Baby & Child Lifesaving Information

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					How safe is your home?                                                                    Useful numbers and websites
Did you know, every year 1000s of children go to hospital after suffering an
accidental injury at home. Help stop your child being one of them by following            Emergency services
our safety tips check list:                                                               in the case of emergency / accidents 999/112
 Tick the boxes
                                               Hot drinks are never left where
     The stairs and landing are kept clear
     of clutter that could cause a fall.
     Toys for older children are kept away
     from babies and toddlers, in case
     they choke on small parts.
                                               young children can reach them, to
                                               prevent scalds, as a cup of tea is still
                                               hot enough to scald after 15 minutes.
                                               There are safety gates fitted at the
                                               top and bottom of staircases to stop
                                                                                          NHS Direct
                                                                                          for medical advice 0845 46 47
                                                                                                                                                      Baby & Child
                                               babies and toddlers climbing and           Family GP
     Medicines and chemicals are kept
                                               falling on the stairs.
     high up and out of reach, to prevent
     a child from drinking something           Plastic bags are knotted and put away      Local hospital
     harmful.                                  safely to avoid suffocation.

     The highchair has a 5-point harness       Cigarettes, matches and lighters are
     to stop babies climbing or falling out.   kept out of reach to prevent burns.        Health visitor
     Baby nappies are always changed on        Use back rings on the cooker or turn
     the floor, to help prevent falls.         handles away from the edge to avoid        Non- emergency police number 08456 043 043
     Babies and toddlers are always
     supervised in the bath, to prevent        Have a family fire escape plan
                                                                                          Local taxi number
     drowning.                                 worked out and discuss it with your
                                               children – don’t wait until it is too
                                                                                                                                                      Creatively working to
     The hot water thermostat is turned
     down to below 540C. (1300F), in
     case a child turns on the hot tap and
                                               Always replace dead batteries in your
                                                                                          Parentline                                                  reduce childhood injuries
     is scalded.                               smoke alarm – you cannot replace           – advice and support for parents 0808 800 2222
                                               your children.                   
     A smoke alarm is fitted and working
     to give the family extra time to          Someone in the family has taken a
     escape in the event of a fire.            first aid course to help cope if an
                                               accident happens.                          Children’s Fire and Burn Trust
                                                                                          020 7233 8333

     If you require more information on keeping safe, contact
                                                                                          Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service
        the Whoops! Child Safety Project on (0191) 477 7366.                              0191 444 1500
Information to prevent                                           Advice and good practice                                          About the Whoops! Child Safety Project                                            About The Children’s Foundation
unintentional injury                                             • As your child becomes mobile, get down on your hands and
                                                                                                                                   The Whoops! Child Safety Project deliver unique training                          The Children’s Foundation was established in 1990 and is
                                                                                                                                   packages to health professionals, parents, carers and children                    considered to be the leading children’s health charity in North
What we already know                                               knees to see your home from their eyes – look for the
                                                                                                                                   addressing accident prevention. We offer groundbreaking                           East England. The Children’s Foundation provides leadership
• Over the next 12 months, 2 million children will have an         dangers or potential hazards
                                                                                                                                   safety initiatives and hard-hitting visual resources to back up                   and raises funds to:
   accident at home                                              • Avoid hot drinks around babies and toddlers and never drink
                                                                                                                                   our training sessions.                                                            • Support research that will make a significant contribution to
• 1/2 million of these children will be under 5 years old          hot drinks over a baby or child
                                                                                                                                   Our aims are to:                                                                     the health and well-being of children and young people
• In 2004, 275 children died as a result of an accident          • Get into the habit of running the cold water into the bath
                                                                                                                                   • Raise awareness of the dangers                                                  • Add value to NHS services targeted at children and young
   in the UK                                                       first
                                                                                                                                   • To promote a behavioural change in and around the home                             people
Through research we know                                         • Fit safety gates at the top and bottom of the stairs to avoid
                                                                                                                                   • To improve the environment, both in the home and                                • Create and support partnership programmes to address five
• Boys are twice as likely to die from their injuries              falls and one on the entrance to the kitchen too
                                                                                                                                       outdoors                                                                         priorities, namely smoking, exercise & obesity, safety,
• 0-4 year olds are most at risk of injuries in the home         • Never give sweets to small children and toddlers who are
                                                                                                                                   • To reduce the impact of injury by immediate first aid care                         disability and mental health
• 10-14 year olds boys are most at risk of all other types         strapped in car seats. If the child was to choke and you
   of accidents                                                    were travelling on a motorway, then precious minutes            The Whoops! Child Safety Project used traditional health
Main home safety messages for parents                              would be lost before being able to attend to the child.         promotion tools combined with the arts to effectively relay
• CHILDREN UNDER 5 NEED SUPERVISING AT ALL TIMES                 • Remember a small child who looks at a cup of steaming tea       safety messages and information. Our baby and child lifesaving
• Recognise the dangers                                            and says “oh hot” does not have the cognitive development       course gives a brief introduction to the first aid techniques
• Take action to avoid or remove the danger                        to understand what “hot” means – left unattended, they          required to save a child's life. A full paediatric first aid course is
• Change behaviour to reduce and eliminate more serious            may scald themselves.                                           also available.
   accidents                                                     • Fit and regularly maintain smoke alarms and never use the
• Take the correct action (first aid) to minimise the severity     battery for something else. In 2002, 32 children died in
   of the injury                                                   house fires.
                                                                 • Plan an effective fire escape for your family - decide who
                                                                   will be responsible for which children; look at methods of
  IMPORTANT                                                        escape and how to get out if the stairs are blocked. Plan it                                                                                      PO Box 2YB, Queen Victoria Road,
  This leaflet is intended as a guide and not a primary source     now – don’t wait until it is too late.                          12 Gladstone Terrace, Gateshead, NE8 4DY                                          Newcastle upon Tyne, NE99 2YB
  of advice and instruction. In the case of an emergency,        • Babies do not need warm rooms. The appropriate                  Tel: 0191 477 7366 Fax: 0191 477 7545                                             Tel: 0191 282 0000 Fax: 0191 282 0420
  unqualified persons should always get help and advice from       temperature should be between 16 – 20°C depending on            Email:                                        Email:
  the emergency services or medical professionals.                 their clothing and blankets. In the summer months a child                                             
                                                                   may not need bed clothes at all.
                                                                                                                                   DISCLAIMER Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained within this leaflet.
                                                                                                                                   The Whoops! Child Safety Project does not accept liability for any inaccuracies or subsequent mistreatment of any person.
                                                                                       Child recovery position
                     LIFESAVING TECHNIQUES
                                                                                       For an older child, kneel
                     An unconcious casualty                                            down beside them,
                     There are two main dangers when an unconscious casualty is        removing spectacles and

