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					                                                  TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT


Since the beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World War II, training
programs have become widespread among organizations in the United States, involving
more and more employees and also expanding in content. In the 1910s, only a few large
companies such as Westinghouse, General Electric, and International Harvester had
factory schools that focused on training technical skills for entry-level workers. By the
1990s, forty percent of the Fortune 500 firms have had a corporate university or learning
center. In recent decades, as the U.S. companies are confronted with technological
changes, domestic social problems and global economic competition, training programs
in organizations have received even more attention, touted as almost a panacea for
organizational problem.

The enormous expansion in the content of training programs over time has now largely
been taken for granted. Now people would rarely question the necessity of training in
conversational skills. However, back to the 1920s, the idea that organizations should
devote resources to training employees in such skills would have been regarded as
absurd. Such skills clearly were not part of the exact knowledge and methods that the
employee will use on his particular job or the job just ahead of him. Nevertheless,
seventy years later, eleven percent of U.S. organizations deem communications skills as
the most important on their priority lists of training, and many more regard it as highly

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important. More than three hundred training organizations specialize in communications
training (Training and Development Organizations Directory, 1994).

Previous studies on training have largely focused on the incidence of formal training and
the total amount of training offered. This study, however, draws attention to the
enormous expansion in the content of training with an emphasis on the rise of personal
development training (or popularly known as the "soft skills" training, such as leadership,
teamwork, creativity, conversational skills and time management training). Personal
development training can be defined as training programs that aim at improving one's
cognitive and behavioral skills in dealing with one self and others. It is intended to
develop one's personal potential and is not immediately related to the technical aspects of
one's job tasks. Monahan, Meyer and Scott (1994) describe the spread of personal
development training programs based on their survey of and interviews with more than
one hundred organizations in Northern California. "Training programs became more
elaborate; they incorporated, in addition to technical training for workers and human
relations training for supervisors and managers, a widening array of developmental,
personal growth, and self-management courses. Courses of this nature include office
professionalism, time management, individual contributor programs, entrepreneur,
transacting with people, and applying intelligence in the workplace, career management,
and structured problem solving. Courses are also offered on health and personal well-
being, including safe diets, exercise, mental health, injury prevention, holiday health,
stress and nutrition."

Training Excuses

Training is one element many corporations consider when looking to advance people and
offer promotions. Although many employees recognize the high value those in
management place on training and development, some employees are still reluctant to be
trained. It is not uncommon to hear excuses regarding why someone has not received

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Some people are just comfortable in what they are doing. Some fail to see the value of
training because they really believe that they already know it all. And while that might be
true, the knowledge value of training and development is not the only perk.

Training and development offers more than just increased knowledge. It offers the added
advantage of networking and drawing from others‘ experiences. When you attend a
seminar or event with others who have jobs that are much like yours, you have the added
benefit of sharing from life experience. The seminar notes or the conference leader might
not give you the key nugget you take back and implement in the workplace. Your best
piece of advice for the day might come from the peer sitting beside you.

Another common excuse is that there is not enough money budgeted to pay for training.
Who said that training always carries a heavy enrollment fee? Training can be free. You
can set up meetings with peers who are in similar positions and ask how they are doing
their jobs. Follow someone for a day to see how he organizes or manages his work and
time. The cost to you is a day out of your normal routine, so the only drawback may be
working a little harder on an assignment to catch up from a day out of the office. You
usually don‘t think twice about taking a day of vacation, so why should a day of training
be any different?

Time is another often-heard excuse when training and development is mentioned. Have
you considered that training and development might actually give you more time? Often
the procedures, ideas, short cuts, and timesaving hints learned in training and
development sessions equal more time in the long run. Have you heard the old saying that
you have to spend money to make money? Well, in a sense, the same is true for training
and development. You have to devote some time to training and development to make
you more productive in the long run.

What is Training in terms of organization?

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“Transferring information and knowledge to employers and equipping employers to
translate that information and knowledge into practice with a view to enhancing
organization effectiveness and productivity, and the quality of the management of
people.” It also means that in organizational development, the related field of training and
development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of workplace learning to
improve performance.

Difference between Training and Learning

There is a big difference:

        'Training' implies putting skills into people, when actually we should be
           developing people from the inside out, beyond skills, i.e., facilitating
        So focus on facilitating learning, not imposing training.
        Emotional maturity, integrity, and compassion are more important than
           skills and processes. If you are in any doubt, analyze the root causes of your
           organization's successes and your failures - they will never be skills and
        Enable and encourage the development of the person - in any way that you

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         Give people choice - we all learn in different ways, and we all have our own
               strengths and potential, waiting to be fulfilled.

Talk about learning, not training. Focus on the person, from the inside out, not the
outside in; and offer opportunities for people to develop as people in as many ways you

A Brief Critique of Previous Approaches to Employee Training

It is a classic question in the training field, first raised by human capital theorists, that
why firms train their employees. Many attempts have been made to address this question,
but the question of why firms provide general-skill training has not been fully
understood. There have been two main theoretical approaches towards employee training,
namely, the human capital approach and the technology-based approach. The human
capital approach regards training as investment in human capital. Training is provided
only when the benefit from productivity gains is greater than the cost of training. The
technology-based approach regards training as a skill formation process. According to
this approach, the expanded training in the contemporary period is driven by the rapidly
changing technologies and work reorganization. These two approaches are popular in
academic and policy discussions. What they have in common is that they assume an
instrumental logic and technical rationality behind training decisions. Training is
provided because it satisfies the functional needs of an organization. Studies with these
approaches have largely overlooked the content of employee training, as if all kinds of
training programs equally contribute to human capital accumulation or skill formation.
Moreover, personal development training becomes a puzzle if viewed from these
approaches, because it does not seem to follow from an instrumental logic or technical

The Puzzle about Personal Development Training

The puzzle about personal development training comes in the following four ways. First,
it is not innately or immediately related to the technical aspects of specific job tasks.

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Second, prior need analysis is rarely conducted for such training, despite suggestions
to do so in many training handbooks. Third, organizations and trainers seldom
conduct evaluations of behavior or outcome changes brought out by such training.
Evaluation, when there is one, is often about how one feels about the training or what one
has learned. The evaluation questionnaire is often called a "smile sheet," as trainees
often respond happily to the questions. But the impact of the training remains uncertain.
Fourth, the rapid expansion of personal development training has taken place in the
absence of scientific evidence of any link between such training and improvement in
organizational bottom lines.

Core Argument

So, why have organizations increasingly engaged in personal development training? It is
because that the rise of the participatory citizenship model of organization over time has
driven the expansion of personal development training in organizations. This argument is
based on an institutional perspective towards organizations. It is distinct from previous
approaches to training in two ways. First, it recognizes that training is not only provided
to satisfy functional needs of firms, but is also shaped by the shared understanding about
individuals and organizations, which is called "organizational model" in this study and is
independent of the functional needs. Second, training decisions are not only affected by
the internal conditions of an organization, but are also affected by the dominant
ideologies and practices in the organizational field.

Importance of Developing a Role in Training

Developing a national role in training is important for an employers' organization for
several reasons.

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First, it enables the organization to contribute to the development of a country's human
capital, through its influence on education policies and systems and training by public
training institutions, to better serve business needs. It also enables it to influence
employers in regard to the need for them to invest more in training and employee
development - which employers should recognize as one key to their competitiveness in
the future.

Second, it provides an important service to members, especially in industrial relations in
respect of which sources of training for employers in developing countries are few. Third,
it is an important source of income provided the organization can deliver relevant quality
training. Fourth, it compels its own staff to improve their knowledge without which they
cannot offer training to enterprises through their own staff. Fifth, the knowledge required
for training increases the quality of other services provided by the organization - policy
lobbying, advisory and representation services. Sixth, it contributes to better human
relations at the enterprise level and therefore to better enterprise performance, by
matching corporate goals and people management policies. Finally, it improves the
overall image of the organization and invests it with a degree of professionalism, which
can lead to increased membership and influence. Many entrepreneurs seem to view
employee training and development as more optional than essential...a viewpoint that can
be costly to both short-term profits and long-term progress. The primary reason training
is considered optional by so many business owners is because it's viewed more as an
expense than an investment. This is completely understandable when you realize that in
many companies, training and development aren't focused on producing a targeted result
for the business. As a result, business owners frequently send their people to training
courses that seem right and sound good without knowing what to expect in return. But
without measurable results, it's almost impossible to view training as anything more than
an expense.

Now contrast that approach to one where training's viewed as a capital investment with
thoughtful consideration as to how you're going to obtain an acceptable rate of return on
your investment. And a good place to start your "thoughtful consideration" is with a
needs analysis. As it relates to training and development, needs analysis is really an

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outcome analysis--what do you want out of this training? Ask yourself, "What's going to
change in my business or in the behavior or performance of my employees as a result of
this training that's going to help my company?" Be forewarned: This exercise requires
you to take time to think it through and focus more on your processes than your products.

