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					Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook: Energy and Power, Volume 4, Third Edition. Edited by Myer Kutz Copyright  2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

INDEX
A
ABB Lummus Company, 320, 328 Abrupt contract losses, 84 Absorption systems, refrigeration, 437– 440 Absorptivity, 182–187 evaluation of, 237 for low-temperature thermal, 187 for solar incident radiation, 184–187 for solid-state radiation, 230, 231 spectral hemispheral, 182 total, 183 total hemispherical, 182 Acceleration: convective vs. local, 53 linear vs. centrifugal, 48 Accumulators, 985, 986 ‘‘Acid rain,’’ 266, 365 Activated carbon adsorption, 1020, 1030– 1033, 1039 Activated sludge treatment, 1024, 1025, 1039 Additive property (of configuration factors), 187 Adhesives (for cryogenic service), 508 Adiabatic boundary, 98 Adiabatic ducts, 114–115 Adiabatic flow, 71–72, 85 Adiabatic humidification, 534 Adiabatic mixing, 539 Adiabatic region (of heat pipes), 203, 204 Adiabatic surface temperature, 173 Adiabatic treatment of gas movers, 749, 750 Adjusted loaded vehicle weight (ALVW), 912 Adsorption, activated carbon, 1030–1033, 1039 Advanced hybrid particle control (AHPC), 1012 Advanced Turbine System (ATS), 851 AEC, see Atomic Energy Commission Aeration devices, 1025 Aerodynamics: of premixed flames, 586–591 confined jets, 587–590 flame stabilization in bluff bodies, 590–591 free jets, 586–587 of steam turbine blades, 879–881 analytical techniques, 880, 881 transonic blade flow, 879–880 Aerodynamically staged burners, 598, 599 Aerodynamic diameter, 1007n. Aerostatics, fluid, 49, 51–52 AF, see Air–fuel mass ratio AFCs, see Alkaline fuel cells Affinity rules: for fans, 740, 741 for pumps, 724–725 Afterburners, 826 Agglomerating character (of coal), 646– 648, 656 AHPC (advanced hybrid particle control), 1012 AHUs, see Air-handling units Air: composition of dry, 512 as cryogen, 466, 512 ideal gas thermophysical properties of, 10–11 quality of indoor, 542–545 thermodynamic properties of, 226, 228 Air-assisted flares, 1018 Air atomization, 221 Air-conditioner economizers, 288, 289 Air-cooled condensers, 452 Air-cooled heat exchangers, 300–302, 316–318 fan power requirement for, 318 flow chart of, 568 heat-transfer coefficients, 317 temperature difference in, 317, 318 Air cooling, 803 Aircraft-engine gas turbines, 786, 822– 828 figures of merit / cycle design variables, 826–828 fuel systems, 802 inlets / nozzles, 824, 826 installation effects, 824, 825 Air defrost, 459, 460 Air-flow rates, recommended outside, 285 Airflow simulation programs, 549–551 Air–fuel mass ratio (AF), 898, 899 Air–fuel ratios, combustion, 575–579 Air handling and distribution systems, 551–552

1041

1042

Index Air-handling units (AHUs), 534, 536–540 HVAC, 536–539 simple, 539–540 Air heating, 362–370 available heat with preheated, 366 benefits of, 365–370 costs of, 364 heat requirements for direct-fired, 363 recommended minimum temperatures for, 365 types of, 362 warnings about, 365 Air inspirators, 262, 263 Air pollution control, 993–1020 in furnaces, 265–267 of gaseous organic compounds, 1012– 1019 biofilters, 1016–1018 carbon bed filters, 1014–1016 catalytic oxidation, 1013–1014 concentrators, 1014 flares, 1018–1019 fugitive leak detection / repair, 1019 thermal oxidizers, 1013 of mercury, 1019–1020 of nitrogen oxides, 1000–1006 combustion modification controls, 1001–1004 formation chemistry, 1000, 1001 postcombustion controls, 1004–1006 of particulate matter, 1006–1012 cyclones, 1007, 1009 electrostatic precipitators, 1008–1010 fabric filters, 1009, 1011–1012 hybrid systems, 1012 wet scrubbing, 1007–1008 of sulfur oxides, 994–1000 coal cleaning, 998 costs, 999–1000 dry sorbent injection, 997–998 flue gas desulfurization, 994–997 fluid bed combustion, 998 fuel switching, 998 furnace sorbent injection, 997–998 residue disposal / utilization, 999 spray dryer absorbers, 997 Air preheaters, 290 Air separation, 511–514 Air stripping, 1033–1034, 1039 Air toxics, 994 Alcohol-based coolants, 441–443 Aligned parallel rectangles, 189 Aligned tubes, 171 Alkaline fuel cells (AFCs), 922, 927, 928, 937, 938, 950–951 Alpha particles, 767, 768 ALSTOM GT26 gas turbine, 809, 810 Altimeters, 52 Aluminum sulfate, 1029 ALVW (adjusted loaded vehicle weight), 912 American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 429–432, 544, 547 American Petroleum Institute (API), 628 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 632–640 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 429–432, 534, 535, 542, 544, 545, 547, 684 Ammonia, 432, 433, 997 Ammonia synthesis gas, 466 Ammonia–water absorption systems, 440 Angle factor, see Configuration factor Angular deformation, 55 Angular momentum balance, 720, 721 Angular velocity vector, 55 Aniline point, 628 Annuli, forced convection in, 400 ANSI, see American National Standards Institute Anthracite, 645, 647, 648, 650 API (American Petroleum Institute), 628 API gravity (sg), 628, 629, 900 Apollo space program, 922, 950 Approximation formulas, 649 APUs, see Auxiliary power units ‘‘A’’ refrigerants, 429–432 Argentina, 755 Argon, 511, 512 Aromatics, 635, 636 Ash: coal, 656–658 in residual oils, 634 Ash fusion temperatures (D1857), 652– 653 Ash handling, 605–606 Ash mineral analysis, 652, 656 ASHRAE, see American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers Ash resistivity, 658 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 451, 453 Asphaltic crudes, 627 ASTM, see American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D388, 646, 648 Asymmetry (in fluid power systems), 990, 991 Atmospheric pressure: and HVAC, 532 ratio of principal specific heats for liquids / gases, 37

Index thermal properties of gases at, 153 thermophysical properties of fluids at, 19, 20, 30–31 Atomic Energy Act, 754 Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), 754, 777 Atomization: of liquid fuel, 600 oil, 263, 264 ATS (Advanced Turbine System), 851 Auditing, energy, see Energy auditing Autoignition, 896 Automotive air-conditioning system, 562– 567 Auxiliary power units (APUs), 828, 922, 950 Availability, gas-turbine, 832 Available heats, 220, 221 Available heat ratios, 221–223, 579–583 Average Nusselt number, 169, 170 Aviation turbine fuels, 635–637 Axial compressors: in gas turbines, 788 kinetically driven, rotary, 742 Axial-flow pumps, 720, 728, 729 Axial-flow turbines, 795, 796 Axial piston pumps, 974 Azeotropes, 429, 430, 432, 433, 435

1043

B
Babbitting, 508 Backflow effects, 320–321 Backscatter absorption gas (BAGI), 1019 Backwashing, 1027, 1038 Baffles: and heat exchanger programs, 328 in shell and tube heat exchangers, 296– 299 spacing and cut of, 306 and vibration, 320 Baffled-shell evaporators, 456 Baffled tube bundles, 311 Bag filters, 266 BAGI (backscatter absorption gas), 1019 Ballasts, energy-saving, 291–293 Ball valves, 975, 976 Bands, spectral, 193 Barometers, 48, 49 Base energy consumption, 283 Base-load LNG plants, 515, 517–520 BCS theory, 524 BDAT (best demonstrated available technology), 1023 BDC, see Bottom dead center Beam lengths, 235 Beam radiation, 670, 673, 675 Benzene, 994

Bernoulli’s equation, 59, 82, 719–720 Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT), 1023 Beta particles, 767, 768 Beta rays, 764 Bilitzky fin arrays, 390, 391 Binary cycle conversion, 712–714 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 1023–1026 Biofilters, 1016–1018 Biological wastewater treatment, 1024– 1028 Bitor America Corp, 643 Bituminous coal, 645, 647, 648, 650 Blackbodies, 178 Blackbody radiation, 178, 180–183 in furnaces, 228–230, 232 Planck’s distribution law, 180–183 Stefan-Boltzmann law, 178, 180 Wien’s displacement law, 180 Black enclosures, 194–196 Bladder accumulators, 985 Blade aerodynamics, 879–881 analytical techniques, 880, 881 transonic blade flow, 879–880 Blade blockage, 871 Blade path design, steam-turbine, 858, 861–881 blade aerodynamic considerations, 879– 881 blade-to-blade flow analysis, 879 field test verification of flow field design, 873–879 flow-field solution techniques, 872 low-pressure turbine design, 869–872 stage performance characteristics, 865– 869 thermal to mechanical energy conversion, 861–863 turbine stage designs, 863–865 Blade thickness, 813 Blade-to-blade flow analysis, 879 Blading, 780 Blasius equation, 78 Blassius relation, 968 Blast furnace gas, 219, 222, 223 Blowdown, inadequate, 323–324 Blowdown heat recovery units, 290 Blowers, 737 Blue flame radiation, 584 Bluff bodies, 590–591 Bmep, see Brake mean effective pressure BOD, see Biochemical oxygen demand Body forces, 58 Boeing F-15, 826 Boiler economizers, 290 Boiler feedwater heat exchangers, 301

1044

Index Boiler heat recovery devices, 290 Boiling (bubble) point, 429, 430 Boiling heat transfer, 197–201 film pool, 200 heat pipes, 203–209 nucleate boiling in forced convection, 200 nucleate pool, 199–200 simplified relations for boiling in water, 200–201 Boiling limit, 204, 207, 342–343 Boiling-water reactors (BWRs), 758, 761, 762, 775–778 Bomb wash method, 652 Bottom ash, 606 Bottom dead center (BDC), 888, 890 Bottoming units, 850 Boundary, 96 Boundary layers, 67–71, 76 Boundary layer thickness, 69 BP, see Brake power Brabbee’s pitot tubes, 89 Brake mean effective pressure (bmep), 901–904 Brake power (BP), 724, 752, 901–904 Brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc), 902–904 Brayton cycle, 779, 806, 816 Brazed-plate condensers, 451 Brazoria, 707 Breakthrough, 1014–1015 ‘‘B’’ refrigerants, 429–432 Brittle impact strengths, 497–499 Brown, Boveri engine, 786, 787 Broyden’s method, 558 Bsfc, see Brake specific fuel consumption Btus, 217 Bubble point, see Boiling point Buckets, 780, 797–799 Bucket creep, 830 Buckingham Pi theorem, 63 Building materials, thermal properties of, 151 Building thermal loads, 545–548 cooling, 547–548 heating, 546–547 Built-in volume ratio, 446 Bulk elastic modulus, 47 Bulk modulus, 965, 966 Bulk temperature, 167 Buoyancy, 48, 52 Burners: furnace, 261–264 gaseous-fuel, 597, 598 Burner ports, furnace, 264 Burner tile, 594, 595 Burning characteristics of coals, 653, 655–656 Burnout point, 199 Butane, 432, 802 Butler–Volmer equation, 934–935 BWRs, see Boiling-water reactors Bypass heat leak, 131 By-product fuels, 580

C
CAAA, see Clean Air Act Amendments CAFE (corporate average fuel economy) standards, 915 Caking, 650 California emissions regulations, 912–915 Calorific properties of gaseous fuels, 621 Calorific value: of coal, 652 of natural gas, 616–618, 621 Campbell diagram, 873, 874 Canada: CFCs banned in, 433 nuclear energy in, 755 Candu, 755 Canister adsorption, 1015 Capillary limit, 338–342 Capillary pressure, 339–340 Capillary pumped loops (CPLs), 354, 355 Capillary tubes, 457–458 Capillary wicking limit, 204, 205 Capital-intensive energy conservation measures, 288–293 air-conditioner economizers, 288, 289 boiler heat recovery devices, 290 electric motors, efficient, 290–291 energy management systems, 288 exhaust-air heat recovery units, 289, 290 lighting systems, efficient, 291–293 refrigeration heat recovery, 290 Carbon, 1012 Carbon bed filters, 1014–1016 Carbon dioxide: in DMFCs, 944 emissions of, 791, 792 fuel-cell degradation by, 937 GWP of, 434 as marker for human contaminants, 544 as pollutant, 994 as refrigerant, 433 thermal radiation properties of, 193, 194, 197, 198 thermophysical properties of, 13–15 Carbon monoxide, 791 emissions control of, 607 fuel-cell poisoning by, 937 as pollutant, 993

Index Carbon resistors, 510 Carnot efficiency, 845, 847, 850 Carnot refrigeration cycle, 471 Cascade, fins in, 404–405 Cascade refrigeration, 424, 425, 471–474 Catalyst poisoning, 937 Catalytic combustion systems, 795 Catalytic oxidation, 1013–1014 CAV (constant air volume), 552 Cavitation number, 66 Cell death, 528–529 Cell-in-series SOFC design, 946, 948, 949 Centerline velocity, 78 Center of buoyancy, 52 Centrifugal acceleration, 48 Centrifugal compressors, 424, 432, 448– 450 in gas turbines, 788, 789 kinetically driven, rotary, 741–742 Centrifugal fans, 257, 258, 260 Centrifugal pumps, 719–728 Ceramic fiber filters, 266 Cerro Prieto Fields (Mexico), 706 Cetane number (CN), 637, 638, 901, 902 CFCs, see Chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, 434, 435 CFD, see Computational fluid dynamics Chain reaction, fission, 769–772 effect of delayed neutrons on reactor behavior, 772 reactor behavior, 769–771 time behavior of reactor power level, 771–772 Charging (of heat-pipe working fluids), 352–353 Charpy impact values, 498–500 Chemical exergy, 124 Chemical precipitation and clarification, 1029, 1030, 1039 Chemisorption, 1015 Chip module thermal resistances, 379–385 definition, 379–380 external resistance, 382–384 flow resistance, 384 internal thermal resistance, 380–381 substrate / PCB conduction, 381–382 total resistance–single chip packages, 384–385 Chloralkali plants, 1020 Chlorine, 658, 1005 as disinfectant, 1026 in organic compounds, 1012 Chlorine dioxide, 1026 Chlorodifluoromethane, 431, 433 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 429–431, 433–435, 994 Chlorotrifluoromethane, 431

