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MARKETING RES--UCP

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MARKETING  RES--UCP Powered By Docstoc
					MARKETING RESEARCH
        for
     UCP..MBA
                  BY
        PROF. AMJAD HABIB MIRZA
         Business and Management
                Consultant
MARKETING RESEARCH

     COURSE


        Primary Stage
             IN
      THE NAME OF ALLAH
THE MOST BENEFICIENT, THE MOST
           MERCIFUL
     RULES OF THE GAME
• PLEASE MARK YOUR SEATS AND TRY TO
  OCCUPY THE SAME SEAT THROUGHOUT
  THE SEMESTER, CHANGE NOW & TODAY
• KINDLY SIT STRAIGHT—UPRIGHT
• KEEP YOUR NOTE BOOKS AND
  SUFFICIENT PENS HANDY
              CONTINUED…


• MEET THE DEAD LINES ON ASSIGNMENTS
  ETC.
• PLZ BE SEATED IN CLASS AS SOON AS THE
  AUDITORIUM IS OPENED BY THE GUARDS
• PLZ DO NOT MAKE COMMOTION OR NOISE.
  GIVE UP TALKING TILL THE END OF THE
  CLASS
             Continued……

• ANSWER „YES SIR‟ WHEN ATTENDANCE IS
  CALLED

• THERE WILL BE TWO PROCTORS
  NOMINATED BY THE INSTRUCTOR—ONE
  FEMALE AND ONE MALE

• PROCTORS WILL ASSIST IN CARRYING THE
  SESSION ABLY AND CONVENIENTLY
MARKETING RESEARCH

 IN BUSINESS PERSPECTIVE
     MARKET / CUSTOMERS

  * Needs * Wants * Demands
   *Change * Policies * Trends
*Psyche * Taste * Gender *Culture
             *Habits
      GOODS MANUFACTURERS

      Plant & Equipment * Investment
         Location * Skills and Tech
* Internal & External Resources * Scientific
          Input *Natural Resources
          ENTREPRENUERS
         • *Investment * Capital
• * Legal, Social, Economic and Political
             Constraints & Laws
   • *Profitability * Risk *RESEARCH
      HENCE
‘MATCHING PROCESS’


M.R. IS THE BRIDGE
BETWEEN THE TWO
            MR DEFINED

―M.R. IS IDENTIFICATION, COLLECTION, ANALYSIS
AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA, BOTH ON
ORGANISATIONS AND ENVIRONMENT, SO
THAT INFORMATION CAN BE PROVIDED
TO ASSIST MANAGEMENT, DIAGNOSING,
DECIDING AND DELIVERING MARKETING
STRATEGIES AND TACTICS AND FOR
ORGANISATIONS TO BE DESCRIPTIVE ANALYTICS‖
      ASPECTS OF M.R
• * MR IS SYSTEMATIC
• * MR PROVIDE ACCURATE INFO
• * MR USES SCIENTIFIC METHODS TO
  CHECK HYPOTHESES
• * „PROBLEM‟ AND „OPPORTUNITY‟ ARE
  INTERCHANGEABLY USED
• * MR LEADS TO MARKETING DECISIONS
        M.R CLASSIFICATION
• PROBLEMS IDENTIFICATION
  RESEARCH
   •   MARKET POTENTIAL RES
   •   *MARKET SHARE RES
   •   MARKET CHARACTERISTICS RES
   •   SALES ANAYSES RES
   •   FORECASTING RES
   •   BUSINESS TRENDS RES
          Conti….
PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH
     * SEGMENATION RES
     * PRODUCT RES
     * PRICING RES
     * PROMOTION RES
     * DISTRIBUTION RES
ROLE OF M.R IN ORGANISATIONS
TO…..
• HELP TACKLE OR RESOLVE ISSUES
• HELP MAKING PLANS AND SETTING
  DIRECTION AND OBJECTIVES
• BUILD-UP DATA BASE OR MARKET
  INFORMATION--BANK
• NEGOTIATE WITH OTHER ACTORS—
  MEDIA, SUPPLIERS, AGENTS
  ADVERTISERS, DISTRIBUTORS
TYPES OF M.R

