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					  Occupational Safety and Health Guides and Instructions 12




Lifting Accessories
                     Safety




OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION
                       Tampere 2007
ISBN 978-952-479-064-2
ISSN 1456-3614
Multiprint Oy, Tampere 2007
                                                    Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................5
General requirements for lifting accessories ................................................................6
Structure ....................................................................................................................6
Safety factor ...............................................................................................................6
Machinery Decision requirements apply also to lifting accessories
custom-built for individual uses ...................................................................................6
Use and inspection ....................................................................................................7
Procurement ..............................................................................................................8
Lift planning .............................................................................................................8

GUIDANCE AND TRAINING .......................................................................................9

MARKINGS AND LOAD TABLES ...................................................................................9

FACTORS TO OBSERVE DURING LIFTING ...................................................................11

CHAIN SLINGS .........................................................................................................12
Structure ..................................................................................................................12
Chain ......................................................................................................................12
Equipment ...............................................................................................................13
Inspection and rejection criteria for chain slings ........................................................15

WIRE ROPE SLINGS ..................................................................................................15
General ................................................................................................................... 15
Inspection and rejection criteria for wire rope slings ..................................................16
Synthetic round slings and lifting belts ......................................................................17
Material ..................................................................................................................17
Markings .................................................................................................................18
Working load limit ....................................................................................................18
Sharp edges and edge protection .............................................................................19
Operating instructions for synthetic slings ................................................................19
Inspection and condition monitoring of lifting belts and round slings ....................... 19
Maintenance and repair ...........................................................................................20

LIFTING CLAMPS .....................................................................................................21
When using clamps ...................................................................................................21
Special operating instructions for screw clamps ........................................................22

LIFTING TONGS ......................................................................................................22
Inspection .................................................................................................................22

LIFTING MAGNETS ...................................................................................................23

VACUUM LIFTERS .....................................................................................................24

LIFTING FORKS ........................................................................................................25

LIFTING BEAMS ........................................................................................................ 25
    LOOSE LIFTING GEAR ......................................................................... 26
    Lifting lugs .......................................................................................... 26
    Lifting lug dimensions ........................................................................ 26
    Welded lifting lugs ............................................................................. 26
    Lifting eye bolts and nuts ................................................................... 26
    Inspection .......................................................................................... 27

    SHACKLES ........................................................................................... 27
    Inspection ........................................................................................... 27
    Lifting accessories custom-built for individual use ................................ 28
    Regulations and instructions ............................................................... 28

    APPENDIX 1 Lifting accessory inspection report ................................... 29

    APPENDIX 2 Hand signals ................................................................... 30




4     Lifting Accessories • Safety
Introduction

Lifting and transfer operations typically entail      totally lacking pre-planning, with lift planning
some risk factors that cannot be totally elimi-       too often consisting solely of in-situ arrange-
nated. The danger area generally cannot be            ments made between the site foreman and the
isolated entirely to prevent the transferred load     employee.
from causing danger to those participating in              On the other hand, the structural safety of
the lifting operation or to others nearby. The        lifting accessories is considered to be reason-
lifting appliance operator and load handler each      ably high. Inspections are arranged in a high
play a crucial role in ensuring a safe lifting op-    proportion of companies, but the level and
eration. However, as the lifting appliances used      scope of these inspections is variable. Lifting
in industry become more and more radio-con-           slings are, at least, inspected by the seller, but
trolled, the operator increasingly also performs      without the user’s own established inspection
the role of load handler.                             procedure this can create a false sense of se-
     Compared to many other types of work             curity. Accidents can occur at any time ahead
equipment, lifting appliances have a central role     of the next scheduled inspection. Faulty lifting
in terms of safety, as failure of practically any     accessories must therefore be immediately iden-
one of their parts can result in a hazard situa-      tified and repaired or, if necessary, taken out of
tion.                                                 use completely.
     The idiom that a chain is only ever as strong         Finnish regulations concerning lifting and
as its weakest link also applies well to the lift-    transfer appliances are based on the Occupa-
ing operation. The lifting accessory and its          tional Safety and Health Act.
operation must be monitored and controlled                 The objective of this publication is to create
throughout its lifespan. Failure of even a single     a data file which can be workplace-specifically
link will result in danger.                           supplemented and used to define a set of pro-
     Customers are interested in not only the         cedures aimed at ensuring that loads and the
product itself, but also the operational quality of   lifting of them is better planned, and that em-
the company that produces or supplies it. High        ployees are competent in the use of safe lifting
quality is demanded of production and of the          methods and can fully rely on the lifting acces-
production environment, and a low incidence           sories they work with.
of damage or accidents is considered by the                Any procedures found to be beneficial can
customer to be a key measure of quality. Provi-       be incorporated into the company’s quality sys-
sion of clear operating instructions indicates to     tem and occupational safety action plan.
the customer that quality-conscious and safe               These guidelines focus on practical work-
operations are being observed.                        place level operations and the models and
     The transfer and transportation of materials     solutions presented in them are based on the
and personnel is the main accident black spot         common tasks and problems encountered at
for many fields of industry. According to some         this level.
estimates, nearly half of all industrial accidents         The guidelines are based on information
are related to lifting or transfer operations.        gathered from legislation, standards, studies,
     The size and weight of lifted loads has in-      information from insurance companies and sup-
creased, and accidents that occur are often           pliers of lifting accessories, occupational safety
serious in terms of occupational safety as well       and health inspectorates and experts in the
as financially. Accidents are almost equally           field.
influenced by technical factors as human fac-               Information needed at the workplace for the
tors. A significant proportion of accidents are        planning of instructions for the procurement
considered to be caused by substandard or             and inspection of lifting accessories, the plan-



                                                                                 Lifting Accessories • Safety 5
    ning of lifting operations and practical guidance         The guidelines cover the most commonly
    has also been included. The guidelines also aim       used lifting accessories as well as lifting acces-
    to take current legislation and other norms and       sories that are custom built for individual, spe-
    instructions into consideration.                      cialised uses.




