Course Name: AP Biology Textbook: Each student is provided a copy of the following textbook: Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology. San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings, 2002. Textbook supplement: Each student is provided a copy of this book and is encouraged to use this as a supplement to the textbook especially before midterm exams as the book provides unit summaries and practice multiple choice/essay questions. The book also gives a fairly detailed overview of the 12 AP lab investigations. Pack, Phillip E. Cliffs AP Biology, 2nd Edition. New York City, NY: Hungry Minds, 2001. School Schedule: This syllabus is based on a two semester, six-period day schedule. The classes run approximately 60 minutes in length and students are enrolled in AP Biology for the entire year. Lecture/Notes Format: Notes are written on an overhead using student input. I lead the note-taking sessions with the material/topics presented, however, students are asked to provide basic information and/or examples (i.e. what is the energy source for photosynthesis?) so that they can connect the material to something they already know. I also use an LCD projector to show short animations of major concepts presented (i.e. protein synthesis). Whenever applicable, I also integrate the use of a videoscope to show students cellular structures that may be difficult for them to find on their own. It is also easy for them to overlook critical details (i.e. most cells are in “Interphase” at the tip of an onion root). Readings/Homework: For each unit covered, students are assigned specific readings from the Campbell textbook. In addition, they are provided with questions similar to the end-of-chapter questions found in the book. Because Campbell/Reece have provided answers to these questions for students to access, I slightly modify the questions. Students can utilize the questions in the textbook as a tool to answer those that I give them. For example, when covering “Properties of Water”, I assign readings from pages 41-50 in Chapter 3. The reading would be assigned the night before the lecture and the end-of- chapter questions for that section would be due the day following the lecture. Sample questions for Properties of Water: 1. List 4 properties of water and describe how each is related to the polarity of water. 2. Explain how adhesive and cohesive forces are partially responsible for movement of water up a tree. 3. Explain why sweating creates a cooling effect for humans. 4. Explain how nutrient circulation via the bloodstream and water as an excellent solvent are related concepts. 5. Acid precipitation has lowered the pH of a particular pond to 5.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake? What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake? **Students are also encouraged to use the CD-ROM and website (www.campbellbiology.com) to access animations, case studies, activities, interactive chapter reviews, vocabulary lists, and quizzes. Laboratory Investigations: At the end of each lab description, I have included the type of lab (student-conducted, dry lab, or teacher-led demo). Due to limited access to computers, I have not yet integrated virtual labs into the curriculum. If I specify that the lab runs “1 day”, then the time allotment for that particular investigation is approximately 60 minutes. For labs that require more than 60 -minutes (this will be indicated), students are required to either come to school early (assuming AP Biology is offered first period) or stay in at lunchtime (assuming it is offered before lunch). Many times, especially for the 2-hour + labs, we will read the Introduction section of the AP lab, I will provide them an overview of the procedure, and students will write a formal hypothesis the day before the lab. **Each student is provided a copy of the AP Biology Laboratory Manual: Biology Laboratory Manual for Students: Exercises 1-12, Edition D. Advanced Placement Program, The College Board, 1997. Weekly Plan: In this syllabus, I have included a week-by-week plan of my curriculum. Week 1 Focus on the scientific method 1. Students will design their own experiment using simple sponge animals (synthetic variety). By designing an experiment, students will learn/review how to write a formal hypothesis, identify controlled variables, determine uncontrolled variables, construct formal graphs and tables, and write a logical, concise conclusion. (3 day, student-conducted experiment) Week 2 Properties of Water 1. Notes/lecture (structure/polarity of water, surface tension, cohesion/adhesion, water as an excellent solvent, high heat capacity, density changes, and the pH scale. 