1045

Choking velocity, 853, 855, 857, 858 Chrysler, 787 CI engines, see Compression ignition engines Circles, moments of inertia for, 50 Circular burners, 602, 603 Circular cylinders in cross-flow, 170 Circular ducts, 82 Circular tubes: Nusselt numbers for, 167 turbulent flow in, 168–169 Circulation, 56, 57 Clapeyron relation, 112 Clarification, chemical, 1029, 1030 Class I refrigerants, 434 Class II refrigerants, 434 Claude cycle, 473, 476–480 Clausius-Clapyeron relation, 342 Clean Air Act, 994 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), 912, 914, 994 Cleanliness, 351–353 Clean Water Act, 1023 Cliffside Field reservoir, 520 Climate-dependent energy consumption, 283 Clorine, 652 Closed-centered valves, 977, 978 Closed-cycle engines, 781 Closed-cycle refrigeration: operation, 423–428 refrigerant selection for, 434–436 Closed systems: definition, 96 first law of thermodynamics for, 97–99 second law of thermodynamics for, 99– 102 CLTDs, see Cooling-load temperature differences Cluster, fins in, 404, 405 CN, see Cetane number Coagulation, chemical, 1030 Coal cleaning, 659–661, 998 Coal gasification, 218–219 Coalification, 645 Coal(s), 645–661 ash characteristics of, 656–658 burning characteristics of, 653, 655– 656 classifications of, 646–649 efficiency / exhaust of, 792 gasification of, 218–219 hydrogen / carbon ratios of, 615 as industrial fuel, 218 nature of, 645 properties of, 651–654 quality of, 654

1046

Index Coal(s) (continued ) reserves of, 645–647 sampling of, 658–659 types of, 645, 650–651 uses of, 649–650 Coanda flare tip, 1019 Coaxial parallel circular disks, 189 COE (cost of electricity), 837 Coefficient of contraction, 62–63 Coefficient of performance (COP), 101, 438, 439 COHPACs (compact hybrid particle collectors), 1012 Coiled-tube-in-shell exchangers, 484–485 Coke, 218, 649–650 Coke oven gas by-product, 219, 222, 223 Cold-plate heat exchangers, 406–409 Colebrook’s formula, 79 Colebrook–White equation, 80 Coliforms, 1027 Collectors, solar, see Solar collectors Collector storage wall, 689 Combined cycle power plants, 816–820 Combustible wastes, 267 Combustion, 575–613 air–fuel ratios, 575–579 definition, 575 firing systems, 594, 597–606 gaseous fuels, 597–599 liquid fuels, 599–601 solid fuels, 601–606 flame aerodynamics, 584–596 diffusion-mixed turbulent flames, 591–592 premixed flames, 585–591 turbulent diffusion flame types, 592– 596 fuels used in, 578–580 gaseous, 579 liquid, 579–580 solid, 580 and furnaces, 217–223 oxy-fuel firing, 612–613 and oxygen enrichment of combustion air, 223–224 pollutant emissions control, 606–608 carbon monoxide, 607 nitrogen oxides, 606–607 particulates, 606–607 sulfur, 607 sulfur oxides, 607 safety considerations, 608–612 thermal aspects of, 580–584 Combustion air, oxygen enrichment of, 223–224 Combustion chambers, sizing resources for, 318 Combustion characteristics of gaseous fuels, 619–620 Combustion control equipment, furnace, 264–266 Combustion efficiency, 903–905 Combustion products, ideal gas sensible enthalpies of, 43–44 Combustors, gas turbine, 780, 790–791 Comfort zone, 542 Commercial pipe, 81 Compact heat exchangers, 301 Compact hybrid particle collectors (COHPACs), 1012 Composition, refrigerant, 436 Composting, 1028 Compounds: phase transition data for, 8–9 phase transition data for the, 8–9 Compound curvature concentrators, 682– 684 Compound refrigeration cycle, 423–426 Compressibility factor: of gas, 72 of Refrigerant 134a, 24 Compressible flow, 57 Compressible gases, 61 Compressible gas flow in pipes with friction, 83, 85–86 Compression horsepower, 752 Compression ignition (CI) engines, 894– 895 advantages of, 911 comparison of, 909–912 knock in, 897 Compressors, 737 axial, 742 centrifugal, 448–450, 741–742 configuration of, 426 in gas turbines, 788–790 laws of thermodynamics applied to, 116 lobe, 747, 748 reciprocating, 444–445 refrigeration, 422, 444–450 rotary, 445–446 screw, 446, 448, 747, 748 scroll, 446, 447 sliding-vane, 745, 747 Compressor power, total, 752 Compressor stage, 780 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), 550, 551, 780, 883 Computer programs: for indoor environmental control, 548– 551 airflow simulation, 549–551 coupled simulation tools, 550, 551 energy calculation, 548–549

Index for thermal design of process heat exchangers, 324–330 incrementation, 324 input data, 327–330 main convergence loops, 324–325 program quality / selection, 327 rating / design / simulation, 326–327 Concentrating solar collectors, 680–684 compound curvature, 682–684 trough, 680–682 Concentrators, 1014 Concentric-orifice flow meters, 91 Concentric tube annuli, 169 Concentric tube recuperators, 270–271 Condensate flashing, heat loss due to, 288 Condensate flow, 201 Condensation heat transfer, 197, 201–203 effect of noncondensable gases, 203 film condensation, 201, 203 and saturated water properties, 202 Condensation profiles, 309, 310 Condensed / saturated vapor carbon dioxide (200K to critical point), 13 Condensers: air-cooled, 452 brazed-plate, 451 considerations for, 451–452 geometry of, 564 in heat pipes, 203, 204, 208, 209 refrigeration, 422 shell-and-coil, 451 shell and tube, 308–312 shell-and-tube, 451 tube-in-tube, 451 water-cooled, 451, 452 Condensing pressure, 434 Condensing units, 564, 565, 567–571 Conditioning (of liquid fuel), 600–601 Conduction-dominated resources, 703 Conduction heat transfer, 146–167 with convection heat transfer on boundaries, 156, 158–160 definition, 146 at microscale, 164, 166 with negligible load thermal resistance, 243–244 non-steady-state, 240–243 one-dimensional steady-state, 148, 150, 151, 154 shape factors in, 155, 156 steady-state, 238–240 thermal conductivity, 147–153 thermal modeling of, 371–375 transient, 160–166 two-dimensional steady-state, 155–158 Conductivity, thermal, 224, 225, 344–348

1047

Cones: drag coefficients for, 88 high-speed gas flow past, 173 Configuration factor geometry, 187 Configuration factor(s), 187–190 additive property, 187 for aligned parallel rectangles, 189 blackbody radiation exchange, 190 for coaxial parallel circular disks, 189 reciprocity relations, 187 for rectangles with common edge, 190 relation in enclosure, 190 for simple geometries, 188 Confined jets, 587–590 Confined spaces, natural convection in, 384–385 Conservation of mass equation, 534, 537 Constant air volume (CAV), 552 Constant-pressure expansion valves, 457 Constant temperature coefficient, 106 Constructal theory, 102, 118, 133–142 and flow structures, 137–142 and geometric features, 134–137 and global constraints, 134 subscripts used in, 120 symbols / units used in, 118–119 thermodynamics vs., 142 Contact angle, 337 Contact resistance, 373–375, 392–395 Containment, reactor, 773, 774, 776 Contaminants, indoor, 543–545 Continuity equations, 56–58 Continuous-type furnaces, 215–216 Contraction coefficients from potential flow theory, 62–63 Contraction losses, 83, 84 Controls: combustion, 264–266 for gas turbines, 800–801 in refrigeration design, 463 Control point, 552 Control rods, 774, 777 Control scheduling, 828 Control systems, indoor-environmental, 552 Control valves, 978–979 Control volume, 56, 57, 60, 536–537 Convection heat transfer, 167–179 from combustion, 584 forced–external flow, 169–174 average Nusselt number with transition, 170 circular cylinders in cross-flow, 170 flow across banks of tubes, 171–172 flow past sphere, 171 high-speed flow over flat plate, 172, 173

1048

Index Convection heat transfer (continued ) high-speed gas flow past cones, 173 laminar flow on flat plate, 169–170 liquid metals in cross-flow over banks of tubes, 172 noncircular cylinders in cross-flow of gases, 170–171 stagnation point heating for gases, 173–174 turbulent flow on flat plate, 170 forced–internal flow, 167–169 fully developed turbulent flow of liquid metals in circular tubes, 169 laminar flow for short tubes, 167, 168 laminar fully developed flow, 167, 168 turbulent flow in circular tubes, 168– 169 free, 174–176 in cavities between horizontal walls, 176 in cavities between vertical walls, 176 in enclosed spaces, 175, 176 from flat plates / cylinders, 174–175 from spheres, 175 in furnaces, 249–252 heat conduction with, on boundaries, 156, 158–160 log mean temperature difference, 176– 179 Convection heat-transfer coefficient, 158 Convection resistance, 158 Convective acceleration, 53 Convective heat transfer, 375–378 dimensionless parameters, 375 finned surfaces, 377 flow resistance, 378 forced convection, 377 heat-transfer coefficient, 375 natural convection, 376 phase change heat transfer, 377 Convergence loops, 324–325 intermediate temperature loops, 324– 325 pressure balance loops, 325 Converging–diverging nozzle, flow through, 72, 73 Conversion factors, 5, 217 Coolants, 440–442 alcohol-based, 441 comparison of, 442 considerations for, 441 glycol-based, 441 for low-temperature heat transfer, 441 salt-based, 440 Coolers, 376 gas, 424 thermoelectric, 409–413 Cooling: of electronic equipment, see Electronic equipment cooling of gas turbines, 798–799, 803 Newton’s law of, 156, 160 optimal, 126–127 solar-powered, 693 spray, 413–417 Cooling curve configurations, 480 Cooling loads, 547–548 Cooling-load temperature differences (CLTDs), 547–548 Cooling towers, 451 COP, see Coefficient of performance Core temperature, 702 Core voiding, 775 Corners, supersonic flow past inside, 75 Corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, 915 Correction factor, 177–179 Correction for mixture effects, 312 Corrosion: in fuel cells, 938 in gas turbines, 829 and refrigerant selection, 436, 442 Corrosive vapors, 308, 309 Cost estimation (for thermal systems optimization), 559 Cost of electricity (COE), 837 Cotter approximation, 343 Coupled simulation tools, 550, 551 CPLs, see Capillary pumped loops Crack tolerance, 829, 830 Creep, 829, 830 Criteria pollutants, 993 Critical flow, 53 Critical flow rate of steam, 852, 853, 856 Critical heat flux, 198, 322–323 Critically lapped valves, 978 Critical pressure, 112 Critical Reynolds number, 169 Critical-state properties, 112 Critical temperature, 112 Cross-flow: circular cylinders in, 170 forced convection cylinders in, 395–397 forced convection noncircular cylinders in, 396, 397 liquid metals in, over tube banks, 172 noncircular cylinders in gas, 170–171 Cross-flow tubular recuperators, 269–270

Index Cross-sectional flow areas, 306–307 Crude petroleum, 626, 627 Cryobiology, 526, 528–529 Cryogens: definition, 465 minimum work required to liquefy, 471, 472 properties of, 466 Cryogenics, 465–529 construction materials for, 497–508 glass, 503, 508 metals, 497–503 polymers, 502–507 cryobiology / cryosurgery, 526, 528–529 definition, 421, 465 and EGM, 126–127 examples of, 511–522 air separation, 511–514 helium recovery and liquefaction, 520–522 liquefaction of natural gas, 514–520 heat-transfer methods, 483–493 coiled-tube-in-shell exchangers, 484– 485 plate-fin heat exchangers, 485–489 regenerators, 486, 488–493 insulation systems, 493–498 insulating powders / fibers, 496–498 superinsulation, 495–496 vacuum insulation, 494–495 materials for, 497–508 construction, 497–508 lubricants, 508 seals / gaskets, 508 problems in low-temperature instrumentation, 508–511 flow measurement, 510, 511 tank inventory measurement, 511 temperature measurement, 509–510 properties of, 465–471 refrigeration / liquefaction cycles of, 471–483 cascade refrigeration, 471–474 Claude or expander cycle, 473, 476– 480 Linde or Joule–Thomson cycle, 472, 473, 475 low-temperature engine cycles, 479, 481–483 superconductivity, 521, 523–528 applications, 524–528 definition, 521 element limits to, 521, 523 resistance of metals with temperature, 521, 523 theory of, 524

1049

Cryogenic heat pipes, 358–359 Cryosurgery, 526, 528–529 Cubes, drag coefficients for, 88 Curved surfaces submerged in liquid, 50 Cycles (term), 96 Cyclones, 1007, 1009 Cyclone-fired systems, 605 Cylinders. See also Noncircular cylinders critical radius of insulation for, 158 drag coefficients for, 87 in fluid power systems, 982–984, 988, 989 forced convection in cross-flow, 395– 397 free convection from, 174–175 heat conduction in hollow, 154 transient heat conduction in, 160, 163, 164 Cylindrical spine, 403

