization of Union Parishads (Council) in Bangladesh and Scope
       for Women's Participation. A Study of seven Union Parishads
Karim, Bazlul:
       Simulation of Water Tracer Flow in a Section of the Gullfaks Field
Karim, Kazi Abu Taher Ataul:
       Co-management as a Collaborative Planning Tool for Sustainable Fisheries: A Case
       Study of Bangladesh
Karim, Ziaul:
       Analysis of the Present Production and Marketing Systems of Bananas in some Selected
       Areas of Mymensingh and Bogra Districts of Bangladesh
Khan, Mohammad Ali:
       Health and Living Conditions of Child Labourers: A Study in Dhaka City in Bangladesh
Mahmood Hossain, Sheikh:
       Human Vulnerability due to Natural Disasters in South Asia: A GIS Aided
       Characterization of Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh
Muhammad, Rahim Abdur:
       Diabetes in Bangladesh: Prevalence and Determinants
Saha,Tirtha
       Bedey, a Migration Healer Community of Bangladesh
Shafie, Hasan Al:
       The Murucha of Chts. Matrilateral Cross-cousin Marriage in Ritual and Politico-
       economic Context

BHUTAN:
Choeden, Yamyang:
     Privatisation of Upper Secondary Schools in Bhutan




                                                  145
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


BOTSWANA:
Gabaake, Kebabonye Priscillah
       Exploring the Namibian refugees' experience with camp life: The
       case of Dukwi Camp, Botswana
Itshekeng, Edwin Monclaro:
       The Role of Family Background on HIV/AIDS Awareness and Condom Use among
       Secondary School Students in Selibe-Phikwe (Botswana)
Kebalepile, Tapiwa Mavis:
       An Evaluation of the Quality of the Care Midwives provide during the Postpartum Period
       in Northern Botswana
Kelaeng, Oukame Moses
        Safety performance in building construction industry. The effect
       of feedback using scaffolds as an example
Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile:
       Preliminary Length Based Assessment of the Main Exploited Stocks of the Okavango
       Delta Fishery
Motsumi, Sekgowa S.:
       Seasonal Population Density and Distribution of Gallinaceous Birds in Relation to
       Habitat Types and Large Herbivore Impact in N. E. Chobe National Park, Botswana
Puso, Kwele Kegalale:
       The Magnitude of Injury Problem at Botswana Meat Commission Plant in Lobatse
Segokgo, Morgan Odirile:
       Noise Exposure, Availability and Use of Hearing Protection Devices among Blue-Collar
       Workers in Textile Factories in Botswana

CHINA:
Huang, Jian Sheng:
       Tradition and Transformation. A Research into the Change of Inter-Personal Relation in
       Dujia
Liu, Xinjian:
       Stability Analysis of the Slopes at Intake Tower, Baise Multipurpose Dam Project, China

CONGO-KINSHASA
Mwanza, Jean Claude
     Neuro-Ophthalmologic disturbances and visual evoked potential in
     Konzo, a neurologic disorder in Sub-Saharan Africa
ERITREA:
Abdulkader, Amina Nurhussien:
      Assessing Maternal Mortality in Afabet Sub-District, Northern Red Sea Zone, Eritrea
Araya, Simret Ghebremariam:
      Water Resources for Irrigation in Upper Gash, Eritrea




                                                  146
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


Berhe, Biniam Constantinos
       Developing methodology to assess gully processes using GIS in a dryland, Khanasser
       Valley, Syria
Teklu, Mussie Fesehaye:
       Time Laps Analysis of Gas Leakage
Ukbaab Baraki, Fikre:
       Household Livelihood Security with and without Development Project: Case Study of
       Zula Plain and Shebah-Demas Plain in Eritrea

ETHIOPIA:
Abera, Dawit Mamo:
       A study of Aeromagnetic, Gravity and Seismic Data from the Mid-Norwegian Continental
       Shelf
Afework, Yohannes:
       Improvement of Traveltime Approximation
Agizew, Tefera Belachew:
       Client Satisfaction, Primary Health Care & Utilization of Services in Sidama District,
       Southern Ethiopia 2000
Alula, Habtegiorgis Kidane:
       Subsidence, Thermal and Maturity Modelling on the Northern North Sea
Ambaye, Tilaye Gete:
       The Implementation of Problem Solving Approach in Ethiopia: A Case Study in four
       Primary Schools around Bahir Dar Area
Asefa Teklehaimanot, Dereje:
       The Socio-Economic Effects and Environmental Impacts of Area Enclosures in Hauzien
       Wereda, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia
Asfaw, Fenta Gugsa:
       Intensification and Responses of Smallholder Farmers to Productivity Decline in
       Northeastern Ethiopian Highland. A Case Study from Tehulederie District
Assefa, Aliyu Faris:
       Decentralisation and Local Development in Ethiopia: The Case of Assosa District
Belete, Kiflom:
       Pre-feasibility Study of Bega River Basin for Hydropower Development in Ethiopia
Beyene, Binyam:
       Combined Gravity, Magnetic and Seismic Data Interpretation from the Northeastern
       Greenland Shelf
Daniel, Tilahun:
       A Study of the Engineeering Geological Analysis of Gilgel Gibe Hydropower Project,
       Ethiopia
Debela, Adane Tuffa:
       Impact of Liquidity and Credit Constraints on Soil Conservation Investments and Farm
       Productivity: The Case of the Western Development Region of Nepal
Dejene Asnake, Sileshi:
       Socio-Economic and Political Aspects of Environmental Degradation: Stakeholder
       Analysis. A Case Study from Entoto Area, Ethiopia