–EXPLANATORY

–DESCRIPTIVE

–CAUSAL OR EXPERIMENTAL
                END OF LECT 01
• SEE U IN LECT -02

   MAKE GROUPS OF 3 STUDENTS EACH AND
    SUBMIT ME THE NAMES BY NEXT FRIDAY—

   THESE GROUPS ARE FOR TERM PROJECT
GIVE YOUR GROUP A DECENT BUSINESS NAME—
    E.G. “DYNAMICS”, “PROGRESSIVE”---ETC
                Lecture-2
      M.R PROCESS STEPS

           • BEGIN WITH THE THEORY
• DEDUCE WHAT YOU WANT TO KNOW IN REALITY
            • GENERATE HYPOTHESES
    • DECIDE HOW VARIABLE OF HYPOTHESES
                CAN BE MEASURED
               • COLLECTING DATA
                • ANALYSING DATA
             • REPORT THE RESULTS
         • RELATE BACK TO THE THEORY
         M.R INDUSTRY

** RESEARCH SUPPLIERS--INSTITUTIONS

   ** RESEARCH BUYERS OR USERS

       ** M.R PROFESSIONALS
       ETHICAL ISSUES IN M.R

•   PRIVACY---SANCTITY
•   CONFIDENTIALITY--PERSONAL
•   DECEPTION-CONNIVANCE
•   INTEGERITY--MALIGNING
•   MIS-REPRESENTATION—SELF MADE
•   BIAS--CONCOCTED
•   PERSONAL LIKES AND DIS-LIKES
      Importance of Defining
       RESEARCH Problem
It involved stating the general problem and
   identifying the specific components of the
                   MR problem
      TASKS INVOLVED
• DISCUSSION WITH THE DECISION
  MAKERS
• INTERVIEW WITH INDUSTRY EXPERTS
• REVIEW SECONDARY DATA AND
  EVALUATE THE NEED FOR PRIMARY
  DATA
    ENVIRONMENTAL CONTEXT
•   PAST INFORMATION & FORECASTS
•   RESOURCES AND CONTRAINTS
•   URGENCY OF RES OBJECTIVE
•   LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
•   ECONOMIC AND RELIGIOUS
•   MARKETING AND TECHNICAL
            END OF LECT -02


• SEE U NEXT TIME
LECT 03—COMPONENTS OF THE
      RESEARCH APPROACH
  –     OBJECTIVE / THEORETICAL
      FRAMEWORK
       • ANALYTICAL MODEL
       • RESEARCH QUESTIONS
       • HYPOTHESES
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

 AS THE NAME IMPLIES, E.R. IS TO
  EXPLORE OR SEARCH THRU A
   PROBLEM OR AN ISSUE OR A
          SITUATION
  E.R IS USED FOR THE
 FOLLOWING PURPOSES
* FORMULATE A PROBLEM MORE
   PRECISELY
* IDENTIFY ALTERNATE COURSE OF
   ACTION
* DEVELOP HYPOTHESES
* ESTABLISH PRIORITIES
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
AS THE NAME IMPLIES, D.R IS TO
DESCRIBLE SOMETHING. USUALLY
A MARKET OR FUNCTION
CHARAACTERISTIC
   IT IS USED FOR THE
  FOLLOWING REASONS
• 1- TO DESCRIBE THE
  CHARACTERISTIC OF A GROUP,
  CONSUMERS OR SALES PEOPLE
• 2- IDENTIFY THE PERCENTAGE OF
  SPECIFIED POPULATION
  EXHIBITING CERTAIN BAHAVIOR
   CAUSAL RESEARCH
 THE CAUSAL RESEARCH IS THE
 MOST COMMON BUSINESS SENSE
          RESEARCH