As you go through this analysis, consider the strengths and weaknesses in your company
and try to identify the deficiencies that, when corrected, represent a potential for upside
gain in your business. Common areas for improvement in many companies is helping
supervisors better manage for performance. Many people are promoted into managerial
positions because they're technically good at their jobs, but they aren't trained as
managers to help their subordinates achieve peak performance. Determining your training
and development needs based on targeted results is only the beginning. The next step is to
establish a learning dynamic for your company. In today's economy, if your business isn't
learning, then you're going to fall behind. And a business learns as its people learn. Your
employees are the ones that produce, refine, protect, deliver and manage your products or
services every day, year in, year out. With the rapid pace and international reach of the
21st century marketplace, continual learning is critical to your business's continued

To create a learning culture in your business, begin by clearly communicating your
expectation that employees should take the steps necessary to hone their skills to stay on
top of their professions or fields of work. Make sure you support their efforts in this area
by supplying the resources they need to accomplish this goal. Second, communicate to
your employees the specific training needs and targeted results you've established as a
result of your needs analysis.

Third, provide a sound introduction and orientation to your company's culture, including
your learning culture, to any new employees you hire. This orientation should introduce
employees to your company, and provide them with proper training in the successful
procedures your company's developed and learned over time.

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Every successful training and development program also includes a component that
addresses your current and future leadership needs. At its core, this component must
provide for the systematic identification and development of your managers in terms of
the leadership style that drives your business and makes it unique and profitable. Have
you spent time thoughtfully examining the style of leadership that's most successful in
your environment and that you want to promote? What steps are you taking to develop
those important leadership traits in your people?

Financial considerations related to training can be perplexing, but in most cases, the true
budgetary impact depends on how well you manage the first three components (needs
analysis, learning and leadership). If your training is targeted to specific business results,
then you're more likely to be happy with what you spend on training. But if the training
budget isn't related to specific outcomes, then money is more likely to be spent on
courses that have no positive impact on the company.

In many organizations, training budgets are solely a function of whether the company is
enjoying an economic upswing or enduring a downturn. In good times, companies tend to
spend money on training that's not significant to the organization, and in bad times, the
pendulum swings to the other extreme and training is eliminated altogether. In any
economic environment, the training expense should be determined by the targeted
business results you want, not other budget-related factors.

To help counter this tendency, sit down and assess your training and development needs
once or twice a year to identify your needs and brainstorm how to achieve your desired
results effectively and efficiently.

Your employees are your principle business asset. Invest in them thoughtfully and
strategically, and you'll reap rewards that pay off now and for years to come.

Beyond Training: Training and Development

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Training is generally defined as "change in behavior" - yet, how many trainers and
managers forget that, using the term training only as applicable to "skills training"? What
about the human element? What about those very same people we want to "train"? What
about their individual beliefs, backgrounds, ideas, needs and aspirations?

In order to achieve long-term results through training, we must broaden our vision to
include people development as part of our strategic planning. Although training covers a
broad range of subjects under the three main categories (skills, attitude, knowledge),
using the term "training" without linking it to "development" narrows our concept of the
training function and leads us to failure.

When we limit our thinking, we fall into the trap of:

   a. Classifying people into lots and categories
   b. Thinking of "trainees" as robots expected to perform a job function
   c. Dismissing the individual characteristics of people and the roles they play
   d. Focusing only on "what needs to be done" without adequately preparing the
       trainees involved to accept and internalize what is being taught.

We are dealing with human thoughts, feelings and reactions which must be given equal
attention than to the skill itself. We thus create a double-focus: people development and
skills training. These two simultaneous objectives will give us the right balance and guide
our actions to reach our goal.

To clarify our training and development objectives, and identify our criteria for success,
we must ask ourselves a few questions:

      Do we expect an automatic, faultless job performance?
      Does attitude count?
      Does goodwill count?
      Do loyalty and dedication count?
      Does goal-sharing count?
      Does motivation count?

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      Do general knowledge and know-how count?
      Do people-skills count?
      Does an inquisitive mind count?
      Does initiative count?
      Does a learning attitude count?
      Does a sense of responsibility count?
      Do team efforts count?
      Do good work relations count?
      Does creative input count?
      Do we want employees to feel proud of their role and contribution?

How can we expect such qualities and behavior if we consider and treat our personnel as
"skills performers"? However, we could achieve the desired results if we address the
personal development needs of the employees involved.

When we plan for both "training" and "development", we achieve a proper balance
between the needs of the company and those of the trainees. The synergy created takes us
to new levels, to a continuing trend of company growth.

Our consideration of the people involved results in work motivation, goal-sharing, and a
sense of partnership. Not only do the employee-trainees perform at the desired levels, but
they offer to the company and its customers their hidden individual gifts and talents, and
this reflects itself in the quality of service. Customers feel and recognize efficient
performance, motivation and team-work. They become loyal customers.

We can learn from the case of a small restaurant operator who had become desperate at
the negligent attitude of his servers, resulting in customer complaints. He decided to seek
professional expertise to help him replace his employees with "motivated, trained" people
fresh out of a waiter's training school.

Following some probing questions it came to light that, besides hourly pay, he did not
offer much to attract and retain loyal and dedicated employees. Through professional
consultation, he came to realize that even if he paid higher wages to new "trained"

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employees, the problem would persist because employees want more than wages from
their work place. They want:

      Organization and professional management
      Information regarding the business and its customers
      Recognition for their role in the company's success
      Acknowledgement of their individual capacities and contributions
      Positive discipline / fairness
      A say in the way the business is run.

The restaurant operator realized that until then he had treated his employees as "plate
carriers" and this is exactly how they had behaved and performed. He was ready to
change his mode of operation: he diverted his focus to the needs of his employees, re-
structured his organisation, planned new operational strategies, a human resources
strategy, training and development guidelines, disciplinary rules and regulations.

He communicated and shared these in a meeting with his employees and handed out the
employee handbook prepared for that purpose. He also reminded them of their
responsibilities towards the business, the customers, and themselves (taking charge of
their own training, development, and work performance). They were more than pleased
when he asked them to express their opinions, make comments and suggestions.

He was surprised at the immediate transformation that took place. He began receiving
excellent reviews from his customers, the employees worked as a team, their motivation
sky-rocketed and he never had to replace them! All this was accomplished by extending
the previous concept of training to that of training and people development.

Training and Development represents a complete whole that triggers the mind, emotions
and employees' best work performance. It is not only business managers and owners who
must do this shift in thinking, but Human Resources Directors and Training Managers
(whose title should be "Training and Development" Managers). By their actions, they
should offer a personal example, coaching and guiding all the people in an organisation
to think "beyond training" and invest efforts in people:

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       Professional development
       Personal development.

Contrary to what some manager‘s think, people do not quit a place of work as soon as
they have grown personally and professionally through training and development
programs - at least they do not do so for a long while. They become loyal to their
employer and help him/her grows business-wise, which offers them more opportunities.
They chart their own course for career advancement within the broader framework of
organizational growth.

Do we not call employees our "human resources asset"? Whatever their positions, each
expect to be treated as such; when they are, they give more than their physical presence at

Training & Evaluation


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Improving business performance is a journey, not a destination. Business performance
rises and falls with the ebb and flow of human performances. HR professionals lead the
search for ways to enhance the effectiveness of employees in their jobs today and prepare
them for tomorrow. Over the years, training programmes have grown into corporate with
these goals in mind. Training programmes should enhance performance and enrich the
contributions of the workforce. The ultimate goal of training is to develop appropriate
talent in the workforce internally.

In India, training as an activity has been going on as a distinct field with its own roles,
structures and budgets, but it is still young. This field is however; expanding fast but
controversy seems to envelop any attempts to find benefits commensurate with the
escalating costs of training.

Training has made significant contributions to development of all kinds. Training is
essential; doubts arise over its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing over its
ineffectiveness and waste. The training apparatus and costs have multiplied but not its
benefits. Dissatisfaction persists and is growing at the working level where the benefits of
training should show up most clearly. This disillusionment shows in many ways –
reluctance to send the most promising people for training, inadequate use of personnel
after training etc. With disillusionment mounting in the midst of expansion, training has
entered a dangerous phase in its development.

Training is neither a panacea for all ills nor is it a waste of time. What is required is an
insight into what training can or cannot do and skill in designing and carrying out training
effectively and economically.

The searchlight of inquiry may make the task and challenges stand out too starkly, too
simply. Using experience with training in India and other rapidly developing countries
has this advantage at similar risk. The contribution that training can make to development
is needed acutely and obviously. At the same time, the limited resources available in
these countries make this contribution hard to come by. These lines are sharply drawn; on
the one hand, no promise can be ignored; on the other, no waste is permissible.

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Much of the training provided today proceeds as if knowledge and action were directly
related. This assumption is itself a striking illustration of the wide gulf that separates the
two. On a continuum with personal maturation and growth at one end and improvement
in performance of predetermined tasks at the other, education lies near the former, and
training near the later. Focusing training on skill in action makes the task wide and
complex. Training embraces an understanding of the complex processes by which various
factors that make up a situation interact.

For every training strategy, no matter which, the proper focus right from the very outset
is on one or more people – on-the-job-in-the-organization – this whole amalgam.
Wherever the focus moves during the training programme, the starting point becomes the
focus again at the end. The difference lies in what people have learned that they now
apply. That difference, in terms of more effective behavior is the measure of the efficacy
of training.

