Microsoft Word - AP Biology

Document Sample
Microsoft Word - AP Biology Powered By Docstoc

                                     Hanford Joint Union High School
                                    DISTRICT CURRICULUM GUIDE

    I. COURSE NAME:                       Advanced Placement Biology

              Grade Level:                Junior/Senior
              Prerequisite:               Geometry, Biology; and Chemistry
              Duration:                   One year (2 Semesters)
              Date:                       January, 2008
              Textbook:                   Biology, 5th Edition, 1999 Benjamin and Cummings


The AP Biology course is designed to be the equivalent of a college introductory biology course. AP
biology is a second year course and differs from regular and honors Biology with respect to the
textbook used, the range and depth of topics covered, the kind of laboratory work done, and the time
and effort required by the students. It aims to provide students with the conceptual framework, factual
knowledge, and analytical skills necessary to deal critically with the rapidly changing science of
biology. (Adapted from the 2001/2002 Acorn Book)



                    Reading: Lab procedures and textbook content Science journal articles
                                     Writing: Lab reports and research papers Prewriting
                                     activities (clustering, listing, grouping, etc.) Essay
    th         th
11 & 12 Grade English/Language Arts Writing Standards Essential to Advanced Placement Biology
.    W 1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when
     narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.
.    W 1.3 Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and
     relevant examples.
.    W 1.5 Use specific language in natural, fresh, vivid ways to establish a specific tone.
.    W 1.6 Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and critical research strategies (e.g. Field
     studies, oral histories, interviews, experiments, electronic sources).
.    W 1.7 Use systematic strategies to organize and record information.
.    W 1.8 Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.
.    W 1.9 Revise text to highlight the individual voice, improve sentence variety and style, and enhance subtlety of meaning
     and tone in ways that are consistent with the purpose, audience, and genre.
.    W/0 1.1 Demonstrate control of grammar, diction, and paragraph and sentence structure and an understanding of English
•    W 2.3 Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports. (9/10 standard)

     a.    Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives.
   c.    Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.

         Speaking: Verbal presentations
                   Class discussions

        Critical Thinking/Problem Solving
                 Use the scientific method as a problem-solving tool
                 Inferring function from observation of structure

               Utilization of various sources of information from library and computer network
               Application of specific research skills through interaction with the library media

               Application of biotechnology as a learning tool (gel electrophoresis, bacterial
               transformation, spectrophotometer analysis, etc.) Use of library/media center and
               computer labs Use of EKG and other computer-based research tools Application of
               technology to research process

                     Knowledge of and adherence to school/classroom rules, with particular emphasis on
                     honesty policy, respect for self and others Emphasis on personal responsibility for
                     attentiveness, constructive use of class time, diligence in daily assigned work and

         Refer to Biology Life Science Content Standards for California Public Schools Grades
         9-12 (California Department of Education, 1998) and Advanced Placement Course
         Description, Biology, (2000-2001).

         Although academic freedom is supported and encouraged, essential elements presented
         must be covered. Teachers are encouraged to supplement the required elements with
         additional selections provided in the text or ancillary materials.

The following is a listing of tentative course topics with the approximate percentage of the course
coverage time for each topic. Standards are listed once where they would first appear in the
curriculum; AP Biology is a thematic course requiring the integration of information from several

 Each semester includes a science activity/assignment that addresses and
 assesses Focus Standards from English language Arts (ELA) and
 Mathematics. These activities will be identified by this text box.

                                                            FIRST SEMESTER
                                         SDAIE Instructional Strategies

     Modeling, visuals and graphic organizers: drawings of cell process, equipment
     Metacognition and Authentic Assessment: Anticipatory Charts (KWL), Rubrics, compare &
      contrast (graphic organizer)
    Guided Interaction: Lab work (osmosis lab, photosynthesis lab, pH lab, organic compound
      lab), jigsaw activity
    Explicit Instruction: PowerPoint with animation and pictures, showing steps of transcription
      and translation
Vocabulary & Language Development: root word identification, image paired with vocabulary word

Explicit Instruction: power points with figures, diagrams and animations, use of question-answer
relationships with the text