IT WORKS ON CAUSE-AND –EFFECT
         RELATIONSHIP
  INTER-RELATIONSHIP OF
      ER, DR AND CR
• WHEN LITTLE IS KNOWN TO US WE
  START WITH E.R
• D.R ALWAYS FOLLOWS E.R
• C R MUST BE DONE WITH E R TO
  ENSURE THAT IT IS WORKING
      HYPOTHESES
IT IS AN UNPROVEN STATEMENT OR
 A PROPOSITION ABOUT A FACTOR
 THAT IS OF INTEREST TO THE
 RESEARCHERS
            USUALLY
WE APPLY 5 Ws
Who, when, where, what and why
    END OF LECTURE-3
• SEE YOU
LECTURE-4

DATA…
    THE NATURE OF DATA

        WHAT ARE DATA?
• “NUMERICAL FACTS, SYSTEMATICALLY
  COLLECTED ON A SUBJECT, WHERE FACTS
  ARE KNOWN, „THINGS TO BE TRUE‟
  “……OXFORD DICTIONARY
• DATA ARE CREATED; NOT DISCOVERED

• DATA A TRUE, NOT CONSTRUED

• DATA ARE SYSTEMATICALLY KEPT AND
  FORMED; NOT SCATTERED

• NO DATA IS PERFECT IN ITS
  PRESENTATION—DEPENDS ON YOUR
  OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH
      TYPES OF DATA
M.R GIVES DATA A LANGUAGE


QUALITATIVE DATA
       IT IS A NON-NUMERICAL RECORD OF
           WORDS, TEXT, STATEMENTS,
       NARRATIVES OR PICTURES. WORDS
     HAVE BEEN SPOKEN, BUT NOW EXIST IN
      THE FORM OF A TEXT, BOOK, PAPERS,
          DOCUMENTS, ARCHIVES… ETC
  Qualitative Data comes from
In-depth Interview and Drawings
          and Narratives
  QUANTITATIVE DATA
QUANTITATIVE DATA COMES FROM
QUESTIONAIRE, PERSONAL
OBSERVATIONS, EXPERIMENTS,
SURVEYS, BULLETINS,
STATISTICS..ETC

WE WILL STUDY THEM ALL
  PRIMARY & SECONDARY
          DATA
• PRIMARY DATA: THAT WHICH IS
  GATHERED BY RESEARCHERS FOR A
  PARTICULAR ISSUE

• SECONDARY DATA: THAT WHICH
  EXISTS IN ARCHIVES IN ANY FORM
  VALID, CURRENT AND AUTHENTIC. Will
  study
 RATIO BETWEEN SD AND
          PD
• NO HARD AND FAST FORMULA OR
  RULE EXISTS
• DEPENDS UPON THE NATURE, THE
  SIZE, THE URGENCY, THE FIELD,
  THE TOPIC AND THE OBJECTIVES
  OF RESEARCH
       GENERALLY
FROM PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE AND
    FROM USUAL RESEARCH IN
     BUSINESS IN PAKISTAN,
    THE RATIO VARIES FROM
         70:30 TO 80:20

   70 / 80 BEING SECONDARY
  DATA TRANSFORMATION
• WE TRANSFORM DATA INTO ITS VALUE BY
  ASSIGNING THE FOLLOWING:
• EXTREMELY INTERESTING RELEVANT---5
• VERY RELEVANT---4
• FAIRLY RELEVANT---3
• NOT VERY RELEVANT---2
• NOT AT ALL RELEVANT---1
DATA VALIDITY
• PRAGMATIC VALIDITY
• CONTENT VALIDITY
• CONSTRUCT VALIDITY
              RELIABILITY

SOURCE IS THE LITMUS TEST OF RELIABILITY

RELIABILITY DEPENDS UPON:
• TIME
• EQUIVALNCE
• LOGIC
• WHO HAS GOT THE INFORMATION
     ASSIGNMENT –NO 1

  I.T HAS REVOLUTIONISED HUMAN INGENUITY. IT HAS
   ACCELERATED OUR THINKING AND ALSO ENABLED US
            TO REACH THE DEPTH OF WISDOM.
           I.T IS EXTENSIVELY USED IN M.R---

