• John Keats was born on 31 October 1795
to Thomas and Frances Jennings Keats.
His father was the manager of a stable in
• He was the oldest of their four surviving
children—George (1797–1841), Thomas
(1799–1818), and Frances Mary "Fanny"
• English poet who became one of the key
figures of the Romantic movement. Along
with Lord Byron and Percy Shelley, Keats
was one of the second generation of
• Keats had a theory named Negative
Historical Context /The French
• France was nearing bankruptcy as Louis XVI
ascended to the throne.
• By July 1789, arriving foreign soldiers under
French service were summoned to, presumably,
shut down the National Assembly.
• Riots began over Paris, with the mobs gaining
the support of the French guard including trained
soldiers and firearms.
Historical Context /Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a conflict against Napoleon’s French
Empire, declared by the gathered European forces.
The French introduced general conscription, military reform and ―total
The Napoleonic Wars became a direct continuation of the French civil
wars, with no exact start date known.
It is assumed they started after Napoleon seized power.
Parliamentary Reform (1795-1832)
• The reform was put into action in England to take effective ‘measures
for correcting diverse abuses’.
• It met opposition from the Tories
• The act gave larger cities seats, while throwing out smaller populated
areas, called ‘Rotten Boroughs’.
• There was corruption after this occurred, due to nobility and rich
The Luddite Riots (1811-1812)
• Social movement of British textiles artisans.
• They destroyed mechanical looms, as the industrial revolution destroyed their skill.
• This had an effect on the economic climate, due to the end of Napoleonic wars.
• The term Luddite…
• British government reacted in 1812.
Historical Context /End of the French
• The social and economic situation of the
UK was greatly altered following the war.
• Population grew by 50%
• Low wages for work
• Increased prices
• A historic recession period.
Historical Context /Industrial
Revolution (17th-18th Century)
• Keats was part inspired by the Industrial
Revolution in Britain.
• Despite improved number of jobs, the
conditions were generally quite bad.
• Strict work conditions, long hours and
having to work to a pace set by machines.
Peterloo Massacre (1819)
• Cavalry charged 60-80 000 protestors.
• Due to effects of Napoleonic war
• Corn laws only added to the public pressure