    General requirements for lifting accessories

                                                          appliance during normal use due to wear and
    Structure                                             ageing, jolting during lifting and inaccuracies in
    The lifting of a load requires a lifting appliance    load weight estimations.
    and a lifting accessory.
         A lifting accessory refers to a component or     Machinery Decision requirements
    device that is not permanently fitted to the lift-     apply also to lifting accessories
    ing appliance and that is used between the lift-
                                                          custom built for individual uses
    ing appliance and the load, or fixed to the load
    to enable it to be lifted.                            Appendix 1 of the Machinery Decision presents
         Requirements concerning the structure of         the essential safety requirements concerning
    lifting accessories are presented in the Gov-         machinery and Chapter 4 of Appendix 1 of the
    ernment Decision on the Safety of Machines            decision addresses, in particular, the essential
    (1314/1994, as amended) which came into               safety requirements concerning the structure
    force on 1 January 1995. The decision, herein-        of lifting accessories. The same chapter also
    after referred to as the Machinery Decision, ap-      presents, e.g., the working coefficients (safety
    plies to all lifting accessories taken into use and   factors) of different lifting accessories.
    brought onto the market after 1 January 1995.              According to the Machinery Decision, each
         The Machinery Decision requires manufac-         lifting accessory, attached machine plate or
    turers of lifting accessories, their authorized       equivalent marking position must be marked
    representative established in the European Eco-       with the following:
    nomic Area or manufacturers that assemble lift-
    ing accessories from ready components to draw         • manufacturer’s details
    up a Declaration of Conformity for the lifting        • raw material information, if required for
    accessory and to affix CE marking to it.                 compatibility purposes
         A Declaration of Conformity can also be          • working load limit
    given for product batches.                            • CE marking


    Safety factor                                         In addition, each lifting accessory or lifting ac-
                                                          cessory batch sold as a unit must include an
    Lifting accessories each are assigned a specific       instruction manual containing at least the fol-
    safety factor. The safety factor consists of a safe   lowing information:
    working load limit set below a given safety
    margin. The limit ensures that no immediate           • standard operating conditions
    danger will occur if the maximum safety load          • use, assembly and maintenance instructions
    is exceeded. The safety factor does not give          • restrictions on use
    the operator licence to exceed the working
    load limit, rather it provides a safety margin to     Lifting gear such as lifting lugs, lifting eyes
    compensate for the weakening of the lifting           and shackles that are used in conjunction with



6     Lifting Accessories • Safety
the different lifting accessories dealt with in this        The inspections are recorded in a suit-
guide are defined in the Machinery Decision as          able manner with respect to the needs of the
loose lifting gear and no details regarding their      workplace. An inspection record, card index
markings are specified. Thus, e.g. CE marking is        or inspection register can be made, contain-
not required for them. However, from the point         ing essential information on inspection dates,
of view of safety it is important that they are        perceived faults and defects and repairs carried
marked with their working load limit or other          out. An inspection marking must be made on
marking from which their safe working load can         each accessory in order to eliminate use of non-
be determined on the basis of the instructions         inspected equipment and to facilitate the carry-
drawn up by the manufacturer.                          ing out of inspection obligations.
                                                            An effective means of preventing acciden-
Use and inspection                                     tal re-use of lifting accessories that have failed
                                                       inspection and are beyond repair is to disable
The safe use of equipment such as lifting acces-       them completely.
sories is laid down in the Government Decision              Before bringing a new lifting accessory into
on the procurement, safe use and inspection            use, the device must be checked to verify that
of workplace machinery and other work equip-           it complies in all respects with its operating
ment (856/1998), hereinafter referred to as            requirements and is suitable for the purpose
the Work Equipment Decision. Chapter 4 of              of use. Furthermore, the user must check on
the Work Equipment Decision presents general           a daily basis all lifting accessories that are in
regulations for the safe use of equipment used         continuous use. The condition of less frequently
for lifting. The reformed Work Equipment Deci-         used equipment must always be checked each
sion (856/1998, as amended) now also includes          time the equipment is taken into use. The check
regulations for the periodic inspections of lifting    should consist of a visual inspection to ascertain
accessories.                                           that the lifting accessory is in due order and
    The Government Decision on the procure-            all of its parts are fixed together firmly. After
ment, safe use and inspection of workplace             overloading or damage, a thorough inspection
machinery and other equipment (856/1998,               of the lifting accessory must always be made
as amended) requires the inspection of lifting         before it can be used again.
accessories at annual intervals. The inspection             The requirements for the site inspection of
interval can be lengthened or shortened within         lifting accessories used in construction work
reasonable limits on the basis of the degree of        are laid down in the Government Decision on
strain of use.                                         the Safety of Construction Work (629/1994,
    The employer can appoint a person in their         amendment 427/1999). Chapter 4 of the deci-
service or an external person with sufficient           sion states that the structure and condition of
expertise in the structure, use and inspection of      lifting accessories shall be checked at the con-
the lifting accessories to carry out the inspec-       struction site to find out whether they are ap-
tions. The inspector must be capable of detect-        propriate for the purpose of their use and com-
ing possible faults and damages and estimating         pliant with the requirements. In addition, lifting
their impact on occupational safety.                   accessories shall be inspected at the workplace
    The manufacturer’s instructions must be            before they are taken into use and at regular
taken into consideration in the inspections.           intervals during operation and, if possible, at
The inspection typically consists of a visual as-      least once per week.
sessment to ascertain the effect on operational             The government decision concerning steve-
safety of wear, deformation or damage incurred         doring work (915/1985, as amended 449/1995)
in service. If necessary, the inspection can be        provides special regulations for the use and
supplemented with non-destructive inspection           inspection of lifting accessories used in the load-
methods.                                               ing and unloading of vessels.




                                                                                 Lifting Accessories • Safety 7
    Procurement                                            The procurement of lifting accessories should
                                                           be concentrated on a few reliable suppliers,
    Procured equipment must be suitable for its            as this ensures better provision of advice and
    purpose of use. Operating and maintenance in-          expert help and user training if needed. The
    structions in Finnish and, if necessary, in Swed-      procurement of new lifting accessories can also
    ish must always be obtained from the lifting           be centralised at the workplace. This task is ide-
    accessory supplier.                                    ally suited, for example, to the lifting accessory
        Operational safety can be increased by             inspector who is responsible for registering the
    procuring lifting accessories that cannot be           lifting accessories in the company’s monitoring
    accidentally or unknowingly used incorrectly.          system.