                                                  147
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


Gebrehiwot, Awet Kidane:
       Crafting Institutions for Water Management and Willingness to pay for Water Services in
       Northern Namibia
Gebreselassie, Kidist:
       The Impact of Price and Trade Policy Reforms on Land Use Patterns and Sustainability
       Implications in the Southern Highlands of Ethiopia
Gedebu, Rahel:
       Sustainability of Minimum Tillage Practice in Ethiopia: Agronomic and Socio-economic
       Implication
Gossoma, Roma Belay:
       Surgical Wound Infection and Bacterial Resistance in Sidama, South Ethiopia
Haile-Giorgis, Tesfaye:
       Trap Efficiency and Deposition Pattern Study for Guder Hydropower Project in Ethiopia
       using the Numerical Modelling
Hailu Feyisa, Taye:
       Cultivation of Chat and its Impacts on the Farming System, Household Economy and
       Food Availability. A Case Study in Malkaa Balloo and Ifa Gamachu PAs
Hordofa, Getachew Ayana:
       Evaluation of Conventional and Alternative Tomato Diseases and Insect Pest
       Management Strategies as an Approach to Integrated Pest Management(IPM). A Case
       Study in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia
Jemal Mohammed, Fedlu
       Hydrological Studies for Hydropower Development in Ome-Gibe Basin on Gojeb River
       Hydropower Project in Ethiopia
Kebede, Telila Denboba:
       Pre-feasibility Planning for Hydropower Potential of Upper Baro-Akobo River Basin,
       Ethiopia
Kebede, Tewodros Aragie:
       Farm Household Technical Efficiency: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
Kenate, Asaminew Melese:
       Wild Life and People: The Human Dimension of Fragmention and Wild Life Loss, with
       Assessment of Potential for Restoration
Lemma, Be-Ede:
       International Prostate Symptom Score and Uroflowmetry for Ethiopean Patients with
       Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Urethral Stricture
Mekonnen Tache, Tesfaye:
       Gas Well Deliverability - Togi Design Project
Mohammed, Fedlu Jemal:
       Hydrological Study for Hydropower Development in Omo-Gibe Basin on Gojeb River
       Hydropower Project in Ethiopia
Negash, Tewodros:
       Farm Size and Productivity in Ethiopian Smallholder Agriculture
Tache Mekonnen, Tesfaye
       Deliverability issues in the TOGI project
Tessema, Zewditu Kebede:
       Husband-Wife Communication about Family Plannning in Assosa Town, Ethiopia



                                                  148
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


Wale, Adam Mulugeta:
       The Role of Irrigation in Improving Food Security and Alleviation of Poverty in North-
       Western Ethiopia. A Case of Traditional Irrigation in Lobokemkem District
Wondiye, Wogayehu Bezabih:
       Hydrological Studies in Upper Wabishebele River Basin, Melkawakena, Ethiopia
Yehuala, Dessalegn Mulaw:
       The Provision of Technical and Vocational Education and Training by NGOs: A Case
       Study and three Centres in Addis Abeba
Yesuf, Siraj Seid:
       Social and Economic Features of Urban Farming: A Case from Addis Abeba, Ethiopia

INDIA:
Adya, Sushma:
       Determinants and Measurement of Crop Diversification: A Study in Wondo Genet,
       Southern Ethiopia
Ali, Ehtesham:
       Simulation of Water and Gas Tracer Flow in the Snorre Field
Ciremel, Joseph Mathew:
       Effects of a Low Lipid Experimental Feed on the Growth, Survival and Body Composition
       of First Feeding Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) Alevin
Mittal, Sandeep:
       A Study of the Tunnel and Underground Power-House for TEESTA-V Hydro-Electric
       Project, Sikkim, India
Thesis availablein full text at
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2000/NTNU/thesis01.pdf
Padhi, Abinash:
       Genetic Structuring of the Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) at the Synaptohysin (Syp I)
       Locus along the Finnmark Coast of Northern Norway

INDONESIA:
Sulaeman, Mr.:
      Population Genetic Studies of Mangrove Crab (Genus. Scylla) in Makassar Strait and
      Bone Bay, Indonesia

MALAWI:
Maguza-Tembo, Francis:
     Bio-economics of Common Resource over Exploitation: Case of Lake Malombe Chambo
     (Oreochromis sp. Cichlidae) Fishery in Malawi




                                                  149
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


MALDIVES:
Mohamed, Juveyria:
      Causes and Consequences of Rural to Urban Migration in Maldives: A Case Study of
      Migration from Seenu Atoll to Male
Mohamed, Muawiyath
      Fatigue strength of side longitudinal/transverse frame connection of a ship
Shainee, Mohamed
      Analysis and design considerations for the mooring line of a surface buoy.



MOZAMBIQUE:
Mosepele, Belda Quetina David:
       Assessment of the Species Penaeus latisulcatus and Penaeus japonicus in the Shallow-
       water Shrimp Trawl Fishery at the Sofala Bank, Mozambique
Pinto, Maria Ascensao:
       Gear Selectivity for By-catch Species in the Shallow Water Shrimp Trawl Fishery at the
       Sofala Bank, Mozambique
Mariano, Esmeralda
       Childlessness: Whom to blame and how to cope - Symbolic
       representations and healing practices among the Shangana of Southern
       Mozambique

NAMIBIA:
Burmeister, Liza-Mare:
       Survey Based Assessment of the Stock Identity of Merluccius paradoxus (FRANCA) in the
       Benguela
Hongslo, Eirin:
       Landscapes and Land Reform Narratives by Commercial Farmers in Namibia
Iilende, Titus Ndakaola:
       The Dynamics of the Pelagic Component of the Hake Stocks off the Coast of Namibia
Nangula, Selma:
       Effects of Artificial Water Points on the Communal Rangelands of the Uuvudhiya
       Constituency, North-Central Namibia
Paul, Ashis Kumar
       Addressing perinatal and maternal mortality through perinatal audit in Gobabis Hospital
       in Namibia
Plarre, Heidrun:
       Pilchard Spawning Dates and Recruitment in Relation to Environmental Parameters in
       the Northern Benguela Upwelling System
Schneider, Peter Michael:
       Estimation of Size Selectivity of Sorting Grids for Namibian Hake
Shapi, Martin Kasanga:
       Local Perspectives on Inland Fisheries in Kavango River, Namibia: A Socio-economic
       and Ecological Approach


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Sheuyange, Asser:
       Landscape Level Vegetation Change in Relation to Fire History in Eastern Ohangwena
       Region, Namibia
Staby, Arved
       Spatial and temporal variation in the biology of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus)
       occurring off Namibia

NEPAL:
Acharya, Hari Raj
       Decentralization in Developing Countries: Acase Study onDecentralization in Nepal
Adhikari, Bishnu:
       Pore Geometry Analysis from Thin Sections of Reservoir Rocks and their Correlation
       with some of the more relevant Well Logs
Aryal, Baikuntha:
       Are Trees for the Poor? A Study from Budongo Forest, Uganda
Thesis available in full text at
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2002/nlh/thesis01/