WRITE A NOTE OF ABOUT 4-5 TYPED PAGES ON HOW WELL
 AND IN WHICH WAY, I.T HAS PLAYED THIS ROLE IN M.R.—
              SIGNIFYING ITS IMPORTANCE
 GIVE AND USE ONE EXAMPLE AS A CORE THOUGHT IN
                  YOUR ASSIGNMENT

        SUBMISSION DATE: NEXT WEEK FRIDAY
   END OF LECTURE –4
• SEE U NEXT ….
              LECTURE NO. 5

 THE INSTRUMENTS OF DATA
         CAPTURE
QUESTIONAIRE IN M.R.
DEFINITION:
 QUESTIONAIRE IS THAT DOCUMENT THAT
 IS USED AS AN INSTRUMENTWITH WHICH
 WE CAPTURE DATA GENERATED BY
 ASKING QUESTIONS AND THE RESPONSE
 OF THE RESPONDENTS.
   M.R THRU QUESTIONAIRE

• * LIST ALL QUESTIONS WHICH THE
  RESEARCHERS WISH TO ADDRESS TO ALL THE
  RESPONDENTS.

• ** PROVIDE SPACE OR MECHANISM FOR
  RECORDING THE RESPONSES

• **   PUT QUESTIONS IN A LOGICAL FORM

• **   FACILITATE DATA PROCESSING
   TYPICAL TYPES OF
      QUESTIONS
  GENDER-AGE- SOCIAL STATUS-
  MARITAL STATUS- OCCUPATION
DETAILS- INCOME GROUP—SIZE OF
 THE HOUSELHOLD—HOUSEHOLD
    COMPOSITION—AREA OF
      RESIDENCE—TYPE OF
       ACCOMMODATION
  SPLITTING QUESTIONS --
  BASED ON OBJECTIVE—
          SAMPLE
Children____ * Males and females_____
     Dependant______* Single, but
       independant____* Single, but
        dependant___* Married with
 children_____ Married without children
     OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
    GIVES RESPONDENTS FREEDOM TO ANSWER AND
                FORMULATE REPLIES.

THEY ARE USED, WHEN----

•   RESEARCHERS ARE UNSURE ABOUT REPLIES
•   CHOICE OF ANSWER IS MANY
•   RESPONDENT‘S THOUGHTS IS REQUIRED
•   RESEARCHERS MAY LINK MORE QUESTIONS
 CLOSED--END QUESTIONS
• THE CHOICE IS GIVEN BY
  RESEARCHERS TO TICK ONE
• HOWEVER, WE GIVE FREEDOM IN
  THREE ENDS
  ‗NONE OF THE ABOVE‘
  ‗ALL OF THE ABOVE‘
  ‗NO COMMENTS‘
   QUESTIONS WORDING
• SIMPLE * EASY * SMALL*
  UNCOMPLICATED
• CLEARLY UNDERSTOOD
• WILLING TO ANSWER
• NOT EMBARASSING
              ROUTING


• QUESTIONS SHOULD BE SUCH
  THAT THE ANSWERS ARE NOT
  VAGUE
• USE „YES‟ AND ‗NO‟ THEORY—
  RATHER THAN „MAY BE‟
            SEQUENCING
• THE QUESTIONAIRE SHOULD BEGIN WITH
  SIMPLE QUESTIONS—AND SLOWLY BUILD
  UP
• THE MORE DIFFICULT SHOULD COME AT
  INTERVALS
• ENDING MUST BE EASY AND SORT OF
  CONCLUSIVE
• QUESTIONS SHOULD NOT BE SUGGESTIVE
     LECT --6


OTHER RESEARCH
    METHODS
OTHER RESEARCH METHOD
        PERSONAL OBSERVATION

•           GROUP DISCUSSSION

    •        DEPTH INTERVIEW

    • PROJECTIVE TECHINQUE
               OBSERVATION

       • PERSONAL OBSERVATION
• Observation is a very effective way of learning.
            Observation is animalistic

