How safe is your home? Useful numbers and websites Did you know, every year 1000s of children go to hospital after suffering an accidental injury at home. Help stop your child being one of them by following Emergency services our safety tips check list: in the case of emergency / accidents 999/112 Tick the boxes Hot drinks are never left where The stairs and landing are kept clear of clutter that could cause a fall. Toys for older children are kept away from babies and toddlers, in case they choke on small parts. young children can reach them, to prevent scalds, as a cup of tea is still hot enough to scald after 15 minutes. There are safety gates fitted at the top and bottom of staircases to stop NHS Direct for medical advice 0845 46 47 www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk Baby & Child Lifesaving babies and toddlers climbing and Family GP Medicines and chemicals are kept falling on the stairs. high up and out of reach, to prevent a child from drinking something Plastic bags are knotted and put away Local hospital harmful. safely to avoid suffocation. Information The highchair has a 5-point harness Cigarettes, matches and lighters are to stop babies climbing or falling out. kept out of reach to prevent burns. Health visitor Baby nappies are always changed on Use back rings on the cooker or turn the floor, to help prevent falls. handles away from the edge to avoid Non- emergency police number 08456 043 043 scalds. Babies and toddlers are always supervised in the bath, to prevent Have a family fire escape plan Local taxi number drowning. worked out and discuss it with your children – don’t wait until it is too Creatively working to The hot water thermostat is turned down to below 540C. (1300F), in case a child turns on the hot tap and late. Always replace dead batteries in your Parentline reduce childhood injuries is scalded. smoke alarm – you cannot replace – advice and support for parents 0808 800 2222 your children. www.parentlineplus.org.uk A smoke alarm is fitted and working to give the family extra time to Someone in the family has taken a escape in the event of a fire. first aid course to help cope if an accident happens. Children’s Fire and Burn Trust 020 7233 8333 www.childrensfireandburntrust.org.uk If you require more information on keeping safe, contact Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service the Whoops! Child Safety Project on (0191) 477 7366. 0191 444 1500 www.twfire.co.uk/firesafety/home Information to prevent Advice and good practice About the Whoops! Child Safety Project About The Children’s Foundation unintentional injury • As your child becomes mobile, get down on your hands and The Whoops! Child Safety Project deliver unique training The Children’s Foundation was established in 1990 and is packages to health professionals, parents, carers and children considered to be the leading children’s health charity in North What we already know knees to see your home from their eyes – look for the addressing accident prevention. We offer groundbreaking East England. The Children’s Foundation provides leadership • Over the next 12 months, 2 million children will have an dangers or potential hazards safety initiatives and hard-hitting visual resources to back up and raises funds to: accident at home • Avoid hot drinks around babies and toddlers and never drink our training sessions. • Support research that will make a significant contribution to • 1/2 million of these children will be under 5 years old hot drinks over a baby or child Our aims are to: the health and well-being of children and young people • In 2004, 275 children died as a result of an accident • Get into the habit of running the cold water into the bath • Raise awareness of the dangers • Add value to NHS services targeted at children and young in the UK first • To promote a behavioural change in and around the home people Through research we know • Fit safety gates at the top and bottom of the stairs to avoid • To improve the environment, both in the home and • Create and support partnership programmes to address five • Boys are twice as likely to die from their injuries falls and one on the entrance to the kitchen too outdoors priorities, namely smoking, exercise & obesity, safety, • 0-4 year olds are most at risk of injuries in the home • Never give sweets to small children and toddlers who are • To reduce the impact of injury by immediate first aid care disability and mental health • 10-14 year olds boys are most at risk of all other types strapped in car seats. If the child was to choke and you of accidents were travelling on a motorway, then precious minutes The Whoops! Child Safety Project used traditional health Main home safety messages for parents would be lost before being able to attend to the child. promotion tools combined with the arts to effectively relay • CHILDREN UNDER 5 NEED SUPERVISING AT ALL TIMES • Remember a small child who looks at a cup of steaming tea safety messages and information. Our baby and child lifesaving • Recognise the dangers and says “oh hot” does not have the cognitive development course gives a brief introduction to the first aid techniques • Take action to avoid or remove the danger to understand what “hot” means – left unattended, they required to save a child's life. A full paediatric first aid course is • Change behaviour to reduce and eliminate more serious may scald themselves. also available. accidents • Fit and regularly maintain smoke alarms and never use the • Take the correct action (first aid) to minimise the severity battery for something else. In 2002, 32 children died in of the injury house fires. • Plan an effective fire escape for your family - decide who will be responsible for which children; look at methods of IMPORTANT escape and how to get out if the stairs are blocked. Plan it PO Box 2YB, Queen Victoria Road, This leaflet is intended as a guide and not a primary source now – don’t wait