Aryal Dahal, Usha:
       Access to Forest and Sustainability of Livelihoods. A Case Study of Bara District, Nepal
Aryal, Jeetendra Prakash:
       Unequal Distribution of Land and Its Impact on Land Productivity and Land Use
       Intensity: The Case of the Western Development Region of Nepal
Bhattarai, Kiran Kumari:
       Gender Dynamics in Crop Production in the Hills of Nepal. Feminisation of Agriculture?
Bishwakarma, Meg Bahadur:
       Sediment Exclusion Optimisation Study, Jhimruk Hydropower Plant, Nepal
Dhakal, Bhuban Prasad:
       Engineering Geological Analysis of Nyadi Hydropower Project, Nepal
Dhakal, Resham Raj:
       Khimti Dhalkebar 132 kV Transmission Line, Nepal. A Study of Important Parameters
Dhakal, Sanjaya:
       Impact of Vitamin A Supplementation to Mothers in the Postpartum Period and Their
       Infants at Routine Immunisation Contacts during Early Infancy. On Vitamine A Status at
       6 and 9 Months of Age: A Secondary Analysis of Data obtained in a Multi-centre Study
Dhoubhadel, Sunil Prasad:
       Leasehold Forestry and Livelihoods (Cases from the Mid-Hills of Nepal)
Gajurel Chandra, Pradeep
       Planning and design of headworks for dry season diversion of Yangri and Larke rivers to
       Melamchi river in Nepal.
Gautam, Bharat Raj:
       Reforming the Public Sector: A Study of Administrative Reforms in Nepal
Ghimire, Jay Raj:
       Analysis of Mercury Porosimetry Data and BSE Images of Danish Outcrop Chalk Sample
Gurung, Naba Raj:
       Forest Degradation/Regeneration in the Hills of Nepal. A Study at Watershed Level


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Gurung, Poonam:
       Bungamati - The Life-world of a Newar Community explored through the Natural and
       Social Life of Water
Gurung, Shova:
       Local Ecological Knowledge about Management of Tree Fodder Resources in the
       Western Mid-Hills of Nepal
Hari, Paudel:
       The Implementation of Privatization Policy in Nepal : Is Privatization a viable Policy
       Option?
Joshi, Sunil Kumar
       Analysis of possible occupational related lung cancer among the
       patients attending Bhaktapur Cancer Centre, Bhaktapur, Nepal. A pilot study
Karki Adhikary, Radha:
       Contribution of Agroforestry to Farmhousehold Income and Community Forestry
       Management
Karmacharya, Shailesh Kumar:
       The Filling History of the Quaternary Kathmandu Lake
Kattel, Shambhu Prasad:
       Development and its Victims. From Pottery Makers to Porters: The Changing Life-World
       of the Kumals of the Arun Valley, Eastern Nepal
Kayastha, Birendra Prasad:
       Grain Crushing during Compaction of Sand and Sandstone
Khadka, Manohara:
       Are the Women and Poor better off? A Study on their Access to Resources and
       Participation in Decision-making in Community Forestry Management in Nepal
Kharal, Deepak Kumar:
       Diversity and Dynamics of Tree Species and its Sustainability in Rural Farmland. A Case
       Study in Chitwan District, Central Terai of Nepal
Maskey, Yubaraj:
       Fund of Community Forest: Consent and Satisfaction. A Case Study of Aakase and
       Kattikepakha CFUGs of Ramechhap District, Nepal
Oli, Bishwa Nath:
       Wood Products Marketing in Nepal: Through Public Agency or Private Agency?
Pant, Laxmi Prasad:
       Linking Crop Diversity with Food Traditions and Food Security in the Hills of Nepal
Panthi, Krishna K.:
       Direct Link between Hetauda and Kathmandu, Nepal. Evaluation of Proposed Road
       Tunnels
Parajuli, Ganga:
       Interventions, Sustainability and Community Forestry. A Case Study of Nepal Resources
       Management Project in Melewar Community Forest Users Group, Dhading District,
       Nepal
Phuyal, Tulsi Prasad:
       Sediment Monitoring at Khimti I Hydropower Plant, Nepal




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Regmi, Uba Raj:
       Status of Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and Livestock Depredation in Royal Sukhlaphanta
       Wildlife Reserve, Nepal
Rupakheti, Kamala Gautam:
       Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry and Annual Cropping System in Inner Tarai,
       Central Nepal
Sapkota, Tara Nath:
       Accumulation and Removal of Air and Sediments from the Melamchi Diversion Tunnel,
       Nepal
Shahi, Sally:
       So Near - Yet, So Far? The Farmers and the State of Agriculture in a Transforming,
       Urbanizing Kathmandu Valley. A Case of Bungamati VCD
Shakya, Prabin:
       Impact of Social Transformation and Women's Autonomy on Fertility
Sharma, Shankar:
       Pre-feasibility Study Report for the Nyadi Khola, Nepal
Shrestha, Bharat Man
       Land Use Effect on Soil Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gases Flux in a
       Mountainous Watershed of Nepal
Shrestha, Hari Shankar:
       Sedimentation and Sediment Handling at Kulekhani Reservoir, Nepal
Shrestha, Manohar:
       Comparative Study of Capillary Pressure Measurements by Hassler Cell and Porous
       Plate
Singh, Mamta Kumari:
       Land-use Changes and Pollution of the Nakkhu Khola River in Nepal. An Ecological and
       Socio-economic Study
Singh, Shova:
       Study of Tertiary Fault Reactivitation, Mud Diapirism and Gas Migration in 3D Seismic
       Data of the Gullfaks Field
Subedi, Madhusudan Sharma:
       Medical Pluralism in a Culturally Complex Asian Civilization: Searching, Understanding
       of and Cure for Body Afflictions in Newar Town of Kirtipur
Subedi, Naresh:
       Status and Ecology of Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) in Nepal with Particular
       Emphasis on Royal Bardia National Park, Lowland Nepal
Thakur, Sanjeev Kumar:
       Excavation and Stability of Pressure Shafts. A Study based on Khimti Khola Hydropower
       Project, Nepal
Thanju, Rabinda:
       The Melamichi Tunneling Project in Nepal: Anticipated Geological Problems and its
       Probable Solutions
Thapa Magar, Shyamu:
       Cardamom in the Forest: An Attempt towards maintaining Income Generating Activities
       and Sustainable Forest Management. A Case Study of Chichila Mats