 “Watching what consumers do in the process of
  purchasing goods and services or by noting the
  availability, quality and prices of branded goods
                    on the shelves”.
Observation can be done thru
• Technical aids, like video camera or
  recording

• Mystery shopping
 LIMITATIONS IN PERSONAL
       OBSERVATION
• It is labor-intensive
• Sometimes, it is not just feasible
• It is limited to behavior—tells what it is?
  And not why is it?
GROUP DISCUSSION—
  FOCUS GROUP
 It is holding conference of selected
people on a Research Issue, Topic or
  an Area…open-ended debate and
               deliberation
      We ought to take care of
We ought to take care of:

•   The type of group to be chosen
•   Group composition
•   The assembly of the group
•   Topic to be discussed—elaborate
•   The place, venue, setup, and timing
•   Who is to run the show?
•   Method of recording..disclosed before hands
       DEPTH INTERVIEW
• This is an open-ended Interview… one
  to one or one to many
• It is a sort of group discussion, except
  that it is one-sided.
• Means question-answer session.
       CHARACTERISTICS
• It has narrower connotation
• Depends of the issue—private nature?
• Has less crowd or no crowd
         You ought to know..
•   who to talk to?
•   The role of an interviewer
•   The degree of depth—allowance
•   The kind of structuring
•   The use of stimulus to the respondent
•   The method of controlling situation
   COMPARISON OF GROUP
   DISCUSSION AND DEPTH
        INTERVIEW
• GD gets dissipated; Interviews are more
  concentrated
• In Interview, the attitude is observed
• Interviews are relatively easier than GDs
• GDs are costly
• GDs require intellectual collectivism.
PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE
 There are many methods used

 *   Associated Technique
 *   Completion Technique
 *   Construction Technique
 *   Expressive Technique
   END OF LECTURE 6

• SEE YOU NEXT WEEK
         LECTURE--07
• LECTURE O7

MORE METHODS OF RESEARCH
 SURVEY METHOD

VERY OLD METHOD
   ―Collection of data based
on addressing the questions to
Respondents in a formal way and
   making systematic record.‖
      PERSONAL METHODS
• *   PERSONAL IN-HOUSE INTERVIEWS
• *   MAIL METHOD
• *   INTERNET METHOD
    CHOICE OF RESEARCH
         METHOD
• DEPENDS ON THE NATURE OF
  PRODUCT BEING RESEARCHED
• DEPENDS ON COST AND TIME FOR
  RESEARCH
• DEPENDS ON GEOGRA[HICAL
  COVERAGE
• DEPENDS ON RESEARCHERS
  MANPOWER AND TECHNOLOGY
SURVEY ARE FOR THE LARGER
 SPECTURM OF POPULATION

  Census every tenth year in a country is
       the best example of Survey
    SURVEYS ARE USED
• REGIONS, ZONES, DISTRICTS
• CITIES
• SECTION OF POPULATION
• ORGANISATIONS OR GROUPS OR
  PRODUCT RANGE
• SEGMENT OF THE ECONOMY
SURVEYS ARE CONDUCTED
INTERNATIONALLY TRANSPERENCY
         INTERNATIONAL
 CONDUCTS SURVEYS ON A SMALL
 SEGMENT OF PEOPLE AND CALL IT
          NATION-WIDE
   TO MALIGN THE DEVELOPING
          COUNTRIES
SURVEYS MUST BE
• WELL DESIGNED
• MUST NEVER BE BIASED
• MUST BE DONE THOROUGHLY ON
  TOTALITY BASIS AND IN
  APPRPRIATE TIME
     SURVEY METHODS

•   PERSONAL VISITS
•   TELEPHONES
•   MAIL SYSTEM
•   INTERNET--SURFING
     CAUSAL RESEARCH
             CONCEPT
Marketing Affects are caused by multiple
     variables—the establishment of
  Relationship between Cause & Effect
  leading to most probabilistic trends is
            Causal Research
   TWO TYPES OF CAUSES
• NATURAL:
Floods, Rains, Droughts, Earthquakes. etc