    Lift planning

    The planning of lifting operations should be           • The lifted item must be kept balanced and
    integrated as part of production’s material han-         under the control of the lifting appliance op-
    dling planning, the objective of which is the            erator throughout the lifting operation.
    economical, flexible and safe handling of prod-
    ucts. All future lifting requirements should be        • To prevent sliding or falling of the lifted item,
    considered at the product’s planning stage.              the load supports, points of attachment and
         Good lift operation planning and the correct        lift route must be planned.
    choice of lifting accessory can effectively elimi-
    nate the worst operating errors and hazards in         • Choose a lifting accessory that is compatible
    advance. The designer of the lifted item must             with the load, the lifting appliance and the
    determine how and with which lifting acces-               operating environment:
    sories the lift is to be performed, determine the        - choose a sling that is long enough to
    points of lift and, as necessary, add lifting eyes,      guarantee a safe sling angle and prevent
    lifting lugs or threaded holes for fastening lifting     overloading
    eye bolts. At the planning stage, lifting instruc-       - determine how the weight is to be divided
    tions must be prepared for the product. The              between the sling legs
    lifting operations and transfers needed during           - take into account the lifting frequency
    the different production stages of the product’s         - reserve sufficient room for the lifting
    subcomponents must also be taken into consid-            operation
    eration in the lift plan.                                - use edge protection as necessary.
         A set of permanent instructions should be
    drawn up for the load handling and lifting of          • Check the landing platform and the load
    frequently recurring similar items.                      supports to ensure that the lifting accessories
         Special lifting operations such as heavy lifts,     can be removed both safely and without
    lifting of large items and joint lifting operations      damage.
    always require a separate written plan.
                                                           • If necessary, perform a test lift to verify the
    • To ensure a balanced lift, the weight, shape,          secure fastening of the load.
      lifting position and centre of gravity of the
      load must be determined. Mark the weight             • Ensure the lifting accessories are inspected
      and centre of gravity of the lifted item in the        and necessary user guidance is provided.
      drawings.



8     Lifting Accessories • Safety
Guidance and training

In order to avoid accidents, personnel involved            The employee must observe all instructions,
in lifting operations must be provided with            regulations and take due care in their opera-
training and guidance in safe lifting practices        tions. The employee must also notify the fore-
appropriate to the work quality and working            man and occupational safety and health repre-
conditions in question.                                sentative of any perceived faults or deficiencies.
     Effective work guidance can influence em-              A record should be kept of all lifting opera-
ployee attitudes towards safety. Right attitudes       tion training and guidance provided. This ena-
can prevent accidents.                                 bles monitoring and checking of the type and
     Risk factors should be analyzed and written       date of guidance and/or training received by
manuals drawn up as necessary.                         each employee. It also facilitates the planning
     Responsible persons and spheres of responsi-      of new and supplementary training and helps
bilities must be clearly defined.                       avoid overlapping of training content.




Markings and load tables


Each lifting accessory must be marked with             (120° leg angle, i.e. angle between sling legs,
its designated working load limit. The lifting         according to the former system) must not be
accessory must not be used if this marking is          used. The angle of inclination ß equals half the
not displayed. Overloading is forbidden at all         leg angle α.
times.                                                     The working load limit for a multi-legged
     A suitable sling type must be chosen and its      sling depends on the number of sling legs and
loading instructions strictly observed. The great-     the sling angle factor as determined by the
er the angle of inclination of the sling legs (sling   angle of inclination and the leg configuration
angle), the less load the sling can support. The       (hitch).
correct sling angle can be determined via load             Outdated load markings should be changed
tables. Use of load tables must be mastered by         in accordance with the new standards to avoid
all lifting operation personnel.                       confusion.
     In the new standards and tables, the angle            Harmonised practices at the workplace
of inclination of the sling leg (sling angle) refers   should be adopted in a controlled manner and
to the angle ß between the sling leg and the           through provision of employee training.
vertical. A higher than 60° angle of inclination




                                                                                 Lifting Accessories • Safety 9
 Figure 1 Angle of inclination (sling angle) ß / angle between sling legs




Table 1 Finnish standard SFS 5152 compliant load table for chain slings


     Chain         Single-leg sling       Double-leg sling                          Multi-leg sling
     diameter    Straight      Choked
     mm          lift          lift     Straight   Choked     Straight    Choked   Straight     Straight
                                        lift       lift       lift        lift     lift         lift




     Sling angle factors used in the calculation of working load limits




10   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Factors to observe during lifting

• The hook of the lifting appliance and lifting     • Lifting slings, especially round slings and lift-
  accessory must be equipped with a safety            ing belts, are susceptible to damage from
  latch or other reliable backup such as a self-      sharp load edges. Sharp edges can signifi-
  locking hook.                                       cantly weaken the strength of the lifting ac-
                                                      cessory and present a sudden hazard. The
• For each lifting operation, check that the          best form of protection against sharp edges
  master link is compatible (i.e. big enough)         is the use of edge padding designed for
  with the lifting appliance’s hook.                  this purpose. Any sharp edges on the load
                                                      should, as far as possible, be removed at the
• The weight and centre of gravity of the lifted      production stage.
  load must be known.
                                                    • A preliminary lift should always be carried
• Ensure that the lifting sling used is long          out: once the load is raised free of its base,
  enough.                                             stop the lift and check the load balance and
                                                      fastenings.
• The distance between the points of attach-
  ment must be big enough to ensure a secure        • Avoid jolting during loading (e.g. due to
  load balance during lifting.                        sudden starts and stops), and never swing
                                                      laterally, lift laterally or drag the load along
• Sliding of the sling must be prevented using        the ground.
  a lifting boom as necessary.
                                                    • Never attempt to manually stop a heavy load
• Never lift or move the load over personnel or       from swinging.
  leave the load unnecessarily suspended.
                                                    • Never lift using the bindings used for bun-
• Ensure that the load is set squarely in the         dling the load if they are intended only for
  bowl of each sling hook to avoid incorrect          load binding.
  loading of the hooks.
                                                    • Never pull a sling from beneath the load if
• Take into account the effect of choker lifting:     the load is resting on the sling.
  reduces the working load limit by 20%.
                                                    • Store slings in their designated storage
• Protect the sling from any sharp load edges.        places.




                                                                              Lifting Accessories • Safety 11
 Chain slings

 Structure
 Chain slings are lifting accessories comprised of a chain and connected lifting gear. They can be sin-
 gle or multi-legged.
     Each sling must be fitted with a marking plate displaying the working load limits for different
 loading situations.
     A visual inspection must be carried out before using the sling to verify that the sling and sling
 fittings are in due order.
     Chain slings can typically be used at maximum load in a temperature range of -40°C to +200°C.
 The manufacturer’s instructions must be observed for operation in temperatures outside this range.
     Chain slings should have a designated storage place (e.g. rack) where they are not susceptible
 to damage and can be easily obtained. Load tables and lifting instructions should also be located at
 the storage place.




