# ECE 1352F (2003) Analog Circuit Design Presentation

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```					ECE 1352F (2003)
Analog Circuit Design

Presentation

Integrated “Smart Power”
IGBT Drivers

Kay (Tsz Shuen) Chan
993509681
November 28, 2003
Objectives
 Introduce briefly some of the design
considerations of IGBT drivers in power
electronics
 Present recent design techniques and
circuits for IGBT driver
 Address   future challenges in IGBT driver
design
“Smart Power” IC
Electrical         Discrete Power
Energy              Converter       Electrical

Functions:
- control logic
- protection
- diagnostic feedback
- power output stage
- etc …

    “Smart Power” IC, or PIC: all functions in a
power converter are integrated onto a single IC
chip
    Process: GTO, Power BJT, Power MOSFET,
IGBT, BCD (Bipolar, CMOS, and DMOS)
“Smart Power” IC
   Design goals:
   Manage voltage and current of the device within the
rating levels
   Minimize power dissipation
   Use as few parts as possible

   Applications:
   Electric power transmission       Automotive
   UPS power supplies                Motor Control
   Switchmode power supplies         Household appliances
IGBT
   IGBT = Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistor
   Combine of BJT and MOS in
Darlington configuration
   Gate drive (voltage drive)
IGBT: Switches in PIC
   Compared to BJT and Power-MOS, IGBT has
   Higher on-state voltage and current density
   Higher input impedance
   Rapid switching times
   Lower conduction losses
   Less silicon area because the gate driver circuit is
simpler
   Becomes a popular switching device in medium
and high power applications (>100W)
   To increase voltage rating (>1000V), need to use
series-connected IGBTs
IGBT: Switching Characteristics
   Switching losses
   Overvoltage
(VCE,overvoltage)
   Overcurrent (IRR)
IGBT: Switching Losses
   Energy dissipation over a period:    Edissipate   iC (t ) VCE (t )dt

   To minimize loss -> faster turn-on and turn-off
   For faster turn-on
–> increase gate drive voltage
–> decrease series gate resistance
   For faster turn-off
–> reduce tailing current
IGBT: Safe Operating Area
   Current and voltage boundary within which the
IGBT can be operated without destructive failure
 Long duration of simultaneous high voltage and
current across IGBT leads to thermal breakdown
–> Reduce overcurrent and overvoltage
 di                             di 
I RR  2 I 0          VCE ,overvoltage  LS  
 dt on                          dt off

–> Imply slower turn-on and turn off!!
   Trade-off between speed (switching losses) and
overshoot voltage (circuit reliability)
Gate Driver Design Techniques
   Reduce IRR (diode reverse recovery current) by:
 reducing di/dt, which means increasing gate
series resistances
   Reduce VCE,overvoltage by
 reducing di/dt
 balancing gate timing and voltage sharing
among the series-connected IGBTs
   In both cases, need a better, independent control
of di/dt and dv/dt to optimize the gate driver for
speed, minimum losses, and reliability
Two-Stage Gate Driver
 To reduce IRR and VCE,overvoltage , [6] suggested the
following two-stage driver circuit
 Turn-on:
   RGon2 << RGon1
   Stage-2 is off initially
   Cgate charged through RGon1
(larger) to keep IRR small
   After diode has recovered,
stage-2 turn on (triggered
by VREF in comparator)
   Driver resistance is now
RGon1||RGon2 (smaller)
Two-Stage Gate Driver
   Turn-off:
   RGoff2 << RGoff1
   Stage-1 & 2 is on initially for
rapid discharge of Cgate
(RGoff1||RGoff2 smaller)
   When VCE has risen to DC,
   Driver resistance is RGoff1,
reducing current fall rate
   After VCE is settled, stage-2 turns on again to ensure
small driver impedance and prevent against dv/dt
induced turn-on
Two-Stage Gate Driver
    Experiment Results: turn-off switching loss
reduced by 28.8%; turn-off delay reduced
significantly compared to just increasing gate
resistance