The training process is made up of three phases:

Phase 1: Pre-training. This may also be called the preparation phase. The process starts
with an understanding of the situation requiring more effective behavior. An
organization‘s concerns before training lie mainly in four areas: Clarifying the precise
objectives of training and the use the organization expects to make of the participants
after training; selection of suitable participants; building favorable expectations and
motivation in the participants prior to the training; and planning for any changes that
improved task performance will require in addition to training.

Phase 2: Training. During the course of the training, participants focus their attention on
the new impressions that seem useful, stimulating and engaging. There is no guarantee
that the participants will in fact learn what they have chosen. But the main purpose
remains: participants explore in a training situation what interests them, and a training
institution‘s basic task is to provide the necessary opportunities.

Having explored, participants try out some new behavior. If they find the new behavior
useful, they try it again, check it for effectiveness and satisfaction, try it repeatedly and

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improve it. Finally, they incorporate this new facet into their habitual behavior in the
training situation. If they do not find it useful, they discard it, try some variant, or
discontinue learning in this direction. The intricate process of selection and testing is
continuous and more or less conscious. It is important that work organizations meanwhile
prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return.

Phase 3: Post-training. This may be called the "follow up" phase. When training per se
concludes, the situation changes. When the participants return back to work from the
training, a process of adjustment begins for everyone involved. The newly learned skills
undergo modification to fit the work situation. Participants may find their organizations
offering encouragement to use the training and also support for continuing contact with
the training institution. On the other hand, they may step into a quagmire of negativity.

More effective behavior of people on the job in the organization is the primary objective
of the training process as a whole. In the simplest training process, improvement is a
dependent variable, and participants and organizations independent variables.

The training process has the following major objectives:

1) Improvement in Performance

Training will be an important aid to managers for developing themselves as well as their
subordinates. It is not a substitute for development on the job, which comes from doing,
experiencing, observing, giving and receiving feedback and coaching. Research has
shown that 80% of a person‘s development takes place on the job. However, training can
contribute the vital 20% that makes the difference. Training can bring about an
improvement in a person‘s:

    Knowledge
    Skills
    Attitude
    Thereby raising his potential to perform better on the job.

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2) Growth

Training is also directed towards developing people for higher levels of responsibility
thereby reducing the need for recruiting people from outside. This would have the effect
of improving the morale of the existing employees.

3) Organizational Effectiveness

In company training provides a means for bringing about organizational development. It
can be used for strengthening values, building teams, improving inter-group relations and
quality of work life. The ultimate objective of training in the long run is to improve the
company‘s performance through people performing better.

Benefits of Training Evaluation

Evaluation has three main purposes:

Feedback to help trainers understand the extent to which objectives are being met and the
effectiveness of particular learning activities – as an aid to continuous improvement

Control to make sure training policy and practice are aligned with organizational goals
and delivering cost-effective solutions to organizational issues

Intervention to raise awareness of key issues such as pre-course and post-course briefing
and the selection of delegates Evaluation is itself a learning process. Training which has
been planned and delivered is reflected on. Views on how to do it better are formulated
and tested .The outcome may be to:

        Abandon the training
        Redesign the training – new sequence, new methods, new content, new trainer
        Redesign the preparation/pre-work – new briefing material, new pre-course
        Rethink the timing of the training – earlier or later in people‘s career, earlier
            or later in the training programme, earlier or later in the company calendar

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        Leave well alone

The following are the clear benefits of evaluation:

        Improved quality of training activities
        Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to output
        Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of
           support and those that should be dropped
        Better integration of training offered and on the job development
        Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of
        Evidence of the contribution that training and development activities are
           making to the organization
        Closer integration of training aims and organizational objectives

The Way Ahead

The development of learning organizations, working to harness the brainpower,
knowledge and experience of their people, reflects the fundamental importance of
training and learning for those organizations that hope to prosper in the new millennium.
The rend towards a more "empowering" style of management and an increasing emphasis
on self-development have combined to bring about a move away from didactic
instruction towards coaching and facilitation and away from "trainer" towards
"performance improvement consultant".

In the coming future, the following trends are likely to be seen:

Increased use of virtual reality, the internet and multi-media training

Emphasis on cross-cultural development

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Remote learning to reflect changing patterns of work

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The Training Role

Internal Training

The role of an employers' organization in training has to be viewed from different
perspectives. First and foremost it must be viewed from an "internal" point of view i.e.
the training and development of its own staff. This is essential to the effectiveness of the
organization's training services as well as to the other services it provides members, all of
which fall within the following:

      Influencing the legal and policy environment needed for business growth and
      Direct services to members

This requires that the staff be trained in the areas of the organization's services and core
competencies which may include areas such as:

      Industrial relations
      Human resource management
      Occupational safety and health
      Information analysis and research for:

        Influencing the policy environment
        Transferring knowledge to members
        Undertaking wage and other surveys

Training Services

This objective of training (i.e. to make its other services more effective) involves mostly
the acquisition of knowledge needed for staff to perform their functions. This is an
important pre-requisite to staff undertaking the second role of an employers' organization
in training, which is to provide training to members (and sometimes to nonmembers) in
areas in which they expect services. But unlike in the case of the first objective of

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training earlier referred to, this second role or objective requires not only knowledge in
the areas of training, but also training skills i.e. in training techniques or methodologies.
If staff do not develop training skills

       They will be able to transfer knowledge
       But not the skills to apply the knowledge to particular situations which arise in
        enterprises (productivity is increasingly the application of knowledge).

Examples include negotiation, workplace mechanisms to improve workplace relations
and human resource management policies and practices such as:

       Recruitment, selection, induction
       Performance appraisal
       Leadership and motivation
       Employee retention
       Wage and salary determination

The main objectives of this second training role (to provide training to members) are:

       To provide members with the means to address labour - related problems and
       To instill in enterprise managers the skills needed to improve their management of
       Where enterprises have a training department, to train their personnel.

It follows that the staff of employers' organizations are not themselves practitioners in
people management. They are trainers of those engaged in managing people and,
occasionally of other trainers.

Influencing National Policies and Programmes

The third role is one to be discharged at the national level, and involves influencing
national educational and skills training policies and schemes. This could be affected in a
variety of ways:

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      Through representation on the policy boards of national training institutions.
      Identifying employers' education and skills needs and providing feed back from
       employers. Employers' organizations could form executive training committees
       within the organization such as the Education Committee in the Japan Federation
       of Employers' Associations, the Industrial Education and Training Committee in
       the Korean Employers' Federation and the Committee on Manpower and
       Development in the Singapore National Employers' Federation. At the initiative
       of the New Zealand Employers' Federation the School-Industry Links
       Development Board was established in 1990 to strengthen the relationship
       between secondary schools and business. Unique pilot programmes were
       commenced in 1992 on "Teacher Placement in Industry" and "Management
       Course for Secondary School Principals".
      Influencing     government,   education   and    training   authorities   to   correct
       inappropriate policies and to commence preparing for the future education and
       training needs if HRD policies are to have impact.
      Initiating or promoting teacher education programmes to impart to them
       knowledge about the role of business in society, the environment needed for
       business development etc.
      Promoting closer links between employers and educational and training
      Influencing course content e.g. management course contents to include more
       human relations management subjects, and even basic management in
       occupational safety and health and environmental management.

Other Roles

A fourth role is for an employers' organization to raise awareness among employers of
the need for increased investment in the development of human capital as an essential
condition for achieving competiveness.

A fifth role is in the training of personnel or human resource managers, given the fact that
their role still tends to be downgraded relative to other management functions such as

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finance, marketing and production. This role could also be undertaken through training
support given to professional bodies like an institute of personnel management.

A sixth role for an employers' organization is the provision of advisory services to
member companies by

      Assisting trainers in enterprises to develop or improve their in-house training
       programmes, especially in the areas of the employers' organization's expertise
      Upgrading the knowledge of company trainers
      Maintaining a directory of relevant training programmes/courses

Seventh, an employers' organization should be able to influence the provision of training
incentives to be offered to employers, through the tax system or training levies.
Numerous examples in countries abound which can provide useful ideas to employers'

Eight, an employers' organization could develop training material to be used by
enterprises for in-house training.

Understanding Employee Drives and Motivations - The First
Step towards Motivation at Work

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However large or small a company or business is, it is employees at all levels that can
make or break it. This holds true not only for the people we hire on a regular basis, but
also for temporary and contracted workers. It is as important to research and study the
needs, drives, and expectations of people we hire or employ, and aim at responding to
and satisfying those, as it is with regard to customers.

In actual fact, considering the role each "employee" plays in a company's success,
analyzing and planning an adequate response to employees' motivations deserves first
place in the order of business.

Before going any further, let us shift our approach from grouping people under the
generic category of "employee" to individual human beings and term them as "hired
workers" or "working partners". This is what they are. We must acknowledge them as
human beings with individual needs, drives, characteristics, personalities, and
acknowledge their contribution to the business success.

Though each person has specific needs, drives, aspirations, and capabilities, at varying
degrees of intensity, people's basic needs are the same, as illustrated by Abraham
Maslow in the following model:


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                                Social Needs

                              Safety Needs

                          Physiological Needs


Maslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs as applied to workers roughly as follows:

Physiological Needs

Basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food, shelter, clothing and other basics to

Safety Needs: a safe and non-threatening work environment, job security, safe equipment
and installations

Social Needs: contact and friendship with fellow-workers, social activities and

Ego: recognition, acknowledgment, rewards

Self-Actualization: realizing one's dreams and potential, reaching the heights of one's
gifts and talents.