Fire starts when     lying on their back:
                     1. A danger of choking or inhaling fluids that are lying in the
                                                                                       bulky items from pockets.
                                                                                       Place the arm nearest to
                          airway                                                       you in the wave position.

ATTENTION            2. The tongue can fall to
                          the back of the throat
                          blocking the airway
                                                                                       Take hold of the other
                                                                                       arm and bring it across
                                                                                       the body, placing and

  STOPS              It is our priority to
                     maintain an open airway
                     in unconscious casualties.
                     To open the airway we tilt
                                                                                       holding the back of the
                                                                                       hand onto the cheek. This
                                                                                       acts as a cushion for the
                                                                                       child to rest on.
                     the head and lift the chin                                        Taking hold of the far leg,
                     to prevent the tongue                                             bend at the knee using the
                     from blocking the entrance of                                     clothing if possible, and roll
                     the airway, allowing the casualty to breathe.                     the casualty towards you.
                                                                                       Once the casualty is on
                                                                                       his/her side, adjust the top
                     THE RECOVERY POSITION
                     To prevent the casualty from the above dangers,
                     place them into the recovery position until help arrives.                                          leg so that the knee is bent, this
                                                                                                                        will prevent the child from rolling
                     Baby recovery position                                                                             forward.
                     For a baby, the recovery position is to cradle the                                                 Tilt back the head to maintain an
                                                                                                                        open airway, allowing fluids to drain
 Never leave your    baby in your arms with the head slightly lower than
                     the legs, this allows drainage of fluids and the head                                              and prevent the tongue from
                                                                                                                        obstructing the airway.
cooking unattended   remains in the open airway position.
                                                                       Blow into the child’s mouth until you see the chest rise.          CHOKING BABY
LIFESAVING PRIORITIES (DR ABC)                                         Remove your mouth from the child’s mouth and wait until the
                                                                       chest falls.
DANGER – Are you or the baby/child in any danger? If you               Take another deep breath and repeat 5 times.                       BACKSLAPS                                                    CHEST THRUSTS
have not already done so, make the situation safe and then                                                                                Lay the baby face down                                       If the backslaps fail, turn
                                                                       Breathing for the baby
assess the casualty.                                                                                                                      along your forearm,                                          the baby onto their back
                                                                       Tilt back the head into the open airway position.                  supporting the head with
RESPONSE – If the baby/child appears unresponsive or                                                                                                                                                   and give up to 5 chest
                                                                       Place your lips around the nose and the mouth of the baby,         the head lower than the
unconscious, gently tap the shoulders calling out their name and                                                                                                                                       thrusts. Using 2 fingers,
                                                                       making an airtight seal.                                           legs and give up to 5 firm
ask a direct question to promote a response.                                                                                                                                                           one finger’s breadth
                                                                       Blow into the baby’s                                               back slaps. Check the
AIRWAY – This is a priority when checking any casualty.                                                                                                                                                below the nipple line,
                                                                       nose/mouth until you see                                           mouth and remove any
Check the mouth for any obvious obstruction. To open the                                                                                                                                               push inwards and
                                                                       the chest rise.                                                    obstruction with your
airway, tilt the head back and lift the chin of an unconscious                                                                                                                                         upwards on the
                                                                       Remove your mouth from                                             fingertips.
casualty to allow oxygen to enter the body.                                                                                                                                                            breastbone. Perform the
                                                                       the baby’s nose/mouth and
BREATHING – Is the baby/child breathing? To check for                                                                                                                                                  chest thrusts at a rate of one thrust every 3 seconds.
                                                                       wait until the chest falls.
breathing, maintain an open airway and look for chest                                                                                                                                                  Check the mouth.