DC link voltage = 100V at 8 kHz
Active Gate Control
   [5] suggested an active, independent dv/dt and
di/dt control techniques by means of feedback
(Miller effect)
   dv/dt control:
connecting gate and collector
   Add, at gate node, a dependent
current source whose current is
proportional to capacitor current
   Net current at gate node is Im(1-A).
By adjusting A, can change the total capacitance
across gate and collector, and thus changing dv/dt
Active Gate Control
      dv/dt control:
    Control circuits activates only
when drain voltage is changing
    Control action begins as soon
as collector voltage switching
transient begins
    Adjustments of dv/dt is easy to
accomplish
IL                                     IL
VT         VEE                       VT         VCC
dVCE ,off               gm              dVCE ,on              gm
                                      
dt         Rg  Cgc  1  A CM      dt         Rg  Cgc  1  A CM 

    In the sample circuit, A is a
linear function of Vc
Active Gate Control
   Experimental Results:
   For both turn-on and turn-off dv/dt control circuits with
a 1.5nF external Millar capacitor, dv/dt varies over a
range exceeding 3:1

Operating conditions:   Vdc = 600V   IC = 20A    LLoad = 1mH
VCC = 16V    VEE = -5V   Rg = 40
Active Gate Control
   di/dt control:
   Dual version of dv/dt ->
connecting in series with
switch emitter

   Experimental Results:
   Again, for both turn-on
and turn-off di/dt control
circuits with a 80nH
external inductance, di/dt
varies over a range
exceeding 3:1
Voltage Balancing
   Different switching time of the IGBTs in series
leads to imbalance of voltage share, resulting in
overvoltage at turn-off
   Overvoltage can be reduced by matching the
switching time and balancing the voltage share
Voltage Balancing
 [7] suggested a multi-level
clamp and turn-off timing
the voltage
 Overvoltage reduces from
3700V to 3300V
 Turn-off timings within
100ns
Voltage Balancing
   [8] suggested another way
of balancing the voltage by
connecting a simple iron
core and coils at the gate
Future Challenges
   How to best utilize the control techniques in
future generations of gate drive circuits
   In particular, how to optimize the gate drive
circuits for a even better timing and switching
losses while keeping the circuits compact
   As the voltage and current ratings increase, new
techniques are in need to ensure circuit protection
and reliability
Future Challenges
   Recent IEEE papers have presented analysis of
IGBT operation under short-circuit, over
temperature, hard switching fault, and fault under
(next step -> gate drive circuits realization)
   IGBT process has been evolving, leading to new
concerns in gate driver design
References
   ECE1352 Term Papers:
[1] O. Trescases, “ECE1352 Term Paper: Integrated “Smart Power”
IGBT Drivers”, 2003.

   IGBT Process:
[2] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics Handbook, San Diego: Academic
Press, 2001.
[3] N. Kularatna, Power Electronics Design Handbook: Low-Power
Components and Applications, Boston: Newnes, 1998.

   IGBT Gate Drive:
[4] R.S. Chokhawala, J. Catt, and B.R. Pelly, “Gate Drive
Considerations for IGBT Modules,” Industry Applications, IEEE
Transactions on, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 603-611, May-June 1995.
References
   IGBT Gate Drive:
[5] S. Park and T. M. Jahns, “Flexible dv/dt and di/dt Control Method for
Insulated Gate Power Switches,” Industry Applications Conference, 2001.
36th IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2001 IEEE, vol. 2, pp.
1038-1045, Sept-Oct 2001.
[6] R. Sachdeva and E. P. Nowicki, “A Novel Gate Driver Circuit for
Snubberless, Low-Noise Operation of High Power IGBT,” Electrical and
Computer Engineering, 2002. IEEE CCECE 2002. Canadian Conference,
vol. 1, pp. 212-217, May 2002.
[7] H. Nakatake and A. Iwata, “Series Connection of IGBTs used Multi-Level
Clamp Circuit and Turn Off Timing Adjustment Circuit,” Power Electronics
Specialist, 2003. PESC '03. IEEE 34th Annual Conference, vol. 4, pp. 1910-
1915, June 2003.
[8] K. Sasagawa, Y. Abe, and K. Matsuse, “Voltage Balancing Method for IGBTs
Connected in Series,” Industry Applications Conference, 2002. 37th IAS
Annual Meeting. Conference Record, vol. 4, pp. 2597-2602, Oct 2002.

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