It is only when these needs are met that workers are morally, emotionally, and even
physically ready to satisfy the needs of the employer and the customers.

Worker motivation must also be viewed from two perspectives:

    1. Inner drives

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    2. Outer (external) motivators.

A person's inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer, a particular job,
career, line of study, or other activity (such as travel or recreation). It is these drives that
Maslow delineates in his hierarchy of needs, and which we must understand and
internalize, use as guidelines in our efforts to help employees feel motivated.

The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outside world offers
in response to the inner drives. In order to attract the "cream of the crop" of available
workers, same as in his/her dealings with customers, the employer not only tries to satisfy
these basic needs, but to exceed them - taking into consideration additional extraordinary
needs individual workers have.

Most workers need to:

    1. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional
        luxuries such as the purchase of a home, or travel
    2. Save for and enjoy old age security benefits
    3. Have medical and other insurance coverage
    4. Acquire friends at work
    5. Win recognition
    6. Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions
    7. Be able to advance in life and career-wise
    8. Have opportunities for self-development
    9. Improve their skills, knowledge, and know-how
    10. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities
    11. Realize their ideals.

The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing:

    1. Employment
    2. Adequate pay

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   3. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements,
       transportation, flexible work schedules)
   4. Job security (to the degree possible)
   5. Clear company policies
   6. Clear and organized work procedures
   7. A stable, just and fair work environment
   8. A safe work environment
   9. Medical coverage and other benefits
   10. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation
   11. Social activities
   12. Reward and recognition programs
   13. Incentive programs
   14. Open lines of communication (formal and informal)
   15. Systematic feedback
   16. Training and development programs
   17. Opportunities for promotion
   18. Company/ business information
   19. Information on customer feedback
   20. Sharing of company goals and objectives a
   21. Information on the market situation and industry
   22. Future expectations
   23. Plans for the future
   24. Guidance and mentoring.

It is important that the employer discover other extraordinary needs applicants have
before hiring them and know beforehand whether he/she can satisfy those needs or not.
An employee may have:

      Family responsibilities and be unable to work shifts, overtime, or weekends
      Heavy financial responsibilities which he/she can meet only by working at two
       jobs, leading to exhaustion, "sick leave", and deficient work performance
      A desperate financial need for additional overtime and weekend remuneration

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      Premature expectations of swift promotions.

Some other needs the employer can expect, for which company policies should be
planned accordingly:

      If the company is in a remote location, all employees will have a need for more
       social activities
      Many single people look for dates and spouses at work
      Some women may not be ready to work late shifts unless the employer provides
       transportation back home
      Some workers may have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse.

In addition to needs and drives, adult workers have expectations from their employer -
they expect:

      A knowledgeable, experienced, expert employer
      Clear and fair policies, procedures, and employment practices
      Business integrity
      Clear job descriptions
      Two-way communications
      Effective management and supervision
      Positive discipline
      Good company repute
      Good customer relations
      Company survival
      Opportunities for personal growth
      Company growth
      A share in the company's success.

Business owners and managers are under constant scrutiny by the people they hire. Adult
workers care beyond the salary - they care to know to whom they entrust their fate,
reputation, and security. They consider their work as a major factor that shapes their lives
and the lives of those dear to them. Once they feel confident that the employer and their

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place of work is what they wished for and expected, they are ready to contribute above
and beyond "the call of duty".

Most of these needs, expectations and aspirations are unexpressed - it is up to the
employer to develop a good system of company communications, employee relations,
training and development that will lead to an environment of openness, cooperation,
teamwork, and motivation that will benefit all the parties involved.

Cross-Training as a motivational and problem-solving Technique

Many managers, including human resources directors, mistakenly believe that employee
motivation can be won through monetary rewards or other perks. They learn soon enough
that such perks are taken for granted and that money is not the key to employee
motivation. A professional and unified management, in a good work environment, is the
basis on which to build employee motivation.

While high employee turnover reflects on low morale and lack of motivation, when seen
from another angle, the absence of turnover quickly results in de-motivation since the
possibility of motion and forward-motion is taken away from employees. It is against
human nature to remain static, performing the same duties day in, day out, without
expectations    of    change      in   routine    or    opportunities   for   advancement.

Following a reading or lecture on the subject, managers sometimes implement "job
enrichment" in a misguided manner, adding unrewarded responsibilities on the shoulders
of their supervisors and employees.     This results in a feeling of exploitation and has the
reverse of the intended effect.

An effective training technique which results in motivation is cross-training, when
implemented horizontally, upward and downward. Department heads, assistants and
employees can cross-train in different departments or within the department itself. With
background support, employees can have one day training in the role of department head
("King for the Day"). When a General Manager is away, department heads can take roles
replacing him, which is a form of cross-training.

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Cross-training should be carefully planned and presented as a learning opportunity. It
should be incorporated in a hotel's master yearly training plan, covering all positions and
departments. It should begin with supervisory level and filter down to entry-level
positions. Housekeeping should cross-train in Front Office and vice-versa; Front Office
in Marketing, Sales, Public Relations, Food & Beverage, Banquets, Security; Marketing
& Sales in Front Office, Food & Beverage, Purchasing; Food & Beverage Service in the
Culinary department and vice versa; Human Resources in different departments and vice

This technique achieves the following objectives:

        Prevents stagnation
        Offers a learning and professional development opportunity
        Rejuvenates all departments
        Improves understanding of the different departments and the hotel as a whole
        Leads to better coordination and teamwork
        Erases differences, enmity and unhealthy competition
        Increases knowledge, know-how, skills and work performance
        Improves overall motivation
        Leads to the sharing of organizational goals and objectives.

Sending people to work in another department at a moment's notice is not what cross-
training is about. This has to be an effective planned process. Employees must "buy" into
the idea, be encouraged to give feedback and make suggestions for improvement. They
become "partners". Departmental communications meetings can be used to share lessons
learned. When employees think "the grass is greener on the other side of the lawn" they
soon realize their mistake after exposure to other departments. They return to their job
with a better attitude.

Cross-training can also be used to "shake up" supervisors or employees who have lapsed
into poor performance. Upon being moved to a different position or department, albeit

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temporarily, they hear "warning bells", shape up and usually return to their positions as
exemplary performers.

Depending on the budget at hand and the objectives to be achieved, the time for cross-
training can vary from one day to a week or more. Details must be coordinated with the
"receiving" department head. The trainee is incorporated within the department's
activities for the duration of the cross-training (briefings, meetings, or obligations).

A more sophisticated form of cross-training is job rotation, which usually involves
extended periods (from one month to six months). With job rotation, the employee's role
is of a different nature. He is not considered as trainee, but is responsible over certain job
functions, for which he has to prove himself.

Both cross-training and job rotation create a team of workers who are more
knowledgeable, can easily replace each other when needed and who gain new confidence
regarding their professional expertise. These two techniques lead to great motivation
throughout the company.

Unionized properties face some difficulty in implementing such techniques due to the
rigidity of Union policies and labor agreements. It is up to management to win over
Unions on this concept and convince them of the benefits to employees' careers. Union
representatives can be made to understand that company-wide cross-training involves
substantial investment in time, effort and payroll. The benefits, however, are enjoyed by
the three main stakeholders: employees, management and guests. Employees enjoy the
rewards of added know-how, skills, career opportunities and future security due to
business success.

Problems for Employers' Organizations Developing Training

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Several reasons account for the problems faced by employers' organizations in training
their own staff, and in providing training to members. They include the following:

      Unlike enterprises which can have their staff trained in management and other
       training institutions, there are no courses and training institutions which are
       geared to the needs of employers' organizations. This places a heavy
       responsibility on senior staff to train new recruits and on staff to develop
       themselves. Therefore organizations often rely on the ILO to conduct training
       programmes designed to serve the needs of employers' organizations, and to
       provide staff with study tours to other employers' organizations.
      Most organizations do not have skilled trainers i.e. persons who have been trained
       as trainers.
      Inadequate training material
      Inadequate information/knowledge relating to labor-related subjects needed to
       attract enterprises to the organization's training programmes.
      The economic viability of having full time training staff. Due to financial
       constraints, an employers' organization would generally have to keep full time
       training staff to a minimum. Therefore staff with special skills providing advisory
       and representation services should be trained as trainers to enable them to
       undertake some training in their areas of expertise.

Organizational Change

Conventional organizational change, which typically encompasses training and
development, and 'motivation', mostly fails.

Why? Are the people stupid? Can they not see the need for change? Do they not realise
that if the organization cannot make these changes then we will become uncompetitive.
We will lose market share. There will be job cuts. We will eventually go out of business.
Can they not see it? Actually probably not. Or more precisely, people look at things in a
different way.

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Bosses and organizations still tend to think that people whom are managed and employed
and paid to do a job should do what they're told to do. We are conditioned from an early
age to believe that the way to teach and train, and to motivate people towards changing
what they do, is to tell them, or persuade them. From the experiences at school the people
are conditioned to believe that skills, knowledge, and expectations are imposed on or 'put
into' people by teachers, and later, by managers and bosses in the workplace. But just
because the boss says so, doesn't make it so. People today have a different perspective.
And when they think about it, they're bound to.