 Figure 2
 Chain slings




 Chain


 The chain consists of steel links. Lifting slings must be made of short link chain only.




 Figure 3
 Chain




 The required properties of the chain are stipulated in the relevant standards for sling chains.
 Documents specifying the technical properties of the chain must be readily available during chain
 sling assembly.
     Any fittings attached to the sling must be at least as strong as the chain itself.




12   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Equipment
Master link
One or more sling legs are connected to the master link via a suitable connection method.




Figure 4
Master links




For each lifting operation, check that the master link is compatible with the lifting appliance’s hook
(i.e. big enough).




Hook
Sling hooks must consist of self-locking hooks or sling hooks equipped with a sufficiently strong
safety latch.




Figure 5
Different hook models




Open hooks may be used only in special cases where it is ensured that no hazard to personnel,
nearby objects or materials will be created during the lifting operation.
   The load must always be set squarely within the hook bowl.
   The hook’s safety latch must be of sufficient strength and laterally supported to be able to fully
withstand the loading and operating stresses.




                                                                              Lifting Accessories • Safety 13
 Other equipment

 • Mechanical connector
 Connectors are used in chain sling assemblies to connect its various components.
     The hitch configuration system ensures that components of the wrong size cannot be connected
 to each other.
     Sling importers each supply connectors that are compatible with their own chains.


 Figure 6
 Examples of mechanical connectors




 • Marking plate
 Each chain sling must be fitted with a marking plate showing its designated working load limit. The
 marking plates of standard SFS-EN 818-4 compliant slings contain the information shown in Figure 7.

 Figure 7
 Chain sling marking plate
1.   Working load limit
2.   Nominal chain diameter
3.   Number of sling legs
4.   Sling angle marking
5.   CE marking


 • Shorteners
 In order to balance the load, length adjustment of the chain sling legs is needed.
 Shorteners consist of shortening clutches, shortening hooks or quick-acting chain length regulators
 which lock the chain in place with spring-loaded pegs.




 Figure 8
 Slings equipped with
 different types of chain shorteners




 The impact of shortening hooks on the chain’s strength must be verified and users informed of any
 restrictions.
     Before beginning the lifting operation, check that the chain is securely locked in the shortener
 and unable to come loose at any stage during the lift.



14   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Inspection and rejection criteria                   • The sling’s master link, hooks or other com-
for chain slings                                      ponents contain bends, fractures, warping,
                                                      other deformation or the hook mouth has
Chain slings must be measured and their entire        opened more than 10%.
length inspected during periodic inspections.
The lengths of the different legs of multi-legged   • Any chain link has worn more than 10%. The
slings must be compared. Special considera-           chain links are measured in two planes. Their
tion must be paid to possible stretching, wear,       average dimensions must be at least 90%
cracking, deformation and external damage of          of their original dimensions. In this way, the
the different sling parts. Detailed link-by-link      level of wear until the next inspection can be
inspection is the only means of detecting these       predicted.
damages. The cause of the perceived damage
must always be clarified and steps taken to pre-     • Slashing, notching, pitting or corrosion
vent the fault from recurring.                        caused by external factors is more than 10%
    The inspection must be made in accordance         of the material thickness, or the degree of
with the manufacturer’s instructions. Chain           deformation is visually perceptible.
sling inspections are usually based on the fol-
lowing rejection criteria:                          • Colour change caused by heat damage is
                                                      perceived.
A chain sling must be taken out of use if:
                                                    • Damage caused by weld splash is perceived.
• The sling’s working load limit for different
  load situations is not clearly marked on the      • The mechanical connector is worn, bent,
  sling.                                              warped or cannot turn freely.




Wire rope slings

General
Wire rope slings are lifting accessories made from steel rope with a ferrule-secured or spliced sling
eye at each end. Sling eye fittings include links and hooks. When using eye fittings and attach-
ments, eye thimbles must be used to protect the sling eye. Wire rope slings can be single-legged or
multi-legged.




Figure 9
Typical wire rope slings




Always carry out a visual check before using the sling to ensure that it contains no faults that may
jeopardise safety. The interval between periodic inspections depends on the degree of strain of use.



                                                                             Lifting Accessories • Safety 15
 During periodic inspection, check the condition     ✔ Rusting and corrosion
 of the sling paying particular attention to its
 markings and any damage or wear that may af-        Corrosion may occur if the sling is incorrectly
 fect the safe use of the sling.                     stored or used in corrosive conditions.
 • working load limit marking for different              Surface rusting may also be a sign of inter-
   loading situations                                nal corrosion, the extent of which is difficult to
 • broken or worn wires                              estimate. In this case the rope must be opened
 • rope deformation (e.g. kinks, bird caging)        up to assess its internal condition.
 • warped ferrules, splices or terminations              The sling must be rejected if a significant
 • heat damage                                       degree of internal corrosion is found, or corro-
 • corrosion                                         sion is found in the splice.

 In addition to a visual inspection, other methods   ✔ Deformation
 must be used as necessary, such as non-destruc-
 tive testing to determine the condition of the      The sling must be rejected if it contains defor-
 inner parts of the sling.                           mation caused by kinks, bird caging, crushing,
                                                     core failure or knots.
 Inspection and rejection criteria
 for wire rope slings                                ✔ Heat damage

 Wire rope slings must be inspected along their      Colour changes of steel ropes can be a sign of
 entire length during periodic inspection. Special   overheating. Overheating damages the fibre
 consideration must be paid to possible stretch-     core and weakens the rope’s lubrication. The
 ing, wear, cracking, deformation and external       manufacturer’s instructions must be observed
 damage of the different sling parts. The cause of   regarding the permissible operating tempera-
 the perceived damage must always be clarified        tures.
 and steps taken to prevent the fault from recur-
 ring. The inspection must be made in accord-        ✔ Damage of sling eye fittings and
 ance with the manufacturer’s instructions.            attachments
 Wire rope sling inspections are usually based on    Special attention must be paid to the following
 the following rejection criteria:                   points:
                                                     • opening up and cracking of hooks
 ✔ Broken wires                                      • deformation and wear of links or thimbles
                                                     • ferrule cracks
 Wire breaks are usually caused by mechanical        • crushing or wear of ferrule or splice
 damage or corrosion. They reduce the strength       • slide-through or looseness of splice or ferrule
 of the rope and can cause hand injury to the        • wire breaks concentrated near the ferrule or
 user.                                                 splice or in the splice
     The sling must be rejected and replaced if      • the effect of the sling eye spreading force at
 any strands are totally broken, wire breaks occur     the head of the sling eye if an oversized pin
 very close to each other or the number of wire        or wrong thimble type is used
 breaks exceeds 5% of the total number of wires      • breaking wires on the outer surface of the
 along a length equal to six times the diameter        sling eye, e.g. if a soft eye and thin pin has
 of the rope.                                          been used
     The sling must be rejected if the nominal di-   • effect of friction on the load-bearing surface
 ameter of the rope has worn by more than 10%          of soft sling eyes.
 at any point.




