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COMPLIS : QOllinear Spectroscopy Measurements
Pulsed Laser Ion Source
Orsaym, Mainzs, Montreal4, Pariss, Lyons, GSI7 Collaboration
J. Arianerl, N. Bo0s3, F. Buchinger‘*, J. Crawford‘*, L. Davey4, I. Delonclel, H.T.
Duong2·, G. Huber3, P. Juncars, P. Kilcherl, M. Krieg3, T. Kiihl7, F. LeBlanc1, J .K.P.
Lee4, J. Libertl, R. Neugarts J. Obertl, J. Omsl, M. Pellerin6, J. Pinardz, J.C. Putauxl,
P. Quentinl, B. Roussierel, J. Sauvagel and J. L. Vialles
Spokesman: G. Huber
Contactperson: C. Serre
A pulsed laser spectroscopy experiment is proposed for the study of hyperfine structure
and isotope shift of refractory and daughter elements from ISOLDE beams. It includes de
celerated ion—implantation, laser desorption, element-sensitive laser ionization, magnetic
and time—of-flight mass separation. The laser spectroscopy will be performed in a set-up at
the PSB Isolde allowing high resolution collinear spectroscopy with the secondary pulsed
ion beam. In the first step very neutron-deficient Pt isotopes will be studied to search for
a second shape transition around A=18O and to investigate the parabolic baseline in the
isotope shift, well documented in lighter elements only. Neighbouring refractory elements
as well as tin isotopes and their heavy neighbours should be investigated. OCR Output
In order to test the usual nuclear models very far from beta-stability, we want to get in
formation about the static behaviour of nuclear matter, especially the equilibrium shape
of exotic nuclei. Shape instability and isomerism have already been found below Z=82
around the mid neutron shell in Hg , Tl , Pb , and more recently in Au , and Pt
[5,6] (Fig. 1). In the platinum case shape transition has been found which has a rather
weak signature in 5 < rz > but it is strongly supported by a detailed nuclear spectroscopy
( ·y —- cy and conversion electrons ), magnetic and quadrupole moments.
There are hints from nuclear spectroscopy for a second shape transition around
A=180: Systematics of the energy of the rotational states built on the even- even plati
num ground states show a sudden change in the moment of inertia associated with the
shape transition at A=186. A similar change can be deduced from in-beam experiments
, which suggests a second shape transition around A=180.
Lattice Hartree-Fock +BCS calculations for an axially asymmetric solution  have been
performed for even—even platinum isotopes. They reproduce the general trend of the ex
perimental 5 < rf >; they predict an oblate shape for the heavier isotopes, a prolate for
the lighter ones. However the shape transition is predicted 3 masses too high and the flat
part of the 5 < rg > curve is not reproduced in these calculations. The potential energy
surfaces are found to be very soft close to N=110. From this it is expected that dynamical
effects, which have not been taken into account, play an important role. Moreover the
exact locationof the shape transition strongly depends on the pairing force. In order to
explain this specific behaviour of the 5 < rf > curve of the platinum isotopes, calculations
are in progress which take into account dynamical effects according to the microscopic
Bohr-Harnilton description of ref.
In the region Zf 50 a rather smooth change from the spherical tin isotopes to the transitio
nal silver isotopes is seen. The isotope shift for the elements in the tin region is governed
by a clear parabolic slope with a superimposed odd-even staggering . A long chain
from 1°4'13°In has been studied but there are incomplete or low precision data in silver
and cadmium. No results are available for Z=51 (antimony). These isotope chains could
be reached by direct production and by decay from ISOLDE beams from fission targets.
Similar parabolic slopes between neutron-magic numbers are known at Z=20 and Z=28.
But at Z§82 the isotope shift shows an opposite bend in the region of shape instability.
Pt is the element which should allow us to follow the charge radii to extremely neutron
deficient isotopes since the cx decay of very light Hg isotopes is an effective production
Aim of the Experiment
The existing data from experiments at ISOLDE and ISOCELE should be extended by
the proposed experiments to lighter platinum isotopes with A§182. There are two special
questions to be answered for these isotopes: Is there a second shape transition around OCR Output
Mean square nuclear charge radii
In (Z=4g) Cd (Z=4B)
2 .. .. I
50 80 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Figure 1: Summary of the bf < 1*2 > results near the shell closures at Z=50 and Z=82
using an arbitrary relative position of the isotope chain in order to provide a clear figure.
