WBI in the Field by liwenting


									      What are the Options for
                Portable WBI?

by Javier Leung, Latina Barnes, Michael Jasek &
                              Marc Churchwell
 Learning is categorized into four phases
                   • F2F (Face to Face)
                   • Teacher and student in the same location
       1st phase

                • Distance education
                • Implementing available communication media and technologies to
       2nd phase overcome geographically dispersed audiences

                   • E-Learning
                   • Use of the Internet and network technologies for learning
       3rd phase

                   • M-Learning
                   • Use of mobile communication tools
       4th phase
 What is portable WBI and how does it fit in with these
  4 levels of learning?
   Combination of levels 3 & 4 (E-learning and M-
    learning) as delivery models for web based instruction.
   These devices provide portability and availability of
    cross platform ubiquitous learning.
 Important point regarding portable WBI
    Not designed as specific replacement for F2F but as an
     alternative educational opportunity that otherwise may
     not be available.
 Presentation points of interest
    Research data from a variety of sources regarding hand-
     held/mobile devices in education.
    Pros and cons of portable WBI
    Impact of mobile devices on WBI development and
     implementation – including effect on pedagogical
    Examples of available devices being used for portable
 Summary
    Closing thoughts
Research Data
  Literature Review submitted by Hezel Associates, LLC
   specifically for DANTES regarding Wireless/Hand-Held Devices
   and Education provided following key points
     Prediction of hybrid system of smartphones (PDA + media
        technologies) to be known as PACE (personal assistant,
        communication, and entertainment device).
       “Mobility and reachability” are key characteristics of mobile devices
        – students can read materials on bus using wireless phones, pick up
        assignments remotely, communicate with other students and
        professor anytime.
       Some studies indicate students see these devices as fun and exciting
        resulting in an enhanced motivation and engagement among the
        students using them.
       Some studies also indicate “knowledge creation” through
        experiential learning is improved by mobile technologies and
        attitudes and performance improve with use of handheld devices.
       Use of PDAs in nursing education has been linked to reduction of
        student stress and reinforcement of core knowledge.
Research Data
  Mobile learning is generally defined as e-learning through
   mobile devices (Trifanova and Ronchetti, 2003)
  Mobile technologies have the power to make learning even
   more widely available and accessible than we are used to in
   existing e-learning environments (Brown, 2003)
Pros and Cons
  McLean(2003)     identifies the obstacles in mobile
    Limited memory and storage are major inhibitors.
    Screens are generally too small for the use of any
       sophisticated applications.
      Intermittent connectivity is a major barrier.
      Cross-platform solutions are not yet possible.
      Cost of accessing major third-party networks is punitive.
      The industry is plagued by proprietary solutions.
Pros and Cons
   Transmitting across different browsers and platforms is
      almost impossible.
     Existing applications are not easily integrated to the
      mobile technology environment.
     Start-up costs are invariably high.
     Tracking outcomes is difficult.
     Security is a major issue.
     Multiple permissions are necessary in terms of
      negotiated access.
     Links to learning management systems or enterprise
      systems are in an embryonic stage of development.
Pros and Cons
 Berger (2001) lists the implications that mobile
 technology can bring to teaching and learning:

          Better realization of   Freedom of organization    Collaboration among
          “anywhere, anytime”         in and out of the       students separated
                                          classroom             geographically

              Transparent           Remote sensing and       Shift from “anywhere,
           connection to nets         integration of        anytime” to “everywhere,
                                       information                 every time”
Pros and Cons
 Milrad (2004) explains the number of features that
  mobile technologies have for education:

        Digital and                        Social
         Physical                       Interactivity

Pros and Cons
 Portable Learning and Assessment - Towards
  Ubiquitous Education
   Make best use of limited financial resources
   Have minimal size and maximal portability
   Are designed to be 'immediately to hand'
Impact on WBI Development
 Pehkonen and Turunen (2003) propose m-learning
 components for designing learning actions and
Impact on WBI Development
 Leung and Chan (2003) say that mobile learning
  framework includes four levels:

  1st                   2nd                       3rd                    4th
level     Mobile       level    Mobile User
                                                 level       Mobile
                                                                        level       Mobile
         Learning              Infrastructure               Protocol
        Applications                                                            Infrastructure

                               (browser,                 (adoption of
                               handheld                  content with           (cellular systems,
                               devices, mobile           WAP or other           satellites, etc.)
                               phones)                   protocols)
Impact on WBI Development
 Main mobile learning application development
 environments are:

      Java Micro Edition   Microsoft.NET Compact Framework
Impact on WBI Development
 Scripting languages such as WML, XHTML and
  cHTML can be used for developing browser based
 Meisenberger (2004) developed a Java based
  application which is Mobile Learning Engine (MLE).
Examples of Devices
  iTouch