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Thapa, Mahendra Kumar:
       A Case Study on challenging Social Integration in changing Social Values in the Life-
       world of Sainbu Village, Lalitpur District, Kathmandu Valley
Thapa, Suraj Bahadur:
       Psychiatric Disability among Bhutanese Refugees living in Nepal and their Perception of
       Mental Illness and Disability
Thinley, Mr.:
       Pre-feasibility Study on Development of Hydropower in the Upper Khimti and Likhu
       Basin, Nepal
Vaidya, Bunu:
       Livelihoods and Sustainability Aspects of Non-timber Forest Products in Gorkha District,
       Nepal
Yadav, Shyam Kishor:
       Hydrological Analysis for the Bheri-Babai Hydropower Project, Nepal
Thesis available in full text at
http://www.ub.uib.no/elpub/NORAD/2002/ntnu/thesis01/index.html


NICARAGUA:
Chamorro Ibarra, Alexandra:
       Satisfaction with Dental Care in Nicaragua: A Study among Non-Civil Workers at the
       Mauricio Abdalah Dental Clinic in Managua, Nicaragua
Scott, Edgard:
       Parrots Trade in Nicaragua, from the Forest to Managua. Assessment of the
       Geographical Origin, Capture Methods and Financial Benefits of the Activity
Ortega, Yamileth Raquel Sequeria:
       The Case of Nicaragua in the Light of the Central American Regional Integration and the
       Influences of NAFTA and the European Union
Picado Cajina, Maria Victoria:
       Economic Valuation of Natural Forest as Water Retainer. Case Study: Nature Reserve
       Datanli-El Diablo, Jinotega, Nicaragua
Sequeira, Karen S. Marie:
       Development of Artisanal Fisheries in the Community of Rama Cay, Atlantic Coast of
       Nicaragua

PAKISTAN:
Bux, Mohammad:
      Management Issues in Basic Education in Thardarkar (Disserted Area) in Sindh,
      Pakistan
Chaudhry, Ehsin Sadiq:
      Gomal Zam Multipurpose Project for Flood Control, Irrigation and Hydropower,
      N.W.F.P.,Pakistan
Wagarachchi, Ranjith:
      Pre-feasibility Study of Batal Khwar Hydropower Project in Pakistan




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SOUTH AFRICA:
Booi, Kwanele:
       Characterization and Comparison of Diets of Anchovy and Sardine Pre-recruits Shoals in
       the Southern Benguela Ecosystem
Goodman, Mark:
       Aspects of the Life History of the South African Hottentot, Pachymetopon blochii (Val.)
Khanyile, Jimmy Phumlani:
       Gear Selectivity of West Coast Rock Lobster (Jasus lalandii) in Aquarium and in Field
Louw, Granville Gary
       Distribution and feeding patterns of mixed-species pelagic shoals
Maharaj, Genevieve:
       Fishing Effort and Fishing Capacity of the Chokka Squid (Loligo vulgaris reynaudii) Jig
       Fishery of South Africa
Mqoqi, Mandisile
       Feeding ecology of Sepia australis along the south coast of South Africa
Nondumiso, Gloria Sikiti
       Preliminary studies in broodstock management and larviculture of the clam (Mactra
       glabrata) for technology transfer to coastal communities in the West Coast of South
       Africa
Tsoka, Joyce
       Evaluation of the malaria information system in the Kwazulu-Natal province of South
       Africa
Wagner-Meyer, Rolene
       Designing, developing and evaluating a management information system for vitamin A
       supplementation programme managers in the Eastern Cape province in South Africa
       through action research



SRI LANKA:
Jayawerdana, Amitha Kumari:
      Constraints to Crop Diversification and Intensification in Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
Jayawickrama, Idam Gedara Premasiri:
      Willingness to pay for Better Air Quality and Energy Choice for Electricity Generation in
      Sri Lanka
Jayawickreme, Dushmantha:
       Fault Sealing Processes applied to Basin
Kottagoda Gedara, Chandra Seneviratne:
      Impact of Land Encroachment on Upper Watersheds in Sri Lanka (A Case Study of Uma
      Oya Watershed)
Laksiri, Kamal:
      Operation Simulation for Multi-Reservoir Systems. Hydropower and Irrigation in
      Mahaweli River, Sri Lanka
Manikrama, Ajitha:
      Factors affecting the Adoption of IPM by Farmers in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka
Nawaratne, A.L.D.K.:


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       Reservoir Sedimentation and Sediment Control in Laxapana Pond, Sri Lanka
Ratnayake, Mudiyanselage Priyantha:
       An Assesment of Resource Management Competence of Major Irrigation Systems in Sri
       Lanka: A Study of Bureaucracy-Community Interface in the Redibendi-ela-Scheme
Samaranayake, Wedage Ranjanee:
       Impact of Landuse Changes on Watersheds in Dry and Intermediate Zones ofSriLanka.
       Case Study from Kurunegala District
Samaraweera, Visakha:
       Strategy for Community Based Management through Co-management for Sustainable
       Fisheries. A Case Study in Sri Lanka
Seneviirathne, Lalitha P.
       Pre-Feasibility Study of the Sudu Ganga Small Hydropower Development Project in Sri
       Lanka.
Siriwardene, Primali S.F.:
       Pre-feasibility Study of Upper Kothmale Hydropower Project in Sri Lanka
Suriyaarachchi, Harsha:
       Modelling Flow around River Flood Protection Structures
Wijayakumara, Janaka P.:
       Pre-Feasibility Study of Upper Kotmale Hydropower Project (Yoxford Option), Sri Lanka

SUDAN:
Ali, Muna Obied:
      The Prevalence of Tuberculosis with Drug-resistant Strains of Mycobacterium
      Tuberculosis in Khartoum, Gazira and Camps for Displaced People, Sudan
Mohamed, Manal Hassan Abdel:
      Forced Migration and Socio-cultural Changes in a Nomadic Pastoralist Community: The
      Case of the Hawawir in Northern Sudan

TANZANIA:
Bishaija, Kahitwa M.:
       Mhangasi River Hydropower Potential Study, Ruhuhu Basin, Tanzania
Fundi, Saida Seleman
       Community Participation and its Impact on School Performance
Ishengoma, Edward:
       Wettability Characteristics on Berea Sandstone and Chalk Carbonate Reservoir Rocks
       and their Role on Oil Production
Japhnet Mulyila, Esther:
       Socio-economic Impacts of Marine Protected Areas: The Case of Mafia Island Marine
       Park in Tanzania
Juma, Ali Khamis:
       Food Self-Sufficiency and Food Security. A Case Study of Agricultural Production for
       Food Security in Wollaita, Southern Ethiopia
Kafumu, George Revocatus:
       Charcoal Consumption, its Socio-Economic and Environmental Impacts: A Case Study
       from Dar es Salaam - Tanzania