Imposing new skills and change on people doesn't work because:

      It assumes that people's personal aims and wishes and needs are completely
       aligned with those of the organization, or that there is no need for such alignment,
      It assumes that people want, and can assimilate into their lives, given all their
       other priorities, the type of development or change that the organization deems
       appropriate for them.

Instead, organizations, managers, bosses and business owners would do better to think
first about exploring ways to align the aims of the business with the needs - total life
needs - of their people. Most people who go to work are under no illusion that their main
purpose is to do what their manager says, so that the organization can at the end of the
year pay outrageously high rewards to greedy directors, and a big fat dividend to the
shareholders. The workers work so that other more gifted or fortunate or aggressive
people can profit because of our efforts.

And god help those if they are running a management buyout company, intent on
floating or selling out in the next two-to-five years, making the MBO equity-holders
millionaires, and leaving the employees, on whose backs these scandalous gains have
been made, up the creek without a paddle, at the mercy of the new owners.

How the bloody hell do you expect decent hardworking people to align with those aims?

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It's time for a radical re-think, before they all disappear up their own backsides...

Fact one:

People will never align with bad aims. Executive greed, exploitation, environmental
damage, inequality, betrayal, false promises are transparent for all decent folk to see:

"Oh you want me to do this training, and adjust to your changes, so I can make more
money for you and the parasites who feed off this corporation? I've got my own life to
lead thanks very much."

And that's if bosses are lucky. Most staff will simply nod and smile demurely as if in
servile acceptance. If they still wore caps they'd doff them.

The bosses should re-assess and re-align their organization's aims, beliefs, and integrity -
all of it - with their workers. Then they might begin to be interested in helping with new
skills and change, etc.

Fact two:

People can't just drop everything and 'change', or learn new skills, just because boss says
so. Even if they want to change and learn new skills, they have a whole range of issues
that keep them fully occupied for most of their waking hours. The need for consulting
with people is rather a good idea is that it saves boss from his own wrong assumptions.
Consulting with people does not mean that organization is in the workers hand they
wouldn't want the corporation if they are paid well. So if the company is thinking in this
then it is wrong because consulting with people gives boss and them a chance to
understand the implications and feasibility of what boss think needs doing. And aside
from this, consulting with people, and helping them to see things from both sides
generally throws up some very good ideas for doing things better than boss could have
dreamt of by himself. It helps boss to see from both sides too.

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Fact three:

Organizations commonly say they don't have time to re-assess and re-align their aims and
values, etc., or don't have time to consult with people properly, because the organization
is on the edge of a crisis.

Well whose fault is that? Organizations get into crisis because they ignore facts one and
two. Ignoring these facts again will only deepen the crisis.

Crisis is no excuse for compromising integrity. Crisis is the best reason to re-align aims
and consult with workers. Crisis is wake-up and change the organization and its purpose -
not change the people. When an organization is in crisis, the people are almost always
okay - it'll be the organizational purpose and aims that stink.

The company should start by looking at their organization's aims and values and
purposes. What does organization actually seek to do? Whom does their organization
benefit? And whom does it exploit? Who are the winners, and who are the losers? Does
the organization have real integrity? Are they proud of the consequences and implications
of what their organization does? Will the organization be remembered for the good that it
did? And what do workers say to themselves about the way their boss is managing

Developing the Organization's Training Function

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There are certain prerequisites essential to undertaking a training role in relation to
members. Training may be affected in three ways

      By the employers' organization's own staff
      By external persons or institutions the employers' organization may contract with
       to conduct training
      By a combination of both the above methods, this would usually be the most
       practical since it is unrealistic to expect employers‘ organizations to develop the
       level of skills needed in all the areas of training.

Even in courses conducted by the organization trainers or resource persons can be used
for selected subjects to enrich the programme.

Where training is conducted by the staff of the employers' organization it follows that it
must have a comparative advantage in the subject matter of the training. In order to have
that advantage the staff should

      Have the requisite knowledge in the subject matter
      Be trained as trainers, although this is not critical in all cases. For instance,
       conducting courses on the application of the labor laws requires knowledge of the
       subject matter, and skills in training may not be particularly critical though
       undoubtedly useful.

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       Be supported by an up to date information and research base.

The above mentioned pre-requisites underline the two types of training an employers'
organization might undertake. The first is the transference of information and knowledge
needed by enterprises to make decisions in labor related areas. This requires the first and
third pre-requisites referred to. However, in order to have an impact on enterprises in the
management of people, the training needs to go beyond knowledge-transference and
demonstrate how to translate the relevant knowledge into practice. This involves not only
a sound information and research base and staff with the requisite knowledge, but also
staff with training skills.

Identifying Areas of Training Specialization

Employers' organizations do not usually offer training in all areas of management (e.g.
general management, finance, and marketing) because

       These are specialized areas requiring knowledge in subjects outside the mandate
        of an employers' organization
       Such training is provided by other institutions like business schools and
        polytechnics which specially cater to these training needs.

However, in some areas training undertaken by employers' organizations and other
institutions overlap. An example is negotiation skills on which business education
institutions in some countries have highly effective programmes. Another is human
resource management. Therefore it is important for employers' organizations to develop
an expertise in training in industrial relations (laws, workplace labor relations practices,
wages, and negotiation). It is a subject in which it can develop a comparative advantage,
especially since in many countries such training is seldom offered by other institutions.
Even if other institutions do, they may lack the practical experience employers'
organizations develop if they provide direct services to members.

An increasingly important target group is the small enterprise sector which, unlike the
large scale sector, usually lacks a human resource manager or a training policy and in

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house training facilities. A special needs assessment may have to be conducted in this
sector as its needs tend to differ from those of large and medium scale enterprises. The
ILO has developed the Improve Your Business (IYB) programme, which is a system of
inter-related training packages and supporting materials for providing owners and
managers of small enterprises with training in basic business management skills.

Establishing Training Priorities

The employers' organization should establish a priority table in respect of the areas in
which it wishes to

      Itself provide the training
      Act only in a subsidiary capacity by, for instance, collaborating with external
       institutions or individuals.
      Provide training material

Some of the areas in which an employers' organization can undertake training are:

   a. Industrial Relations and Labour Law. This should be a priority as it is the labour
       relations role which, more than any other, distinguishes an employers'
       organization from other employer bodies.
   b. Personnel and Human Resource Management. Training in this area helps to
       strengthen personal departments and human resource management functions.
       Since one of the main objectives of HRM is to integrate it with the functions of
       line managers, HRM training should be made available to all enterprise managers.
       However, training in this field may require linking up with institutions which are
       qualified in this regard, as it is difficult to build a comparative advantage without
       external assistance.
   c. Negotiation and negotiation skills. This is important not only for the conduct of
       collective bargaining but also for enterprise managers in their frequent
       interactions with their employees and other enterprises.
   d. Safety and health. An employers' organization could develop a limited role, such
       as interpreting relevant laws and training safety committees in enterprises.

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   e. Productivity. Here a limited role is possible, largely through training to achieve
       sound industrial relations and in HRM practices which promote productivity
       improvement. Productivity bargaining and performance and skills based pay
       systems are a part of an employers' organization's mandate directly linked to
   f. Supervisory training. This often neglected area of training is an important means
       of improving workplace labour relations and productivity. The ILO has developed
       a supervisory training module which has been found useful by enterprises.
   g. Cross-cultural management training. In the context of increasing investment in
       countries from both within and outside the region and the apparent proliferation of
       disputes flowing from cross-cultural "mismanagement", there is scope for the
       development of training programmes for foreign personnel designed to acquaint
       them with local practices and cultural factors relevant to managing local
       employees. Increasingly, local employees also need to adjust to the management
       requirements and styles of foreign companies. Strangely, this has been a much
       neglected area of training. However, it requires quite a mastery of local systems,
       practices and culture.

Training should not take the form of only collective training programmes i.e. for
personnel from several different enterprises. Considerable impact can be achieved
through the design and conduct of training programmes for particular enterprises at plant
level as it facilitates addressing a particular enterprise's needs. The latter type of
programme also has a reasonable chance of attracting senior managers who are in a
position to influence the company's policies.

Equipping the Organization for Training

The organization should equip itself to perform a training role. Among other things, this
involves the followings:

      Analyzing the organization's strengths and weaknesses in training in the light of
       the needs assessment surveys and identification of the areas of training.

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      Training the staff in training skills
      Where relevant, studying the management of the training function of employers'
       organizations which have developed an excellence in training
      Improving the organization's information/research/knowledge base
      Developing training courses and materials
      Where necessary entering into arrangements with outside individuals or
       institutions to design and/or conduct training programmes
      Appointing a training manager, or at least a person to plan and coordinate the
      Acquisition of the training equipment needed.

As a brief review of terms, training involves an expert working with learners to transfer
to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs.
Development is a broad, ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among
them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance, often
to perform some job or new role in the future.

Topics of Employee Training

1) Corporate ethics: This covers the value of good manners, courtesy, consideration,
personal décor and good rapport. It also shows why and how to discourage gossip,
controversies, personal work at office, rush jobs etc.

2) Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety
of languages and customs. Right from the way the receptionist handles a call to how the
CEO deals with a customer gives a glimpse of the image of an organization. Such

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training encompasses oral, written and presentation skills. It stresses the importance of
communication being clear, concise, concrete and colorful.

3) Career and life planning: A primarily employee-oriented training objective           u
undertaken to help employees plan for their lives, career, retirement, redundancy etc.
Such training imparts the values of life skills that employees need under different and
difficult circumstances.

4) Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting
administrative and office tasks.

5) Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it
critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers.

6) Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how        people have
different perspectives and views, and includes techniques to value diversity

7) Staff management and team building: Such training shows the importance and
benefits of good management and how everyone can achieve more through teamwork.

8) Stress management: Stress is an individual‘s response to threats and challenges in the
environment. Manifested physiologically and physically, it may occur due to role
conflict, role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role overload or role under load. Stress
management techniques are covered under this objective.

9) Time management: Time management skills covered here showcase the importance of
being specific, delegation and prioritization. They also show how to set measurable,
attainable, relevant and time-bound goals.

10) Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include
misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. It also
includes interpersonal relationship skills Communication is a two-way exercise and this
objective covers the importance of listening, concentrating, showing empathy and self-

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11) Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles,
benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and
standards for quality, etc.

12) Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous
chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for
avoiding assaults, etc.

13) Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description
of the organization's policies about sexual harassment, especially about what are
inappropriate behaviors.

14) Memory skills: This objective highlights techniques for better reception, retention
and recall through audio and visual learning techniques. It helps to improve skills by
employing     all   senses,   associating   and   following   systematic    review   plans.

15) Special skills: Besides the above, organizations also impart special job-related skills.
These may include technology training, report writing, technical training, quality
assessments etc.

An organization may choose to impart training in any or many of the objectives
mentioned above. But before one invests it is important to choose a trainer who is good
and capable of making a positive difference with his or her training methodologies. Also
organizational training needs to be undertaken keeping the mission and the vision
statement of the organization in view.

Benefits from Employee Training and Development

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Regardless of the size or type of an industry or business, training can have a
measurable impact on performance and the bottom line.

Research shows that productivity increases while training takes place. A staff who
receives formal training can be 230 per cent more productive than untrained
colleagues who are working in the same role. Staying competitive is the key to
sustainability. Training your staff, keeping them motivated and up-to-date with
industry trends and new technologies is essential to achieving that goal.

Staff benefit too, learning new skills and becoming a valued asset in any organization.
Training brings direct benefits to business and can be calculated as a return on

High labor productivity increases business output and can open a greater share of the
market or expand it by improving products, services and reputations.

Successful training is focused on supporting your business objectives.

    Staff retention
Training increases staff retention which is a significant cost saving, as the loss of one
competent person can be the equivalent of one year's pay and benefits.

In some companies, training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70 per cent and
led to a return on investment of 7,000 per cent.

    Improved quality and productivity

                                                      TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

Training that meets both staff and employer needs can increase the quality and
flexibility of a business‘s services by fostering:

      Accuracy and efficiency
      Good work safety practices
      Better customer service.
Most businesses provide on-the-job training, particularly during induction. Ongoing
training almost always shows a positive return on investment.

    The flow-on effect
The benefits of training in one area can flow through to all levels of an organisation.
Over time, training will boost the bottom line and reduce costs by decreasing:

      Wasted time and materials
      Maintenance costs of machinery and equipment
      Workplace accidents, leading to lower insurance premiums
      Recruitment costs through the internal promotion of skilled staff
      Absenteeism.
      Staying competitive
Businesses must continually change their work practices and infrastructure to stay
competitive in a global market. Training staff to manage the implementation of new
technology, work practices and business strategies can also act as a benchmark for
future recruitment and quality assurance practices.

As well as impacting on business profit margins, training can improve:

      Staff morale and satisfaction
      'Soft skills' such as inter-staff communication and leadership
      Time management
      Customer satisfaction

There are numerous sources of on-line information about training and development.
Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for
supervisors to conduct training among employees. These reasons include:

                                                     TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

1. Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees

2. Increased employee motivation

3. Increased efficiencies in processes, resulting in financial gain

4. Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods

5. Increased innovation in strategies and products

6. Reduced employee turnover

7. Enhanced company image, e.g., conducting ethics training (not a good reason for
ethics training!)

8. Risk management, e.g., training about sexual harassment, diversity training

Companies that have a healthy training culture report the following benefits:

       Improved quality
       Increased productivity
       Greater flexibility and responsiveness to change
       Reduced insurance premiums
       Less wastage
       Reduced maintenance and repair costs
       Greater commitment from staff
       Higher staff retention rate
       Improved morale.

Perhaps the most important benefit of a healthy training culture is that the skills of your
staff are formally recognised and that your employees feel that their contribution to the
company is valued.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

Renewed focus on Corporate Training
Upcoming technologies are aimed at making organizational processes more efficient, but
this effort is incomplete without proficient employees who are in touch with forthcoming
innovations in their companies. Today, human capital has replaced physical capital as a
source of competitive advantage for all organisations, big and small; hence there is a
renewed focus on corporate training to create a better, faster and smarter workforce that
will impact business results.

The training industry in India has evolved as a business effectiveness tool. The arena of
training has moved on from employee retention programmes to issues like sales training,
leadership, relationship building and increasing production. Sanjeev Duggal, CEO and
MD, NIS of Sparta says that, ―Training has become a critical business enabler and is
being linked to business outcome. Due to ever-changing market scenarios and stiff
competition, every organisation wants to make optimum use of the most critical resource-
people-efficiently and effectively to impact business results.‖

Uday Kulkarni, Senior Vice-president, Aptech, adds that ―There is an increased
awareness relating to the need for corporate training in India. A certain shift is taking
place from a generic to a specific and focused training approach. As a result, there is a lot
more planning and analysis going into evolving a training strategy. Human capital is
recognized as the most important resource, and companies are therefore making efforts to
hone it through training.‖

 "Training has become a been critical business enabler that is being linked to business

-Sanjeev Duggal

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

NIS Sparta

"Corporate IT training has still not been imbibed as a culture in most organisations.
It is need-based rather than a planned activity"
-Jitendra Nair
Karrox Technologies

On the other hand, Jitendra Nair, Vice-president, Karrox Technologies, believes that
corporate IT training has still not been imbibed as a culture in most organisations.
According to him, it is more need-based rather than a planned activity. The intensity in
the approach is now changing with good companies dedicating IT training budgets for
their IT and end-user staff. In India, corporate training markets are largely active in the
re-skilling space. This is the area where participants are trained on newer technologies in
order to enhance their productivity.‖

Nasscom figures indicate that the IT corporate training market is expected to touch rs.
600 crore by 2010 from the current rs. 210 crore. Internationally, 80 percent of a training
company‘s revenue comes from corporate training. However, in the Indian market, the
revenue figure could be 50 percent from retail training and the rest from the corporate

He adds, ―The prevailing thrust on public domain/retail training is primarily due to the
disconnect in our academic approach where the latest technologies are not offered, thus
making it necessary for job aspirants to get trained on their own in order to be job-

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

worthy. Due to high competition in the job market space and high aspiration factors, our
students generally have the culture of learning before they apply for jobs.‖

"With the increased utilization of IT in all sectors, intensive training has become
-Rajeev Katyal

Senior Vice-President

Enterprise Learning Solutions, NIIT

Specialization in training

Training in India is imparted at all levels—frontline, middle or senior management—of
the organization, but the emphasis is on the frontline staff and the senior management.
Duggal states, ―The training imparted to the frontline staff is skill-based. But the acute
shortage of quality people at the senior level—the people who actually builds and
manage companies—has made investment in training and development an important tool
for the management of the organization.‖

Nair is of the view that corporate training is largely happening on the software
development, networking and IT security space at different levels. Specialization training
is gaining momentum, and hence delivery is task-oriented rather than theory and science-
based, as was in the past. Rajeev Katyal, Senior Vice-president, Enterprise Learning
Solutions, NIIT, believes that with the increased utilization of IT in all sectors, intensive
training has become essential. Both the government and private sectors are relying
heavily on the training of their employees.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

In-house vs. outsource

The kind of training requirement an organization has determines whether the training is
conducted in-house or is outsourced to a third party. Duggal notes, ―Training
programmes that involve volume and are done on a consistent basis (like the voice-and-
accent training imparted at BPOs) is generally done in-house. But an organization usually
involves a third party when there is need for a specialized training programme like a
management development programme, role-based skill development programme or
outbound programme.‖

Corporate preference is generally towards organizations that have good experience in
training corporate personnel. Training students and training professionals are different in
terms of approach, methodology and delivery. Trainers have to be highly experienced
with a track record of successful delivery.

Nair explains, ―Training programmes are usually in-house where the client utilizes his
own environment and facilities, thereby giving him traveling and economic benefits. But
some organizations outsource their entire training programmes to qualified and reputed
training organizations after due diligence on their credentials, faculties, client references
and experience in the business.‖

According to Katyal, the choice between outsourcing and in-house training depends on
the nature and need of the organization. IT and BPO companies undertake a lot of in-
house training, and depending on the kind of specialized training required, they
outsource. Government sector companies mostly choose to outsource. Outsourcing offers
the advantage of sourcing scarce talent and the ability to ramp up quickly, whereas in-
house training offers greater control.