16   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Synthetic round slings and lifting belts

The use of round slings and lifting belts made from synthetic fibre has become increasingly wide-
spread. They are easy to use due to their lightness and their surface quality is well suited to the
lifting of delicate materials. On the other hand, they are more susceptible to damage than other
slings.
     There are fundamental differences between round slings and lifting belts. Confusing the two
can, in certain situations, be hazardous.
     The most essential difference is in their inner structure.
     The load-bearing yarns of belts are woven into a band, whereas round slings consist of endless
loops of load-bearing yarn enclosed within a tubular cover.



Figure 10
Lifting belts




Figure 11
Round sling




Material
Lifting belts and round slings are made from synthetic fibre yarns made of either polyester, polya-
mide or polypropylene. The most common yarn material used in Finland is polyester. The sling ma-
terial must also be UV radiation protected.
     The material properties of synthetic fibre round slings and belts are rarely considered at the pro-
curement stage. The user must, nevertheless, at least understand the effect of the lifting site condi-
tions on the lifting accessory. Is the site exposed to high temperatures? How might any chemicals
used affect the sling/belt?
     Is there UV exposure? Do the lifted loads have sharp edges?

The sling/belt material is indicated by the sling label colour-coding:

 Polyester        =   blue label                 Resistant to weak acids, but damaged by alkalis.
 Polyamide        =   green label                Resistant to alkalis, but weakened even by weak
                                                 acids. Weakens upon wetting.
 Polypropylene =      brown label                The most suitable of the three materials where
                                                 chemical resistance is needed. Resistant to acids
                                                 and alkalis. Non-resistant to some solvents.



More detailed information on the chemical tolerances of belts and slings is provided by the
manufacturer.



                                                                              Lifting Accessories • Safety 17
 Markings                                                       The following documents must be readily avail-
                                                                able:
 Round slings and lifting belts must have the fol-              • operation, assembly and service instructions
 lowing markings:                                               • Declaration of Conformity, including:
 • manufacturer’s/seller’s details                              • name and address of manufacturer or supplier
 • nominal strength = WLL (working load limit:                  • description of sling/belt
    nominal loads under 1,000 kg are expressed                  • applied standards
    in kilograms and nominal loads above 1,000
    kg in tonnes).                                              Working load limit
 • safe working load (working load limit) at dif-
    ferent sling angles                                         The sling angle factors and working load limits
 • sling/belt material indicated by coloured                    for different sling angles are shown in the in-
    label.                                                      struction tables provided by the manufacturer
 • CE marking                                                   or importer. These tables should be kept at the
 • length                                                       site of use of the lifting slings.
 • traceability code must be available. A double
    marking label can also be used, i.e. a backup
    label is fixed beneath the stitched marking
    label.




 Table 2 Sling angle factors for round slings


      Straight lift        Choked lift      Basket lift   Basket lift
           WLL              0,8 WLL          2 WLL        1,4 WLL        1 WLL        0,7 WLL      0,5 WLL




Table 3 Sling angle factors for lifting belts


     Straight lift            Choked lift                 Basket lift         Basket lift
       WLL                     0,8 WLL                     2 WLL               1,4 WLL             1 WLL




18   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Sharp edges and edge protection                     • Avoid sharp stops/starts by slowly accelerat-
                                                      ing and decelerating during the lift.
Contact of the lifting sling with sharp edges       • Avoid any kind of jolting during the lifting
during the lifting operation dramatically re-         operation.
duces the sling’s strength. Burs, load imbalance,   • Lower the load onto its landing platform so
stop/start jolting during lifting or worn slings      that the sling can be removed without dam-
further increase the damaging effect of sharp         aging it. Do not forcefully remove the sling.
edges.                                              • If multiple slings must be used simultane-
    A sharp edge with a corner radius of 1 - 7        ously due to the length of the load, prevent
mm reduces the load-bearing capacity of lift-         sliding of the lifting accessory in the lifting
ing belts and round slings by 50%. With lifting       hook and on the load.
belts, a 13 mm corner radius is required to
maintain a load-bearing capacity close to that
of straight lifting.                                Inspection and condition monitoring
    According to experience, edge protection        of lifting belts and round slings
must be used whenever the corner radius is be-
low 7 mm.                                           Lifting belts and round slings are more suscepti-
    A wide range of edge protection types and       ble than other lifting accessories to damage and
materials are available for specific applications.   must therefore always be condition checked
                                                    before each use.
Operating instructions for                               Lifting belts must be visually inspected along
synthetic slings                                    their entire length on both sides for surface
                                                    damage, longitudinal or transverse band cut-
• Before lifting, perform a visual inspection of    ting, edge cutting, wear damage and stitch or
  the full length of the sling and check that the   eye damage.
  working load limit is clearly marked.                  The condition of round slings must be esti-
• Only use slings that are in full working order.   mated according to the condition of their outer
• Take into account the effect of the lifting       coating, as the load-bearing yarns are sealed
  method on the load. Do not exceed the             within the coating. In addition to visual inspec-
  working load limit.                               tion, the condition of the load-bearing yarns
• Be wary of sharp edges and coarse surfaces.       must be felt to verify that they are free of any
  Use edge protection.                              hardening and that the core is regular in shape.
• Ensure the load remains balanced for the en-      Some hardened areas felt inside the sling may
  tire lifting and transfer operation.              be due to tape bindings used in round sling
• The lifting hook must be big enough with          manufacture.
  respect to the belt width and the hook edges           Users of lifting belts and round slings must
  must be rounded off. Ensure that the sling is     be given sufficient guidance in their condition
  set squarely in the bowl of the hook and is       assessment. In addition, a competent expert
  evenly loaded.                                    must check the condition of the slings at least
• The leg angle of hooked eye belts must not        once a year and verify their suitability for use
  exceed 20 degrees.                                with respect to the existing lifting conditions.
• Never tie knots in the sling. Knots weaken             One-time-use slings are often supplied with
  the strength of the sling, endanger the lifting   new machinery for purposes of moving it and
  operation and may ruin the sling.                 lifting it into position. These throwaway slings
• For load temperatures over 80°C follow the        must be disposed of immediately after use.
  manufacturer’s instructions.
• Chemicals and solvents can damage the
  sling.