The straight lines belong to the predictions of the droplet model. A shape transition from
oblate or more likely triaxial towards prolate has clearly been seen for Hg ( between A=l87
and A.=185 ), Au ( between A=].87 and A=186 ), Pt ( between A=187 and A=l85).
A=180 ? Do the very neutron-deficient isotopes follow the parabolic baseline of the isotope
shift as seen in the lighter elements? The general question concerns data from daughter
elements of ISOLDE beams.
For this purpose laser experiments with good spectroscopic resolution, especially on the
odd isotopes of platinum, are needed in order to determine the static nuclear moments
from the hyperfine structure. We propose to combine the pulsed laser spectroscopy of
the so far tested set-up at ISOLDE III with a collinear geometry in order to obtain good
efficiency and high resolution.
We have built a beam line with an implantation target at the ISOLDE III separator
running at full acceleration voltage. Daughter products from the implanted ISOLDE
beams are prepared as pulsed mass-separated ion beams by laser desorption and ioniza
tion. Up to now this scheme has been used for Doppler-reduced pulsed laser spectroscopy
(PILIS) [6,11], of Au and Pt isotopes at the ISOCELE (Orsay/France) mass-separator.
In the first test runs on line at ISOLDE, the system efficiency was of the order of 10'
for "°Pt obtained by the decay of 188Hg, deceleration to 600eV before implantation. A
new set-up prepared for the Booster-ISOLDE will allow this pulsed secondary beam to
be sent to a collinear section for high resolution laser spectroscopy experiments. The
ion-optical calculations by J .Arianer have shown that the phase space requirements for OCR Output
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Figure 2: Scheme of the experiment. The upper laser system is used for desorption and
first ionization. The lower system with high resolution is used to ionize the neutral fast
beam in the collinear section.
collinear experiments with this secondary ion beam are fulfilled. Such experiments are
also well adapted to measure nuclear quadrupole moments in light Au isotopes which
are essential for complete characterization of the nuclear shape. Furthermore, when this
collinear spectroscopy set-up is combined with a dedicated pulsed ion source, either a
laser ion source or a more sophisticated one as briefly described below, the overall system
efficiency will be increa.sed and thus will allow us to study the isotopes further away from
stability than those previously investigated.
A In the new scheme of a. pulsed ion source under study, the implantation target is a solid
gas film prepared in situ. The ions, once implanted, should retain their charge in the sub
strate; they are then directly desorbed as ions. The losses due to conversion of implanted
ions to thermal atoms and reionization will be drastically reduced. This cryogenic target
is being tested in off-line experiments.
The beam from ISOLDE is deflected and implanted after deceleration on a graphite
stopper. By laser desorption and laser ionization the implants are transformed into short
ion pulses with low repetition rate.
For the survey experiments laser spectroscopy can be performed in the laser ionization OCR Output
0f the desorbcd beam ( PILIS ) and the photo-ions are than detected with a, channel
plate detector. The D0ppler—limited resolution may be sufHcient for extension of even Pt
isotope shifts. But generally the collinear section is needed for pulsed ionization spectro
scopy ( COMPLIS ) of the secondary pulsed beam prepared with laser desorption and
ionization of daughter elements from implanted ISOLDE beams. In the collinear section,
the short ion pulses are neutralized in the charge exchange cell, and with a second laser
system reionized with high resolution. The complex laser insta.llation will be simplified
by a. solid Xe target replacing the graphite stopper in Fig. 2. In this cryogenic target
under development the implanted ions should remain singly charged  and can then be
released by laser desorption.
Our sensitivity estimates for the COMPLIS set-up are better than 10"3 transmission
for the laser desorption and maximum laser ionization. The ionization yield in collinear
geometry can be pushed to 50 %, whereas the resonant charge exchange of Pt beams in a
Cd vapour has been observed with 50 % yield, so that the total sensitivity should allow
to work with production yields of 105 / s.
Technical Requirements at the PSB ISOLDE
We need space in the experimental hall as given in the plans of K.Elsner and, in ad
dition, two rooms in the light buildings for the laser set-up and the electronics part of the
experiment. We need energy and cooling for a 40 kW magnet used for the mass selection
and a similar power connection for the cw laser system included into the pulsed laser
Beam Time Requests
We plan three runs totalling 10 shifts for Hg production to investigate light even Pt
isotopes. An amount of 15 shifts is requested for gold and the odd platinum isotopes.
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