• MAN-MADE:
Monetary Policy, Interests Rates, Export
  Policy, Financial Outlays etc
 CONDITIONS OF CAUSALITY
* CONCOMMITANT VARIATIONS
  Is the extent to which cause X and the
  effect Y, occur together in the way it is
  predicted in hypothesis

• TIME ORDER OF OCCURRENCE
  The cause occurs before the effect or
  simultaneously
            DEFINITIONS
   CONCLUSIVELY SOME DEFINITIONS
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
  Those variables, which can be and are
  manipulated. Price level, advertisement,
  package designs, sales force……
TEST UNITS
  Individuals or organizations on which tests
  are conducted. Pre-selected
               Conti……..
DEPENDANT VARIABLES
 Are those factors, which get affected by
 Independent variables---such as cost of
 production, profitability, growth rate etc.

                   …..End of Lecture-07
END OF LECTURE-7

WE GO TO LECTURE 8
            LECTURE—08

         SAMPLING
  The most crucial feature in M/R is
Population—the number of heads (the
          consumption unit)
All Planning depends on population

 WHY? Population tells us about the
  health, food, consumption, skills,
 productivity. Education, satisfaction
        SAMPLING
    IS TO PICK UP A SELECT
REPRESENTATIVE OF AN ELEMENT
AN ITS STUDY HELD TRUE TO THE
        OVERALL ELEMENT

 SAMPLING IS DRAWN FROM THE
CHEMISTRY STUDY AND APPLIES TO
   MR IN CASE OF PAPULATION
              CENSUS
     Is the complete enumeration of the
                  element
        SAMPLING Vs CENSUS
• Sampling is low budget, takes short time
               and cost is low
• Census is high budget, takes longer and
                 costs high
    SAMPLING DESIGN PROCESS

•   1   DEFINE TARGET POPULATION
•   2   DETERMINE SAMPLING FRAME
•   3   SELECT SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
•   4   DETERMINE THE SAMPLE SIZE
•   5   EXECUTE SAMPLE PROCESS
        … age, gender, area, education, criteria
PROBABILITY AND NON
PROBABILITY SAMPLING
   N.P SAMPLING (prior
      information)
     • Convenience Sampling
         • Quota Sampling
      • Judgmental Sampling
        CONT…….


  PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Simple and Random Sampling
    Systematic Sampling

          ……..END OF LECT -08
LECTURE--9

FIELD WORK
            LECTURE—09

    Research Field Work
  FIELD WORK IS EXTENSIVELY
 INVOLVED IN M/R—IN INTERVIEWS,
PERSONAL OBSERVATION, QUESTIONAIRE
               etc

     FIELD WORK INCLUDES
       VISITS (TRAVELING)
            LIBRARIES
            ARCHIVES
       WE WILL COVER
* SELECTION OF FIELD WORKERS
* TRAINING
* SUPERVISION OF FIELD WORK
* VALIDATION OF FIELD WORK
* EVALUATION OF FW
        SELECTION
        ** JOB SPECIFICATION
    ** CHARACTERISTICS OF FWs
** RECRUITMENT OF APPROPRIATE
               PERSONS
   GENDER, NATURE, QUALIFICATION
    CHARACTERISTICS OF FWs

•   * HEALTHY * OUTGOING
•   * COMMUNICATIVE
•   * PLEASANT PERSONALIYTY
•   * PERSEVERENCE
•   * EDUCATED
•   * EXPERIENCED
          TRAINING


• FAMILIARISED TO PROJECT,
  OBJECTIVE AND QUESTOINAIRE
• PROBING SKILLS
• ELICITING CLARIFICATION
• PATIENCE AND COMPOSITE
• SOUND GESTURES
        SUPERVISION


• IMMEDIATE CHECK AND EVALUATION
• CORRECTIVE MEASURE AT AN EARLY
  STAGE
• SAMPLING CONTROL AND DIRECTION
• QUALITY OF WORK PERIODICALLY
VALIDATION OF FIELD WORK