                                                                             Lifting Accessories • Safety 19
 A lifting belt must be taken out of use if:       • The sling contains a knot.

 • The working load limit marking is not clearly   • The outer coating is broken to the extent
   visible.                                          that the inside is visible.

 • The belt has been overloaded.                   • The outer coating shows signs that a welding
                                                     spark, lathe chip or equivalent has damaged
 • The belt contains a knot.                         the load-bearing yarns.

 • The belt has extensive abrasion damage or is    • The sling cover has extensive abrasion dam-
   generally worn and dirty.                         age or is generally worn and dirty.

 • More than 10% of the warp yarns (load-          • Damage to the load-bearing yarn has been
   bearing yarns) are severed or yarns are dam-      caused by chemicals, heat or moisture.
   aged on the belt edge.

 • The weft yarns are broken along a more than     Maintenance and repair
   5 cm length.
                                                   Do not attempt to carry out repairs yourself.
 • Slash damage or abrasion damage of the sur-     Dirtied lifting belts and round slings can be
   face exceeds 10% of the transverse direction.   washed in tepid water using a neutral deter-
                                                   gent.
 • Damage has been caused by chemicals, heat           Lifting belts and round slings that have been
   or moisture.                                    wetted during washing or otherwise must be
                                                   left to dry in either a hanging or laying position.
 • Yarn breaks exist at the belt terminations or   They must not be spin-dried.
   the terminations are considerably worn.             Store synthetic slings in a well ventilated
                                                   space on a rack designed for the purpose so
 • The joint stitching has come unstitched.        that they are not susceptible to chemicals, sol-
                                                   vents, ultraviolet radiation, temperatures over
 A round sling must be taken out of use if:        70°C or varying climatic conditions.
                                                       Remember to only use round slings and lift-
 • The working load limit marking is not clearly   ing belts that fulfil strict quality requirements.
   visible.                                        Observe the instructions provided by the manu-
                                                   facturer and refer any problems encountered to
 • The sling has been overloaded.                  the manufacturer.

 • The inside of the sling is damaged.




20   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Lifting clamps

Clamps are used for lifting plates and sheets, profiled products and pipes. The holding force is typi-
cally based on the grip between the clamp’s toothed eccentric cam and the surface of the lifted
item.

Figure 12
Lifting clamps

1.    Body
2.    Lifting eye
3.    Cam segment
4.    Safety latch
5.    Spring
6.    Cam segment shaft
7.    Lifting eye shaft
8.   Pivot




Lifting clamps must show the following              • The clamp must be compatible with the
markings:                                             lifting appliance’s hook and, if necessary, a
• working load limit                                  chain sling with a sufficiently large ring must
• minimum and maximum thickness or width              be used.
   of lifted items
• production/serial number                          • Do not exceed the working load limit.
• name of manufacturer/supplier
• CE marking                                        • Check that the contact surface is free of scale,
                                                      paint, dirt, ice, grease or other substances that
In addition, the clamp must be marked with            may weaken the holding capacity.
any possible use restrictions. The operating in-
structions, maintenance and inspection instruc-     • Always observe the designated loading di-
tions and Declaration of Conformity included          rection of the clamp. The clamp must be
with each clamp delivery must be observed.            positioned to follow the lifting direction of
Clamps that are not equipped with safety lock-        the sling.
ing to safeguard against accidental loosening of
the load must not be used for vertical lifting of   • Pendular motion of the fastened item must
plates or sheets.                                     be prevented, as this can damage the
                                                      clamp’s cam teeth. When lifting long plates
When using clamps                                     or sheets, two or more clamps and lifting
                                                      booms should be used.
• Check that the clamp is in order and suitable
  for use and that the surface hardness of the      • Lift only one plate or sheet at a time when
  lifted item does not exceed the maximum             vertical lifting with a plate/sheet lifter.
  surface hardness permitted for the clamp.




                                                                             Lifting Accessories • Safety 21
• At least two pairs of horizontal clamps            Special operating instructions
  should be normally used. Do not exceed the         for screw clamps
  maximum sling angle specified by the clamp
  manufacturer.                                      • The clamp must be compatible with the lift-
                                                       ing task. For example, clamps that base their
• When turning or moving, always keep the              holding capacity solely on the manual tight-
  end of the plate/sheet or lifted load towards        ening force of the screw must not be used
  you. Lifting above personnel is strictly forbid-     for vertical lifting of plates or sheets.
  den.
                                                     • The holding force is based on the friction
• Wear of the contact surfaces of the lifting          force between the cam segments and the
  clamp’s cam segment and counter jaw must             surface of the lifted item, so the clamps must
  be monitored and inspection intervals short-         have toothed, hardened cams.
  ened as necessary.
                                                     • The optimum holding force is attained if
• If the clamp has undergone repair, its opera-        the cam section includes a swivel joint that
  tion must be checked by means of a test lift.        wedges the jaw more tightly closed as lifting
                                                       commences.




 Lifting tongs

 Lifting tongs are used for lifting round parts or
 bundles. Their holding force is based on the
 curved shape of their arms and the leverage
 effect. The broader the tongs, the better their
 holding capacity.
      Their holding capacity can be improved by
 coating the gripping arms to increase friction.
 The specified working load limit for the tongs
 must not be exceeded. The load diameter must
 also conform to the specified maximum/mini-
 mum limits.
      The same documentation must be observed
 upon delivery of the tongs as with clamps.          Figure 13 Lifting tongs


 Inspection
 Observe the instructions provided by the manu-
 facturer, paying special attention to deforma-
 tion, warp and cracking. Check the operation
 of the tongs and their locking function (should
 lock when in the open position), the tightness
 of the screws, shaft wear and the tong mark-
 ings.




