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					Sustainability & “green building”:
 forces driving market changes
                    --
   Indoor Product & Technology Trends
                    --
  AWWA Water Conservation Workshop
                Savannah
             January 29, 2007



                                     John Koeller
                            Koeller and Company
       The goal -

Real water savings
  that are sustained
      and result in a
          satisfied customer
   Questions we ask -

Are “water-efficient” products really
water-efficient?

Do “water-efficient” products yield long-
term savings?

Do “water-efficient” products meet
customer expectations?
            Today…
Package graywater treatment systems

Residential dishwashers

Food service equipment

Plumbing fixtures

Product & technology research by water
organizations
Package Graywater Treatment
         Systems
Emerging Products: Graywater
Recycling - Package Systems
  AQUS™ system by WaterSaver Technologies
     U.S. field trials with prototypes
     Now in production & marketing
     www.watersavertech.com
  Pontos AquaCycle® system by Hansgrohe
     Hansgrohe a Masco company - wide exposure to marketplace
     Delta Faucet also a Masco co. - may be involved in marketing
     Installed in numerous applications
     German manufacture
     www.pontos-aquacycle.com/pontos/en/company/pontos.html
  Brac system
     Being sold and installed in the western U.S.
     www.bracsystems.com/home.html
  Pontos
AquaCycle®
Residential Dishwashers
         Evolving Product:
      Residential Dishwashers
  First dishwashing machine - 1850
  First powered DW with permanent plumbing
      hookups - 1920
  Mass production of household DWs - 1947
  Today ∼ 58% of all housing units have auto DWs
  AND, 88% of all new housing has auto DWs
  BUT, DWs represent only about 1.4% of total
household water use (REUWS, 1999)
               Figure 1. Percentage of Dishwashers
                       in U.S. Housing Units
100%

90%                                                                                      88%
                                                     83%        83%     84%
                                           80%                                   87%
                 79%     80%     81%
80%
        72%
70%                                   U.S. Housing Units 4 Yrs Old or Less

                                      All U.S. Housing Units
60%
                                                                                         58%
                                            50%       52%      51%               56%
                                 49%                                     54%
50%                      47%
                 45%
         42%
40%

30%

20%

10%

 0%
       1985    1987    1989    1991     1993      1995      1997      1999     2001    2003

                                            YEAR
Resid DW Efficiency Standards
Energy Factors (EF = cycles per kWh)
  Fed minimum efficiency (mandatory): 0.46 and 0.62
  Energy Star (voluntary):
      1997 to 2000: 0.52
      2001 to today: 0.58
      2007+: 0.65 & 0.88

Water Factors (WF = gallons per cycle)
  Fed minimum efficiency (mandatory): NONE
  Energy Star or WaterSense (voluntary): NONE
Resid DW Efficiency Standards
Initiatives & proposals
  Oregon DOE Residential Tax Credit Program
     EF - minimum 0.61
     WF - maximum 6.5
     Tax credit = $50 for qualifying DWs

  Steering Committee for Water-Efficiency Products
     Advocates for a WF within Energy Star
                 Water Factors of Residential Dishwashers
600
      1,587 Dishwasher models meet 6.5 WF criteria -
      1,551 are Energy Star Qualified
                                                                       230 dishwasher models exceed 6.5 WF
                                                        526            - 70 are Energy Star Qualified
500




400
                               381          384                                     2.5-3.5
                                                                                    3.6-4.5
                                                                                    4.6-5.5
                  296                                                               5.6-6.5
300
                                                                                    6.6-7.5
                                                                                    7.6-8.5
                                                                                    8.6-9.5

200
                                                                 160



100

                                                                               44
                                                                                              26
                 2.5-3.5      3.6-4.5      4.6-5.5     5.6-6.5   6.6-7.5     7.6-8.5      8.6+
  0

                                               Water Factors
       Residential DW Use
Household use of DWs is declining
  Possible cause #1: dining outside the home
  Possible cause #2: reduced household size
   (in higher income categories)

Cycles of use per year (by Energy Star)
  Original - 322
  2002 - reduced to 264
  Current - 215
Dishwasher life ∼ 10 years
  California DW Installations

Estimate 7.4 mil installed residential DWs
  Pre-2000 housing - 6.6 million (Est WF: 7 to 12)

  2000-2005 housing - 0.8 million (Est WF: ∼ 7.5)

  Estimated annual consumption: 45,500 AFY

About 4 million new DWs/yr (at 88% penetration)
     Future Water Factors
Dishwashers delivered to market in:
      2006 to 2010: WF = 7.00
       2011 to 2015: WF = 6.50
       2016 to 2020: WF = 6.25
       2021 to 2025: WF = 6.00
   Projected DW Water Use - Calif
        (2005 to 2025 - without intervention)

          Figure 2. Projected Annual Water Use
              by Residential Dishwashers -
50000

45000

40000

35000

30000

25000
                Post-2005 New Construction
20000           Existing (2005) Installations
                All Dishwasher Installations
15000

10000

5000

   0
         2005         2010              2015    2020   2025

                                       YEAR
        Further reducing the WF…
        Figure 3. Projected Annual Water Use With Reduced
                           Water Factors
50000

45000

40000

35000

30000

25000
                      As projected (no initiatives or
                      further legislation)
20000
                      Lower WF by 1.0

15000                 Lower WF by 2.0

10000

5000

   0
            2005     2010               2015            2020   2025

                                       YEAR
How to capture the potential…
  Mandatory (Federal or state or ?)
  Voluntary
    Green building programs - new homes
       LEED for Homes
       NAHB - GBI
       WaterSmart, Build-it-Green, Calif Friendly &
          other regional programs
    Best Management Practices
    Oregon-type tax incentives
  Combinations of the above
            Figure 4. Justifiable Financial
                       Subsidy
           (Rebate) at Various Reductions
18

16
                                     WF reduction of 3.0
14

12
                                              WF reduction of 2.0

10

8

6

4
                                              WF reduction of 1.0
2

0
     200    300      400      500     600        700         800
              VALUE OF WATER ($ per acre-foot)
www.cuwcc.org/residential_dishwashers.lasso
Food Service Equipment
       Emerging Product:
     Commercial Dishwashers
Innovative designs for nozzle/cleaning efficiency
Driven largely by need for energy efficiency
Declining water use per “rack”
    Standard “rack” = 20-inches x 20-inches
    10 years ago: 1.2 gallons per rack
    Today: As low as 0.8 gallons per rack
Emerging Product: Waterless Wok
  “Asian style restaurants…
    typically use two to four times as much water
    as other styles of kitchens.
    Commercial wok stoves and steamers use
    approximately 75 per cent of total water
    usage in an Asian style kitchens.”
    Source: “Water conservation, Best practice guidelines for clubs”
    Sydney Water - Every Drop Counts Business Program


    Analysis by EBMUD
Plumbing Fixtures
  A bit of recent toilet history…
1989-1994 - First 1.6 gallon toilets introduced
1989-1992 - 17 states mandate 1.6 maximum for toilets
1992-1994 - Federal govt steps in & mandates maximums through
             EPAct 92:
       1.6 gallons for most toilet fixtures
       1.0 gallons for urinals
1994-1998 - User dissatisfaction with 1.6 fixtures grows
1996-2000 - Mfrs develop 2nd generation toilets with improved
              performance
1998 - First dual-flush HET introduced into No. America -
       3rd generation fixture (HET) development begins
2001 - First 1-gal pressure-assist HET prototype tested by agencies
2003 - Other mfrs begin to enter the HET marketplace
2006 - All major mfrs in the HET marketplace
What is a High-Efficiency Toilet (HET)?
Flush volume & technologies
  1.6-gpf minus 20% = 1.28-gpf MAXIMUM
  Includes -
     Dual-flush
     1.0-gpf pressure-assist single-flush
     1.28-gpf gravity-fed single-flush
     1.28-gpf flushometer valve commercial fixtures

TODAY: 104 HET models available!
  16 mfrs of dual-flush HETs with 69 different models
  11 mfrs of 1-gal single-flush pressure-assist HETs - 31 mod
  2 mfrs of 1.28-gal single-flush gravity HETs with 2 models
  2 mfrs of flushometer valve & bowl HETs
  2007 will see dozens more
What is a High-Efficiency Urinal (HEU)?


   High-Efficiency Urinals (HEUs)

     1.0-gpf minus 50% = 0.5-gpf MAXIMUM

     Includes -
       Flushing urinal fixtures

       Non-water urinal fixtures
                         HEUs
Today’s competition in the marketplace -
  Approx 28 qualified HEUs from 8 different mfrs
     22 Non-water urinals - 5 manufacturers

          *-Waterless Co., Falcon/Sloan, Zurn, Zero-Flush, Kohler

     4 Flushing (0.5-gpf) urinals - 2 manufacturers
          *-American Standard & Kohler

     1-pint flushing urinals introduced by Zurn & Caroma
        Both urinals now in trials at universities throughout U.S.

        More 1-pint and 1-quart urinals coming from other mfrs
            Special Projects
      to define water savings and/or performance

    Completed during 2005 & 2006 -
       Food steamer field study by FSTC
         Basis for extensive rebate programs

       Flushometer valve & toilet study
       Drainline waste transport study
         Used by U.S. EPA in WaterSense program

      MaP Testing - Eighth Edition - 285 toilet fixture
      models performance tested & rated
•   ALL reports available at cuwcc.org
          Special Projects
to define water savings and/or performance
Begun during 2005/2006 for 2007 completion -
   CEE Kitchen Initiative - commercial dishwashers
   Ice-maker field study by FSTC
    (sponsored by EBMUD, Seattle, PG&E, & Eugene)

   Sensor-activated faucet field study by EBMUD
   Sensor-activated faucet & flush valve field study - Florida
   Urinal water savings, performance, economics study
   Pre-rinse spray valves: new efficiency thresholds
   Showerheads & shower systems: performance specifications
   and test methods
       Internet Resources
www.cuwcc.org
     click on >“product news”
www.cuwcc.org/MaPtesting.lasso
www.waterwiser.org (AWWA)
www.awwa.org/waterwiser/watch/
www.h2ouse.org/         (Water Saver Home)
www.epa.gov/watersense/ (U.S. EPA)
www.epa.gov/owm/water-efficiency/docs/matrix508.pdf
www.fishnick.com
(FSTC-Food Service Technology Center)
Los Angeles




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Thank you…

   John Koeller, P.E.
    Koeller & Company
     5962 Sandra Drive
Yorba Linda, California 92886



  Tel. (714) 777-2744
  koeller@earthlink.net

				
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