2. Properties of water lab (promotes a deeper understanding of surface tension, cohesion/adhesion, dissolving ability of detergents, and the pH scale). (1 day, student- conducted experiment) 3. Water essay assigned (This essay was taken off a past AP exam and asks students to identify the properties of water, relate the property to the molecular structure of water, and provide the biological significance of each property). Week 2-3 Organic Compounds 1. Notes/lecture (carbohydrates and lipids – molecular structure, empirical formula, uses in living organisms. 2. Carbohydrate/Lipid worksheet (Students identify/categorize a variety of organic molecules based on molecular structures – must be able to determine whether the molecule is a carbohydrate or lipid in addition to the type of carbohydrate (monosaccharide, dissacharide, chitin…) and the type of lipid (triglyceride, saturated vs. unsaturated fats, phospholipids, etc.)). 3. Notes/lecture (Proteins and Nucleic Acids – molecular structure including molecular subunits of each molecule, the four structural levels of a protein, uses of each molecule in living organisms). 4. Proteins/Nucleic Acids worksheet – must be able to determine whether a molecule is a protein (polypeptide, dipeptide, single amino acid) – must also be able to determine whether a molecule is a nucleic acid and identify the subunits for DNA (deoxyribose, nitrogenous bases, phosphate group). 5. Notes/Lecture (Dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions – how these pertain to the building up and breaking down of the organic molecules). 6. Organic molecules construction activity. Using a “Molecules of Life” kit, students follow written directions to construct carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins using plastic beads and tubing. Emphasis is placed on the molecular structures, the subunits that compose each of the three compounds, and dehydration synthesis/hydrolysis reactions (the gain or loss of a water molecule). (1 day, student-conducted lab) Week 4 Biogeochemical Cycles 1. Notes/lecture – emphasis is placed on the water cycle, carbon/oxygen cycles, and nitrogen cycle and how these atoms/molecules are recycled. For carbon/oxygen and nitrogen, emphasis is placed on how the cycling is relevant to the organic molecules learned previously. 2. Biogeochemical Cycle Activity – Students use large makeshift dice to circulate around the classroom taking on the role of the “nitrogen atom”. As a nitrogen atom, they simulate its circulation through various levels in a food chain and the atmosphere. At the end of the activity, students combine data from other groups and calculate an average for each station. They then determine the overall pattern of circulation for a nitrogen atom. The goal of the activity is to help students better understand the nitrogen cycle and the major types of bacteria critical to the recycling of this atom (1 day, student-conducted experiment). **Quiz (Scientific method, properties of water, organic compounds, dehydration synthesis/hydrolysis reactions, biogeochemical cycles) Week 5 Energy Transformation and the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics 1. Notes/Lecture – Students are introduced to the concept of free energy and how energy is transformed from one form to another. Students are also introduced to exergonic, endergonic, and coupled reactions. 2. Alkaseltzer lab – Students use various temperatures of water to determine the effect of temperature on a chemical reaction. They apply the results to the concept of exergonic vs endergonic reactions. They must also recognize these types of reactions by looking at various graphs. (1 day, student-conducted experiment) Week 5-6 Enzymes 1. Notes/Lecture – Students are introduced to the basic characteristics of an enzyme (structure, function, effects of pH/temp/salinity, importance to living things) 2. Enzyme worksheet – students read about enzymes and label diagrams. The objective is that they learn that enzymes remain unchanged at the end of a reaction and a substrate is modified. 3. AP Lab 2A (Enzyme Catalysis) – this portion of the AP lab is actually done as a demonstration. Students observe how catalase is affected by heat and then complete the questions from that particular section of the lab. (30 minute, teacher led demo) 4. AP Lab 2B (Enzyme Catalysis) – The procedure for this portion of the AP lab has been modified – however, students still determine the effects of pH on enzyme activity. The questions/reading in the original AP lab are also used for this modified version (2 hour, student-conducted experiment). 