until it is too late. 12 Gladstone Terrace, Gateshead, NE8 4DY Newcastle upon Tyne, NE99 2YB of advice and instruction. In the case of an emergency, • Babies do not need warm rooms. The appropriate Tel: 0191 477 7366 Fax: 0191 477 7545 Tel: 0191 282 0000 Fax: 0191 282 0420 unqualified persons should always get help and advice from temperature should be between 16 – 20°C depending on Email: email@example.com Email: firstname.lastname@example.org the emergency services or medical professionals. their clothing and blankets. In the summer months a child www.whoopschildsafety.co.uk www.thechildrensfoundation.co.uk may not need bed clothes at all. DISCLAIMER Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this leaflet. The Whoops! Child Safety Project does not accept liability for any inaccuracies or subsequent mistreatment of any person. Child recovery position LIFESAVING TECHNIQUES For an older child, kneel An unconcious casualty down beside them, There are two main dangers when an unconscious casualty is removing spectacles and Fire starts when lying on their back: 1. A danger of choking or inhaling fluids that are lying in the bulky items from pockets. Place the arm nearest to airway you in the wave position. ATTENTION 2. The tongue can fall to the back of the throat blocking the airway Take hold of the other arm and bring it across the body, placing and STOPS It is our priority to maintain an open airway in unconscious casualties. To open the airway we tilt holding the back of the hand onto the cheek. This acts as a cushion for the child to rest on. the head and lift the chin Taking hold of the far leg, to prevent the tongue bend at the knee using the from blocking the entrance of clothing if possible, and roll the airway, allowing the casualty to breathe. the casualty towards you. Once the casualty is on his/her side, adjust the top THE RECOVERY POSITION To prevent the casualty from the above dangers, place them into the recovery position until help arrives. leg so that the knee is bent, this will prevent the child from rolling Baby recovery position forward. For a baby, the recovery position is to cradle the Tilt back the head to maintain an open airway, allowing fluids to drain Never leave your baby in your arms with the head slightly lower than the legs, this allows drainage of fluids and the head and prevent the tongue from obstructing the airway. cooking unattended remains in the open airway position. Blow into the child’s mouth until you see the chest rise. CHOKING BABY LIFESAVING PRIORITIES (DR ABC) Remove your mouth from the child’s mouth and wait until the chest falls. DANGER – Are you or the baby/child in any danger? If you Take another deep breath and repeat 5 times. BACKSLAPS CHEST THRUSTS have not already done so, make the situation safe and then Lay the baby face down If the backslaps fail, turn Breathing for the baby assess the casualty. along your forearm, the baby onto their back Tilt back the head into the open airway position. supporting the head with RESPONSE – If the baby/child appears unresponsive or and give up to 5 chest Place your lips around the nose and the mouth of the baby, the head lower than the unconscious, gently tap the shoulders calling out their name and thrusts. Using 2 fingers, making an airtight seal. legs and give up to 5 firm ask a direct question to promote a response. one finger’s breadth Blow into the baby’s back slaps. Check the AIRWAY – This is a priority when checking any casualty. below the nipple line, nose/mouth until you see mouth and remove any Check the mouth for any obvious obstruction. To open the push inwards and the chest rise. obstruction with your airway, tilt the head back and lift the chin of an unconscious upwards on the Remove your mouth from fingertips. casualty to allow oxygen to enter the body. breastbone. Perform the the baby’s nose/mouth and BREATHING – Is the baby/child breathing? To check for chest thrusts at a rate of one thrust every 3 seconds. wait until the chest falls. breathing, maintain an open airway and look for chest Check the mouth. Take another deep breath movements, listen for sounds of breathing and feel for breath on and repeat 5 times. your cheek. Check for breathing for up to 10 seconds. If breathing is present, put the baby/child into the recovery position. CIRCULATION – Following the If the obstruction is not cleared, carry out the backslaps and chest thrusts a further 3 times. Never perform If you have determined that there is no breathing present, then rescue breaths, then spend up to 10 seconds checking for signs abdominal thrusts on a baby. Dial 999 for an ambulance and continue the backslaps/ chest thrusts until help arrives or we now need to breathe for the casualty by giving 5 initial of circulation. Look for signs of circulation - look at the skin the choke is removed. Check the level of response and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary. rescue breaths. colour of the casualty. Listen for any signs of Breathing Facts: Breathing for the child Tilt back the head into the circulation - breathing, coughing etc. If circulation is present, then • We breathe in 21% oxygen Thanks to the Children’s Fire and Burn Trust open airway position. continue breathing for the • We breathe out 16% Pinch the soft part of the child’s nose and open the casualty for 1 minute, place them oxygen • Lack of oxygen to the and Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service into the recovery position and mouth. Place your lips around the dial 999 for an ambulance. If there is no circulation present, brain is called hypoxia • The brain must not be for supporting this publication. child’s mouth, making an starved of oxygen for we need to start CPR (cardio- more than 3 minutes airtight seal. pulmonary resuscitation). one-finger sweeping action to remove it. Never go into the CHOKING mouth blindly in case you push the obstruction further down CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION – CPR the throat. If backslaps fail then try Young children and babies are prone to choking. The most CPR for the baby Delivering CPR chest thrusts. common cause of choking in this age group are from food and To locate the point of compression for a baby, draw an small objects like buttons, beads and coins and small toys left CHEST THRUSTS imaginary line between the lying about by older siblings. When an object is stuck in the Stand or kneel behind the child, nipples - one finger’s throat it can block the airway, making breathing difficult or the placing your fist against the lower breadth below this line is throat can go into a muscular spasm. If the airway is only part of the breastbone. Take hold the point for compression. Remember the lifesaving priorities: DR ABC partially blocked the casualty should be able to clear the of your fist with the other hand and Use only two fingers for If no breathing - Ask someone to call for help blockage; if it is fully blocked, then the casualty will not be able pull sharply inwards and upwards. compression at the rate of 100 times per minute. GIVE 5 BREATHS to breathe, speak or cough and this will fast lead to Give up to 5 chest thrusts, checking unconsciousness so action must be prompt. the mouth again using the sweeping The ratio for compressions LOOK FOR SIGNS OF LIFE finger to remove any obstruction. If and breathing for a non- for up to 10 seconds this fails try the abdominal thrusts. medical professional is 30:2 CHOKING CHILD Is circulation present? Your first aim is to try to encourage the child to cough as this ABDOMINAL THRUSTS could allow them to remove the obstruction themselves. Place the thumb side of your fist CPR for the child However, if the child becomes weak or between the naval and the ribcage. To locate the point of compression for a child, locate one of the Yes No shows signs of difficulty in breathing, Roll your fist sharply in an "inwards lower ribs, follow the rib until you come to the centre of the then we need to deliver one or all of and upwards" movement into the breastbone. With the other hand, meet your fingers – this is the following techniques: abdomen. Repeat this rolling the pressure point for a technique 5 times. Check the mouth child (1 year to puberty). BACKSLAPS to see if the obstruction has cleared The ratio for compressions Bend the child forward and using using the finger sweep action. and breathing for a non- Circulation present No circulation the heel of your hand, aim to medical professional is If the obstruction is still not cleared deliver 5 sharp backslaps in the = continue breathing = CPR (30:2) repeat the backslaps, chest thrusts 30:2 middle of the shoulder blades. and abdominal thrusts up to 3 times for the casualty Check the mouth to see if the more. Dial 999 for an ambulance and continue the above until obstruction is cleared and if you can the obstruction clears checking the level of response and be see something in the mouth use a prepared to resuscitate if necessary. Always keep kettles, irons BURNS AND SCALDS and their wires and FIRST AID FOR BURNS AND SCALDS WHEN A BURN NEEDS MEDICAL Hot Water Burns Like Fire saucepan handles out of Severe burns and scalds ATTENTION reach as they can be • Douse the affected area with plenty of cold water for pulled over very easily. • All full thickness burns The Facts at least 20 minutes to cool the burn • Most accidents to children 0-4 years happen in the home in • All burns involving the Don’t have a child on your • Dial 999 for emergency services the presence of an adult and are usually preventable face, hands, feet or lap when you are drinking • Remove jewellery, belts or shoes before the tissues • Every 1 1/2 minutes someone in the UK is burnt or scalded genital area a hot drink. begin to swell • In 2002 there were 42,000 children under 15 years burnt or • All burns that extend scalded in the UK – that is equal to 115 children every day. • Cut away any clothing that is not sticking to the burn around the arm or leg The majority of children were under 5 years old • Cover with a sterile, non-fluffy dressing or cling film to • All partial-thickness • Children are particularly at risk from scalds from hot liquids Useful Tips reduce the chance of infection or fluid loss (shock) burns larger than 1% as their skin is much thinner than the skin of an adult Bottles of the body surface • Monitor the vital signs and treat for shock if necessary A useful way to test how (size of the palm of We know from statistics that half of the burns and scalds hot your baby’s milk is to the child’s hand) happen in the kitchen, with cups of tea and coffee, kettles and drip a few drops onto the Minor burns and scalds teapots, cookers, pans and chip pans being the biggest culprits. back of your hand. If it • Douse the affected area Hot bath water also injures many children. feels warm to you, it is with plenty of cold water too hot for your baby. for at least 10 minutes to The Children’s Fire and Burn Trust is dedicated to help avoid cool the burn these unnecessary accidents. Bath Water • All superficial burns larger than 5% • Remove jewellery, belts or A message for parents and carers everywhere… The same goes for your of the body surface (5 x the palm of shoes before the tissues elbow to test the bath the child's hand) Always place hot drinks out of reach of children. A drink will begin to swell water to see if it is too • Burns with a mixed pattern of remain hot enough to scald for up to 15 minutes after it has hot. If you put your • Cover the burn with a been poured. varying depths elbow in and it feels too sterile, non-fluffy dressing • If you are unsure – seek medical advice If you run a bath for yourself or members or your family, run warm for you, it will the cold water first, then add the hot and always check the certainly scald your baby. temperature of the water using your elbow. Tap water is hot enough to scald.