Matching schedules and providing customized courseware for customized content is
another operational challenge in this segment.

                                                   TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

Katyal points out that the challenges which companies face while undertaking training
programmes includes finding locations for training in remote areas and an experienced

Multiple gains

Training makes an organization well-equipped to keep pace with the changing dynamics
of business. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and
well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally, they
receive a greater share of the material gains due to their increased productivity. These
factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and
company goals.

Nair points out that IT-based training programme enable participants to use software to
its fullest potential, thereby cutting down time requirements and getting the best RoI on
the company‘s technology deployments. ―Training as a culture also helps corporate HR
retain their people. On the technology side, participants aspire for knowledge initiatives.
Constant updating on technologies is at most times a good reason for people to stay
longer in an organization.‖

He adds, ―From a training company perspective, it‘s a relationship-based marketing
model and leads to a constant revenue model. It‘s an effective B2B model for mature IT
training companies, and in the process adds value to their clients and their own business.
Even for their technical staff, it‘s a new scale that they always aspire to reach as a

Who’s Training Whom

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

Company                                        Corporate Training Clients

NIS Sparta                                     Coca-Cola, IBM, Maruti, American
                                               Express, Thermax, Mahindra Finance,
                                               Accenture, APAC, Pantaloon, Godrej &
Aptech Training Solutions                      Maruti Udyog, Electrolux Kelvinator,
                                               Dabur, Valvoline Cummins, Perfetti van
                                               Melle India, National Thermal Power
                                               Corporation, Gas Authority Of India, Delhi
                                               Police, Standard Chartered Bank, Indian
                                               Oil, Motorola India, ICICI, Bayer,
                                               Mahindra & Mahindra, Blue Star, HP,
Karrox                                         Godrej Infotech, Times of India, Reliance
                                               Infocomm, Reliance Industries, Wipro
                                               Infotech, Tata Consultancy Services,
                                               Siemens, Union Bank of India, Infosys,
                                               Cap Gemini, Global Telesystems, South
                                               Eastern     Coal     Fields,    Persistent
                                               Technologies, State Bank of India, HCL,
                                               Indian Navy.

Varied approaches

The approach taken for any training programme depends on the client requirement based
on the changing market scenario. It could be specific training enhancing one particular
skill or it could be a holistic approach facilitating organizational development taken up to
address needs in a competitive market scenario.

Katyal discusses, ―The current requirement for corporate training is mostly related to IT.
However, management training, especially at the supervisory level, is also seeing rising
demand these days. One of the areas for consideration while designing training
programmes is incorporating a session on soft skills. (For IT skills, there is enough
material available.) The approach is need-based. This is followed by the appropriate mix
of curriculum, faculty skills and infrastructure planning. Usage of right training
methodology is essential.‖

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

Nair adds that the current method being practiced is to conduct a training-need analysis,
and identify the people needing training in a variety of products. On such identification,
the technical coordinator will finalize things like indicative schedules along with the
proposed venue. Once the administrative aspects are completed, the technology
implementation, that is, the delivery of training starts. In the case of a need-based
approach, i.e. an urgent project deployment requiring some training, it‘s always a holistic
approach and is not process-oriented.

An evolving trend

The trend for corporate training is currently evolving in the country, and more and more
organizations are opting for it. Katyal details, ―The current scenario of corporate training
looks promising in almost all sectors. With the government sector going in for capacity
building, the rise in recruitment in the IT/BPO sector, and companies investing in IT, the
need for corporate training is on the rise.‖

Nair explains, ―In the globalize environment where new products are hitting the market
with great frequency and new technology deployments have become a business
compulsion in order to enhance productivity and better turnaround time, training has
become a crucial part of the technology deployment cycle.‖

At last Kulkarni says, ―Corporates today have realized that self-development among
employees lead to better RoI for the organization. Training is essential to keep an
organization‘s human capital fit and fine to enable it take on the best in the world—and
then sculpt a world-class organization.‖

The State of Training and Development: More Spending, More Scrutiny

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

As investment in training continues to rise, with resources migrating away from in-house
programs, employers are demanding better accounting to ensure that their development
dollars go toward furthering strategic goals and bolstering the bottom line.
Technology and global competition, the two driving forces of economic change in
today‘s business world, haven‘t bypassed the once-staid world of training and
development. Companies seeking to gain advantage through better-trained and better-
developed workers are employing everything from e-learning delivery systems to
multicultural and polyglot training solutions. They are hiring chief learning officers to
deal with the increasingly complex field. And they are demanding better accounting of

   Jack Kramer, vice president of global alliances for Sum Total Systems of Mountain
View, California, says that every training effort--from the most sophisticated leadership
course to the most basic regulatory compliance training module--is being rigorously
vetted for more than just content.

   "They want to know, ‗What is the financial impact?‘ ―Kramer says.‖ ‗Have you cut
costs? Have you solved compliance issues? Have you assimilated learning into company
operations?‘ "

  Yet despite the focus on efficiency and cost control, overall spending on training and
development continues to raise, a reflection of the fact that companies are ratcheting up
the amount of training they require of their workers in the ceaseless drive for a
competitive edge. Companies clearly subscribe to the belief that smarter, better-trained
workers increase chances for success.

  "We are seeing spending continue to rise," says Pat Galagan, vice president of content
for the American Society for Training & Development. "The thing we are noticing is that
companies are working to get more efficiency, more effectiveness and better alignment
out of training. It means they are doing an enterprise accounting of learning

                                                     TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

   ASTD‘s tracking of expenditures shows that the push toward more spending on
training and development has been consistent throughout this decade. According to
ASTD‘s latest "State of the Industry Report," issued in December, annual spending on
training and development by companies and other organizations rose to $955 per
employee in 2004 and was projected to reach $1,000 in 2005. In 2000, the total stood at
$649. The average number of annual learning hours per employee, which was 24 in 2000,
reached 32 in 2004 and was projected to hit 34 in 2005. Training and development
budgets now gobble up anywhere from 2.25 percent to 3 percent of payrolls.

  Where is that money being spent? Despite the rise of outside vendors who promise to
deliver training modules more cheaply, the bulk of training is still done in-house.

  "Organizations tend to outsource things that can be standardized and keep inside things
that are special, unique or have a competitive advantage," ASTD‘s Galagan says.
"Definitely most training is still internal."

  Still, the amount of training that can be outsourced has yet to peak, thanks in part to the
ever-changing and rising need to meet mandates for training in subjects like worker
safety or financial reporting. Vendors predict that their businesses will enjoy years of
continued growth.

   According to the ASTD report, in-house training and development is still by far the
place where the most dollars are spent. But it commands a shrinking share. In-house
spending declined from 66.8 percent of total spending in 2000 to a projected 57.4 percent
for 2005. At the same time, outsourcing rose from 22.2 percent of total spending in 2000
to a projected 29.1 percent in 2005. (Tuition reimbursement, the other major use of
training and development money, rose modestly, from 11 percent in 2000 to 13.5 percent
in 2005.)

Training In Various Industries

                                                  TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

1)Training in News Center

The news industry, traditionally untroubled about staff development, is taking a new
look. In today‘s multimedia world, industry leaders feel heightened competition for the
best and brightest employees. Economists predict an acute shortage of ―knowledge
workers.‖ Starting salaries for journalists, stagnant for decades, have begun to creep
upward. Industry attrition also is climbing, and an increasingly professional journalism
workforce wants – and is starting to get – more training and mid-career education.

The same information revolution that draws away journalistic talent also siphons off the
attention of audiences. But a growing body of research, as well as the experience of
many news leaders, shows that improving staff development and training can help news
organizations improve the quality of their journalism to keep and even expand

Benefits include:

   1. Journalists with learning and development opportunities stay with organizations
      longer. Higher employee retention both saves money and strengthens readership.

   2. News organizations with strong training and education programs enjoy a greater
      chance of success in creating newsroom diversity and reaching wider audiences.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

   3. A learning newsroom is more likely to have a constructive culture, increasing

   4. Skill, topic and value training all help journalists provide greater editorial quality.

1. Journalists with learning and development opportunities stay with organizations
longer. Higher employee retention both saves money and strengthens readership.

Average turnover across America‘s newsrooms, historically low compared to other non-
manufacturing industries, climbed in the 1990s as Internet and other opportunities lured
many journalists away from traditional media. By 2000, newsroom turnover in the
newspaper industry averaged 15 percent, about the same average found across industry

―Newspapers feel they are dealing with a mounting crisis in getting and keeping good
people,‖ the Media Management Center‘s Readership Institute reported in 2000. ―In
countless conversations with newspaper executives, two themes recur: ‗We‘ve got
candidates for jobs, but we don‘t seem to be getting the cream of the crop any more,‘ and
‗we keep losing the people we can‘t afford to lose.‘‖

Recruiting and retention challenges are likely to increase. The middle-aged baby
boomers who make up the largest portion of the news industry will retire in the first
quarter of the 21st century. The worker group that follows is smaller and less likely to be
loyal to any organization that does not provide challenges and development

―We are about to face a demographically driven shortfall in labor that will make the late
1990s seem like a minor irritation,‖ Anthony Carnevale, former chairman of the
National Commission for Employment Policy, told Business 2.0 magazine in September

This will worsen what the Readership Institute calls the‖hidden‖ business cost of
turnover, the relationship between high-turnover staffs and high-turnover readership.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

―Difficulties in recruiting and keeping talented workers come at a time when levels of
readership and share of advertising continue to slowly but steadily erode. New research
shows these issues are linked – that high turnover can depress reader satisfaction,
readership and how people perceive the newspaper‘s brand,‖ the Readership Institute
said after its Impact Study of 100 newspapers.