5. Notes/Lecture on Enzyme regulation – focus is on metabolic pathways and how allosteric enzymes can be regulators of other molecules. Students also learn about coenzymes and cofactors. 6. Enzyme Regulation Game – this is an activity that I designed to help students better understand the concept of a metabolic pathway. Students play in teams and answer questions pertaining to enzymes as they “deactivate” the allosteric enzymes of their teammates to prevent them from entering the metabolic pathway to gain points (1 day, student-conducted activity). Week 6 Review for Midterm 1 (This framework remains consistent from one midterm to the next). 1. Students are assigned end-of-chapter questions from Cliff Notes Guide. 2. Students are given a packet of multiple choice questions (approximately 50) to answer as homework. The questions have been taken out of a variety of AP Biology Review books (including Cliffs Notes Guide) as well as released AP Biology exams. Many of the questions, however, have been slightly modified. 3. Students play “Greed” – a review game that I have written to maximize their review time. They can move through various levels of difficulty by answering questions. They are able to get through a large number of questions in a short amount of time and because they work in a group, they are help each other by explaining answers. Students are given one class period to play this game and they are also encouraged to play before school, at lunch and after school two days before the exam. The game only emphasizes major concepts and vocabulary and does not “give away” the questions that are on the midterm. Midterm 1 (Properties of Water, Organic molecules, Biogeochemical Cycles, Chemical Reactions, Enzymes) In-class essays assigned: 1)Enzyme Catalysis (tests knowledge of AP Lab 2 and the scientific method) 2)Nitrogen Cycle Note: Midterms are always split into two days to fit the traditional 6 period schedule. On one day, the students write two essays and on the second day students complete 75 multiple choice questions. Most of the essays have been obtained from past AP exams and have been modified to fit the needs of my students. I try to focus on comprehension of major concepts and problem solving versus the memorization of facts. The Multiple choice is designed to be difficult and reflect a university-level exam. Week 7 Cell Structure (Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote; Plant vs. Animal) 1. Notes/Lecture (Focus on cell theory and structure vs. function of cellular organelles) 2. Worksheets (two of these with diagrams/questions) 3. Microscope lab (Cheek cell preparation, Elodea, and bacterial smear). Helps students better understand differences between eukaryote (plant vs. animal) and prokaryote cells. (1 day, student-conducted lab) 4. Notes/Lecture (Focus on Endosymbiosis hypothesis) 5. Edible cell project – students construct one prokaryotic and one eukaryotic cell composed of edible materials along with a question sheet to present to the class. Week 8 Cell Membrane and Transport 1. Notes/Lecture (split into two class periods – one period spent covering cell membrane with emphasis on structure vs. function and the next day is spent on cell transport – again, focusing on structure vs. function). 2. AP Lab 1 (Osmosis and Diffusion). This portion of the lab is done as a demonstration). Students watch to see what happens over time with the IKI, starch, and glucose and then answer the questions on the AP lab (1 hour, teacher-led demonstration). 3. Lab 2B is done by the students themselves in which they set up their own dialysis bags (2 hour, student-conducted experiment). 4. Lab C and D is carried out as a “dry lab” in which I provide students with the data for the potato cores and they have to construct graphs and interpret the results as homework. 5. Part 2E is done by the students. Using microscopes, they observe what happens to an Elodea cell when salt is added (1 hour, student-conducted experiment). 6. Notes/Lecture on Water Potential – this is actually done before students complete Lab 2C and 2D. 7. Essay assigned for homework (Design-an-experiment using the concept of dialysis bags and diffusion/osmosis). Quiz: (Cell Structure, Cell membrane structure/transport) Week 9-10 Photosynthesis 1. Notes/Lecture on the light-dependent reaction. 2. AP lab 4A (paper chromatography). (1 day, student-conducted experiment). 