22   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Lifting magnets

There are two basic types of lifting magnet on       Electromagnets include mains current and
the market: permanent magnets and electro-           standby battery operated accumulator models.
magnets. In addition, electrically connected         The advantage of permanent magnets is their
permanent magnets offer a third, intermediate        minimal maintenance and simple structure.
alternative.

Figure 14
Lifting magnets

1. Magnet
2. Instruction plate
  + type plate
3. Lifting eye
4. Release arm
5. Release button
6. Pole shoes



The lifting capacity of lifting magnets is derived     surface. In this case the lifting capacity is al-
from the magnetic field that forms between the          ways lower than when lifting flat items.
magnet and the lifted item.
   Factors affecting the size of this magnetic       • The overall dimensions of the lifted item.
field and, thus, the load holding power include:        Long items tend to bend, creating air gaps at
                                                       the edges of the magnet.
• Lifting capacity reduces with reduced contact
  surface area of the magnet shoes.                  • Position of the magnet. Standard magnets
                                                       can be lifted only in the horizontal position.
• The magnet shoes must be clean and
  smooth. They must not be machined. Any ir-         • Variable magnetism of lifted items. Some ma-
  regularities must be carefully ground smooth.        terials do not magnetize at all. The optimum
                                                       holding capacity is attained with unalloyed
• Thin-walled items do not create an effective         low-carbon steel.
  magnetic field.
                                                     • The weight of the lifted load must be propor-
• The surface quality of the lifted item.              tioned according to the magnet manufactur-
                                                       er’s instructions.
• Air gaps strongly reduce the lifting capacity.
                                                     • Magnets must not be used in high tempera-
• Air gaps result from surface unevenness,             tures. The manufacturer’s instructions must
  burs, scale, grease, paint etc.                      be observed in this respect.

• The shape of the lifted item. When lifting         • The holding capacity of the magnets must
  round and curved items, rounded pole shoes           be checked at regular intervals by test lifting
  must be used to achieve a sufficient contact          using the same loads typically lifted by the
                                                       lifting magnets.



                                                                              Lifting Accessories • Safety 23
 Vacuum lifters

 The vacuum lifter is a lifting accessory equipped       In addition to the required lifting capacity,
 with one or more suction cups. The adhesive         the shape of the lifted load and its surface qual-
 force between the load and the suction cup is       ity must also be taken into consideration in the
 created by means of a vacuum.                       choice of vacuum lifter.
     Vacuum lifters usually operate by means of          Lifters should be designed to provide double
 vacuum pumps, blowers or ejectors but they          the holding capacity required for the heaviest
 can also be mechanically operated without a         load lifted. Vacuum lifters may not be used for
 pump.                                               conveying hazardous materials. Loaded lifters
     The shape of the suction cup is selected ac-    must never be lifted above personnel. If neces-
 cording to the shape and quality of the load,       sary, the danger area must be isolated.
 e.g. round, angular or oval. The suction cups
 can be flat, for lifting flat items such as plates,
 sheets, panels and glass panes.
     The contact surface of the suction cups can
 also be specially moulded for the lifting of
 pipes or other non-flat items.




         Figure 15 Vacuum lifters


         a)   piston                     f)   reverser                    j)   pressure chamber
         b)   cylinder                   g)   torque rod                  k)   alarm whistle
         c)   sealing ring               h)   chain                       l)   dust cover
         d)   vacuum chamber             i)   rubber diaphragm            m)   bleed valve
         e)   valve




24   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Lifting forks

The same rules apply to lifting forks as to other      the lifting fork or load during the lifting opera-
lifting accessories. Most hazardous situations         tion, the functions and the wear of the compo-
that arise when operating lifting forks involve        nents involved must also be inspected.
falling loads. Attention must therefore be paid
in the design and user instructions of the lifting
fork to ensure sufficient fastness and stability of
the load during the lifting operation.
     User instructions and a Declaration of Con-
formity must be included in the lifting fork
delivery.
     During periodic inspection of the lifting fork,
visually check for any permanent deformation
of the structures and wear of the wearing parts.
Check the joints of the structure, especially
welded joints, to ensure there are no visually
apparent cracks. If the lifting fork operation
involves any mechanical functions that stabilise              Figure 16 Standard lifting fork




Lifting beams

A wide range of different loading capacities,          cient knowledge of material strengths and struc-
shapes and lengths of lifting beam are availa-         tural requirements. Lifting beams must have the
ble. Lifting beam components and other equip-          following markings:
ment should also be optimally designed to suit         • working load limits for different loading situ-
the beam’s specific function.                              ations
    Lifting beams or spreader beams can effec-         • dead weight of the beam, to enable deter-
tively reduce the load stresses on the sling or           mination of the lifting appliance’s payload
on the load itself.                                       capacity
    Lifting beams are the ideal lifting accessories    • production/serial number, name of manufac-
for workspaces with limited headroom where                turer
the use of lengthy top rigging is not possible.        • and CE marking
    The lifting beam designer and manufacturer
must have the necessary expertise in lifting           The following must be observed upon delivery
beam design and production, including suffi-            of the lifting beam:
                                                                            • operating instructions,
                                                                              including possible re-
                                                                              strictions on use
                                                                            • maintenance and in-
                                                                              spection instructions
                                                                              and assembly drawing
                                                                            • Declaration of Con-
                                                                              formity
Figure 17 Lifting beams


                                                                                 Lifting Accessories • Safety 25
LOOSE LIFTING GEAR
Lifting lugs

Lifting lug dimensions
The dimensioning of lifting lugs takes into ac-
count the loads exerted on them. For example,
the force exerted on the sling leg is also ex-
erted on the lifting lug in the direction of the
sling leg. In single-legged direct lifting, the full
weight of the lifted load is exerted on the lifting
lug. Dimensioning must also take into account
possible asymmetry of the load, in which case
the load will not be exerted evenly on all lugs.
                                                        Figure 18 Welded lifting lug
In addition, it must be ensured that the load
itself can withstand the stresses exerted on it.
If the lifting lugs are used as loose lifting gear
(i.e. not welded), they must either be marked          shackle attachment. The design must take into
with their working load limit or their rated ca-       account the load exerted on the lifting lug, the
pacity and possible restrictions on use must be        loading direction and the suitability of the point
specified in the operating instructions provided        of attachment to a welded joint. Welded lifting
upon delivery.                                         lugs designed and manufactured to withstand
                                                       loading in all directions according to the rated
Welded lifting lugs                                    capacity marked on the lug are also available
                                                       on the market. These lugs usually consist of a
The traditional lug model consists of a bracket        round, high-tensile lug and weldable fastening
thermally cut from steel plate with a hole for         pieces.