D
Damkoler number, 935 ¨ Darcy friction factor, 77 Darcy-Weisbach equation, 968 Darrieus wind turbines, 839 Database (for heat exchanger programs), 325 DBAs (design basis accidents), 777 Dead-head condition, 728, 729 Dead state, 121, 123 Deadzones, 989, 990 Declination, solar, 663–665 Deflector plate on fuel gun, 594, 596 Deformation of fluid element, 55–56 Defrost methods, 459–460 Degradation (in fuel cells), 936–938 Delayed-mixing burners, 598, 599 Delayed neutrons, effect on nuclear reactor of, 772 Denmark, 837 Density, 47, 628 Density ratios, 73 Design, heat-exchanger, 326 Design basis accidents (DBAs), 777 Deterioration factor (DF), 914 Detonation, 896 Deuterium, 765 DF (deterioration factor), 914 Diaphragm compressors, 749 Diaphragm pumps, 735, 737 Diathermal boundary, 98 Dichlorodifluoromethane, 431, 433 Dichlorotetrafluoroethane, 431 Dichlorotrifluoroethane, 431, 433

1050

Index DI engines, see Direct injection engines Diesel cycle, 779, 832–834, 906, 907 Diesel engines, see Compression ignition engines Diesel fuels, 635–640 cetane numbers for, 637, 638 descriptions of, 638 properties of, 640 requirements for, 639 specifications for, 902 Diesel index, 637 Differential manometers, 49 Diffuse emitters, 178 Diffuse-gray surfaces, 184, 190–193 Diffuse radiation, 184 Diffusers, 116 Diffuse surfaces, 184 Diffusion combustion, 258 Diffusion flame burner systems, 598 Diffusion media (DM) layer, 926 Diffusion-mixed turbulent flames, 591– 592 Diffusivity, 47, 225 Digestion, sludge, 1027–1028 Dimensionless numbers, 63–65, 375 Direct air heaters, 362 Direct-drive linear motor for electrohydraulic valve, 980 Direct-fired air heaters, 362–364 Direct-fired chillers, 437 Direct fired thermal oxidizers, 1013 Direct-gain passive heating, 689 Direct injection (DI) engines, 893–895, 911 Direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engines, 888, 893–894, 908 Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), 924, 942–944 Direct steam conversion, 709–711 Dirt carryover, 437 Discharge coefficient, 975 Discharge (condensing) pressure, 434 Discs, 780 DISC SI engines, see Direct injection stratified charge SI engines Dishtype solar concentrators, 682–684 Disinfection, wastewater, 1026–1027 Disks, 88, 189, 797 Displacement thickness, 69 Disposal of residues: mercury, 1020 sulfur oxides, 999 Dissipation, 62 Distillate oil, 615 Dittus-Boelter equation, 168–169, 485 Divided chamber SI engines, 892–893 Divided flow exchanger, 296, 297 DMFCs, see Direct methanol fuel cells DMF residual oil, 638, 641 DOE simulation programs, 549 Double-pipe heat exchangers, 176, 177, 318 Downstream pressure, 85 Drag, 86–88 Drag coefficient, 70 Drainage, inadequate, 323–324 Drain-back approach, 687 Drawings (of flow systems), 134 Drivetrains, wind-turbine, 841–842 Dropwise condensation, 201 Dry air, 532 Dry bulb temperature, 533, 534, 536 Dry ESPs, 1008, 1009 Dry flue gas desulfurization, 994–995 Dry low NOx combustors, 793–795 Dry sorbent injection, 997–998 Dry stack gas loss, 581 Dry steam, 705n. D–T reaction, 765, 767 Dual alkali scrubbing systems, 997 Dual cycle, 906, 907 Dual-flash systems, 712 Ducts: forced convection in, 400 viscous flow in, 76–86 compressible gas flow in pipes with friction, 83, 85–86 fully developed incompressible flow, 77 fully developed laminar flow, 78, 79 fully developed turbulent flow, 78–81 local losses in contractions / expansions / pipe fittings– turbulent flow, 83, 84 steady incompressible flow in entrances, 80, 82–83 Duct flow, 57, 72–73 Durability, 942 Dusts, explosion characteristics of, 609, 611 Dynamic similitude, 65–67 Dynamometer, 902

E
Earth’s core temperature, 702 Economizers, 425–427 ECSA (electrochemical active surface area), 938 EEVs (electronic expansion valves), 457 Effective thermal conductivity, 344–348 EGM, see Entropy generation minimization Ejectors, kinetically driven, 742–745 Elastic modulus, 47

Index Elastomers, 508 Elbow meters, 93 Electrical–hydraulic analogy, 961, 964 Electric defrost, 459, 460 Electric motors, efficient, 290–291 Electric power generation: gas turbine applications in, 822 geothermal, 709–715 Electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), 938 Electrodialysis, 1035–1037, 1039 Electrolyte loss, 937–938 Electrolyte poisoning, 937 Electromagnetic radiation spectrum, 179 Electronic components, forced convection air flow over, 398–400 Electronic equipment cooling, 371–417 heat-transfer correlations for, 385–400 forced convection, 395–400 natural convection heat sinks, 388– 391 natural convection in confined spaces, 385–388 thermal interface resistance, 392–395 thermal control techniques, 401–417 cold plate, 406–409 extended surface / heat sinks, 401–406 spray cooling, 413–417 thermoelectric coolers, 409–413 thermal modeling of, 371–385 chip module thermal resistances, 379–385 conduction heat transfer, 371–375 convective heat transfer, 375–378 radiative heat transfer, 378–379 Electronic expansion valves (EEVs), 457 Electrostatic diameter, 1007n. Electrostatic filters, 266–267 Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), 608, 1008–1010 Elements, phase transition data for, 5–7 Elenbaas number (El), 376, 386, 387 Ellipses, moments of inertia for, 50 Elongation, 498, 500 Emissions: from gas turbines, 791–796 from internal combustion engine, 912– 917 pollutant, 606–608 Emissivity, 180–181 of carbon dioxide, 193, 194 evaluation of, 237 of metallic surfaces, 184, 185 of nonmetallic surfaces, 184, 186 for solid-state radiation, 230, 231 of water, 193–195 EMS, see Energy management systems

1051

Enclosed flares, 1019 Enclosed spaces: free convection in, 175, 176 radiative exchange among diffuse-gray surfaces in, 190–193 Enclosures, gas-turbine, 801–802 Energy, fluid, 60–62 equations, 60–62 viscous dissipation, 62 work / power, 62 Energy auditing, 277–294 air-conditioner economizers, 288, 289 analyzing energy use with, 278–286 focus of, 279–280 HVAC systems, 280, 282–286 lighting systems, 280–282 preventive maintenance, 283 records, 279 capital-intensive conservation, 288–293 air-conditioner economizers, 288, 289 boiler heat recovery devices, 290 electric motors, efficient, 290–291 energy management systems, 288 exhaust-air heat recovery units, 289, 290 lighting systems, efficient, 291–293 refrigeration heat recovery, 290 and energy management, 277–279 evaluating energy conservation opportunities, 293 identifying opportunities for energy savings, 286–293 capital-intensive conservation, 288– 293 low-cost conservation, 287–288 presenting results of, 293–294 savings resulting from, 278, 279 steps of, 277–278 Energy balance equation for zone air, 549 Energy calculation programs, 548–549 Energy change, 97 Energy conservation, 549 Energy consumption: from HVAC, 280, 282–286 from lighting, 280–282 record keeping about, 279, 283 savings from audits of, 278, 279 Energy equations, 60–62 Energy management systems (EMS): definition, 277 and energy auditing, 277–279, 288 Energy minimum principle, 102, 103 Energy requirements (of secondary coolants), 444 Energy storage, solar-thermal, 693 Energy yield, wind-turbine, 839–841

1052

Index Engines, gas-turbine: aircraft, 822–828 selection, 832–835 for surface transportation, 828–829 Engineering-level system simulation, 555– 557 Engineering system component analysis, 113–116 English unit conversion to metric, 214 Enthalpy, 105, 533, 534, 536 Enthalpy–log pressure diagram(s): for carbon dioxide, 15 for mercury, 17 for Refrigerant 22, 21 for Refrigerant 134a, 25 Enthalpy sensors, 289 Entrainment limit, 204, 206–207, 343 Entrainment rate, 587 Entrance effects, 82, 83 Entropy change, 101 Entropy gain, 478 Entropy generation, 102 Entropy generation minimization (EGM), 117–118, 122, 124–133 approaches / applications of, 125 and cryogenics, 126–127 and heat transfer, 127–129 and power plants, 131–133 and solar energy conversion, 130–131 and storage systems, 129–130 subscripts used in, 120 symbols / units used in, 118–119 Entropy generation rate, 103–104 Entropy maximum principle, 102, 103 Environmental control, indoor, see Indoor environmental control Environmental impact: of natural gas, 616 of secondary coolants, 444 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 543, 914, 994, 1014, 1023, 1027 Environment (term), 96 EoT (equation of time), 665 EPA, see Environmental Protection Agency Equation of time (EoT), 665 Equation solvers (for thermal systems optimization), 557–559 Equilateral triangles, drag coefficients for, 88 Equilibrium flow architecture, 137–142 Equinoxes, 668 Equivalence ratio (ER), 577, 899 Equivalent furnace temperature profiles, 247–249 ER, see Equivalence ratio Erosion velocity, 327–328 Errors, furnace, 212 Eschka method, 652 ESPs, see Electrostatic precipitators Ethane, 30, 432 Ether, 421 Ethylene, 30, 433 Ethyl ether, 421 E-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 296, 297, 308, 309, 328 Euler’s equation(s): for centrifugal machines, 720, 721 of motion, 59 for turbines, 862–863 Evaporating pressure, 434 Evaporators: geometry of, 564 in heat pipes, 203, 204, 208, 209 performance of, 565 refrigeration, 423, 452–456 oil return, 453 submergence effect, 453–456 two-phase refrigeration distribution, 453 vapor–liquid separation, 453 Excess air ratio, 899 Exergy analysis, 117–124 of heat transfer, 121 subscripts used in, 120 symbols / units used in, 118–119 wheel diagram, 122, 123 Exhaust-air heat recovery units, 289, 290 Exhaust heat used in industrial gas turbines, 816–820 Exhaust systems, gas-turbine, 801 Exit velocity, 72 Expanders, 116 Expander cycle (in cryogenics), 473, 476– 480 Expansion, thermal, 501, 502 Expansion devices, refrigeration, 454–459 capillary tube, 457–458 constant-pressure expansion valve, 457 electronic expansion valve, 457 short-tube restrictor, 458–459 thermostatic expansion valve, 454–457 Expansion losses, 83, 84 Expansion valves, 423 Explosions, 608, 609, 611, 612 Extended surface analysis, 401 Extended surface(s): heat transfer by, 158–160 as thermal control technique, 401–406 algorithms for combining single fins into arrays, 403–406 assumptions in analysis, 401, 402 cylindrical spine, 403 examples of, 401

Index fin efficiency, 402 longitudinal fin of rectangular profile, 402 radial fin of rectangular profile, 402– 403 Extensive properties (term), 96 External flow on plane surface, 395 External resistance, thermal modeling of, 382–384 Extraterrestrial solar flux, 670, 672

1053

F
Fabric filters, 1009, 1011–1012, 1020 FA (fuel–air mass ratio), 899 Fans, 737 in air-cooled heat exchangers, 318 centrifugal, 257, 258, 260 kinetically driven, rotary, 738–741 model of, 565 number of, 565 performance variables for, 738, 740 types of, 739 Fan affinity rules, 740, 741 Fan models, 565 Fanning friction factor, 77 Faraday’s law, 932–933 Fatigue cracks, 829 Fatigue strength, 498, 501 FBC (fluid bed combustion), 998 FDM, see Finite difference method Federal emissions standards: for heavy-duty engines, 916 for passenger cars, 913 Federal Energy Policy (1992), 851 Federal test procedure (FTP), 912 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments, 1023 FGD, see Flue gas desulfurization FGR, see Flue gas recirculation Fibers, insulating, 496–498 Field test verification of flow field design, 873–879 Figures of merit, 826–828 Films, thin, 166 Film boiling, 198, 199 Film condensation, 201 inside horizontal tubes, 203 on outside of horizontal tubes / tube banks, 201 on vertical plate, 201 Film pool boiling, 200 Filters: air-pollution, 266–267 for diesel fuels, 637, 638 fabric, 1011–1012 in-depth, 1027 for indoor-air contaminants, 544

trickling, 1024–1026 Fins: in air-cooled heat exchangers, 301, 302 algorithms for combining single, into arrays, 403–406 examples of, 401 heat transfer by, 158–160 longitudinal, rectangular profile, 402 radial, rectangular profile, 402–403 thermal modeling of, 377 Final settling of wastewater, 1026 Fin arrays, 389–391 algorithms for combining single fins into, 403–406 forced convection flow across pin, 398 Fine-bubble diffusion, 1026 Fin effectiveness, 159 Fin efficiency, 159, 402 Finite difference method (FDM), 155, 157, 158 Fin spacing (FPI), 565 Firing systems, 594, 597–606 gaseous fuel, 597–599 liquid fuel, 599–601 oxy-fuel, 612–613 solid fuel, 601–606 Firing temperatures, 781–782, 813–814 First law of thermodynamics, 94, 534 for closed systems, 97–99 for control volume, 60, 536–537 engineering system component applications of, 114–116 for human body, 540–541 for HVAC devices, 536 for open systems, 103 and reversibility, 104 Fission: chain reaction in, 769–772 effect of delayed neutrons on reactor behavior, 772 energy production through, 763–765 reactor behavior, 769–771 time behavior of reactor power level, 771–772 Fittings, loss coefficients for, 84 Fixed carbon test, 651 Fixed-displacement pumps, 969–971 Fixed-tube-sheet evaporators, 454 Flame aerodynamics, 584–596 diffusion-mixed turbulent flames, 591– 592 premixed flames, 585–591 turbulent diffusion flame types, 592– 596 Flame length, 263 Flame luminosity, 233 Flame radiation, 581, 584