3. AP lab 4B – conducted by students as well. However, has been modified. Students measure oxygen production to determine effect of light intensity and boiling on photosynthesis instead of using the spectrophotometer and DPIP. The actual AP lab procedure, however, is discussed in class and students interpret actual data generated from prior labs I have lead using the Spectrophotometer, DPIP, and chloroplast suspensions (90 minute, student-conducted experiment). 4. Notes/Lecture on the light-independent reaction (also C3 /C4 plants). 5. Photosynthesis Mania. This is a board game that I created in which students compete against one another by answering questions pertaining to photosynthesis as they circulate between the light and dark reactions. (1 day, student-conducted activity) Week 10-11 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 1. Lecture/Notes (Takes two class periods – topics covered include Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain, Fat and Protein Metabolism, and Fermentation). 2. Respiration Game – Students play a “memory” board game in which they must remember the amount of energy produced at different points in Glycolysis and Krebs cycle. They also answer review questions pertaining to respiration throughout the game. (90 minute, student- conducted activity). 3. AP Lab 5 – Students conduct this lab themselves and utilize respirometers and germinating vs. non-germinating pea seeds at two different temperatures. (2 hour, student-conducted experiment). Week 12 Review for Midterm 2 (Similar to the Review format for Midterm 1) 1. Students are assigned end-of-chapter questions from Cliff Notes Guide. 2. Students are given a packet of multiple choice questions. 3. Students play “Greed” in class (1 period), before school, at lunch, and after school. Midterm 2 (Cell Theory, Cell Structure, Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Cells, Animals vs. Plant Cells, Cell Membrane and Transport, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Fermentation) In-class essays assigned: 1)Membrane Structure and Function 2) Lab 4A – Data Interpretation/Graph construction Week 13-14 DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis, and Gene Regulation 1. Notes/Lecture (DNA history, molecular structure) 2. Notes/Lecture (DNA replication) 3. DNA replication Activity (building DNA models and simulating DNA replication – kit) (1 day, student-conducted lab). 4. Notes/Lecture (RNA and Protein Synthesis) 5. Protein Synthesis Activity (note card simulation – transcription/translation) (1 day, student- conducted lab). 6. Protein Synthesis Essay 7. Notes/Lecture (Lac Operon Model) 8. Jumping Genes Article (Read and Questions) Week 14-15 Cell Cycle 1. Notes/Lecture (phases of mitosis and regulation of the cell cycle) 2. Mitosis Activity (using paper chromosomes) (1 day, student-conducted lab). 3. AP Lab 3A (hands-on lab) – students use microscopes to locate the different phases of cell division in onion root tips and fish blastula cells. (1 day, student-conducted lab). Quiz (DNA, DNA Replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene Regulation, and Mitosis) Week 15 – 18 Mendelian Genetics 1. Notes/Lecture (monohybrid crosses and the experiments of Mendel) 2. Notes/Lecture (dihybrid crosses and the experiments of Mendel) 3. Notes/Lecture (sex-linked crosses) 4. Punnett Squares worksheets/practice problems (all three crosses) 5. AP Lab 7 (Drosophila crosses). Students cross F1 flies from three different sets of parents: wildtype x sepia (monohybrid cross), wildtype x white (sex-linked cross), and sepia x vestigial (dihybrid cross). They utilize punnett squares to determine the expected phenotypic ratio for the F2 flies. After approximately 2-3 weeks, students count flies and apply a chi-square analysis to the results to determine whether there is a significant difference between expected and observed ratios. (This lab is broken into approximately 5 days – 1 day for identifying the four fly phenotypes and learning to sex the flies, 1 day for crossing F 1 flies, 2 days for counting flies, and 1 day for applying a chi-square analysis to the data. This is a student- conducted lab). 6. Notes/Lecture (ABO groups) 7. Punnett Square practice problems (ABO) 8. Notes/Lecture (Meiosis – phases of with focus on differences between meiosis and mitosis). 9. Meiosis Activity (Students utilize the same paper chromosomes used in the mitosis activity to visualize the differences between the two processes. They are also given playdough of different colors to simulate crossing over between homologous chromosomes). (1 day, student-conducted lab). 10. AP Lab 3B (crossing over in Sordaria). (1 day, teacher-led demo using videoscope). 