                                                                       Take another deep breath
movements, listen for sounds of breathing and feel for breath on
                                                                       and repeat 5 times.
your cheek. Check for breathing for up to 10 seconds. If
breathing is present, put the baby/child into the recovery position.   CIRCULATION – Following the                                        If the obstruction is not cleared, carry out the backslaps and chest thrusts a further 3 times. Never perform
If you have determined that there is no breathing present, then        rescue breaths, then spend up to 10 seconds checking for signs     abdominal thrusts on a baby. Dial 999 for an ambulance and continue the backslaps/ chest thrusts until help arrives or
we now need to breathe for the casualty by giving 5 initial            of circulation. Look for signs of circulation - look at the skin   the choke is removed. Check the level of response and be prepared to resuscitate if necessary.
rescue breaths.                                                        colour of the casualty.
                                                                       Listen for any signs of               Breathing Facts:
Breathing for the child
Tilt back the head into the
                                                                       circulation - breathing, coughing
                                                                       etc. If circulation is present, then
                                                                                                             • We breathe in 21%
                                                                                                                oxygen                       Thanks to the Children’s Fire and Burn Trust
open airway position.                                                  continue breathing for the            • We breathe out 16%
Pinch the soft part of the
child’s nose and open the
                                                                       casualty for 1 minute, place them        oxygen
                                                                                                             • Lack of oxygen to the
                                                                                                                                             and Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service
                                                                       into the recovery position and
Place your lips around the
                                                                       dial 999 for an ambulance.
                                                                       If there is no circulation present,
                                                                                                                brain is called hypoxia
                                                                                                             • The brain must not be         for supporting this publication.
child’s mouth, making an                                                                                        starved of oxygen for
                                                                       we need to start CPR (cardio-            more than 3 minutes
airtight seal.                                                         pulmonary resuscitation).
                                                                       one-finger sweeping action to remove it. Never go into the
CHOKING                                                                mouth blindly in case you push the obstruction further down    CARDIO-PULMONARY RESUSCITATION – CPR
                                                                       the throat. If backslaps fail then try
Young children and babies are prone to choking. The most                                                                              CPR for the baby                                                    Delivering CPR
                                                                       chest thrusts.
common cause of choking in this age group are from food and                                                                           To locate the point of compression for a baby, draw an
small objects like buttons, beads and coins and small toys left        CHEST THRUSTS                                                  imaginary line between the
lying about by older siblings. When an object is stuck in the          Stand or kneel behind the child,                               nipples - one finger’s
throat it can block the airway, making breathing difficult or the      placing your fist against the lower                            breadth below this line is
throat can go into a muscular spasm. If the airway is only             part of the breastbone. Take hold                              the point for compression.                                              Remember the lifesaving priorities: DR ABC
partially blocked the casualty should be able to clear the             of your fist with the other hand and                           Use only two fingers for                                               If no breathing - Ask someone to call for help
blockage; if it is fully blocked, then the casualty will not be able   pull sharply inwards and upwards.                              compression at the rate of
                                                                                                                                      100 times per minute.                                                                  GIVE 5 BREATHS
to breathe, speak or cough and this will fast lead to                  Give up to 5 chest thrusts, checking
unconsciousness so action must be prompt.                              the mouth again using the sweeping                             The ratio for compressions                                                       LOOK FOR SIGNS OF LIFE
                                                                       finger to remove any obstruction. If                           and breathing for a non-                                                           for up to 10 seconds
                                                                       this fails try the abdominal thrusts.                          medical professional is 30:2
CHOKING CHILD                                                                                                                                                                                                              Is circulation present?
Your first aim is to try to encourage the child to cough as this       ABDOMINAL THRUSTS
could allow them to remove the obstruction themselves.                 Place the thumb side of your fist                              CPR for the child
However, if the child becomes weak or                                  between the naval and the ribcage.                             To locate the point of compression for a child, locate one of the                 Yes                    No
shows signs of difficulty in breathing,                                Roll your fist sharply in an "inwards                          lower ribs, follow the rib until you come to the centre of the
then we need to deliver one or all of                                  and upwards" movement into the                                 breastbone. With the other hand, meet your fingers – this is
the following techniques:                                              abdomen. Repeat this rolling                                                                          the pressure point for a
                                                                       technique 5 times. Check the mouth                                                                    child (1 year to puberty).