1054

Index Flame speed, 585–586 Flame stability, 621, 622 Flame stabilization, 593–596 by bluff bodies, 590–591 by burner tile, 594, 595 by deflector plate on fuel gun, 594, 596 by fuel rich, low-velocity pocket, 594, 595 by graded air entry, 594, 595 by target rod and plate, 594, 595 on tubes, 586 Flame temperature, 368 of gaseous fuels, 619–620, 622, 623 of natural gas, 623 Flame types, turbulent diffusion, see Turbulent diffusion flame types Flammability limits: for gaseous fuels, 608, 609 of gaseous fuels, 622, 623 for liquid fuels, 609, 610 of natural gas, 623 Flammability rating system (for refrigerants), 429–432 Flapper-nozzle servo valves, 982 Flares, 1018–1019 Flashed steam conversion, 711–712 Flash intercoolers, 424 Flash points, 443 definition, 626 of liquid fossil fuels from petroleum, 626 Flash-type economizers, 425–427 Flat plate(s): free convection from, 174–175 high-speed flow over, 172, 173 laminar flow on, 169–170 turbulent flow on, 170 Flat-plate solar collectors, 677–680 ‘‘Float and sink’’ tests, 659 Floating bodies, 52 Flocculation, wastewater, 1029, 1030 Flooded refrigeration systems, 426 Floors, heating load through, 547 Flow: forced-convection: across arrays of pin fins, 398 across spheres, 396 across tube banks, 397, 398 of air over electronic components, 398–400 in furnaces, 253–260 centrifugal fan characteristics, 257, 258, 260 laminar / turbulent flows, 258 preferred velocities, 254, 255, 257, 259 through converging–diverging nozzle, 72, 73 Flow areas, cross-sectional, 306–307 Flow availability, 122 Flow control, 726–728 Flow exergy, 122 Flow field design: considerations for, 870–872 field test verification of, 873–879 solution techniques for, 872 Flow maldistribution, 321–322 Flow measurement(s), 87–93 and cryogenics, 510, 511 pressure, 88, 89 velocity, 89–91 volumetric / mass, 91–93 Flow momentum, 77 Flow number, 856 Flow parameters, 64 Flow rate, 72, 80 Flow resistance, thermal modeling of, 378, 384 Flow structures, 137–142 Flow systems: characteristics of, 134 configuration of, 118 Flow velocities, 306–307 FLT (force–length–time) systems, 64 Flue gas: exit temperature of, 612 thermodynamic properties of, 226, 228 Flue gas desulfurization (FGD), 994–1000 costs of, 999–1000 dry, 994–995 once-through, 995 residue disposal / utilization, 999 wet, 994–996 Flue gas recirculation (FGR), 606, 1002 Fluid(s): contraction coefficients from potential flow theory, 62–63 definition of, 47 dimensionless numbers / dynamic similarity, 63–67 dimensionless numbers, 63–65 dynamic similitude, 65–67 dynamic drag and lift, 86–89 drag, 86–89 lift, 87, 89 energy of, 60–62 equations, 60–62 viscous dissipation, 62 work / power, 62 gas dynamics, 70–76 adiabatic / isentropic flow, 71–72 duct flow, 72–73 normal shocks, 73–74

Index oblique shocks, 74–76 ideal, 47 kinematics of, 52–58 continuity equations, 56–58 deformation of fluid element, 55–56 streamlines, 53–55 velocity / acceleration, 53 vorticity / circulation, 56, 57 measurement of flow, 87–93 pressure, 88, 89 velocity, 89–91 volumetric / mass, 91–93 momentum of, 58–60 equations of motion, 59–60 theorem, 58–59 properties of, 47 statics of, 47–52 aerostatics, 49, 51–52 liquid forces on submerged surfaces, 48–50 manometers, 48, 49 stability, 52 viscous flow and incompressible boundary layers, 67–71 boundary layers, 68–71 laminar / turbulent flow, 67–68 viscous flow in ducts, 76–86 compressible gas flow in pipes with friction, 83, 85–86 fully developed incompressible flow, 77 fully developed laminar flow, 78, 79 fully developed turbulent flow, 78–81 local losses in contractions / expansions / pipe fittings– turbulent flow, 83, 84 steady incompressible flow in entrances, 80, 82–83 Fluid bed combustion (FBC), 998 Fluid compressibility, 965 Fluid energy, 60–62 equations, 60–62 viscous dissipation, 62 work / power, 62 Fluid flow (in furnaces), 253–260 centrifugal fan characteristics, 257, 258, 260 laminar / turbulent flows, 258 preferred velocities, 254, 255, 257, 259 Fluidized-bed heat transfer, 250 Fluidized bed systems, 605 Fluid kinematics, 52–58 continuity equations, 56–58 deformation of fluid element, 55–56 streamlines, 53–55 velocity / acceleration, 53 vorticity / circulation, 56, 57

1055

Fluid mechanics, 46–93 Fluid momentum, 58–60 equations of motion, 59–60 theorem, 58–59 Fluid movers, 717–752 classification of, 718 of gases, 736–752 kinetically driven, ejectors, 742–745 kinetically driven, rotary, 738–742 positive displacement, reciprocating, 749 positive displacement, rotary, 745– 748 work / temperature / rise / efficiency of compression, 749–752 of liquids, 718–737 kinetically driven, jet, 729–732 kinetically driven, rotary, 719–729 positive displacement, reciprocating, 734–737 positive displacement, rotary, 731, 733–736 Fluid parameters, 64 Fluid power systems, 958–991 advantages of, 958 common nonlinearities in, 989–991 friction, 991 hysteresis / asymmetry, 990, 991 saturations / deadzones, 989, 990 components of, 61, 963–986 accumulators, 985, 986 cylinders / motors, 982–984 hydraulic hoses, 966–968 hydraulic oils, 961, 963–966 hydraulic pumps, 968–974 hydraulic valves, 974–983 tank / oil reservoir, 985 cylinders in, 960, 963 dynamic behavior of, 986–988 motors / pumps in, 959, 960 reservoirs / energy storage in, 959, 961 schematic of, 958–959 symbols / terminology used with, 959– 964 valves / valve actuators in, 960, 962, 963 Fluid statics, 47–52 aerostatics, 49, 51–52 liquid forces on submerged surfaces, 48–50 manometers, 48, 49 stability, 52 Fluore, 504–505 Fluorescent fixtures, 281, 291–293 Fluoride, 504–505 Fluorinated ethylene propylene, 506–507 Fluorine, 1012 Fluorosilicone, 504–505

1056

Index Fluorosint, 506–507 Flyash, 606–608 Food, freezing of, 526 Forced convection, 249–250 cylinders in cross-flow, 395–397 external flow, 169–174 average Nusselt number with transition, 170 circular cylinders in cross-flow, 170 flow across banks of tubes, 171–172 flow past sphere, 171 high-speed flow over flat plate, 172, 173 high-speed gas flow past cones, 173 laminar flow on flat plate, 169–170 liquid metals in cross-flow over tube banks, 172 noncircular cylinders in cross-flow of gases, 170–171 stagnation point heating for gases, 173–174 turbulent flow on flat plate, 170 internal flow, 167–169 fully developed turbulent flow of liquid metals in circular tubes, 169 laminar flow for short tubes, 167, 168 laminar fully developed flow, 167, 168 turbulent flow in circular tubes, 168– 169 noncircular cylinders in cross-flow, 396, 397 nucleate boiling in, 200 thermal modeling of, 377, 395–400 external flow on plane surface, 395 flow across arrays of pin fins, 398 flow across spheres, 396 flow across tube banks, 397, 398 flow of air over electronic components, 398–400 in tubes / pipes / ducts / annuli, 400 Forced-convection boiling, 198, 200 Force–length–time (FLT) systems, 64 Ford, 787 Fossil fuels: consumption rate for, 218 hydrogen / carbon ratios of, 615 Fouling, 656, 657 as factor in heat exchanger programs, 329–330 in heat exchangers, 319 in reverse osmosis, 1036 in SCR systems, 1005–1006 Fourier’s law of heat conduction, 146– 147, 155 4-stroke homogeneous charge SI engines, 888–890, 909, 910 Four-way directional control valves, 976– 979 Fp (friction power), 903 FPI (fin spacing), 565 France, 755 Francis turbines, 67 Free convection, 174–176 in cavities between horizontal walls, 176 in cavities between vertical walls, 176 in enclosed spaces, 175, 176 from flat plates / cylinders, 174–175 from spheres, 175 Free convection boiling, 198 Free jets, 413, 586–587 Free swelling index (D720), 652 Freeze–thaw cycling, 942 Freezing temperatures, 441, 442 Fresnel-type concentrating solar collectors, 680, 681 Freundlich isotherm, 1031 Friction, 991 Friction factors: for commercial pipe, 81 for laminar flow, 79 Friction power (fp), 903 Frio Formation (Texas), 707 Front heads, 328 Froth flotation, 658 Froude number (Fr), 64, 66 FSI, see Furnace sorbent injection FTP (federal test procedure), 912 FTP transient driving cycle, 914 F-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 296, 297, 308, 309, 328 Fuels: for combustion, 578–580 gaseous, 579 liquid, 579–580 solid, 580 and furnaces, 217–223 available heat ratios, 221–223 coal gasification, 218–219 combustion characteristics, 219 demand, 217 heating values, 219, 220 hydrogen / carbon ratios of fossil and synthetic, 615 for internal combustion engines, 897– 902 diesel fuel oil specifications, 902 properties, 898 test specifications, 901 Fuel–air mass ratio (FA), 899 Fuel / air ratio control, 261–264

Index Fuel cells, 922–955 advantages / limitations of, 925, 926 alkaline, 950–951 applications of, 924–925 direct methanol, 942–944 Greek letters used with, 954 historical background, 922–924 hydrogen polymer electrolyte, 938–942 performance, 938 technical issues, 939–942 microbial, 953 molten carbonate, 951–952 nomenclature used with, 953–955 operating principles, 926–938 degradation, 936–938 description of fuel-cell stack, 929– 930 heat management, 936, 937 performance / efficiency characterization, 930–933 polarization curve, 933–936 phosphoric acid, 952–953 schematic of generic, 927 solid oxide, 944–949 performance / materials, 945–949 technical issues, 945 subscripts used with, 954–955 superscripts used with, 954 types of, 928 worldwide patents in, 924 Fuel-cell stack, 929–930 Fuel-directed burners, 599 Fuel economy regulations, 912–917 Fuel elements, 755, 760 Fuel gas industry, 219 Fuel NOx, 607, 1001 Fuel oils, 628–640 applications by grade, 634 available heat for, 221 available heat from, 583 aviation turbine fuels, 635–637 classification of, 628, 634 diesel fuels, 635–640 heating requirements for, 630 kerosene, 634–635 properties of, 628, 629, 631 specifications, 632–633 Fuel rich, low-velocity pocket, 594, 595 Fuel saving(s): investment in improvements for, 275– 276 with preheated air use, 367, 368 Fuel shutoff valves, 611 Fuel storage, 611–612 Fuel switching, 998 Fuel systems, gas-turbine, 802–803 Fugitive leak detection / repair, 1019

1057

Fully developed flow, 77 in ducts: laminar, 78, 79 turbulent, 78–81 incompressible, 77 laminar, 78, 79 turbulent: in ducts, 78–81 of liquid metals in circular tubes, 169 Fully developed limit, 376 Furnaces, 211–276 burner / control equipment for, 261–267 air pollution control, 265–267 burner ports, 264 burner types, 261–264 combustion control equipment, 264– 266 capacity of, 273 complex thermal process components, 271–273 construction of, 216–217 economics of, 275–276 investment in fuel-saving improvements, 275–276 operating schedule, 275 and fluid flow, 253–260 centrifugal fan characteristics, 257, 258, 260 laminar / turbulent flows, 258 preferred velocities, 254, 255, 257, 259 fuels / combustion, 217–223 heat transfer in, 226–253 combined coefficients, 251–253 combined radiation factors, 237–239 convection, 249–252 emissivity–absorptivity, 230, 231 equivalent temperature profiles, 247– 249 evaluation of mean emissivity– absorptivity, 237 fluidized-bed, 250 gas radiation, 233–235, 237 with negligible load thermal resistance, 243–244 Newman method, 244–246 non-steady-state conduction, 240–243 radiation charts, 230, 232 solid-state radiation, 228–230 steady-state conduction, 238–240 temperature profiles, 246–247 view factors for solid-state radiation, 230, 231, 233–236 load handling in, 214–216 oxygen enrichment of combustion air, 223–224