11. Gene Linkage Activity. This is a two-day activity in which students utilize a different set of paper chromosomes to visualize what happens when two genes are linked on the same chromosome and how the punnett square ratios are different when they are not linked. Students also learn, using recombination frequencies, how to map genes (2 day, student- conducted lab). 12. Notes/Lecture (Genetic Disorders and Pedigrees) 13. Pedigree worksheet (students determine inheritance patterns for genes based on pedigree analysis). Midterm 3 (DNA, Protein Synthesis, Gene Regulation, Mitosis/Meiosis, and Mendelian Genetics) Week 19-20 Biotechnology 1. Notes/Lecture – Latest advances in biotechnology including cloning, DNA sequencing, genetic engineering, electrophoresis, and restriction enzymes. 2. Film “Designer Babies”. 3. Restriction Enzyme – paper activity – students genetically alter bacteria by inserting an “oil digesting gene” – learn how restriction enzymes splice DNA and other important concepts. (1 day student-conducted lab). 4. Notes/Lecture – Bacterial transformation – write hypotheses for AP Lab 6A. 5. AP Lab 6A (Bacterial tranformation). I have modified this lab slightly as I order a kit from BioRad – students heat shock bacteria to take up plasmid DNA containing a “glowing” jellyfish gene. Although the results from this lab vary slightly from the original AP lab, students are still provided the original results to read from paper in which they must interpret and draw conclusions. (2 hour, student-conducted lab). 6. AP Lab 6B (Restriction Digests and Lambda DNA). Students conduct an alternate lab for this one as well. They use DNA from two different suspects (Carolina Biological) and compare it to the patterns found in the evidence DNA to determine which suspect committed a mock crime. Although we do not carry out the original procedure for this lab, students are still given data pertaining to bp lengths for one of the restriction enzymes used. Using electrophoresis results (provided by me), they graph the results on semi-log graph paper to determine the bp length of the second restriction enzyme (2 hour, student-conducted experiment). 7. Stem cell article and questions. This article describes stem cells and the current technological application. 8. Electrophoresis essay. Week 21-23 Evolution and the Origin of Life 1. Notes/Lecture – Mutations and Genetic diversity as a basis for evolutionary change. 2. Notes/Lecture – Evidence for evolution/Introduction to Charles Darwin. 3. Evolution worksheet 1 and 2. 4. Notes/Lecture – Introduction to Charles Darwin/3 Mechanisms for evolution. 5. AP Lab 8 (PTC test paper and Hardy-Weinberg) (2 hour, student-conducted experiment). 6. Notes/Lecture – Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 7. More practice problems (Hardy-Weinberg). 8. Notes/Lecture – Speciation, Darwin’s finches, and Reproductive Barriers. 9. Notes/Lecture/worksheet – Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium. 10. Noes/Lecture – Early evolution of Life Quiz (Biotechnology and Evolution) Week 23-24 Diversity of Organisms and Phylogenetic Classification (Viruses/Bacteria/Protists/Fungi) 1. Lecture/Notes – Viruses. 2. Article on the Ebola virus. 3. Lecture/Notes – Bacteria classification/physiology (some of this has been covered previously with the prokaryotic cell during the cell unit and with the transformation lab as students became familiar with microbiology techniques such as streaking plates and bacterial growth patterns). 4. Lecture/Notes – Protists 5. Protista Worksheets 6. Protista film 7. Protists microscope lab (prepared slides/water samples) (1 day, student-conducted lab). 8. Lecture/Notes (Fungi) – Fungi microscopic structure was covered to some degree during AP Lab 3B (crossing over in Sordaria). 9. Phylogenetic Tree – students construct and add to an ongoing evolutionary tree. We begin with the three Bacterial Domains and then add to the Eukarya Domain as we cover Protists and Fungi. Week 24-27 Plants (Taxonomy, Anatomy, Reproduction) 1. Plants Classification (scavenger hunt) – mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms 2. Add to Eukarya Domain (on phylogenetic tree) 3. Notes/Lecture (mosses and ferns – taxonomy, anatomy, life cycle) 4. Notes/Lecture (Seed plants – characteristics and reproduction) 5. Plant diversity lab (mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms, monocots/dicots). (3 day, student-conducted lab). 6. Notes/Lecture (Leaf anatomy) 7. Leaf lab (microscope) and stomata prints (1 day, student-conducted lab). 8. Notes/Lecture (TACT forces) 9. AP Lab 9A (measuring transpiration in impatiens using potometers). (2 hour, student- conducted experiment). 