Lifting eye bolts and nuts

 Lifting eye bolts are loose lifting gear. They        The model that is still extensively used is the
 must either be marked with their working load         DIN580 and DIN582 compliant lifting eye bolt.
 limit or their rated capacity and possible restric-   The bolt can be loaded only vertically or at an
 tions on use must be specified in the operating        angle of max. 45 degrees in the direction of the
 instructions provided upon delivery.                  lug eye.




                 Figure 19
                 Lifting eye bolt




26   Lifting Accessories • Safety
The safest models are those marked with              Inspection
working load limits set within sufficient safety
margins in all loading directions. The lug eye       Visually check that the thread of the eye bolt
should also be able to swivel freely after fasten-   and fastening hole are intact and that the eye
ing, so the screw itself is protected from loosen-   bolt is free of deformation.
ing or over-tightening under stress.



Shackles

Shackles used for lifting must be designed for       not be continuously monitored must be fitted
the lifting task in question.                        with e.g. a cotter to prevent the pin from open-
Shackles are loose lifting gear.                     ing. Loading of the shackles should be perpen-
     As such, they must either be marked with        dicular to the pin.
their working load limit or their rated capac-
ity and possible restrictions on use must be         Inspection
specified in the operating instructions provided
upon delivery.                                       Visually check that the pin thread is intact and
     Always fully tighten the shackle pin before     that the shackle is free of fracture or deforma-
lifting. Fixed joints and attachments that can-      tion.




     Figure 21 Shackles




                                                                              Lifting Accessories • Safety 27
 Lifting accessories custom-built for individual use

Lifting accessories that are capable of meet-       Preconditions for CE marking
ing the specific requirements and frequently
recurring lifting operations of the workplace       • Risk factors concerning the lifting accessory
often have to be custom-built or self-built as        and the lifting operation must be known and
they are not available on the market as series        a risk assessment must be performed.
products. The Machinery Decision, which came
into force at the beginning of 1995, emphasises     • Risk factors must be eliminated through safe-
the responsibility of the manufacturer also with      ty design or safety devices and clear warning
regard to such lifting accessories made for indi-     given of remaining hazards.
vidual use.
Lifting accessories must be designed and made       • Essential health and safety requirements con-
so that they are compliant with the require-          cerning the lifting accessory must be clari-
ments for provision of a Declaration of Con-          fied.
formity and CE marking.
                                                    • The lifting accessory must be designed and
                                                      manufactured to comply with safety require-
                                                      ments.

                                                    • Operating instructions must be drawn up
                                                      and necessary markings made.

                                                    • A Technical File with drawings and strength
                                                      calculations must be compiled and the nec-
                                                      essary tests performed.




 Regulations and instructions

Occupational Safety and Health Act (No. 738/2002,   Government Decision on the procurement, safe use
(OSH Act))                                          and inspection of workplace machinery and other
                                                    equipment, so-called Work Equipment Decision
The OSH Act sets out the general regulations
                                                    (856/1998, as amended)
concerning occupational safety.
                                                    This government decision specifies the require-
Government Decision on the safety of machinery,     ments concerning machinery and equipment
so-called Machinery Decision (1314/1994, as         used at the workplace and lays down the obli-
amended)                                            gations for the employer.
This government decision contains the proce-
dures and essential health and safety require-      SFS Handbook 79, Lifting accessories
ments concerning the bringing of lifting acces-     Finnish Standards Association manual contain-
sories onto the market.                             ing official regulations, standards, instructions
The decision lays down the obligations for the      for the selection, use and storage of lifting ac-
manufacturer, importer and seller.                  cessories and inspection and rejection criteria.




28   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Appendix

                       LIFTING ACCESSORY INSPECTION REPORT          No.

NAME OF LIFTING ACCESSORY: __________________________________________________________




                                                                                                     Appendix
DEPARTMENT AND PRECISE LOCATION:___________________________________________________

MANUFACTURER / SELLER________________________________________________________________

PURPOSE OF USE:_______________________________________________________________________

WORKING LOAD LIMIT:                   CE MARKING Y          N

SERIAL NUMBER: _______________________________________________________________________

INSPECTION INTERVAL:__________________________________________________________________

                0°
                      kg
                45°                                   PARTS LIST
                      kg
                60°                                   PHOTOGRAPH
                      kg
                                                      DRAWING
SERIAL NUMBER
                                                      TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

INSPECTION INTERVAL



                           INSPECTED BY              DATE          FAULT(S) OBSERVED

COMMISSIONING                                                          Y              N



ANNUAL INSPECTION                                                      Y              N

ANNUAL INSPECTION                                                      Y              N

ANNUAL INSPECTION                                                      Y              N

ANNUAL INSPECTION                                                      Y              N

ANNUAL INSPECTION                                                      Y              N

ANNUAL INSPECTION                                                      Y              N




                                                                   Lifting Accessories • Safety 29
 Hand signals
 General hand signals

     START                          both arms outstretched horizontally to the side,
     Attention                      palms facing forward
     Start of signal




     STOP                           right hand raised, palm facing forward
     Halt/Pause
     End of movement



     END                            hands clasped at chest height
     of action




 Vertical movements

     LIFT                           right hand raised with palm forward,
                                    circle slowly




     LOWER                          right hand down with palm facing backward,
                                    circle slowly




     VERTICAL                       hands indicate actual distance

     DISTANCE




30   Lifting Accessories • Safety
Horizontal movements

 MOVE FORWARD       both arms bent and palms facing upwards,
                    repeated slow movement of hands and forearms
                    towards the body in beckoning motion




 MOVE               both arms bent with palms facing down,
 BACKWARDS          repeated slow movement of hands and forearms
                    away from the body



 TO THE RIGHT       signaller’s right arm extended horizontally with
 of the signaller   palm downwards, slow small movements of arm
                    to the right of the signaller




 TO THE LEFT        signaller’s left arm extended horizontally with
 of the signaller   palm downwards, slow small movements of arm
                    to the left of the signaller



 HORIZONTAL         hands indicate actual distance
 DISTANCE




Danger

 DANGER             both arms raised, palms facing forward
 Emergency stop




 QUICKLY            signals performed faster




 SLOWLY             signals performed slower




                                                                       Lifting Accessories • Safety 31

				
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