I. Molecules and Cells (25%) (9 weeks)
    A. Chemistry of Life (7%) (2.5 weeks)
1      Water
       2.     Organic Molecules in Organisms
        a.       standard 1h – most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and
organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors
        b.       standard 4f – why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and
chemical properties
2        Free energy changes
         4.     Enzymes
         a.      standard 1b – enzymes are proteins and catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction
equilibrium. The activity of enzymes depends on the temperature, ionic conditions and pH of the surroundings
3        Lab: Enzyme Catalysts (4 hours)

    B. Cells (10%) (3.5 weeks)
       1. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
             a.   standard 1c – how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals),
                  and viruses differ in complexity and general structure
         2. Membranes
             a.   standard1a – cells are enclosed within semi-permeable membranes that regulate their
                  interaction with their surrounding
1        Lab: Diffusion and Osmosis (4 hours)
         4.    Subcellular organization
         a.      standard 1e – the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in secretion of
proteinsstandard1j – how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton and/or cell wall
2        Cell cycle and its regulation

    C. Cellular Energetics (8%) (3 weeks)
       1. Coupled reactions
             a.   standard 1i – how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP
         2. Fermentation and cellular respiration
             a.   standard 1g – the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical bond energy available to cells by
                  completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide
1        Lab: Cell Respiration (4 hours)
          4.      Photosynthesis
         a.      standard 1f – usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts, and stored via the synthesis of
sugar from carbon dioxide
2         Lab: Plant Pigments andPhotosynthesis (4 hours)

II. Evolution and Heredity (25%) (9 weeks)
    A. Heredity (8%) (3 weeks)
       1. Meiosis and Gametogenesis
         a.      standard 2a – meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate
and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type
         b.      standard 2b – only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis
         c.      standard 2c – how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will
be in a gamete
         d.      standard 2d – new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through fusion of male and
female gametes (fertilization)
         e.      standard 2e – why approximately half of an individual’s DNA sequence comes from each parent
         f.      standard 3b – the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment

1         Lab Mitosis and Meiosis (4 hours)
          3.   Eukaryotic chromosomes
        a.        standard 2f – the role of chromosomes in determining an individual’s sex.
        b.        standard 3d – how to use data on frequency of recombination at meiosis to estimate genetic distances
between loci, and to interpret genetic maps of chromosomes
          4.      Inheritance patterns
          a.      standard 2g -how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the
         b.       standard 3a – how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes
of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive)
         c.       standard 3c – how to predict the probable mode of inheritance from a pedigree diagram showing
         d.       standard 4d – specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of
gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves
         e.       standard 7b – why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote,
and thus maintained in a gene pool
2         Lab: Genetics of Organisms (4 hours)

B. Molecular Genetics (9%) (3.5 weeks)
   1. RNA and DNA structure and function
         a.       standard 1d – the Central Dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from
transcription of RNA in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm
         b.       standard 5a – the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein
         c.       standard 5b – how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semi-
conservative replication, and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA

    2. Gene regulation
         a.       standard 4a – the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate
genetic information in mRNA
         b.       standard 4b – how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a
sequence of codons in RNA
         c.       standard 4e – proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids

    3. Mutation
         a.       standard 4c – how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the
gene, or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein
         b.       standard 7c – new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool

1         Viral structure and replication
          5.       Nucleic acid technology and applications
          a.       standard 5c – how genetic engineering (biotechnology) is used to produce novel biomedical and
agricultural products
          b.       standard 5d – how basic DNA technology (restriction digestion by endonucleases, gel electrophoresis,
ligation, and transformation) is used to construct recombinant DNA molecules
          c.       standard 5e – how exogenous DNA can be inserted into bacterial cells in order to alter their genetic
makeup and support expression of new protein products
2         Lab: Molecular Biology - Gel Electrophoresis and Bacterial Transformation (6hours)