• TIME AND COST OF RESEARCH
• METHODOLOGY AS PLANNED
• QUALITY OF WORK
         EVALUATION
• PACE OF WORK---SHORT TERM
  GOALS
• COVERAGE
• ADHERENCE TO MASTER PLAN OR
  CHARTER / BUDGET
• ACHIEVEMENT OF OBJECTIVE/S IN
  SHORT TERM
          • END OF THE LECTURE
    LECTURE-10---STARTS




MEASUREMENT AND
    SCALING

FOR QUANTITATIVE AND
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
     MEASUREMENT
  IN M/R, WE NOT ONLY COUNT THE
 NUMBERS OF OBJECT/S, BUT ALSO
ITS CHARACTERISTICS---ATTITUDES,
    PERCEPTIONS, TASTES HABITS
 TRENDS AND MANY OTHER THINGS

 FEW THINGS HAVE DIMENSIONS,
 OTHERS DON‘T. SO HOW DO WE
       MEASURE THEM?
           HOW?
HOW DO WE EXPRESS LIKENESS? OR
  RESENTMENT OR REJECTION/ OR
         ADAPTATION?
   HOW DO WE COMMUNICATE?

WE HAVE TO MAKE OUR RESEARCH
  TRUE AND POLICY-ORIENTED
   ASSIGNING NUMBERS

 WE ASSIGN NUMBERS FIRST TO GIVE THE
  DEGREE OF SIGNIFICANCE OR EVEN
           CATEGORY TYPE
           FOR EXAMPLE

 RUPEE CAN BE IN PERSONAL INCOME
        RUPEE CAN BE IN GDP
 RUPEE CAN BE IN PER CAPITA INCOME
RUPEE IS THE SAME, BUT HAS DIFFERENT
   NUMBERS IN EACH OF THE ABOVE
              CATEGORY
      ADVANTAGES

     • IT MAKES IT ALL EASY TO
            DIFFERENTIATE
• IT MAKES IT SENSIBLE AND MORE
          POLICY -ORIENTED
         SCALING
 WE USE SCALING WITH THINGS
  WHICH ARE NOT MATERIAL

       FOR EXAMPLE
 ATTITUDE, TASTE, LIKENESS,
  RESENTMENT AND THE LIKE

WE GIVE SCALE ON 1-100 POINTS
      NOMINAL SCALING
 IS A FIGURATIVE LABELING SCHEME. WE
     SCALE OBJECTS TO IDENTIFY THEM

              FOR EXAMPLE
WE SCALE NO 7 TO CUSTOMERS WHO MAKE
   Rs 100 OR LESS PURCHASES PER VISIT
NO 98 TO THOSE WHO BUY Rs 1000 OR MORE
       TWO PICTURES
     CUSTOMER SYMBOL IS ‗A‘
 SO A SHOP HAS 56 CLIENTS AS A -7
         AND A -10 AS 98

 ANOTHER STORE HAS 150 A -7 AND
          ONLY 42 A -10

WHICH SHOP HAS BETTER REVENUE?
   ORDINAL SCALING
 WHEN WE ASSIGN FURTHER THE
NUMBERS ACCORDING TO CERTAIN
   FEATURE OF THE PRODUCT
        FOR EXAMPLE
  WHEN THE PACKINGS ARE OF
           200 mls
           500 mls
          1000 mls
     Lecture--11
   Lecture 11 pertains to

DATA PREPARATION
    RESEARCH REPORT
CONCLUSIVE STATEMENT REGARDING
  THE PROBLEM BASED ON LOGICAL
    THOUGHTS AND EXPLANATION
  IMPORTANCE OF REPORT
** It is the Evidence of facts collected and
  Researched
** Makes management decision possible &
  easy
** Has all the proofs to justify statements
** Shows authenticity
     REPORT FORMAT
    * TITLE PAGE * LETTER OF
    TRANSMITTAL * LETTER OF
    AUTHORIZATION * TABLE OF
CONTENT * LIST OF TABLES, GRAPHS,
 DRAWINGS, APPENDICES, EXHIBITS,
               Etc.
            Conti…
• EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
DATA PREPARATION PROCESS