1058

Index Furnaces (continued ) probable errors with, 212 representative heating rates for, 273– 274 selecting number of modules, 274–275 sizing resources for, 318 standard conditions for, 212, 214 symbols / abbreviations used with, 213 temperature profiles of, 246–247, 273 thermal properties of materials for, 224–228 types of, 212, 214–216 and waste heat recovery systems, 267– 272 recuperator combinations, 271, 272 recuperator systems, 268–271 regenerative air preheating, 267–268 Furnace components in complex thermal processes, 271–273 Furnace economics, 275–276 investment in fuel-saving improvements, 275–276 operating schedule, 275 Furnace sorbent injection (FSI), 997–998 Furnace temperature, 264 Furnace temperature profiles, 246–247, 273 Fusion process, 765–767 Fusion reactors, 755–756 Gaseous carbon dioxide at 1 bar pressure, 14 Gaseous fuels, 614–625 calorific properties of, 621 for combustion, 579 combustion characteristics of, 619–620 for firing systems, 597–599 applications, 597–599 burner types, 597, 598 flame stability of, 621, 622 flame temperature of, 619–620, 622, 623 flammability limits of, 622, 623 gas gravity of, 618, 621, 623 hydrogen / carbon ratios of fossil and synthetic fuels, 614, 615 liquefied petroleum gases, 624–625 minimum ignition temperature of, 622, 623 natural gas, 614, 616–623 calorific value / heating value, 616– 618, 621 environmental impact, 616 flame stability, 621, 622 flame temperature, 623 flammability limits, 623 gas gravity, 621, 623 minimum ignition temperature, 623 net heating value, 621 properties, 616–620 sources / supply / storage, 616 types / composition, 616 uses / distribution, 614, 616 Wobbe index, 623 properties of, 616–620 Wobbe index of, 619–620, 623 Gaseous-fuel applications, 597–599 aerodynamically staged or delayedmixing burners, 598, 599 diffusion flame or nozzle-mix burner systems, 598 fuel-directed burners, 599 premix burner systems, 597, 598 Gaseous-fuel burners, 597, 598 open, natural draft-type, 597 packaged, 597, 598 sealed-in, power, 597 windbox, 597, 598 Gaseous organic compounds, pollution control of, 1012–1019 biofilters, 1016–1018 carbon bed filters, 1014–1016 catalytic oxidation, 1013–1014 concentrators, 1014 flares, 1018–1019 fugitive leak detection / repair, 1019 thermal oxidizers, 1013

G
Gamma rays, 179, 763, 764, 767, 768 GAs, see Genetic algorithms Gas(es): CO2, 193, 194, 197, 198 effect of noncondensable, 203 H2O, 193, 195 mean beam length, 193, 194, 196 radiative exchange, 194–196 ratio of principal specific heats at atmospheric pressure, 37 stagnation point heating for, 173–174 thermal conductivity of, 147, 149 thermal properties at atmospheric pressure, 153 thermal radiation properties of, 193– 198 Gas-cooled reactors, 755 Gas coolers, 424 Gas diffusion layer (GDL), 927, 938 Gas-driven ejectors, 743 Gas dynamics, 70–76 adiabatic / isentropic flow, 71–72 duct flow, 72–73 normal shocks, 73–74 oblique shocks, 74–76

Index Gas flows, 53 Gas-fuel lines, 611 Gas gravity: of gaseous fuels, 618, 621, 623 of natural gas, 621, 623 Gaskets, cryogenic, 508 Gas movers, 736–752 adiabatic treatment, 749, 750 compression–work / temperature / rise / efficiency, 749–752 field determination of compression horsepower, 752 kinetically-driven ejector, 742–745 kinetically-driven rotary, 738–742 polytropic treatment, 750–751 positive displacement, reciprocating, 749 positive displacement, rotary, 745–748 required number of stages, 752 thermodynamic charts, 751 total compressor power, 752 Gas power (GP), 752 Gas radiation, 233–235, 237, 584 Gas thermometers, 509 Gas turbines, 779–835 applications for, 816–829 aircraft engines, 822–828 in electricity generation, 822 exhaust heat used in industrial gas turbines, 816–820 integrated gasification combined cycle, 820–822 surface-transportation engines, 828– 829 controls / accessories for, 800–803 controls, 800–801 cooling water / air systems, 803 enclosures / lagging, 801–802 exhaust systems, 801 fuel systems, 802–803 inlet systems, 801 lubricating systems, 803 water wash systems, 803 design trends, 812–815 firing temperature, 813–814 output / size, 812–813 pressure ratio, 814–815 evaluation / selection of, 829–835 engine / system selection, 832–835 maintenance intervals / availability / reliability, 829–832 history of, 786–788 operating principles of, 779–785 operation of, 803–804 performance of, 805–815 configurations / cycle characteristics, 805–812

1059

trends in design / performance, 812– 815 subsystem characteristics / capabilities of, 788–800 combustors, gas turbine, 790–791 compressors used in, 788–790 cooling of, 798–799 emissions, 791–796 function, 795–798 Gas turbine combustors, 790–791 Gas turbine fuel oils, 635–637 Gas velocity, 61 Gas volume radiative exchange: with black enclosure of uniform temperature, 194–196 with gray enclosures, 196 GDL, see Gas diffusion layer GE 90, 827, 828 Gear motors, 984 Gear pumps, 731, 733, 969 Gemini space program, 922 General Electric, 782, 786, 787, 793, 794, 922 Generalized pump performance plot, 725– 726 Generation time, 769–771 Genetic algorithms (GAs), 561–562 Geometry data (for heat exchanger programs), 328–329 Geopressured resources, 707 Geothermal brine, 713, 714 Geothermal electric power generation, 709–715 binary cycle, 712–714 considerations, 714 direct steam, 709–711 flashed steam, 711–712 hybrid geothermal / fossil, 714, 715 Geothermal energy, 702–716 conversion of, 707–716 direct uses, 708–709 electric power generation, 709–715 heat pumps, 715–716 resources for, 703–707 classification, 703, 704 geopressured, 707 hot dry rock / magma, 706–707 hydrothermal, 704–706 U.S. resource base, 703, 704 worldwide power generation from, 703 Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), 715–716 Geothermal resource utilization efficiency (GRUE), 711 Germanium resistors, 510 Germany, 755, 837 The Geysers (California), 704, 705, 709– 711

1060

Index GHPs, see Geothermal heat pumps Gibbs-Dalton’s law for ideal gases, 532 Gibbs free energy, 105 Gifford–McMahon cycle, 481–483 Glass, 503, 508 Glass load factor (GLF), 548 Global warming potential (GWP), 434, 435 Glycol-based coolants, 441–443 Gouy-Stodola theorem, 104 GP (gas power), 752 Graded air entry, 594, 595 Granular fuels, 603–605 Graphite, 508, 755, 761 Grashof number (Gr), 375 Grashof Prandtl number product, 174 Grate-fired systems, 604–605 Gravity-controlled flow, 311 Gravity separation, 658, 660 Gravity thickening, 1027 Gray enclosures, 196 Gray surfaces, 184 ‘‘Greenhouse effect,’’ 791 Greenhouse passive heating, 689, 690 Grindability, 652 Grooved wicks, 348–350 Gross heat rate, 848 Gross vehicle weight (GVW), 912, 916 Ground-loop GHP systems, 715, 716 GRUE (geothermal resource utilization efficiency), 711 G-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 297, 298, 328 Gulf Coast (U.S.), 707 GVW, see Gross vehicle weight GWP, see Global warming potential steam stripping, 1034 HCFCs, see Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HDG (heavy-duty gasoline) vehicles, 916 HDR resources, see Hot dry rock resources HDVs (heavy-duty vehicles), 916 Head: of fluid, 738 pump, 724–726 types of, 328 Head loss, 80 Health issues and requirements, indoorair-quality, 543, 544 Healy coal bed, 650 Hearth-type pusher furnaces, 215 Heats of formation, 220 Heat diffusion equation, 147 Heat engines, 100–101, 845, 847–852 Heat equation, 147 Heat exchangers, 295–332 air-cooled, 300–302 fan power requirement, 318 heat-transfer coefficients, 317 temperature difference, 317, 318 blowdown, inadequate, 323–324 boiler feedwater, 301 compact, 301 computer use in thermal design of process, 324–330 incrementation, 324 input data, 327–330 main convergence loops, 324–325 program quality / selection, 327 rating / design / simulation, 326–327 critical heat flux in vaporizers, 322–323 drainage, inadequate, 323–324 flow maldistribution, 321–322 fouling, 319 geometric properties of original / optimized, 565 inadequate venting / drainage / blowdown, 323–324 instability, 323 laws of thermodynamics applied to, 116 nomenclature for, 330–332 operational problems of, 318–324 critical heat flux in vaporizers, 322– 323 flow maldistribution, 321–322 fouling, 319 inadequate venting / drainage / blowdown, 323–324 instability, 323 temperature pinch, 322 vibration, 320–321 orientation of, 329 plate-type, 299, 300

H
Haaland’s equation, 80 Hagen-Poiseuille relation, 968 Half cylinders, drag coefficients for, 88 Halocarbons, 429 Halon TFE, 506–507 Hampson exchanger, 484 HAPs (hazardous air pollutants), 994 Hard coal, see Anthracite Hardgrove Grindability Index, 650 HAWT, see Horizontal axis wind turbine Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 994 Hazardous waste treatment, 1029–1040 activated carbon adsorption, 1030–1033 activated sludge treatment, 1039 air stripping, 1033–1034 chemical precipitation / clarification, 1029, 1030 ion exchange, 1037–1039 membrane technologies, 1034–1037

Index rating methods for, 305–318 air-cooled heat exchangers, 316–318 shell and tube condensers, 308–312 shell and tube reboilers / vaporizers, 312–316 shell and tube single-phase exchangers, 305–308 recuperators / regenerators, 301, 302 shell and tube, 295–299 baffle types, 298, 299 condensers, 308–312 E-type, 296, 297 F-type, 296, 297 G-type, 297, 298 H-type, 298 J-type, 296, 297 K-type, 298 rating methods for, 305–316 reboilers / vaporizers, 312–316 single-phase exchangers, 305–308 X-type, 297, 298 size / cost estimation for, 302–305 mean temperature difference, 303– 304 overall heat-transfer coefficient, 304 pressure drop, 304, 305 required surface equations, 302–303 spiral plate, 299, 300 surface, 290 temperature pinch, 322 venting, inadequate, 323–324 vibration, 320–321 Heat flux: critical, 315–316 maximum, 315–316 Heating loads, 546–547 Heating rates, furnace, 273–274 Heating requirements, fuel-oil, 630 Heating value (HV), 900 Heat leak optimization, 126 Heat losses, 226, 227, 239–240 Heat management: in fuel cells, 936, 937 in H2 PEFCs, 939–942 Heat pipes, 335–360 advantages / limitations of, 335, 336 and contact angle, 337 cryogenic, 358–359 definition, 335 fabrication processes for, 348–354 cleaning / charging, 351–353 testing, 353, 354 wicks, 348–350 working fluid selections, 348–349, 351, 352 Greek symbols used with, 359 and heat transfer, 203–209

1061

construction / operation, 203 effective capillary radius, 205 liquid-saturated wick structures, 207 thermal resistance, 207–209 transport limitations, 204–207 wick permeability, 205 heat transport limitations of, 338–348 boiling limit, 342–343 capillary limit, 338–342 effective thermal conductivity, 344– 348 entrainment limit, 343 sonic limit, 344 viscous limit, 343 high-temperature, 358 and Laplace-Young equation, 338, 339 LHP / CPL, 354, 355 micro, 356, 357 nomenclature for, 359–360 pulsating, 355–356 rotating, 358 schematic of, 336 sizing resources for, 318 subscripts used with, 360 and surface tension, 337 thermosyphon, 353, 354 variable-conductance, 356–358 wicks, 348–350 Heat pipe thermal resistance, 207–209 Heat pumps, geothermal, 715–716 Heat rate, 848 Heat-recovery chillers, 437 Heat recovery steam generators (HSRGs), 816–818 Heat rejection, 784 Heat sinks, 376 natural convection, 388–391 as thermal control technique, 401–406 Heat transfer, 144–209 boiling / condensation, 197–209 boiling, 198–201 condensation, 201–203 heat pipes, 203–209 combined coefficients, 251–253 from combustion, 581, 584 conduction, 146–167 with convection heat transfer on boundaries, 156, 158–160 at microscale, 164, 166 with negligible load thermal resistance, 243–244 non-steady-state, 240–243 one-dimensional steady-state, 148, 150, 151, 154 steady-state, 238–240 thermal conductivity, 147–153 transient, 160–166

1062

Index Heat transfer (continued ) two-dimensional steady-state, 155– 158 convection, 167–179, 249–252 forced–external flow, 169–174 forced–internal flow, 167–169 free, 174–176 log mean temperature difference, 176–179 cryogenics, 483–493 coiled-tube-in-shell exchangers, 484– 485 plate-fin heat exchangers, 485–489 regenerators, 486, 488–493 and EGM, 127–129 equivalent temperature profiles, 247– 249 exergy of, 121 and first law of thermodynamics, 97–99 fluidized-bed, 250 in furnaces, 226–253 combined coefficients, 251–253 combined radiation factors, 237–239 convection, 249–252 emissivity–absorptivity, 230, 231 equivalent temperature profiles, 247– 249 evaluation of mean emissivity– absorptivity, 237 fluidized-bed, 250 gas radiation, 233–235, 237 with negligible load thermal resistance, 243–244 Newman method, 244–246 non-steady-state conduction, 240–243 radiation charts, 230, 232 solid-state radiation, 228–230 steady-state conduction, 238–240 temperature profiles, 246–247 view factors for solid-state radiation, 230, 231, 233–236 gas radiation, 233–235, 237 Greek symbols used in, 145 with negligible load thermal resistance, 243–244 Newman method, 244–246 non-steady-state conduction, 240–243 radiation, 177–198 blackbody radiation, 178, 180–183 combined factors, 237–239 configuration factor, 187–190 diffuse-gray surfaces in enclosure, 190–193 gas, 233–235, 237 gas thermal radiation properties, 193–198 properties, 180–187 solid-state, 228–236 solid-state radiation, 228–236 emissivity–absorptivity, 230, 231 radiation charts, 230, 232 view factors for solid-state radiation, 230, 231, 233–236 steady-state conduction, 238–240 subscripts used in, 145–146 symbols / units used in, 144–145 temperature profiles, 246–247 Heat-transfer coefficient(s): for air-cooled heat exchangers, 317 for convective heat transfer, 375 for radiative heat transfer, 378 for shell and tube condensers, 310–311 for shell and tube reboilers, 314, 315 for shell and tube single-phase exchangers, 307, 308 vapor-phase, 312 Heat-transfer correlations for electronic equipment cooling, 385–400 forced convection, 395–400 natural convection heat sinks, 388–391 natural convection in confined spaces, 385–388 thermal interface resistance, 392–395 Heat-transfer-fluid loops, 290 Heat Transfer Research, Inc. (HTRI), 316, 319, 328 Heat transport limitations of heat pipes, 204–207, 338–348 boiling limit, 342–343 capillary limit, 338–342 effective thermal conductivity, 344–348 entrainment limit, 343 sonic limit, 344 viscous limit, 343 Heat wheels, 290 Heavy-duty gasoline (HDG) vehicles, 916 Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs), 916 Heavy-water-moderated natural-uraniumfueled reactors, 755 HeII (liquid helium), 468, 469, 471, 524 Heinkel engine, 787 Heisler charts, 160–166 Helical baffles, 328 Helium: as cryogen, 467–473 liquefier flow sheet, 522 in natural gases in U.S., 520 reactors cooled with, 755, 760, 761 recovery / liquefaction of, 520–522 Helmholtz free energy, 105 Hemispheral emissivity, 180–181 Hemispherical temperature, 653 Henry’s law constants, 1033 Hexafluoropropylene, 504–505