C. Evolutionary Biology (8%) (2.5 weeks)
1     Early evolution of life
      2.     Evidence for evolution
         a.      standard 6g – how to distinguish between the accommodation of an individual organism to its
environment and the gradual adaptation of a lineage of organisms through genetic change
         b.      standard 8e – how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and
mass extinction
2         Mechanisms of evolution
3         Lab: Population Genetics and Evolution (2 hours)

    a.   standard 7a – why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an
    b.   standard 7c – new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.
         standard 7d – variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members
    c.   of
         a species will survive under changed environmental conditions
    d.   standard 7e – the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in a population, and why these
         conditions are not met in nature
         standard 7f – how to solve the Hardy-Weinberg equation to determine the predicted
    e.   frequency
         of genotypes in a population, given the frequency of phenotypes
         standard 8a – how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of
    g.   standard 8b – a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms
         survive large changes in the environment
    h.   standard 8c – the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population
    i.   standard 8d – reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation
    j.   standard 8g – how several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and
         using evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of
         organisms diverged evolutionarily from each other

Activity: Students will view video and read articles purporting different theoriesabout the origin
of life and write an essay defending one theory.

Key ELA Standard:
      R2.4 Synthesize content by paraphrasing and connecting ideas
      WI.7 Use systematic strategies to organize and record information.
      W2.4 Write a persuasive essay.

Assessment: HJUHS writing rubric for persuasive essay

Activity: Students will calculate whether or not a population is maintainingHardy-
Weinberg equilibrium using the correct equations
Key Math Standard:
   • Hardy Weinberg equation p+q=1, p2+2pq+q2=1

Assessment: Correct calculation of allele, genotypic, and phenotypic frequencies from given

                                              SECOND SEMESTER

                                         SDAIE Instructional Strategies

     Modeling, visuals and graphic organizers: drawings of plant and animal structures
     Metacognition and Authentic Assessment: Anticipatory Charts (KWL), Rubrics, compare &
      contrast (graphic organizer)
    Guided Interaction: Lab work (osmosis lab, photosynthesis lab, pH lab, organic compound
      lab), jigsaw activity
    Explicit Instruction: PowerPoint with animation and pictures, showing steps of transcription
      and translation
Vocabulary & Language Development: root word identification, image paired with vocabulary word

Explicit Instruction: power points with figures, diagrams and animations, use of question-answer
relationships with the text
Webbing/mapping: animal and plant processes, evolutionary relationships

III. Organisms and Populations (50%) (18 weeks)
    A. Diversity of Organisms (8%) (3 weeks)
       1. Evolutionary patterns
             a.   standard 8f – how to use comparative embryology, DNA or protein sequence comparisons, and other
                  independent sources to create a branching diagram (cladogram) that shows probable evolutionary
        2. Survey of the diversity of life
             a.   standard 10d – there are important differences between bacteria and viruses, with respect to their
                  requirements for growth and replication, the primary defense of the body against them, and effective
                  treatment of infections they cause
1       Phylogenetic classification
2       Evolutionary relationships

  B. Structure and Function of Plants and Animals (32%) (11.5 weeks)
1     Reproduction, growth, and development
      2.     Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations
          a.       standard 9a – how the complementary activity of major body systems provides cells with oxygen and
nutrients, and removes toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide
          b.       standard 9b – how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and
interactions with the environment
          c.       standard 9c – how feedback loops in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate conditions within the
          d.       standard 9d – the functions of the nervous system, and the role of neurons in transmitting
electrochemical impulses
          e.       standard 9e – the roles of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in sensation, thought, and
         f.       standard 9f – the individual functions and sites of secretion of digestive enzymes (amylases, proteases,
nucleases, lipases), stomach acid, and bile salts
         g.       standard 9g – the homeostatic role of the kidneys in the removal of nitrogenous wastes, and of the liver
in blood detoxification and glucose balance.
         h.       standard 9h – the cellular and molecular basis of muscle contraction, including the roles of actin,
myosin, Ca , and ATP
         i.       standard 9i – how hormones (including digestive, reproductive, osmoregulatory) provide internal
feedback mechanisms for homeostasis at the cellular level and in whole organisms
         j.       standard 10a – the role of the skin in providing nonspecific defenses against infection
         k.       standard 10b – the role of antibodies in the body’s response to infection
         l.       standard 10c – how vaccination protects an individual from infectious diseases
         m.       standard 10e – why an individual with a compromised immune system (for example, a person with
AIDS) may be unable to fight off and survive infections of microorganisms that are usually benign
         n.       standard 10f – the roles of phagocytes, B-lymphocytes, and T-lymphocytes in the immune system
2         Lab: Plant Transpiration (4 hours)
3         Lab: Physiology of Blood Circulation (4 hours)
4         Response to the environment