10. Notes/Lecture (Plant tissues) 11. AP Lab 9B (Leaf tissues: embryonic, parenchyma, sclerenchyma, collenchyma, xylem, and phloem). (2 day, teacher-led demo using slides and videoscope). 12. Plant hormones/tropisms worksheet. Midterm 4 – Biotechnology, Evolution, Classification, and Plants) In-Class essays assigned: 1) Mechanisms for Evolution 2) Transpiration –interpreting data Week 28 Animal development/classification 1. Lecture/Notes (Symmetry, embryonic tissues, asexual vs. sexual reproduction, cephalization, etc.) 2. Starfish development lab (slides). (1 day, student-conducted experiment). 3. Invertebrate characteristics packet – this packet leads students through the 7 invertebrate phyla. Students are provided a table in which they fill out the major evolutionary developments for each phylum. They also draw pictures and answer questions pertaining to major concepts. Students also spend time looking at slides and specimen. This packet generally takes about 3 days to complete (3 day, student-conducted lab). 4. A separate phylogenetic tree is constructed for the animal kingdom. Students begin with animal-like, single-celled protists at the bottom and then begin adding each of the animal phyla. With each phylum, students also add the major evolutionary development for each phylum onto the tree. This is constructed and added to each of the three days that the invertebrate phyla are covered. Week 29 (Spring Break) Animal Behavior 1. AP Lab 11 - Students complete the portion of the lab pertaining to pill bug behavior on their own time over spring break. I provide them with the petri dishes needed to experiment with the pillbugs, however, they must find their own pillbugs. (1 day, student-conducted experiment). Week 30 Vertebrates 1. Students complete a vertebrate packet which leads them through the five major classes of vertebrates focusing on the evolutionary trend of water to land and the major adaptations of terrestrial vertebrates. This packet is similar to the invertebrate packet in that it condenses information so that students focus on evolutionary relationships between the different vertebrate classes. 2. Finish phylogenetic tree for vertebrates. Week 30-32 Human Body Systems 1. Notes/Lecture (nervous, digestive, excretory, circulatory, respiratory, and immune systems) – this is taught over an 8-day period with emphasis placed on understanding structure related to function as well as comprehension of major concepts such as the sodium/potassium pump. 2. Various worksheets, films, and diagrams are used to support learning. 3. AP Lab 10 – Students use blood pressure monitors to determine their individual fitness levels. They complete the Daphnia portion of the lab as a “dry lab” in which I provide them with data and they graph the data and draw their own conclusions about the effects of temperature on ectotherm heart rate (90 minute, student-conducted experiment). Week 32-33 Ecology 1. Notes/Lecture (Biogeochemical cycles review) 2. Packet given to students in which we cover/discuss biomes, food webs/energy pyramids, ecological relationships between organisms, population growth, and mimicry. This packet takes approximately 2 days to complete 3. AP Lab 12 – Dissolved oxygen in a pond ecosystem. A pre-lab packet is given to students and they identify the various trophic levels in a food web. They also investigate the effects of oxygen production/consumption on an ecosystem and write hypotheses. Students then collect pond water samples and use the light/dark bottle method to determine the gross and net productivity in the water. (2 day, student-conducted experiment). 4. Notes/Lecture – Human impact on the environment (Global warming, Pollution, Eutrophication, Ozone depletion). Week 33-35 Review for Final Exam/AP Exam 1. Students play “Greed” once again to review any unit/units of their choice in groups. 2. Students complete a lab review packet that I wrote myself. This includes an overview of all 12 AP labs and the major concepts covered. 3. Students complete 8 review worksheets that I put together. These require that students read back through all of the notes they have completed for the year. 4. Students take 3 practice exams (these are released AP exams). 5. Students take a final exam 4 days prior to AP exam so that they have time to go over their final and study any necessary concepts. The final exam is a released AP exam that the students have never seen before. They are also given two in-class essays to write which vary from year to year.
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