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Kagya, Silvery:
      Pre-feasibility Study Mandera Hydropower Project, Pangani River Basin, Tanzania
Kaigarula Lutakumwa, Leonida:
      Barriers to Aquaculture Development: With Special Reference to Pond Culture
Kassana, Leonard:
      Analysis of Water Leakages at Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project, Tanzania
Katule, Jasson J.O.:
      Pre-Feasibility Study of Kiwira Hydropower Project in Tanzania
Kigadye, Peter Elias:
      Hydropower Projects in Pangani River, Tanzania
Kihame, Mbaraka B.S.:
      Pre-feasibility Study of Lower Kikuletwa Hydropower Project in Tanzania
Kinabo, Aberta Ndesario:
      Privatisation Policies and their Effect on the Gender Gap in the Tanzanian Labour
      Market
Kullaya, Ruphina Michael:
      A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Monitoring-, Control- and Surveillance-system of
      Tanzania's Fishing Industry
Maganga, Gerald Mahinda:
      The Distribution and Depositional Environments for the "Silkesand" Gullfaks Field
Makundi, Emmanuel:
      Community Social Valuation. Disability and Disease in two Selected Communities. A
      Study in Temeke and Moshi Districts, Tanzania
Mankinga, Jacob Robert Mushi:
      Targeting the Food Insecure Households in Rural Areas. A Case Study in Hai District,
      Northern Tanzania
Mapinduzi, Arnold:
      Indigenous Knowledge of the Maasai Pastoralists for Biodiversity Conservation in Mt.
      Komoloniki (Monduli) Ecosystems, Northern Tanzania
Mariki, Stephen Wingiasa:
      Assessment of Stakeholders Participation in Forest Conservation Programmes: A Case of
      Kilimanjaro Catchment Forest Management Project - Tanzania
Matimbo, Fulgence John:
      The Growth of Private Universities and Private University Colleges in Tanzania
Mbangwa, Obed Festo:
      The Local Communities and Nile Crocodile in Lake Rukwa, Southern Tanzania: Can they
      co-exist?
Mbelwa, Rhoda John:
      Improving Beach Management: An Analysis of the Role of the Government and Local
      Community in Management of Beach Areas in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Meela, Josephine Theobald:
      Local Communities Participation in the Management of Coastal Resources through
      Integrated Coastal Resources Management ('The Stakeholders Approach'): The Case of
      Menai Bay Conservation Area, Zanzibar




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Mfaume, Rashid Mataka:
       Constitution Making in Tanzania: Insight of the Past and Present, and Implication to
       Democracy and Constitutionalism
Mgawe, Yahya Ibrahim:
       Trade-offs in Fisheries Development: The Case of Lake Victoria in Tanzania
Mkwizu, Mary Alphan:
       The Pedagogical Implications of using English as the Medium of Instruction in teaching
       Civics in Tanzania Secondary Schools
Mombo, Felister Michael:
       Incentives for Local Participation in Community Based Forest Management. A Case of
       Duru Haytemba, Babati District, Tanzania
Msigwa Chando, Catherine:
       Role of Gender in the Fishing Industry of Tanzania
Mtengwa, Kijakazi Rajabu:
       Constitutional Problems of Unbalanced Federal Systems: An Insight of Union Problems
       of the United Republic of Tanzania and their Implications to Democracy and the Future
       of the Union
Mulokozi, Charles Justin:
       Opportunities and Constraints of Crocodile Ranching in Tanzania. A Case Study of
       Kaole, Mamba and Tumaini Ranches
Musomba, Kapuulya:
       Hole Cleaning in Horizontal Wells
Mwakatundu, Irene Simalike:
       Resource Use,Environmental Change and Food Security in Dodoma Rural District,
       Tanzania
Mwella-Mshomi, Emma Evelyn
       An analysis on the effect of Tanzanias ‘cost sharing’ in the
       education policy for primary schools (1999 batch)
Mwinsheikne, Halima:
       Science and the Language Barrier
Ndenzako, Fabian Nicholaus:
       Male Contraceptive Prevalence and Factors associated with Contraceptive Use among
       Men in Ngara, Tanzania
Patrick, Beatrice Kipobota:
       The Prospect of Women in the Civil Service: Analysis of Recruitment, Qualifications and
       Positions
Sesabo, Jennifer Kasanda:
       Assessment of the Impact of Labour Out Migration on Household Agricultural Production
       and Income Distribution. A Case Study of Mardi Watershed in Western Hills of Nepal
Singano Magili, Gerald:
       Farmers' Seed Systems in Maize (Zea Mays L.). Gendered Aspects of Local Seed Systems
       in Ruangwa and Nachingwea Districts, Southern Tanzania
Tullu, Wubishet Legesse:
       Crystal Structures in the Lofoten Area interpreted from Aeromagnetic, Gravity and
       Seismic Data




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THE PALESTINIAN TERRITORY:
Abu-Shaban, Bayan
        The effects of wastewater on the ecological integrity of Wadi Gaza Wetland, Gaza Strip,
        Palestine. An ecological and socio-economical study
Aqil, Sanaa:
        Estimation of Viscosity from NMR
El-Kord, Eyad:
        Effect of Sulfur, Seleno-substituted Fatty Acids on Superoxide Radical Generation in
        Polymorphonuclear Cells
Jilleh, Claire Issac:
        The Interaction between Health Service Providers and People with Diabetes in Palestine
Madi, Akram K.M.
        Ultimate Strength Analysis of FPSO Hull Girder
Mustafa Al Dasooqi, Ghada:
        Quality Assurance in the Palestinian Higher Education
Suliman, Fadi:
        Evaluation of the Phosphorus Retention Capacity of Filtrate-P for the Use in Sub-surface
        Flow Constructed Wetlands, Palestine




TIBET:
Yangchen, Tsering:
     Tibetan Communities in Exile. A Case Study of the Tibetan Settlements in Karnataka
     State in Southern India