* PREPARING PRELIMANARY PLAN OF
  DATA ANAYSIS
* QUESTIONAIRE CHECKING
* EDITING
* CODING
* TRANSCRIBING
* DATA CLEANING
 QUESTIONAIRE CHECKING
• Parts of Questionnaire may be Incomplete
• Lack of understanding by the Respondent
           • Some portion left out
    • the Respondent may have been
            inadequately educated
         EDITING
 QUESTIONAIRE MAY HAVE BEEN
  ILLEGIBLE, INCONSISTENT OR
          AMBIGUOUS

            DO:
      • RETURN TO THE FIELD
    • ASSIGN MISSING VALUES
• DISCARD UNSATISFACTORY PART
          CODING
• WE CODE A NUMBER OR SYMBOL TO
          EACH QUESTION

  • CODE BOOK IS THOROUGHLY
           PREPARED
    TRANSCRIBING
TRANSCRIBING DATA INTO A CODED
SHEET OR DISC OR MAGNETIC TAPES
       BY KEY PUNCHING
        DATA CLEANING

• ** CONSISTENCY CHECKS
• ** CONTRADICTIONS
• ** SUBSTITUTE A NUETRAL VALUE
SELECTING DATA ANALYSES
       STRATEGY
 DATA ANALYSIS IS NOT AN END IN
  ITSELF. ITS MAIN PURPOSE IS TO
PROVIDE READERS SOME DIRECTION,
 SOME INFORMATION THAT CAN BE
    USED FOR DECISION MAKING.
            D.A. GIVES:
    • APPROACH TO RESEARCH
     • AND RESEARCH DESIGN
KNOW DATA CHARACTERISTICS

• * INABILITY TO COLLECT FOR WHAT
           EVER REASON/S
       • * VALIDITY OF DATA
 • * STATISTICAL AND QUALITATIVE
                VALUE
• * ASSES YOUR OWN CAPABILITIES
CLASSIFY YOUR TECHNIQUE

• UNIVARIATE TECHNIQUE
• Assessing each Statistical Info.
  Independently


• MULTIVARIATE TECHNIQUE
 Where we ascertain combined information
  End of lecture….11
Lecture 12 is on
      RESEARCH REPORT
         WRITING AND
        PRESENTATION
   RESEARCH REPORT
IT IS A DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE OF
 RESEARCH WORK AND REVEALS THE
        SOURCES OF DATA AND
     STATISTICS…AS WELL AS THE
           RESEARCHERS
        Importance of Report
•   It is evidence of Facts and Research
•   It makes Decision easy and possible
•   Has all the Proofs and Sources
•   Authenticates the Facts
     REPORT FORMAT
    * TITLE PAGE * LETTER OF
    TRANSMITTAL * LETTER OF
    AUTHORIZATION * TABLE OF
CONTENT * LIST OF TABLES, GRAPHS,
   APPENDICES, DRAWING ETC *
       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
          Conti……..
• PROBLEM DEFINITION * APPROACH
  TO PROBLEM * RESEARCH DESIGN
  (DATA DETAILS) * DATA ANALYSES
    (METHODOLOGY) * RESULTS *
     LIMITATIONS * CONCLUSIONS
          • AND * EXHIBITS
      ORAL REPORT
THIS IS DONE BY RESEARCHERS TO
 HIGHLIGHT THE SIGNIFICANCE AND
 EFFORTS IN RESEARCH AND BROAD
               RESULTS
        “TELL-EM” PRINCIPLE
        “KISS EM” PRINCIPLE
      APPLY BODY LANGUAGE
      READING REPORT
• ADDRESS THE PROBLEM
• SEE RESEARCH DESIGN CAREFULLY
• READ RESEARCH PROCEDURE
  CAREFULLY
• EXAMINE STATISTICS CAREFULLY
• REMAIN UNBIASED
     REPORT FOLLOW-UP
• Assist the client
• Help him understand where problems
• Maintain 5-6 weeks of close contact

				
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