Biology Semester 1 Review Packet Name_ by hcj


									Biology Semester 1 Review Packet                                Name:_______________________
Chapters 1-8, 17, 18, 39, 19, 20                                Date: _______________ Per: ___

Chapter 1- What is Biology?
 1. Biology is the study of ______________________________________________.
 2. Describe each of the following characteristics of life:
        a. Organization
        b. Reproduction
        c. Growth
        d. Homeostasis
        e. Adaptation

 3. What is a hypothesis?
 4. What is an experiment?
 5. What is a control? Why is it important to an experiment?

 6. What does data have to do with an experiment?

Chapter 2- Ecology
 6. Ecology is the study of ______________________________________________.
 7. The biosphere is the part of the Earth that ______________________________.
 8. What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors? Give 2 examples of each.

 9. Explain how the following terms are different from one another:
          a. organism
          b. species
          c. population
          d. community
          e. ecosystem

 10. How are the habitat and niche different for an organism?

 11. Describe the following symbiotic relationships and give an example of each:
          a. parasitism
          b. commensalism
          c. mutualism
 12. What is a producer, or autotroph? Give an example.

 13. What is a consumer, or heterotroph?
 14. The ultimate source of energy for all life is ______________.
 15. What are some specific types of heterotrophs? Give an example of each.

 16. What is a decomposer? Give 2 examples of organisms that are decomposers.

 17. How are a food chain and a food web related?

 18. Draw and label the water cycle using the following terms: precipitation, evaporation,
     transpiration, condensation.

 19. What is the difference between the following terms?
         a. precipitation
         b. evaporation
         c. transpiration
         d. condensation

Chapter 3- Communities and Biomes
 20. What is succession?
 21. What is primary succession?
 22. When will primary succession occur? Give an example.

 23. What is an example of a common pioneer species in primary succession?
 24. What is secondary succession?
 25. When will secondary succession occur? Give 2 examples.

Chapter 4- Population Biology
 26. Draw a J shaped graph. What type of growth is shown in a J shaped graph?

 27. Draw an S shaped graph. Describe what is happening to growth in an S shaped graph.

 28. Explain exponential growth. Give an example of on organism with exponential growth.

 29. What is carrying capacity? Draw and label a dotted line on your S shaped graph to show the
     carrying capacity.

 30. What is the difference between a density-dependent limiting factor and a density-
     independent limiting factor? Give at least 3 examples of each.

 31. Look at Figure 4.8 on page 98 in your textbook. Summarize what happens to the population
     sizes in a predator/prey relationship.

 32. What is age structure?

 33. What does an age structure graph for a stable age structure look like?

Chapter 5- Biodiversity
 34.   What is biodiversity?
 35.   What is extinction?
 36.   What are the causes of acid precipitation?
 37.   What is biomagnification? Give an example.

Chapter 6- Chemistry of Life
 38. What are organic compounds?
 39. Describe the functions of each of the following macromolecules, or biomolecules:
          a. nucleic acid
          b. protein
          c. lipids
          d. carbohydrate
 40. What are amino acids?
 41. What are enzymes?

Chapter 7- The Cell
 42. Summarize the three parts of the cell theory.

 43. What is the advantage of an electron microscope over a light microscope?

 44. What is the function of the fine coarse adjustment knob on the light microscope?

 45. When is the coarse adjustment knob used and when is the fine adjustment knob used?

 46. Explain 3 differences between a prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell.

 47. Give an example of a prokaryote and an example of a eukaryote.

 48. What role does the plasma membrane play for the cell?

 49. Describe what composes the fluid mosaic model.

 50. What is a cell wall? Name 3 types of organisms that may have a cell wall.

 51. Name 3 differences between plant and animal cells.

 52. Why are folded membranes an advantage for the cell?

 53. What is the function of flagella? Cilia?

 54. List the functions of the
     following cell parts then label
     each on the diagram.

     Golgi body-




     Endoplasmic reticulum-



     Plasma membrane-                                          (the black dot)


Chapter 8- Cellular Transport and the Cell Cycle
 55. What is osmosis?
 56. Explain the differences between the following three solutions:
           a. isotonic solution
           b. hypotonic solution
           c. hypertonic solution
 57. Which type of solution may cause a cell to burst? Shrink?
 58. What would happen to a cell placed in salt water?

 59. Complete the diagram using the following terms: passive transport, active transport, simple
     diffusion, facilitated diffusion. Then answer these questions.
                                           a. What types of transport use proteins?

                                         b. What types of transport move from a high
                                            concentration to low concentration?

                                         c.   What types of transport move from low to high?

 60. Draw a picture showing dynamic equilibrium.

 61. Explain the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis.

 62. What limits the size of a cell?

 63. Draw a picture of each of the following stages of the cell cycle: interphase, prophase,
     metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

 64. Describe how the following terms are related: cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.

 65. When does uncontrolled cell growth occur?
 66. What the causes of cancer? List at least 3.

Chapter 17- Classification
 67. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that _________________________________.
 68. What is binomial nomenclature?
 69. Use the dichotomous key below to find out the name of this person: _____________
     1.a. Is happy………………..2
       b. Is sad…………………….3

       2.a. Wears glasses……..Silly Samantha
        b. Does not wear glasses…..Skipping Scott

       3. a. Has long hair………..Sobbing Scarlet
          b. Has short hair………Sad Simon

Chapter 18- Viruses and Bacteria
 70. Where are viruses found?
 71. What do viruses need to reproduce?
 72. Summarize the steps of the following viral cycles:
         a. lytic

            b. lysogenic

 73.   What are the common shapes of bacteria?
 74.   What is binary fission?
 75.   What is conjugation?
 76.   What structure aids in conjugation?

 77. Label the following as a prokaryote or eukaryote.
     bacteria                         fungi                           protist
 78. What are some uses for bacteria?

 79. How do bacteria benefit humans?

Chapter 39- Immunity
 80. What is the function of the immune system?
 81. What leads to resistance to antibiotics?

 82. What is inflammation?
 83. Why is a fever actually helpful?

 84. What is a phagocyte?

 85. What is the function of a macrophage?

 86. What is the difference between an antigen and an antibody?

 87. Why is a person with AIDS susceptible to infectious diseases?

 88. Explain how a vaccination works.

Chapter 19- Protists
 89. Describe the characteristics of organisms in Kingdom Protista.

 90. How are protozoa and algae alike and different?

 91. What protist group is responsible for making much of the Earth’s oxygen in the atmosphere?
 92. Describe each of the following protozoans:
          a. amoebas
          b. flagellates
          c. ciliates
 93. How do amoebas feed?
 94. How does a paramecium move?

Chapter 20- Fungi
 95. What are hyphae and what do they do?

 96. What is a mycelium and what is its function?

 97. What is a sporangium?

 98. Draw a mushroom and label the cap, stipe, and gills.

 99. What is the function of the gills?
 100. Where are spores formed?


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