    C. Ecology (10%) (3.5 weeks)
       1. Population dynamics
                a.   standard 6c – how fluctuations in population size in an ecosystem are determined by the relative
                     rates of birth, immigration, emigration, and death
        2. Communities and ecosystems
          a.       standard 6a – biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms, and is affected by alterations
of habitats
          b.       standard 6b – how to analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from changes in climate, human
activity, introduction of non-native species, or changes in population size.
          c.       standard 6d – how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in the
ecosystem and how oxygen cycles via photosynthesis and respiration
          d.       standard 6e – a vital part of an ecosystem is the stability of its producers and decomposers
          e.       standard 6f – at each link in a food web, some energy is stored in newly made structures but much is
dissipated into the environment as heat and this can be represented in a food pyramid

1         Lab: Dissolved Oxygen (4 hours)
2         Global issues

        .   Teacher/ publisher-generated activities, projects, writing, quizzes, tests and final exams
        .   Lab practicals and laboratory reports
        .   The use of rubrics to grade writing and/ or projects, by both teacher and student peers

          The designated textbooks, materials, and technologies meet the state standards for
          this content area.
      .       Primary Text: Campbell, Reece, Mitchell. (1999). Biology, Fifth Edition.
      .       Associated text support materials
      .       Cliff’s Notes, AP Biology
      .       Internet
      .       Flexcam/microscopes
      .       CBL based experiments
      .       A.D.A.M. software

VII.      TEACHING ACTIVITIES/STRATEGIES                                TO       IMPLEMENT              CONTENT
Lab Work
      . Teacher models the lab before conducting the experiment. (auditory, visual)
         . Teacher gives verbal and written directions (auditory, visual)
         .        Students complete the lab experiment correctly (kinesthetic, tactual, gustatory and olfactory as
         . Students analyze data and report lab results in proper format. (visual, tactual)
         . Students derive a unique experimental approach to solving a given hypothesis (tactual, kinesthetic)

Class Work
       .           Participatory lecture to facilitate content development. (kinesthetic, auditory, visual, olfactory, tactual)
         . Diagram structures and sequence biological/physiological events (tactual, visual)
         . Problem-solving and critical thinking pertaining to ethical dilemmas (auditory)
         . Reading and writing as a means to communicate understanding of content. (visual, tactual)
         . Bring in speakers to show career/real-world connections (auditory, visual, tactual)
         . Cooperative group work (auditory, visual, tactual, kinesthetic)

Independent/Group Work
       . Students construct models (tactual, kinesthetic, visual)
         . Students diagram biological/physiological events (visual)
         . Students do independent research and presentations (auditory, visual)

         . Students interact in ―jeopardy‖ games of key concepts and vocabulary
         . Students will compose essays and complete creative writing assignments
         . The teacher asks leading questions to generate a discussion

         . Students sequence events in the cell cycle, DNA replication, protein synthesis
         . Design a controlled experiments relating to the twelve required lab exercises
         . Students construct models of organ systems
         . Students sequence physiological events each system uses to maintain homeostasis
         . Students analyze pedigrees to determine patterns of inheritance

         . Students construct a model of the cell and its organelles
         . Diagram various organ systems and show relationships of structures
         .        Students will understand depth of focus on a microscope and know each of the parts of the microscope.
         . Students will make drawings of lab observations
         . Students will construct maps and flow charts of biological/physiological processes

         . Students write and sing a rap song or use acronyms to learn concepts relating to each system

         .        Students will act out respiration, photosynthesis, muscle contraction, phagocytosis, and other
biological/physiological processes
         .        Students will serve as experimental subjects for labs involving reflexes, blood pressure, and respiration

         . Students will participate in collaborative research projects
         . Students will performed lab experiments in cooperative groups
         . Students will simulate biological/physiological processes

         . Students seek individual help during lunch or after school
         . Students will keep journals/learning logs for each unit

Shared By: