33-MARKETING NOTES by usmanjee123



Marketers use VALS to understand why consumers make the choices they do. The more
marketers know about the target, the better they can design messages that resonate with
the target. By using VALS to understand the motivations that stimulate consumer behavior
(such as buying a product or participating in a loyalty program), marketers increase their
chance of cutting through today's advertising clutter. VALS - short for values and
lifestyles - is a way of viewing people on the basis of their attitudes, needs, wants, beliefs,
and demographics.
Descriptions of the VALS types:

      Innovators
      Thinkers
      Achievers
      Experiencers
      Believers
      Strivers
      Makers
      Survivors

VALS™ is a marketing and consulting tool that helps businesses worldwide develop and
execute more effective strategies. The system identifies current and future opportunities
by segmenting the consumer marketplace on the basis of the personality traits that drive
consumer behavior. VALS applies in all phases of the marketing process, from new-
product development and entry-stage targeting to communications strategy and
advertising.The basic tenet of VALS is that people express their personalities through
their behaviors. VALS specifically defines consumer segments on the basis of those
personality traits that affect behavior in the marketplace. Rather than looking at what
people do and segregating people with like activities, VALS uses psychology to segment
people according to their distinct personality traits. The personality traits are the
motivation—the cause. Buying behavior becomes the effect—the observable, external
behavior prompted by an internal driver. VALS reflects a real-world pattern that explains
the relationship between personality traits and consumer behavior. VALS uses
psychology to analyze the dynamics underlying consumer preferences and choices. VALS
not only distinguishes differences in motivation, it also captures the psychological and
material constraints on consumer behavior.VALS is based on current personality research
into specific components of social behavior. VALS asserts that people express their
personalities through their behaviors. People with different personalities engage in
different behaviors or exhibit similar behaviors for different reasons.
APPLICATIONS: COMMERCIALISATION: VALS™ facilitates successful product launches
and helps avoid costly mistakes. Understanding the needs of different consumer groups
guides new product and services development.
POSITIONING: VALS identifies which market opportunities are strongest. Relating features
and benefits to distinct segment needs clarifies strategies for targeting and expansion.
VALS shows you how to craft more effective messaging campaigns. Understanding what
motivates consumers illuminates how to speak to them in ways that will initiate action.
                         PRIVATE LABELS

Private label products or services are typically those manufactured or provided by one
company for offer under another company's brand. Private label goods and services are
available in a wide range of industries from food to cosmetics to web hosting. They are
often positioned as lower cost alternatives to regional, national or international brands,
although recently some private label brands have been positioned as "premium" brands to
compete with existing "name" brands.
Private labels serve many purposes.

       Exclusivity and Differentiation to retailers.
       Plugging a need gap -- for instance, Big Bazaar's label DreamLine is aimed at
        providing shoppers the entire gamut of home improvement solutions under one
       Retailers are also spurred to launch private labels given the low penetration of
        most categories in India.
       Then there is the aspect of supply chain efficiencies.
       Private labels also help in cutting down on intermediaries
       Dropping cost
       Better margins for retailers
       More customer discounts

EXAMPLE: Big Bazaar: DreamLine, Kryo, Pure, Premium Harvest, Tasty Treat, Clean Mate
and Care Mate


    Segmentation is essentially the identification of subsets of buyers within a
    market who share similar needs and who demonstrate similar buyer behavior.
    The world is made up from billions of buyers with their own sets of needs and
    behavior. Segmentation aims to match groups of purchasers with the same
    set of needs and buyer behavior. Such a group is known as a 'segment'. Think
    of you r market as an orange, with a series of connected but distrinctive
    segments, each with their own profile.
    Segmentation is a form of critical evaluation rather than a prescribed process or
    system, and hence no two markets are defined and segmented in the same way.
    However there are a number of underpinning criteria that assist us with
    Is the segment viable? Can we make a profit from it?

       Is the segment accessible? How easy is it for us to get into the segment?
       Is the segment measurable? Can we obtain realistic data to consider its potential?

    The are many ways that a segment can be considered. For example, the auto
    market could be segmented by: driver age, engine size, model type, cost, and so
    on. However the more general bases include:

       by geography - such as where in the world was the product bought.
       by psychographics - such as lifestyle or beliefs.
       by socio-cultural factors - such as class.
       by demography - such as age, sex, and so on.
    A company will evaluate each segment based upon potential business success.
    Opportunities will depend upon factors such as: the potential growth of the segment
    the state of competitive rivalry within the segment how much profit the segment will
    deliver how big the segment is how the segment fits with the current direction of the
    company and its vision.

A Market segment is a subgroup of people or organizations sharing one or more
characteristics that cause them to have similar product needs.

Market segmentation is the process in marketing of dividing a market into distinct subsets
(segments) that behave in the same way or have similar needs. Because each segment is
fairly homogeneous in their needs and attitudes, they are likely to respond similarly to a
given marketing strategy. That is, they are likely to have similar feelings and ideas about
a marketing mix comprised of a given product or service, sold at a given price,
distributed in a certain way and promoted in a certain way.

Broadly, markets can be divided according to a number of general criteria, such as by
industry or public versus private sector. Small segments are often termed niche markets
or specialty markets. However, all segments fall into either consumer or industrial
markets. Although industrial market segmentation is quite different from consumer
market segmentation, both have similar objectives.

The process of segmentation is distinct from targeting (choosing which segments to
address) and positioning (designing an appropriate marketing mix for each segment). The
overall intent is to identify groups of similar customers and potential customers; to
prioritize the groups to address; to understand their behaviour; and to respond with
appropriate marketing strategies that satisfy the different preferences of each chosen
segment. Revenues are thus improved.

Improved segmentation can lead to significantly improved marketing effectiveness. With
the right segmentation, the right lists can be purchased, advertising results can be
improved and customer satisfaction can be increased.

    Requirements for a successful segment

      homogeneity within the segment
      heterogeneity between segments
      segments are measurable and identifiable
      segments are accessible and actionable
      segment is large enough to be profitable

These criteria can be summarized by the word DAMAS:

      D Differential: it must respond differently to a different marketing mix
      A Actionable: you must have a product for this segment to be accured
      M Measurable: size and purchasing power can be measured
      A Accessible: it must be possible to reach it efficiently
      S Substantial: the segment has to be large and profitable enough

The variables used for segmentation include:
      Geographic variables
          o region of the world or country, East, West, South, North, Central, coastal,
             hilly, etc.
          o country size/country size : Metropolitan Cities, small cities, towns.
          o Density of Area Urban, Semi-urban, Rural.
          o climate Hot, Cold, Humid, Rainy.
      Demographic variables
          o age
          o gender Male and Female
          o sexual orientation
          o family size
          o family life cycle
          o Education Primary, High School, Secondary, College, Universities.
          o income
          o occupation
          o education
          o socioeconomic status
          o religion
          o nationality/race (ethnic marketing)
          o language
      Psychographic variables
          o personality
          o life style
          o value
          o attitude
      Behavioural variables
          o benefit sought
          o product usage rate
          o brand loyalty
          o product end use
          o readiness-to-buy stage
          o decision making unit
          o profitability
          o income status

When numerous variables are combined to give an in-depth understanding of a segment,
this is referred to as depth segmentation. When enough information is combined to
create a clear picture of a typical member of a segment, this is referred to as a buyer
profile. When the profile is limited to demographic variables it is called a demographic
profile (typically shortened to "a demographic"). A statistical technique commonly used
in determining a profile is cluster analysis.

Target market is, the market segment to which a particular product is marketed. It's
often defined by age, gender, geography, and/or socio-economic grouping.

Targeting strategy or targeting is the selection of the customers you wish to service.
The decisions involved in targeting strategy include:

      which segments to targeting
      how many products to offer
      which products to offer in which segments

There are three steps to targeting:

      market segmentation
      target choice
      product positioning

Targeting strategy decisions are influenced by:

      market maturity
      diversity of buyers' needs and preferences
      strength of the competition
      the volume of sales required for profitability

Targeting can be selective (eg.: focus strategy, market specialization strategy or niche
strategy), or extensive (eg.: full coverage, mass marketing, or product specialization).

In marketing, positioning has come to mean the process by which marketers try to create
an image or identity in the minds of their target market for its product, brand, or
organization. It is the 'relative competitive comparison' their product occupies in a given
market as perceived by the target market.

Re-positioning involves changing the identity of a product, relative to the identity of
competing products, in the collective minds of the target market.

De-positioning involves attempting to change the identity of competing products,
relative to the identity of your own product, in the collective minds of the target market.

    For many a product is simply the tangible, phsysical entity that they may be
    buying or selling. You buy a new car and that's the product - simple! Or
    maybe not. When you buy a car, is the product more complex than you first
    thought? In order to actively explore the nature of a product further, lets
    consider it as three different products - the CORE product, the ACTUAL
    product, and finally the AUGMENTED product.
    These are known as the 'Three Levels of a Product.' So what is the difference
    between the three products, or more precisely 'levels?'
The CORE product is NOT the tangible, physical product. You can't touch it.
That's because the core product is the BENEFIT of the product that makes it
valuable to you. So with the car example, the benefit is convenience i.e. the
ease at which you can go where you like, when you want to. Another core
benefit is speed since you can travel around relatively quickly.

The ACTUAL product is the tangible, physical product. You can get some use
out of it. Again with the car example, it is the vehicle that you test drive, buy
and then collect.
The AUGMENTED product is the non-physical part of the product. It usually
consists of lots of added value, for which you may or may not pay a
premium. So when you buy a car, part of the augmented product would be
the warranty, the customer service support offered by the car's manufacture,
and any after-sales service.

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