BACKSLAPS                                                              to see if the obstruction has cleared                                                                 The ratio for compressions
Bend the child forward and using                                       using the finger sweep action.                                                                        and breathing for a non-        Circulation present           No circulation
the heel of your hand, aim to                                                                                                                                                medical professional is
                                                                       If the obstruction is still not cleared
deliver 5 sharp backslaps in the                                                                                                                                                                             = continue breathing          = CPR (30:2)
                                                                       repeat the backslaps, chest thrusts                                                                   30:2
middle of the shoulder blades.                                         and abdominal thrusts up to 3 times                                                                                                   for the casualty
Check the mouth to see if the                                          more. Dial 999 for an ambulance and continue the above until
obstruction is cleared and if you can                                  the obstruction clears checking the level of response and be
see something in the mouth use a                                       prepared to resuscitate if necessary.
                                                                   Always keep kettles, irons
BURNS AND SCALDS                                                   and their wires and          FIRST AID FOR BURNS AND SCALDS                                 WHEN A BURN NEEDS MEDICAL
Hot Water Burns Like Fire                                          saucepan handles out of      Severe burns and scalds                                        ATTENTION
                                                                   reach as they can be         • Douse the affected area with plenty of cold water for
                                                                   pulled over very easily.                                                                    • All full thickness burns
The Facts                                                                                         at least 20 minutes to cool the burn
• Most accidents to children 0-4 years happen in the home in                                                                                                   • All burns involving the
                                                                   Don’t have a child on your   • Dial 999 for emergency services
  the presence of an adult and are usually preventable                                                                                                           face, hands, feet or
                                                                   lap when you are drinking    • Remove jewellery, belts or shoes before the tissues
• Every 1 1/2 minutes someone in the UK is burnt or scalded                                                                                                      genital area
                                                                   a hot drink.                   begin to swell
• In 2002 there were 42,000 children under 15 years burnt or                                                                                                   • All burns that extend
  scalded in the UK – that is equal to 115 children every day.                                  • Cut away any clothing that is not sticking to the burn         around the arm or leg
  The majority of children were under 5 years old                                               • Cover with a sterile, non-fluffy dressing or cling film to   • All partial-thickness
• Children are particularly at risk from scalds from hot liquids
                                                                   Useful Tips                    reduce the chance of infection or fluid loss (shock)           burns larger than 1%
  as their skin is much thinner than the skin of an adult          Bottles                                                                                       of the body surface
                                                                                                • Monitor the vital signs and treat for shock if necessary
                                                                   A useful way to test how                                                                      (size of the palm of
We know from statistics that half of the burns and scalds          hot your baby’s milk is to                                                                    the child’s hand)
happen in the kitchen, with cups of tea and coffee, kettles and    drip a few drops onto the    Minor burns and scalds
teapots, cookers, pans and chip pans being the biggest culprits.   back of your hand. If it     • Douse the affected area
Hot bath water also injures many children.                         feels warm to you, it is       with plenty of cold water
                                                                   too hot for your baby.         for at least 10 minutes to
The Children’s Fire and Burn Trust is dedicated to help avoid
                                                                                                  cool the burn
these unnecessary accidents.                                       Bath Water                                                                                                      • All superficial burns larger than 5%
                                                                                                • Remove jewellery, belts or
A message for parents and carers everywhere…                       The same goes for your                                                                                            of the body surface (5 x the palm of
                                                                                                  shoes before the tissues
                                                                   elbow to test the bath                                                                                            the child's hand)
Always place hot drinks out of reach of children. A drink will                                    begin to swell
                                                                   water to see if it is too                                                                                       • Burns with a mixed pattern of
remain hot enough to scald for up to 15 minutes after it has       hot. If you put your         • Cover the burn with a
been poured.                                                                                                                                                                         varying depths
                                                                   elbow in and it feels too      sterile, non-fluffy dressing
                                                                                                                                                                                   • If you are unsure – seek medical advice
If you run a bath for yourself or members or your family, run      warm for you, it will
the cold water first, then add the hot and always check the        certainly scald your baby.
temperature of the water using your elbow.
Tap water is hot enough to scald.

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Description: Baby & Child Lifesaving Information