UGANDA:
Amamure, Juliet:
       Utilisation and Sustainable Management of Wetland Resources in Lemwa and Kawi
       Catchment Areas in Pallisa District, Uganda
Asiimwe, Sarah
       Use of health information for operational and strategic decision-making by divisional
       level managers of Kampala City Council Health Department in Uganda
Baryathua, Fredica Baguma:
       Ugandan Women in Public Higher Educational Leadership: Trends and Schools
Bateganya, Fred Henry:
       Masese Fishermen and Traders Competition, Cooperation and Exploitation in Lake
       Victoria Fisheries
Busagwa, Prossy:
       How sweet is Sugar? The Impact of Kinyara Sugar Outgrowers Scheme on the Welfare of
       Local Households
Isolo, Mkwaya Paul:
       Urban Sprawl and the Challenges of Public Transport Services Delivery/Provision in
       Kampala City - Uganda


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Jjunju, Emmanuel:
      Karuma Falls Hydropower Project. Preliminary Assessment of Tunnel Design and
      Numerical Modelling of Surge and Tailrace Tunnel Options
Kabege, Juliet:
      Industrial Fish Processing and the Sustainability of Uganda's Nile Perch Fishery
Kajubi, Elijah:
      Non-Formal Environmental Education: A Strategy for Promotion of Agroforestry for
      Improved Household Livelihood. A Case of the Swedish (Vi) Agroforestry Project in
      Masaka District, Uganda
Kakuru, Doris Muhwezi:
      Too Many Tasks. Managing a Family and coping with Water Requirements among a
      Bairy Community
Kiyingi, Isaac Robert:
      Valuation and Assessment of the Ecological Impacts of Ecotourism in Mabira Forest
      Reserve, Uganda
Kobugabe, Gertrude Kahuzo:
      Assessment of Market Liberalization. Effects on the Welfare of Smallholder Farmers in
      Southern Ethiopia (Wondo Genet)
Kyakuwa, Margaret B.M.
      Lovers' Lust and Mothers' Milk: Pathways of Hiv Transmission and
      Re-Conceptualization of Family Relations among the Basoga of South-eastern Uganda
Kyomuhendo, Peter
      A bioeconomic model for Uganda’s Lake Victoria Nile Perch Fishery
Mawejje, Joseph:
      Permeability Estimation in the Gullfaks Field based on Investigations from Well 34/10-C-
      26 (COOK 2 Formation)
Mbogha, Ngelese Johnson:
      Resource Use and Access Conflicts. The Case of Rwenzori Mountain National Park and
      the Surrounding Communities, Western Uganda
Mpindi, Harriet:
      Displacement and Resource Conflicts: A Study of Internally Displaced People (IDPs)-
      Host Community Relations and the Role of NGOs in Kabarole District, Western Uganda
Mugabi, Paul:
      Assessments of Human Impacts and Potential Uses of the Under-utilized Timber Species
      in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda
Mujabi Mujuzi, Sarah:
      The Socio-economic Importance and Indigenous Management of Woody Perennilas in
      Mpigi District, Uganda. A Case of Nangabo and Kira Sub-counties
Mukasa, Stephen Mabira:
      Agricultural Intensification Process on Smallholder Farms in Uganda. A Case of Mukono
      District
Mutumba, Charles:
      Hydrological Study for Small Hydropower Development in Rivers draining Mt.
      Ruwenzori in Western Uganda




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Nakakaawa, Charlotte Anne:
      Carbon Sequestration Potential and Economics of Improved Agroforestry Fallow System
      for restoring Degraded Soils in Kigezi Highland, Kabale District, Uganda
Namaalwa, Justine:
      The Profitability of Deforestation. A Survey of some Private Natural Forest Owners in
      Mpigi District, Uganda
Nasambu, Rebecca Acen:
      Obstetric Care at Mbale Regional Hospital, Uganda
Okot-Okello, Paul:
      The Challenge of introducing Organizational Change: A Case Study of the Public Service
      Reform Program in Uganda
Oyango, Eria Olowo
      "Primordial" and "Instrumental" concerns and their relevance for understanding Ethnic
      Processes: A Case Study of Ethnic Relations among the Banyole of South Eastern
      Uganda
Otim, Peter Omurangi:
      The Iteso and their Uncles - The Political and Social Contexts of Karimojong Dry Season
      Grazing in Teso
Turyasiima, Milton:
      Analysis of Marketing Constraints to Maize in Masindi District

VIETNAM:
Anh, Le Thu:
      The Importance of Access to Land and Land Location for Income Generation. A Case
      Study at Masindi District in Western Uganda
Ha, Nguyen Thi:
      Land Use Changes and Poverty Reduction following Land Allocation in Northern
      Mountainous Area of Vietnam
Huy Tai, Nguyen:
      Characteristics, Distribution and Productive Status of the Local Mango Varieties in the
      Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Khoa, Nguyen Tien:
      Pre-feasibility Study of the Upper Kotum Hydropower Project in Vietnam
Mai Van, Tai:
      Fisheries Co-Management in Vietnam: A Case Study of Fisheries Management in the
      Tam Giang Lagoon, Thura Thien-Hue Province, Central Vietnam
Nguyen, Bat Khac
      Individual growth patterns and mortality of mitre squid (Photololigo chinensis Gray,
      1849) in the Tonkin Gulf of Vietnam based on statolith microstructure
Nguyen, Thi Dieu Thuy:
      Problems and Potentials in Fish Stock Assessment from Multi-species Fisheries in the
      Barents Sea based on Norwegian Commercial Catch and Effort Data
Nguyen, Trung Thanh
      Dynamic analysis of very large floating structures




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Nhgiem Thuy, Lan:
       Human Development and Poverty. A Study of a Rural Village and a Suburb Area in the
       Red River Delta, Vietnam
Nhuong, Tran Van:
       Coastal Aquaculture: Searching for Sustainable Management Strategies. Case studies in
       the North and North Central of Vietnam
Pham Ngoc, Khue:
       Characterisation of Lithofacies based on Textural Analysis of Dipmeter Curves
Pham Phuoc, Nhan:
       Effects of Exogenous Ascorbic Acid Application on Citrus Tolerance to Flooding,
       Vietnam
Tan, Vu Van:
       Pre-feasibility Study of the Raoqvan Hydropower Project, Vietnam
Thai, Chien Ngoc
       Scrimp farming in Central Vietnam - A model for growth estimation of Tiger shrimp
       (Penaeus monodon) as a function of abiotic and biotic factors
Thu Thi Ha, Tran:
       The Role of New Land Policies in the Reforestation of the Northern Mountainous Region
       of Vietnam
Trinh, Quoc Nghia:
       A Study of the Tunnel & Underground Powerhouse for Rao Quan Multi-Purpose Project,
       Quang Tri, Vietnam
Vo, Dung The:
       Evaluation of Length-based Stock Assessment Methods using Silver Carp in Eakao
       Reservoir, Vietnam
Vu Anh, Tuan:
       Integration of Natural Tracer Data in Reservoir Simulation
Vu Huu, Phuc:
       Pre-feasibility Study on the CA River in Vietnam