  Blackberry

  PDA

  Meta Pad

  Pepper Pad

  Kimble
Examples of Devices
  iTouch; the iPhone without the phone capabilities, takes
   the video iPod a step further by allowing users to use wifi
   connections in order to access and even transmit data. Has
   built-in icons on the touch screen which enable users to
   manipulate certain functions, such as YouTube and iTunes
  features
    • Excellent clarity of icons and graphics
    • Large screen for videos (larger than the iPod)
    • Easy-to-read numbers and symbols
    • Audio adjustable
    • Can easily repeat programming
    • Can easily create customized playlists
    • Can play directly from YouTube when there is wifi connection
Examples of Devices
  I touch; features (cont’d)
     Can play directly from YouTube
      when there is wifi connection
    • Long-life battery
    • Comfortable, light, easy to use
    • Easy to navigate playlists
    • Can repeat content as necessary
    • Convenient to use in conjunction with books and notes,
      paper, etc.
    • Can download music, podcasts, vodcasts, and other
      video through iTunes
Examples of Devices
  Blackberry; features
     Multimedia – listen to music or watch news/sports clips.
      Transfer files via USB and bluetooth
     Camera & Video Recording
     Website Browser
     Email
     Phone
     Social Networking – facebook,
     Instant Messaging
     Organizer –calendar/memo pad
Examples of Devices
  PDA (personal digital assistant); very similar features
   to Blackberry and iTouch. Some models have phone
  The PDA even though a solid performer for several
   years is now being overtaken by more advanced
  Devices such as the iTouch is easier to use and more
   appealing to students.
Examples of Devices
  Pepper Pad3 – handheld web computer
     Developed by Hanbit
     Size: 11.4” x 5.9” x 0.9”; 2.2 lbs, 7”
      LCD, Li Poly Battery for 2-4
      hours of use
     Memory: 20GB hard drive,
      256 MB SDRAM
     Has: Qwerty Keyboard, touch screen, Fanless system, WiFi,
      Bluetooth, dual infrared, USB & Mini USB, video out,
      headphone jack, stereo speakers,
     Built in video camera, built in microphone
     Sale price is $500.00-$999.00 on amazon.com
     Links: http://www.pepper.com/solutions/web-devices.html
Examples of Devices
  Kindle: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device:
   Not used for WBI delivery but a portability option for textbooks to be used in
   conjunction with course delivery devices
      Expensive up front cost
                     ~ $400
        Revolutionary electronic-paper
         display provides a sharp,
         high-resolution screen that looks
         and reads like real paper.
        Simple to use: no computer, no cables, no syncing.
        Wireless connectivity enables you to shop the Kindle Store directly from
         your Kindle—whether you’re in the back of a taxi, at the airport, or in bed.
        Buy a book and it is auto-delivered wirelessly in less than one minute.
        More than 100,000 books available, including more than 90 of 112 current
         New York Times® Best Sellers.
        New York Times® Best Sellers and New Releases $9.99, unless marked
        Free book samples. Download and read first chapters for free before you
         decide to buy.
Examples of Devices
  Kindle: Amazon's New Wireless Reading Device (cont’d)
     Top U.S. newspapers including The New York Times, Wall Street Journal, and
      Washington Post; top magazines including TIME, Atlantic Monthly, and
      Forbes—all auto-delivered wirelessly.
     Top international newspapers from France, Germany, and Ireland; Le Monde,
      Frankfurter Allgemeine, and The Irish Times—all auto-delivered wirelessly.
     Lighter and thinner than a typical paperback; weighs only 10.3 ounces.
     Holds over 200 titles.
     Long battery life. Leave wireless on and recharge approximately every other day.
      Turn wireless off and read for a week or more before recharging. Fully recharges
      in 2 hours.
     Unlike WiFi, Kindle utilizes the same high-speed data network (EVDO) as
      advanced cell phones—so you never have to locate a hotspot.
     No monthly wireless bills, service plans, or commitments—we take care of the
      wireless delivery so you can simply click, buy, and read.
     Includes free wireless access to the planet's most exhaustive and up-to-date
     Email your Word documents and pictures (.JPG, .GIF, .BMP, .PNG) to Kindle for
      easy on-the-go viewing.
Examples of Devices
  Meta Pad : IBM's Prototype Modular Computer
   IBM researchers have invented a prototype 9-ounce portable
   computing device that could pave the way for a new set of functionality
   in the handheld space. It can transform in seconds into a handheld,
   desktop, laptop, tablet or wearable computer, without having to be

     Size: 3” x 5” x 0.75”
     Memory: Transmeta Cursoe at 800 MHz,
        a 10 GB hard drive, and 128 MB
       SDRAM
       Can run operating systems such as Windows XP or Linux
       Accessories: Docking station with keyboard and mouse, 3” x 5” touch
       Sale price would be around $1,000.00
       Currently a prototype and not for sale
       H. Links: http://www.geek.com/ibms-meta-pad-the-future-of-
 Virtually impossible to stay current with technology
  advancing on market place.
 Any technical solution decided upon by an institution for
  portable WBI delivery must be thought of as transitory not
  a permanent solution.
 The best advantage of portability is a combination of the
  ultra portable and the Kindle (by Amazon) devices for
  course delivery and textbooks in a light, compact and easy
  to use configuration.
 With the rapid advances in technology appealing to more
  and more students of all ages and lifestyles, a question
  comes to mind; Is the expectation of continuous education
  (life long) now truly a reality?

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