Index HFCs, see Hydrofluorocarbons HFET, see Highway fuel economy test HHV, see Higher heating value Higher heating value (HHV): for hydrogen-containing fuels, 219 for internal combustion fuels, 899 for methane, 220 for natural gas, 616–618, 621 High-power-density (HPD) SOFC design, 946, 947 High-pressure gas flares, 1018, 1019 High-pressure gas inspirators, 261–262 High-speed flow: over flat plate, 172, 173 past cones, 173 High-speed trains, 525, 528 High-temperature combustion method, 652 High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), 758, 760–763 High-temperature heat pipes, 358 Highway fuel economy test (HFET), 914, 915 Homogeneous charge SI engines, 888– 892 2-stroke, 890–892 4-stroke, 888–890 Horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT), 837–839 Horizontal ground-loop GHP systems, 715, 716 Horizontal multitubepass, 296, 297 Horizontal radiation, 670, 673 Horizontal thermosiphons, 316 Horizontal tubes / tube banks: film condensation inside, 203 film condensation on, 201 heat-transfer coefficients for, 311 Horizontal walls, free convection in cavities between, 176 Hoses, hydraulic, 966–968 Hot dry rock (HDR) resources, 703, 704, 706–707 Hot refrigerant gas defrost, 459, 460 Hour angle, solar-, 663–665 Hourly solar flux conversions, 673–675 HPD SOFC design, see High-powerdensity SOFC design H2 PEFCs, see Hydrogen PEFCs HSRGs, see Heat recovery steam generators HTGRs, see High-temperature gas-cooled reactors HTRI, see Heat Transfer Research, Inc. H-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 298, 328 Hub diameter, 813

1063

Human body, first law applied to, 540– 541 Human irritation responses, 543, 544 Humidity ratio, 533, 534, 536 HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems, 282–290. See also Indoor environmental control capital-intensive energy conservation measures, 288–290 energy auditing of, 280, 282–286 low-cost energy conservation measures for, 287–288 typical processes of, 536–539 U.S. household use of, 531 H wind turbines, 839 Hybrid geothermal / fossil conversion, 714, 715 Hybrid systems, particulate-control, 1012 Hydraulic cylinders, 982–984, 988, 989 Hydraulic efficiency, 723 Hydraulic hoses, 966–968 Hydraulic motors, 982, 984 Hydraulic oils, 961, 963–966 Hydraulic pumps, 968–974 Hydraulic systems, see Fluid power systems Hydraulic valves, 974–983, 990, 991 Hydrocarbons, 435 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), 429– 435, 437 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), 429–431, 434, 435 Hydrogen: as cryogen, 466–469 in organic compounds, 1012 Hydrogen / carbon ratios of fossil and synthetic fuels, 614, 615 Hydrogen (H2) PEFCs, 938–942 performance, 938 technical issues, 939–942 Hydrogen sulfide emissions, 714 Hydrothermal convection resources, 703– 706 liquid-dominated, 706 vapor-dominated, 704–706 Hypersonic flow, 53 Hysteresis, 990, 991

I
IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), 754 IAQ, see Indoor air quality Ice, 27, 437 IC engines, see Internal combustion engines Ideal fluids, 47

1064

Index Ideal gas(es): air, thermophysical properties of, 10–11 behavior of, 107–108 combustion products, sensible enthalpies of common, 43–44 equation of state, 109–110 mixture of, 109 Ideal gas law, 532 Idealized pump characteristics, 721–723 IDI diesel engines, see Indirect injection diesel engines IGCC, see Integrated gasification combined cycle Igneous resources, 703, 704 Ignition qualities, 637 Ignition sources, 609 Ignition temperature, minimum, 623 Illumination, levels of, 280–282 Imep, see Indicated mean effective pressure Impellers, pump, 67, 720–728 Impulse turbines, 67, 863, 864 Incidence angle, solar, 669–671 Incompressible flow, 58, 60, 173 fully developed, 77 steady, in entrances of ducts, 80, 82–83 Incompressible substance model, 110–112 Incremental area of heat transfer, 324 In-depth filtration, wastewater, 1027 India, 755 Indicated mean effective pressure (imep), 903, 904 Indicated power (ip), 903, 904 Indicated thermal efficiency, 903, 906, 908 Indirect air heaters, 362, 364 Indirect-fired chillers, 437 Indirect injection (IDI) diesel engines, 894–895, 911 Indirect refrigeration, 423, 440–444 coolants, 440–442 alcohol-based, 441 comparison, 442 considerations for, 441 glycol-based, 441 for low-temperature heat transfer, 441 salt-based, 440 problems with, 442–444 corrosion, 442 energy requirements, 444 environmental effects, 444 flash-point and explosive-mixture properties, 443 specific heat, 443 stability, 443 toxicity, 442 vapor pressure, 444 viscosity, 443 water solubility, 443 Indoor air quality (IAQ), 542–545 health issues / requirements, 543, 544 problem mitigation, 543–545 Indoor environmental control, 531–552 air-handling processes, 534, 536–540 HVAC, 536–539 simple unit, 539–540 building thermal loads, 545–548 cooling, 547–548 heating, 546–547 computer programs for, 548–551 airflow simulation, 549–551 coupled simulation tools, 550, 551 energy calculation, 548–549 equipment for, 551–552 air handling and distribution systems, 551–552 control systems, 552 indoor air quality, 542–545 health issues / requirements, 543, 544 problem mitigation, 543–545 parameters for: for moist air, 532–534 psychometric chart, 534–536 thermal comfort, 540–542 first law applied to human body, 540–541 indices, 541, 542 Induced drag, 86 Industrial furnaces, see Furnaces Industrial gas turbines, 816–820 Industrial insulating materials, 152 Industrial waste treatment, 1029–1040 activated carbon adsorption, 1030–1033 activated sludge treatment, 1039 air stripping, 1033–1034 chemical precipitation / clarification, 1029, 1030 ion exchange, 1037–1039 membrane technologies, 1034–1037 steam stripping, 1034 Infiltration, heating load by, 547 Infrared, 179 Inlets, aircraft-gas-turbines, 824, 826 Inlet systems, gas-turbine, 801 Inner swirl, 594, 596 Input data (for heat exchanger programs), 327–330 fouling, 329–330 geometry data, 328–329 process data, 327–328 Inspection, gas-turbine, 830–832 Inspirators, 261–263 Instability (in heat exchangers), 323

Index Instrumentation: problems with low-temperature, 508– 511 flow measurement, 510, 511 tank inventory measurement, 511 temperature measurement, 509–510 in refrigeration design, 463 Insulating fibers, 496–498 Insulating powders, 496–498 Insulation: critical radius of, for cylinders, 158 thermal properties of materials for, 151, 152 Insulation systems, cryogenics, 493–498 insulating powders / fibers, 496–498 superinsulation, 495–496 vacuum insulation, 494–495 Integral fan burners, 597, 598 Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), 791, 820–822 Intensive properties (term), 96 Interception factor, see Configuration factor Intercooling, 807–808 Interface resistance, 373–375 Interferometers, 73 Intermediate temperature loops, 324–325 Internal combustion (IC) engines, 886– 919 compression ignition engines, 894–895 configurations of, 887 emissions / fuel economy regulations, 912–917 heavy-duty vehicles, 916 light-duty vehicles, 912–916 nonhighway heavy-duty standards, 917 fuel characteristics, 897–902 knock, 895–897 in CI engines, 897 in SI engines, 895–897 operating principles, 886–887 performance / efficiency, 901–912 engine comparisons, 909–912 experimental measurements, 902–904 theoretical considerations / modeling, 904–910 spark ignition engines, 888–894 homogeneous charge, 888–892 stratified charge, 892–894 symbols used with, 917–919 Internal constraints, 102 Internal thermal resistance, 380–381 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 754 International Classification of Brown Coals, 649

1065

International Classification of Hard Coals, 649 International Fuel Cells, 952 International Practical Temperature Scale, 509 International System of Units (SI), 3 Inviscid flow, 55 Ion exchange, 1037–1039 Ip, see Indicated power Irradiation, spectral, 181 Irreversible adiabatic flow, 61 Irreversible operation, 99 Irrotational flow, 52, 56 Isentropic flow, 71–72 Isentropic process, 109 Isentropic stagnation pressure, 72 Isoentropic process, 109 ISO firing temperatures, 781, 782 Isolated plate limit, 376 Isolated systems, 102 Isothermal compressibility, 106 Isothermal flow, 83, 85 ISoTherM Research Consortium, 349 Isotropic turbulence, 68 Israel, 692, 1028 Italy, 702, 705, 706

J
Japanese high-speed trains, 525, 528 Japan Railway, 787 Jets: confined, 587–590 free, 413, 586–587 liquid, 413, 416, 417 in spray cooling, 413–417 submerged, 413, 414, 416 Jet fuels, 635, 636 Jet pumps, kinetically driven, 729–732 Joule–Thomson coefficient, 106 Joule–Thomson (JT) cycle, 472, 473, 475 JT cycle, see Joule–Thomson cycle J-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 296, 297, 308, 309, 328

K
Kcal, 217 Kel-F, 504–508 Kerosene, 634–635 Kettle, 316 Keystone Coal Industry Manual, 649 KGRAs, see Known geothermal resource areas Kinematics, fluid, 52–58 continuity equations, 56–58 deformation of fluid element, 55–56 streamlines, 53–55

1066

Index Kinematics, fluid (continued ) velocity / acceleration, 53 vorticity / circulation, 56, 57 Kinematic viscosity, 47 Kinetically-driven ejectors, 718, 742–745 Kinetically-driven jet pumps, 718, 729– 732 Kinetically-driven rotary devices, 718 gas movers, 738–742 axial compressors, 742 centrifugal compressors, 741–742 fans, 738–741 liquids pumps, 719–729 affinity rules / specific speed, 724–725 axial / mixed-flow pumps, 728, 729 Euler’s equation for centrifugal machines, 720, 721 generalized pump performance plot, 725–726 idealized pump characteristics, 721– 723 pumping systems / flow control, 726– 728 pump performance description, 723– 724 Kirchhoff’s law of radiation, 184 Knock in IC engines, 895–897 in CI engines, 897 in SI engines, 895–897 Known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs), 704, 705 K-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 298, 328 Kynar, 506–507 Laplace-Young equation, 338, 339 Lardarello (Italy), 702, 705 Latent heats, 224, 436 Latent heat transfer, 303 Laws of thermodynamics, 97–104 for closed systems, 97–102 engineering system component applications of, 114–116 first, 97–99 open systems, 102–104 second, 99–102 LDAR (leak detection and repair), 1019 LDD (light-duty diesel) vehicles, 915 LDG (light-duty gasoline) vehicles, 915 LDTs (light-duty trucks), 912 LDV, see Light-duty vehicles LEA, see Low excess air Lead, 993 Leak detection and repair (LDAR), 1019 Le Chatelier principle, 931 Levenberg Marquardt method, 558 LEV (low-emission vehicle), 914 LHPs, see Loop heat pipes LHV, see Lower heating value Life-cycle cost, 834–835 Lift, 86, 87, 89, 839 Light-duty diesel (LDD) vehicles, 915 Light-duty gasoline (LDG) vehicles, 915 Light-duty trucks (LDTs), 912 Light-duty vehicles (LDV), 912–916 Lighting systems: capital-intensive energy conservation measures, 291–293 efficient, 291–293 energy auditing of, 280–282 low-cost energy conservation measures for, 287, 288 Light-water-moderated enriched-uraniumfueled reactors (LWRs), 755 Lignites, 645, 647, 648, 651 Lime spray dryers (LSDs), 997, 1000 Limestone, 995, 997 Limestone forced oxidation (LSFO), 999, 1000 Limestone inhibited oxidation (LSIO), 999 Linde cycle, 472, 473, 475 Lindenfrost point, 199 Linear acceleration, 48 Linear deformation, 54, 55 Liquefaction: in cryogenics, 471–483 cascade refrigeration, 471–474 Claude or expander cycle, 473, 476– 480

L
LA-4 cycle, 912 Lagging, gas-turbine, 801–802 Lake ground-loop GHP systems, 715, 716 Laminar flame speed: of gaseous fuels, 622 premixed, 585–586 Laminar flame stabilization on tubes, premixed, 586 Laminar flow, 53 in ducts, 78, 79 entrance effects in, 82 on flat plate, 169–170 fully-developed, 78, 79, 167, 168 in furnaces, 258 and growth of boundary layers in pipe, 76 for short tubes, 167, 168 turbulent vs., 67–68 Laplace equation, 155

Index Linde or Joule–Thomson cycle, 472, 473, 475 low-temperature engine cycles, 479, 481–483 Liquefied natural gas (LNG), 514–520 base-load LNG plants, 517–520 cascade refrigeration used with, 472 data on, 515 mixed refrigerant process flow sheet, 518 N2 refrigeration process flow sheet, 516 peak-shaving plants, 515–517 zeotropic mixtures used with, 429 Liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs), 624– 625 consumption rate of, 624 physical properties of, 625 refrigeration of, 426 storage of, 611, 612 Liquids: ratio of principal specific heats at atmospheric pressure, 37 saturated: specific heat at constant pressure, 36 thermal conductivity, 39, 147, 149 thermal properties, 152 viscosity, 40 surface tension of, 38 temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of, 147, 149 Liquid carryover, 437 Liquid-cooled flat-plate collectors, 684, 685 Liquid density, 436 Liquid-dominated resources, 706 Liquid forces on submerged surfaces, 48– 50 Liquid fossil fuels from petroleum, 626– 643 chemical analyses of crudes, 627 flash points of, 626 fuel oils, 628–640 applications by grade, 634 aviation turbine fuels, 635–637 diesel fuels, 635–640 heating requirements for, 630 kerosene, 634–635 properties, 628, 629, 631 specifications, 632–633 oil–water emulsions, 643 properties of, 627 shale oils, 638, 641, 642 tar sands, oils from, 642, 643 uses of, 626, 627

1067

Liquid fuels: for combustion, 579–580 for firing systems, 599–601 Liquid-fuel lines, 611 Liquid-in-glass thermometers, 509 Liquid jets, 413, 416, 417 Liquid–liquid jet pumps, 731, 732 Liquid metals: in cross-flow over tube banks, 172 fully developed turbulent flow of, in circular tubes, 169 thermal properties of, 153 Liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), 755 Liquid movers, see Pumps Liquid natural gas (LNG), 614 Liquid-piston pumps, 745 Liquid pressure drop, 340, 341 Liquid recirculators, 426, 428 Liquid ring pumps, 745, 747 Liquid–vapor interfaces, 338, 339, 345– 347 Liquor reagents, 997 Lithium, 767 Lithium bromide absorption systems, 437–440 LMFBRs (liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors), 755 LMTD, see Log mean temperature difference LNBs, see Low NOx burners LNG, see Liquefied natural gas Loaded vehicle weight (LVW), 912 Load-following reactors, 774–775 Load handling, furnace, 214–216 Load sensing, 971, 973 Lobe compressors, 747, 748 Lobe pumps, 969, 971 Local acceleration, 53 Local losses in contractions / expansions / pipe fittings–turbulent flow, 83, 84 Local Nusselt number, 169, 170 Log mean temperature difference (LMTD), 176–179 Longitudinal fin of rectangular profile, 402 Loop heat pipes (LHPs), 354, 355 ‘‘Lord’’ value, 649 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 923 Loss coefficient, 80 Low-cost energy conservation measures, 287–288 Low-emission vehicle (LEV), 914 Lower heating value (LHV): for hydrogen-containing fuels, 219 for internal combustion fuels, 898–900

1068

Index Lower heating value (LHV) (continued ) for methane, 220 of natural gas, 621 Low excess air (LEA), 1001, 1002 Low NOx burners (LNBs), 1002–1004 Low NOx combustors, 793–796 Low-pressure turbine design, 869–872 Low-temperature engine cycles, cryogenic: Gifford–McMahon, 481–483 Stirling, 479, 481, 482 Low-temperature heat transfer coolants, 441–443 Low-temperature instrumentation problems, 508–511 flow measurement, 510, 511 tank inventory measurement, 511 temperature measurement, 509–510 LPGs, see Liquefied petroleum gases LSDs, see Lime spray dryers LSFO, see Limestone forced oxidation LSIO (limestone inhibited oxidation), 999 Lubricants: compressor, 445, 448 for cryogenic machinery, 508 Lubricating systems, gas-turbine, 803 Luminaires, 293 Lumped heat-capacity method, 160 LVW (loaded vehicle weight), 912 LWRs (light-water-moderated enricheduranium-fueled reactors), 755 Mean temperature difference (MTD), 176, 227, 229 for heat exchangers, 303–304 for reboilers, 313, 314 Measurement(s): cryogenics problems with, 508–511 flow measurement, 510, 511 tank inventory measurement, 511 temperature measurement, 509–510 flow, 87–93 pressure, 88, 89 velocity, 89–91 volumetric / mass, 91–93 for internal combustion engines, 902– 904 Mechanical collection systems, 1006– 1008 Mechanical efficiency, 723, 903, 904, 909, 910 Mechanical servo valves, 982 Mechanical solar space heating, 687, 688 Meissner effect, 524 MEL, see Magnesium-enhanced lime Melting furnaces, 369 Membrane bioreactors (MBRs), 1036, 1039 Membrane technologies, 1034–1037 Mercaptan odorants, 614 Mercury: air pollution control of, 1019–1020 enthalpy–log pressure diagram for, 17 as pollutant, 994 saturated, 16 Meridional plane, 871 Metabolic heat production, 540–541 Metals: as cryogenic construction material, 497–503 liquid, 153, 169, 172 Metallic solids, 150 Metallic surfaces, 184, 185 Methane: at atmospheric pressure, 19 available heat for, 221 available heat ratios for, 223 as gas turbine fuel, 802 heating values for, 220 as pollutant, 994 as refrigerant, 433 thermodynamic properties of saturated, 18 Methanol, 944 Methods source (for heat exchanger programs), 325 Metric conversion to English units, 214 Mexico, 706 MFCs (microbial fuel cells), 953

M
M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank, 829 Mach number (M), 65, 66, 73–74, 855, 876, 877 Magma resources, 706 Magnesium-enhanced lime (MEL), 997, 999, 1000 Magnets, superconductive, 524, 525, 527 Manometers, 48, 49, 90 Mark II containment, 776 Martinelli separated flow approach, 312 Mass balance, 549 Mass conservation, 102 Mass flow fluid measurements, 91–93 Mass flow rate, 72 Mass–length–time (MLT) systems, 64 Mass velocities, 254, 255 Material volume, 56 Matrix solution, 872 Maximum heat flux, 315–316 MBRs, see Membrane bioreactors MCFCs, see Molten carbonate fuel cells Mean beam length, 193, 194, 196

Index Microbial fuel cells (MFCs), 953 Micro heat pipes, 356, 357 Microorganism-control wastewater treatment, 1024 Microwave radiation, 179 Military propulsion units, 754 Mineral-matter-free basis, 647–649 Minimum ignition temperature: of gaseous fuels, 622, 623 of natural gas, 623 Mixed-flow pumps, 729 Mixed refrigerant cooling, 518–519 Mixing-cup temperature, 167 Mixture effects correction, 312 MLT (mass–length–time) systems, 64 Modeling ratios, 66 Moderately compressed liquid state, 113 Moist air parameters, 532–534 Molecular weight, 436 Mollier diagrams, 850, 851, 853 Molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), 922, 923, 927–929, 935, 938, 951– 952 Molybdenum sulfide, 508 Moments of inertia for plane surfaces about center of gravity, 50 Momentum, fluid, 58–60, 720 equations of motion, 59–60 theorem, 58–59 Momentum equation, 83 Momentum flux, 58 Momentum meters, 511 Momentum thickness, 69 MON, see Motor octane number Monolithic cell-in-series design, 946, 948 Monthly averaged, daily solar flux conversions, 675–676 Montreal Protocol, 433 Motive liquids, 729 Motors: efficient electric, 290–291 in fluid power systems, 982, 984 Motor octane number (MON), 898, 900– 901 MTD, see Mean temperature difference Multistage valving, 982, 983 Municipal wastewater treatment, 1023– 1029 advanced systems, 1028–1029 biological methods, 1024 disinfection, 1026–1027 final settling, 1026 in-depth filtration, 1027 microorganisms, 1024 nitrogen, 1024 preliminary treatment, 1024 primary settling, 1024, 1025 secondary treatment, 1025–1026 and sewers, 1028 sludge processing, 1027–1028 technologies, 1029

1069

N
NAAQS (national ambient air quality standards), 994 Nacelle, 839 Nafion conductivity, 939–940 NASA, 922 National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), 994 National Climatic Center (NCC), 673 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 612 National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH), 543 Natural convection, 249 in confined spaces, 385–388 optimal spacing for arrays using, 388 thermal modeling of, 376 Natural convection heat sinks, 388–391 Natural gas, 614, 616–623 available heat from, 582 calorific value / heating value, 616–618, 621 environmental impact, 616 flame stability, 621, 622 flame temperature, 623 flammability limits, 623 gas gravity, 621, 623 hydrogen / carbon ratios of, 615 liquefied, see Liquefied natural gas minimum ignition temperature, 623 net heating value, 621 properties, 616–620 sources / supply / storage, 616 types / composition, 616 uses / distribution, 614, 616 Wobbe index, 623 Navier–Stokes equations, 60, 65 N-butane at atmospheric pressure, 30 NCC (National Climatic Center), 673 Near-equilibrium flow structures, 137 Neoprene, 508 Net force, 58 Net heating value (LHV), 621 Net heat rate, 848 Net positive suction head–available (NPSHa), 718, 719, 724 Net positive suction head–required (NPSHr), 724 Net present value (NPV), 837 Neutrons, 767–772 Neutron multiplication, 770 Newman method, 244–246

1070

Index New source performance standards (NSPS), 994 Newton-Raphson method, 558 Newton’s law(s): of cooling, 156, 160 second, 59 New Zealand, 706 NFAN (number of fans), 565 NFPA (National Fire Protection Association), 612 N-hydrogen at atmospheric pressure, 30 NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health), 543 Nitrogen: from air separation, 511, 512, 514 at atmospheric pressure, 31 and combustion, 576, 577 in organic compounds, 1012 in wastewater, 1024 wastewater control of, 1024 Nitrogen dioxide, 993 Nitrogen oxides: air pollution control of, 1001–1006 combustion modification, 1001–1004 cost effectiveness, 1006 postcombustion, 1004–1006 emissions control of, 606–607 formation chemistry of, 1000, 1001 Nitrous oxide, 994 NMHCs, see Nonmethane hydrocarbons NMOG, see Nonmethane organic gases Nodes, 155, 157 Nonaviation gas turbine fuel, 636, 637 Noncircular cylinders: in cross-flow, 170–171, 396, 397 forced convection, 396, 397 friction factor in, 78 gases in cross-flow of, 170–171 Nusselt numbers for, 167, 168 Noncondensable gases, 203 Nonflow availability, 121–122 Nonhighway heavy-duty standards, 917 Nonmetals, thermal properties of, 150 Nonmetallic liquids, 149 Nonmetallic surfaces, 184, 186 Nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), 913, 914, 916 Nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), 913, 914, 916 Nonparticipating gases, 193 Non-steady-state conduction, 227, 240– 243 Nonuniform flow, 53 Normal forces, 58 Normal shocks, 73–75 No-tube-in-window baffles, 328 NOx, 607, 791–795 Nozzles: in aircraft engine gas turbines, 824, 826 and condensate accumulation, 323 in diffusion-mixed burners, 591, 592 in gas turbines, 780, 797, 799, 832 laws of thermodynics applied to, 116 for pulverized-fuel burners, 602, 603 Nozzle flow meters, 91, 93 Nozzle-mix burner systems, 598 NPSHa, see Net positive suction head– available NPSHr (net positive suction head– required), 724 NPV (net present value), 837 NSPS (new source performance standards), 994 NTU method, 317 Nuclear mass change, 764, 765 Nuclear power, 753–778 chain reaction in, 769–772 effect of delayed neutrons on reactor behavior, 772 reactor behavior, 769–771 time behavior of reactor power level, 771–772 energy production processes, 762–767 fission, 763–765 fusion, 765–767 historical perspective, 753–754 birth of nuclear energy, 753–754 early enthusiasm, 754 military propulsion units, 754 production, 772–778 BWR, 775–778 PWR, 773–775 radiation produced by, 767–769 biological effects, 768–769 types, 767–768 reactors, 754–763 behavior, 769–772 catalog / performance, 756–758 fusion, 755–756 gas-cooled, 755 heavy-water-moderated naturaluranium-fueled, 755 light-water-moderated enricheduranium-fueled, 755 liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder, 755 U.S. commercial, 756, 758–763 Nuclear reactors, 754–756 behavior of, 769–772 boiling-water, 758, 761, 762, 775–778 fusion, 755–756 gas-cooled, 755 heavy-water-moderated naturaluranium-fueled, 755

Index high-temperature gas-cooled, 758, 760– 763 light-water-moderated enricheduranium-fueled, 755 liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder, 755 power production by, 772–778 pressurized-water, 756, 758–760, 773– 775 U.S. commercial, 756, 758–763 worldwide catalog / performance, 756– 758 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 769 Nucleate boiling in forced convection, 200 Nucleate pool boiling, 199–200 Nusselt number (Nu), 167–175, 375, 385– 387 NWS (U.S. National Weather Service), 673

1071

O
Oblique shocks, 74–76 Octane number (ON), 898, 900–901 Odorants, 614, 616 Odor control, 1016–1018 ODP, see Ozone depletion potential OD (tube diameter), 565 OFA, see Overfire air Off-design operation (of refrigeration), 463 OHPs (oscillating heat pipes), 356 Oil(s): atomization of, 263, 264 as compressor lubricant, 445, 448 fuel, see Fuel oils hydraulic, 961, 963–966 from tar sands, 642, 643 Oil heaters, 600 Oil reservoirs, 985 Oil return, 453 Oil–water emulsions, 643 ON, see Octane number Once-through flue gas desulfurization, 995 One-dimensional flow, 52, 61 One-dimensional heat conduction, 154, 371–372 with internal heat generation, 372 steady-state, 148, 150, 151, 154 One-dimensional heat transfer with no internal heat generation, 147 One-pass shell, 296, 297 Opaque surfaces, 183–184, 190–191 Open-centered valves, 977 Open-cycle engines, 781 Open-cycle refrigeration: operation, 426, 428 refrigerant selection for, 436–437