ZAMBIA:
Chanda, Ben:
      Effects of Weir Fishing on Commercial Fish Stocks of the Bangweulu Swamp Fisheries,
      Luapula, Northern Zambia
Chibinga, Caroly E.:
      "They Make the Policies?We Just Follow"- The Political Ecology of Poverty: Maternal
      Child Welfare, Health and Nutritional Aspects
Chifungwe Chibinga, Oswin:
      Socio-economic and Nutritional Aspects of Poultry (Broiler) Rearing among the Small-
      Scale Farmers in Monze, Zambia
Hamududu, Byman H.:
      Hydrological Studies for Hydropower Development in Kafue River, Zambia
Kapasa, Cyprian Kateule:
      Selective Fishing of Alestes macrophthalmus using Gill Nets of Small Mesh Sizes of Fish
      Aggregation (FADs) in the Mweru-Luapulu fishery, Zambia



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Mbewe, Mbamwai:
      Impact of Kapenta (Limothrissa miodon) Introduction on the Fish Community in Lake
      Itezhi-tezhi, Zambia
Mbuta, Moses Pascan:
      Dam Safety and Emergency Planning and Training, Kafue River in Zambia
Mwalimu, Silwembe:
      Pre-feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development at Mombotuta Gorge, Luapula
      River, Zambia
Ngoma, Frank:
      Pre-feasibility Study of Hydropower Development for Kabompo River, Zambia
Nyambe, Friday:
      Challenging Urban Design as a Consequence of Crime: A Case of Lusaka City, Zambia
Nyirenda, Moses Amos:
      Ecological and Socio-economic Effects of Petroleum Spills in Fresh Water Systems: A
      Case Study of four Rivers affected by Oil Spills in Zambia
Siame, Davy:
      The Impact of Participatory Forest Management on Peoples Livelihoods in Kapiri-
      Mposhi District in Central Zambia
Simainga, Mundia:
      Pre-feasibility Study for further Hydropower Development on Lusiwasi River, Zambia
Sinkala, Bornwell:
      Pre-feasibility Study of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydroelectric Project, Kafue River Basin,
      Zambia
Tepula, Lawrence:
      Pre-feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development of Kalungwishi River, Zambia
Zimba, David:
      Pre-Feasibility Study of the Hydropower Development at Mambilima Gorge, Luapula
      River, Zambia


ZIMBABWE:
Chakurira, Mugove Kwashirai:
      The Impact of Mwenezi Ward 8 Integrated Development Programme on Poverty
      Alleviation and Household Entitlements, Zimbabwe
Karadzandima, Mary Mazvita:
      The Survival of Socio-cultural Beliefs and Local Knowledge about Management of
      Natural Resources in an Aids-affected Community in Zimbabwe
Moyo, Clyton:
      Integrated Pest Management as a Strategy to manage Development of Insect Resistance
      to Pesticides in Cotton Production in Zimbabwe. A Case Study for Gokwe District
Mpofu, Soneni Eulodia:
      Water Pollution and People's Awareness at Hatcliffe Extension, Harare, Zimbabwe
Mukorera, Odreck:
      The Economic Impact of Smallholder Tobacco in Masindi District, Uganda
Mutonhori, Simon:
      Deforestation in Zimbabwe (Case study from Chikomba district)


                                                  163
Chapter 3 Theses in the NORAD Fellowship Programme by Country


Shoko, Takella:
      Assesment of the Contribution of Agriculture, Non-agricultural Activities and Indigenous
      Woodlands towards Household Food Security. A Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in
      Mafunganye Village of Zvishavane District, Zimbabwe
Songore, Newman
      Fish diversity development in Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, from 1960 to 2001




                                                  164
Tables and statistics



                                         Tables and statistics



         This section is premarily intended as a supplement for readers interested in a specific course,
         country or gender differences in the NORAD Fellowship Programme from 1998 - 2002


This bibliography gives an overview over the master theses submitted in the NORAD Fellowship
Programme in the period from 1998 - 2002. The majority of course programmes offered in the
fellowship programme are at master’s level and require an examination by thesis. In 2000 the
programme portfolio was evaluated and assessed by an independent committe and the
programme board. The result of this process produced some changes in the programme portfolio
with regard to course programme offered for the students. In addition to the master’s
programmes offered, three diploma courses have also been included in the portfolio. These
diplom courses are; Profession Shipping Course offered by the Norwegain Shipping Academy;
Diploma course in Electrical Power Systems and Urban Ecological Planning at NTNU. Since this
bibliography only contains master’s theses submitted in 1998 – 2002, these diploma course are
not listed here. In total XX students have graduated with a diploma degree from these there
courses.


The bibliography does not however, show the total of students enrolled in the NORAD
Fellowship Programme in the whole period from 1998 – 2002. Its objective is to show the
production of theses, rather than the entrance stastistics. However, there may be some
discrepancy between the number of students aditted in the programme over the years, and the
number of theses submitted. This descrepancy is mainly due to students delaying their studies
due to personal and/or health issues. The completion rate among the students have been at 98%
throughout the time period.


The statistics presented in this section show the number of students admitted to the programme
per year, the gender distribution per year and country, the theses submitted every year for each
course and by country.