―That alone is a compelling opportunity for newspapers to focus on getting and keeping
the best.‖

The Readership Institute identifies development and learning activities as critical to
retaining staff and building a dynamic workforce.

Newsrooms do not typically track or report their turnover rates or link them to staff
development activities. In those that do, however, there appear clear relationships
between staff development and turnover.

The 2002 study ―Newsroom Training: Where‘s the Investment?‖ underscored that
improved opportunities for training and development will be critical to the retention of
journalists in all media as the economy opens up. Though three in 10 journalists told
researchers they received regular training, an even greater number – a full third of those
surveyed – expressed dissatisfaction with training opportunities. The lack of training
outranked even compensation and lack of opportunities for promotion among the
journalists surveyed.

The survey, co-sponsored by the Council of National Journalism Organizations and the
Knight Foundation, estimated that the news industry spends .07 percent of payroll
annually on training and staff development, when industries generally spend three times
that amount and some high-performing corporations spend 10 to 20 times that amount.

2. News organizations with strong training and education programs enjoy a greater
chance of success in creating newsroom diversity and reaching wider audiences.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

The news industry hopes to keep and expand its audience in an increasingly diverse
nation, yet it struggles to keep and expand the number of women and journalists of color
in its newsrooms.

Journalists of color who leave the profession generally cite a lack of professional
challenge and a lack of opportunities for advancement.

Improved training and professional development has been an important factor at the
relatively few dailies that have achieved racial parity with their communities.

Past surveys show journalists of color joined by both women and young journalists as
being statistically more likely to want to leave a job if it does not offer a chance to learn
and grow. News industry efforts to reach younger news consumers as well as female
consumers also can be hampered by a lack of training and staff development.

3. A learning newsroom is more likely to have a constructive culture, increasing

Staff development – investments that enhance an individual‘s skills, knowledge and
behavior – strengthens companies by doing more than reducing turnover.

Organizations with constructive, learning workplace cultures tend to do better in the
marketplace. In the news industry, Readership Institute research has stressed that the
―defensive‖ cultures of most newsrooms are a primary obstacle to growing audience.

The Southern Newspaper Publishers Association recently faced both of these factors – a
constructive need to add training and defensive budget cuts during the recent recession –
and fashioned a creative solution to increase staff development opportunities for its
member newspapers, many of which are the small newsrooms most in need of training.

Inspired by the ―Cox Academy,‖ which provides newsroom training for regional clusters
of Cox newspapers, SNPA developed a ―traveling campus‖ program to offer weekend
training at 20 sites per year, reachable by car by any member.

                                                     TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

In 2002, more than 7,600 newspaper employees attended the traveling seminars, nearly
as many people in one year as the SNPA foundation had trained in the previous 32 years.
By the end of 2003, the organization‘s members had pledged $8 million of a $10 million
endowment needed to permanently fund the training.

4. Skill, topic and value training all help journalists provide greater editorial

News industry leaders say they can compete only with relevant, credible content. These
key elements of editorial quality – and of any quality news brand – rely increasingly on
the skill, knowledge and ethics of the staff.

The Readership Institute points to newspaper craft skills such as writing, photography,
graphics and page design as keys to increasing reader satisfaction. Recommending
improved technique is one thing, putting it into place is another. That‘s where increased
and improved training and development comes in.

Similarly, news organizations struggle to provide content that is relevant across a wider
audience that includes young people and people of color. Updating knowledge and
expertise – whether it is community knowledge or specialized knowledge in business,
science, health, and law – is essential to this process. Newsrooms with a high
commitment to training already know and practice this. The challenge is to find practical
ways to increase the capacity of newsrooms of all sizes to know and practice it.

Recent events have shown that credibility is a vital yet fragile force in any news
organization. Ongoing training and staff development around values and ethics is needed
as market forces increase pressure on standards. Indeed, when journalists say they want
training, they refer to all three types – skills, knowledge and ethics.

In newsrooms, journalists consistently say they need more training to do their jobs. The
national training survey found surprising harmony -- eight in 10 journalists believe they
need more training to keep up with changing demands, and nine in 10 news executives

                                                   TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

2 Training in Call Centers

Top Four blunders in Training

This is big questions that will the Outsourcing Trend continue to survive with falling
training standards?

What's the bottom line? Call Center Employers will regret slashing their training budgets
to save a few dollars. For a small investment, employers can protect themselves and save
hundreds of thousands of dollars in costs. Below are the top four training blunders that
many employers make and later regret.

Blunder #1: They distribute training policies and that's all they need to do.
Distributing a company/induction/training policy is not sufficient to show workforce that
a company has met its legal obligation to train its workforce and create an educated
work-environment. Also, line managers - the people in the trenches and making their
daily employment decisions - are the best hope of creating a energetic & learning
workplace. Therefore, it is very important to train the management staff so they can "spot
the issue," recognize a situation involving a issue and seek help from HR.

Blunder    #2:    They    fine   since    they    had    training   six      months   ago.
In order to use training as a defense tool, companies must verify that each and every
worker received training. All companies experience turnover and absenteeism problems,

                                                        TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

which undermine training effectiveness. Therefore, companies should receive written or
electronic training verifications and audit those verifications ANNUALLY to ensure
legally defensible training. Compliance training loses significant value if the company is
not able to present tracking information and documentation showing that each of their
workers received annual training. Also, many employers experience the all too common
scenario where they know they provided training, they know the employee likely
attended the training - but they cannot prove it for lack of documentation. The company
shouldn‘t make such mistake.

Blunder #3: the company has an HR assistant conduct training workshops.
A company needs to rely on the quality and effectiveness of its training. Otherwise, why
do it? Using an in-house trainer can be difficult if the person lacks expertise or credibility
within the organization. The trainer must be a senior executive or an outside professional
to gain the respect and attention of the training participants. Also, companies should have
a qualified expert conduct the training - a person who can also provide training testimony
in the event the training is ever legally challenged.

Blunder #4: the company always want in-person training rather than Web-based
and they can't afford it this year.

A blended learning solution (combining in-person and Web-based) is the most
comprehensive and effective training solution. However, some Web-based programs can
also be an effective stand-alone solution. For example, in-person training costs about
4000 to 5000 per person just for the training. That does not account for ancillary expenses
such as travel costs, staff costs or lost productivity/opportunity costs. In contrast, Web-
based training can cost as little as 3000 per person, without any hidden costs.

The call center employers need to devote energy and resources to their employees more
than ever before in order to maintain a productively workplace amidst this recession and
the poor morale pervading the marketplace.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT


The employers should keep in mind these four rules of thumb when designing the
company‘s strategy and solution:

Rule #1: Internet technology is the key to a profound revolution in learning.
The effects of Internet technology on employee training are indeed profound; however,
technology - any technology - should be seen as a tool, not a strategy or final goal. Just
because they have good word processing software doesn't mean you write well. Likewise,
the Internet cannot, in and of itself, improve the quality of the learning and the content
they put on it. The employers need to use Internet technology combined with high
quality, effective learning to maximize learning and retention levels.

Rule #2: There is an enduring and important role for traditional classroom
People who believe technology will totally replace great teachers in front of classrooms
of highly motivated learners are as misguided as those who believe the Internet is a
passing fad. The blended learning solution, i.e., a mixture of classroom and Web-based
training is the most effective and comprehensive learning strategy.

                                                    TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT

Rule #3: Learning is a continuous, cultural process - not simply a series of
Employees retain about 50% to 60% of what they learn in a formal training workshop.
Often, employees forget what they have learned within two months of the workshop.
Therefore, access and opportunities to learn should be available to anyone, anywhere, and
at any time within an organization. Organizational learning is as much about what
happens outside formal learning programs as it is about the programs themselves.

Rule #4: Strategy development and implementation are never really finished.
Employers change as their business changes. They adjust it as their people become more
skilled and knowledgeable. The employers redefine it as new technology options become
available. And, they constantly test it against the mission and vision of their business,
making sure they are always in alignment.

Due to training there is greater stability, flexibility and capacity for growth in an
organization. Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided
or minimized through training. Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, and
turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Future needs of employees will be
met through training and development programmes. Organizational take fresh diploma
holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. They are absorbed after
course completion. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an
investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Though no single training
programme yields all the benefits the organization which devotes itself to training and
development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. At the
same time, the employee‘s personal goals are furthered, generally adding to his or her
abilities and value to the employer. Ultimately, the objectives of the HR department and
also of the organization are also furthered.

                                TRAINING & DEVELOPEMENT