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Tables and statistics



        Table 1.Master theses submitted in the NORAD Fellowship
                     Programme by course and year


Inst. Course                                                                  Year       Year Year Year
                                                                               2002      2001   2000 1998/99 Total

NLH    M.Sc. in Development and Resource Economics                                6         3      5            14
NLH    M.Sc. in Management of Natural Resources and Sustainable Agriculture      30        28     27      22   107

NTNU   M.Phil. in Social Change (specialising in Geography)                       5         5      5            15
NTNU   M.Sc. in Hydropower Development                                           12        12     13      24    61
NTNU   M.Sc. in Petroleum Engineering/ Petroleum Geoscience                      12        11     11      11    45
NTNU   M.Sc. in Marine Technology                                                 5                              5

UoB    Diploma / M.Phil. in Fisheries Biology and Fisheries Management               7      4      8       8    27
UoB    M.Phil. in Health Sciences (International Health)                             4      5      4            13
UoB    M.Phil. in Public Administration                                              4      4      5            13
UoB    M.Phil. in Social Anthropology (Human Ecology)                                6     10      9            25

UoO    M.Phil. in Comparative and International Education                            5      5                   10
UoO    M.Phil. in International Community Health                                     5      5                   10
UoO    M.Sc. in Public Health (Information systems Track) UWC, South Africa          4                           4

UoT M.Sc. in International Fisheries Management                                   6         4      5            15
Total                                                                           111        96     92      65   364



This table show the distribution of master’s theses submitted in the programme by course and
year throughout the whole time period.




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               Table 2. Master theses submitted in the period from
                              1998-2002 by country

                        COUNTRY                      MASTER THESES
                        ANGOLA:                                       4
                        BANGLADESH:                                  25
                        BHUTAN:                                       1
                        BOTSWANA:                                     8
                        CHINA:                                        2
                        CONGO-KINSHASA                                1
                        ERITREA:                                      5
                        ETHIOPIA:                                    34
                        INDIA:                                        5
                        INDONESIA:                                    1
                        MALAWI:                                       1
                        MALDIVES:                                     3
                        MOZAMBIQUE:                                   3
                        NAMIBIA:                                     10
                        NEPAL:                                       54
                        NICARAGUA:                                    5
                        PAKISTAN:                                     3
                        SOUTH AFRICA:                                 9
                        SRI LANKA:                                   14
                        SUDAN:                                        2
                        TANZANIA:                                    39
                        THE PALESTINIAN TERRITORY:                    7
                        TIBET:                                        1
                        UGANDA:                                      28
                        VIETNAM:                                     19
                        ZAMBIA:                                      16
                        ZIMBABWE:                                     8
                        OTHERS:                                      26

                        Sum                                         334



Only candidates from NORAD’s co-operating partner countries are eligible for the NORAD
Fellowship Programme. The list of prioritied countries is subject to changes in Norwegian
foreign policies. Hence, the list of countries has changed throughout the time period 1998 –
2002. As shown in the table above, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, and Tanzania have the highest
number of students throughout the time period. These countries have been included in the list of
prioritised countries since 1998. Botswana, Congo, Sudan and Tibet are no longer included in
the programme.




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            Table 3. NORAD Fellows enrolled in the programme from
                       1998 - 2002 by gender and country
                    1999                                      2000                        2001                       2002
  Nasjonalitet     K       M    Total % K       K        M      Total % K       K    M    Total % K        K    M    Total % K
     Angola                                     0        3       3     0,0 %                               1    0     1     100,0 %
  Bangladesh       1       8     9    11,1 %    3        10      13   23,1 %    4    4     8     50,0 %    4    7     11    36,4 %
     Bhutan        1             1    100,0 %   0        2       2     0,0 %    0    1     1      0,0 %    0    1     1      0,0 %
   Botswana        1       2     3    33,3 %    1        3       4    25,0 %    4    0     4     100,0 %
     China         1       2     3    33,3 %    1        2       3    33,3 %                               3    2     5     60,0 %

Congo-Kinshasa                                  0        1       1     0,0 %

     Eritrea       0       1     1     0,0 %    2        2       4    50,0 %    2    2     4     50,0 %    1    2     3     33,3 %
    Ethiopia       2     15      17   11,8 %    6        11      17   35,3 %    2    11    13    15,4 %    6    9     15    40,0 %
   Guatemala                                                                    0    1     1      0,0 %
      India                                                                     1    0     1     100,0 %   0    2     2      0,0 %
   Indonesia                                    1        0       1    100,0 %
      Laos                                                                      1    1     2     50,0 %
     Malawi                                     0        1       1     0,0 %    1    1     2     50,0 %    4    2     6     66,7 %
    Maldives       0       1     1     0,0 %    1        0       1    100,0 %   2    2     4     50,0 %
         Mali                                                                                              0    1     1      0,0 %
  Mozambique                                    1        0       1    100,0 %   3    3     6     50,0 %    1    0     1     100,0 %
    Namibia        1       2     3    33,3 %    0        4       4     0,0 %                               2    1     3     66,7 %
     Nepal         5     16      21   23,8 %    3        18      21   14,3 %    2    6     8     25,0 %    4    5     9     44,4 %
   Nicaragua       2       1     3    66,7 %    2        0       2    100,0 %   1    0     1     100,0 %
    Pakistan                                                                    0    4     4      0,0 %    2    1     3     66,7 %
    Palestine      1       6     7    14,3 %    4        2       6    66,7 %    1    3     4     25,0 %    1    1     2     50,0 %
   Philippines     3       1     4    75,0 %    1        2       3    33,3 %
  South Africa                                  1        2       3    33,3 %    2    0     2     100,0 %   2    1     3     66,7 %
    Sri Lanka      3       9     12   25,0 %    4        3       7    57,1 %    0    5     5      0,0 %    1    2     3     33,3 %
     Sudan                                      2        0       2    100,0 %
    Tanzania      12     10      22   54,5 %    8        7       15   53,3 %    8    6     14    57,1 %    6    3     9     66,7 %
    Uganda         5       4     9    55,6 %    4        6       10   40,0 %    2    5     7     28,6 %    9    4     13    69,2 %
    Vietnam        4       5     9    44,4 %    4        8       12   33,3 %    2    4     6     33,3 %    4    4     8     50,0 %
    Zambia         1       5     6    16,7 %    0        7       7     0,0 %    0    1     1      0,0 %    3    0     3     100,0 %
   Zimbabwe        0       2     2     0,0 %    1        3       4    25,0 %                               1    1     2     50,0 %
Totalt              43     90    133 32,3 %         50    97     147 34,0 %     38   60     98 38,8 %      55   49    104   52,9 %



This table shows candidates enrolled in the programme by gender and country. As depicted in
the table, the gender ratio has increased substantially from 32% female students in 1999 to
52,88% females in 2002. The list of enrolled students does not however, correspond with the
number of submitted theses throughout the whole time period, due to delay in study progress for
some of the students. The table also includes candidates from countries which are not longer
listed amoung the prioritised countries eligible for the programme (see Programme Catalogue
2003 for more details).



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