Open hemispheres, 88 Open-loop ground-loop GHP systems, 715, 716 Open manometers, 48, 49 Open natural draft-type burners, 597 Open systems: definition, 96 exergy analysis of, 120 laws of thermodynamics for, 102–104 Open tubes, 88 Operating schedules, furnace, 275 Ophthalmic surgery, 529 Optical diameter, 1007n. Optical roughnesses, 184 Optimization, thermal systems, 554–571 drivers, 559–562 genetic algorithms, 561–562 selection, 560–561 methodology, 562–571 automotive air-conditioning case– single objective, 562–567 condensing unit case–multiobjective, 564, 565, 567–571 system evaluation, 555–559 Organic compounds, gaseous, see Gaseous organic compounds Orifice flow meters, 91, 93 Orimulsion, 643 O-rings, 508 ORR (oxidizer reduction reaction), 927 Ortho-hydrogen, 466–468 Oscillating heat pipes (OHPs), 356 Otto cycle, 779, 832, 906–908 Outer swirl, 594, 596 Overall heat-transfer coefficient, 158, 304 Overfire air (OFA), 1001–1002 Overlapped valves, 978 Oxidizer reduction reaction (ORR), 927 Oxy-fuel firing, 612–613 Oxygen: from air separation, 511–514 at atmospheric pressure, 31 for combustion, 576, 577 in organic compounds, 1012 Oxygen enrichment of combustion air, 223–224 Ozone, 993 Ozone depletion potential (ODP), 434, 435 Ozone layer depletion, 433, 994

P
Packaged burners, 597, 598 Packaging materials, 380, 381 Packed bed scrubbers, 995, 996 PAFCs, see Phosphoric acid fuel cells

1072

Index PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), 994 Parabolas, moments of inertia for, 50 Parabolic dish solar concentrators, 682– 684 Paraffinic crudes, 627 Para-hydrogen, 466–469 Parallel circuits, 565 Parallel fins, 404, 405 Pareto charts, 568–570 Parker D1FH proportional valves, 981 Parker Hannifin, 978 Parkinson disease, 529 Parr formulas, 647, 649 Partial film boiling, 199 Participating gases, 193 Particle size effect on dryout heat flux, 348, 350 Particulate matter (PM): air pollution control of, 1006–1012 cyclones, 1007, 1009 electrostatic precipitators, 1008–1010 fabric filters, 1009, 1011–1012 hybrid systems, 1012 mechanical collection, 1006–1008 wet scrubbing, 1007–1008 diameter of, 1007n. emissions control of, 606–607 as pollutant, 993, 994 Particulate radiation, 584 Passive solar space heating, 688–691 Pathlines, 53 PCB conduction, 381–382, 387, 388 Peak-shaving LNG plants, 515–517 Peat, 645, 651, 654 PEFCs, see Polymer electrolyte fuel cells Peltier effect, 409 Pentafluoroethane, 431, 433 Percent ash test, 651 Percent moisture test, 651 Percent volatile matter test, 651 Perch and Russell Ratio, 649 Perforated plate scrubbers, 995, 996 Performance: prediction of solar-thermal, 693–697 types of changes in, 141 Peristaltic pumps, 734, 736 Perkins tube, 335 Permeability, wick, 205 Pervaporation, 1035, 1037, 1039 Petroleos de Veneauels SA, 643 Phase change heat transfer, 377 Phases (term), 96 Phase transition data: for compounds, 8–9 for elements, 5–7 P–H diagrams, 465, 468 Phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs), 923, 925, 927, 928, 938, 952–953 Phosphorus, 652 Photovoltaic solar energy applications, 694, 695, 697–700 PHPs, see Pulsating heat pipes PID (proportional plus integral plus derivative) control, 552 Pin fins, 398 Pipes: forced convection in, 400 heat, see Heat pipes rough, 79–80 size of, 80 smooth, 78–80 Pipe fitting losses, 83, 84 Pipe flow meters, 91–93 PI (proportional plus integral) control, 552 Piston accumulators, 985 Piston pumps, 969–972 Pitch, tube, 329 Pitot tubes, 89, 90 Planck’s distribution law, 180–183 Plane surfaces / walls: forced convection external flow on, 395 heat conduction in, 154 transient heat conduction in, 160–162 Plates, 88 Plate-fin heat exchangers, 485–489 construction features of, 487 fin surface geometric computations, 488 heat-transfer / flow friction factors in, 489 sizing resources for, 318 Plate-type heat exchangers, 299, 300, 318 Plugging, 1005 Plutonium, 755 Plutonium-239, 765 PM, see Particulate matter; Preventive maintenance Polar axis, 670, 671 Polarization curve, 933–936 Pollutant criteria, 993 Pollution control: air, 993–1020 combustion, 606–608 water, 1022–1040 Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, 506–507 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 994 Polyimide, 506–507 Polymers, 502–507 Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), 923, 925 degradation, 936–938 DMFCs, see Direct methanol fuel cells heat management, 936, 937

Index H2 PEFCs, see Hydrogen PEFCs operating principles of, 926–929 polarization curve, 933–935 Polymer foams, 497 Polymerization, 437 Polymer SP-1, 506–507 Polytetrafluoroethylene, 506–507 Polytrifluorochloroethylene, 504–505 Polytropic treatment of gas movers, 750– 751 Polyvinylidene fluoride, 506–507 Ponds, solar, 690–692 Pond ground-loop GHP systems, 715, 716 Pool boiling, 198–200 Poppet valves, 975, 976 Positive-displacement reciprocating devices, 718 gas movers, 749 liquids pumps, 734–737 Positive-displacement rotary devices, 718 gas movers: liquid ring pumps, 745, 747 lobe compressors, 747, 748 screw compressors, 747, 748 sliding-vane compressors, 745, 747 liquids pumps, 731, 733–736 gear pumps, 731, 733 peristaltic pumps, 734, 736 progressive cavity pumps, 734, 736 screw pumps, 733–735 Postcombustion NOx controls, 1004–1006 Potable water, 1028, 1035–1037 Potential flow theory, 62–63 Powders, insulating, 496–498 Powell’s dogleg method, 558 Power, work vs., 62 Power equation, 839, 840 Power production. See also Electric power generation and EGM, 131–133 geothermal, 703 nuclear, 762–767, 772–778 solar-thermal, 692–693 wind-turbine, 839–841 Prandtl law of pipe friction for smooth pipes, 78, 79 Prandtl number (Pr), 375 Prandtl–Schlichting equation, 70 Prandtl’s equation, 78 Prandtl’s pitot tubes, 89 PRA (probability risk analysis), 778 Pratt & Whitney, 787, 950 Prechamber IDI diesels, 895 Precipitation, chemical, 1029, 1030 Precooling, 799 Preheat coils, 539, 540 Preheating, 364, 366–370

1073

Preliminary treatment, wastewater, 1024 Premix burner systems, 597, 598 Premixed flames: aerodynamics of, 586–591 confined jets, 587–589 confined jets with swirl, 589–590 flame stabilization in bluff bodies, 590– 591 free jets, 586–587 laminar flame speed, 585–586 laminar flame stabilization on tubes, 586 turbulent, 586 Pressure atomization, 600 Pressure balance loops, 325 Pressure coefficient, 64 Pressure drop: in flow, 80, 82 in furnaces, 255–257, 259 and heat exchanger programs, 327 in heat exchangers, 304, 305 in heat pipes, 204, 205 liquid, 340, 341 for shell and tube condensers, 312 for shell and tube single-phase exchangers, 307, 308 vapor, 341–342 Pressure gradient, 77, 78 Pressure measurements, 88, 89 Pressure ratio, 814–815 Pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), 756, 758–760, 773–775 Preventive maintenance (PM), 283, 288 Primary liquids, 729 Primary settling, wastewater, 1024, 1025 Principal specific heats for liquids / gases at atmospheric pressure, ratio of, 37 Probability risk analysis (PRA), 778 Problem mitigation, indoor-air-quality, 543–545 Process (term), 96 Process data (for heat exchanger programs), 327–328 Process flow sheets, 463 Producer gas, 218 Profile drag, 87 Programs, heat exchanger: data base, 327 methods source, 327 quality / selection of, 327 suitability, 327 Progressive cavity pumps, 734, 736 Prompt NO, 607, 1001 Propane: at atmospheric pressure, 31 available heat for, 221 as gas turbine fuel, 802

1074

Index Propane (continued ) hydrogen / carbon ratios of, 615 as refrigerant, 432 Propeller turbines, 67 Proportional plus integral (PI) control, 552 Proportional plus integral plus derivative (PID) control, 552 Proportional valves, 980, 981 Propylene, 31 Proximate analysis (D3172), 651–652 Psychometric chart, 45, 534–536 Pulsating heat pipes (PHPs), 355–356 Pulse-jet filters, 1011 Pulverized fuels, 602–604 Pumps, 718–737 hydraulic, 968–974 kinetically-driven jet, 729–732 kinetically-driven rotary, 719–729 laws of thermodynamics applied to, 116 positive-displacement reciprocating, 734–737 positive-displacement rotary, 731, 733– 736 Pump impellers, 67 Pumping systems, flow control and, 726– 728 Pump outflow, 973 Pump performance description, 723–724 Pump speed, 727 Pusher furnaces, 215 PWRs, see Pressurized-water reactors Pyranometer, 673 Pyrex, 503 Radial piston pumps, 970, 972 Radiant energy, 177 Radiant tube recuperators, 271, 272 Radiant tubes, 252 Radiation. See also Radiation heat transfer combined factors, 237–239 from combustion, 581, 584 cryogenic shields for, 494, 495 gas, 233–235, 237 nuclear-produced, 767–769 solid-state, 228–236 Radiation charts, 230, 232 Radiation exposure, 768–769 Radiation function, 183 Radiation heat transfer, 177–198 blackbody radiation, 178, 180–183 Planck’s distribution law, 180–183 Stefan-Boltzmann law, 178, 180 Wien’s displacement law, 180 combined factors, 237–239 configuration factor, 187–190 additive property, 187 for aligned parallel rectangles, 189 blackbody radiation exchange, 190 for coaxial parallel circular disks, 189 reciprocity relations, 187 for rectangles with common edge, 190 relation in enclosure, 190 for simple geometries, 188 diffuse-gray surfaces in enclosure, 190– 193 radiation heat-transfer coefficient, 192, 193 radiation shields, 192, 193 two diffuse-gray surfaces forming enclosure, 192 electromagnetic spectrum of, 179 gas, 233–235, 237 gas thermal radiation properties, 193– 198 CO2, 193, 194, 197, 198 H2O, 193, 195 mean beam length, 193, 194, 196 radiative exchange between gas volume and black enclosure of uniform temperature, 194–196 radiative exchange between gray enclosure and gas volume, 196 properties, 180–187 absorptivity for solar incident radiation, 184–187 emissivity of metallic surfaces, 184, 185 emissivity of nonmetallic surfaces, 184, 186

Q
Quadrants of circle, moments of inertia for, 50 Quadrants of ellipse, moments of inertia for, 50 Quad (unit), 217–218 Quality (property), 113 Quantitative solar flux availability, 670, 672–676 extraterrestrial solar flux, 670, 672 hourly solar flux conversions, 673–675 monthly averaged / daily solar flux conversions, 675–676 terrestrial solar flux, 673, 674 Quasistatical process, 99, 108 Quasistatic isothermal process, 109 Quenching distance, 586

R
Radial equilibrium equation, 872 Radial fin of rectangular profile, 402–403

Index Kirchhoff’s law, 184 solid-state, 228–236 Radiation heat-transfer coefficient, 192, 193 Radiation shape factor, see Configuration factor Radiation shields, 192, 193, 494, 495 Radiative exchange, gas volume: with black enclosure of uniform temperature, 194–196 with gray enclosure, 196 Radiative heat transfer, 378–379 Radioactive wastes, 267 Radiocity, 190–191 RAF (reactivity adjustment factor), 914 Rankine cycle, 123, 779, 816, 833 Rankine–Hugoniot equation, 73, 74 Raoult’s law, 490 Rating methods, heat-exchanger, 305–318 air-cooled heat exchangers, 316–318 with computers, 326 shell and tube condensers, 308–312 shell and tube reboilers / vaporizers, 312–316 shell and tube single-phase exchangers, 305–308 Ratio of principal specific heats for liquids / gases at atmospheric pressure, 37 Rayleigh number (Ra), 174–176, 376, 386 RBCs (rotating biological contractors), 1026 RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), 1023 Reaction turbines, 863, 864 Reactivity adjustment factor (RAF), 914 Reactors, nuclear, 754–763 behavior, 769–772 catalog / performance, 756–758 fusion, 755–756 gas-cooled, 755 heavy-water-moderated naturaluranium-fueled, 755 light-water-moderated enricheduranium-fueled, 755 liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder, 755 U.S. commercial, 756, 758–763 Reactor behavior, 769–772 Reactor Safety Study, 777 Rear heads, 328 Reboilers: inadequate blowdown in, 323–324 shell and tube, 312–316 temperature pinch in, 321 Reburning, 1003, 1004 Received power, 724

1075

Reciprocating compressors, 423–425, 444–445, 749 Reciprocating devices, positivedisplacement, 718 gas movers, 749 liquids pumps, 734–737 Reciprocity relations, 187 Recirculating pumps, refrigerant, 426, 428 Recirculation: by bluff bodies, 590–591 primary, 589–590 secondary, 587–589 Record keeping, energy-consumption, 279 Recovered waste heat, 362 Recovery factor, 173 Recovery temperature, 173 Rectangles: configuration factor for, with common edge, 190 configuration factor for aligned-parallel, 189 moments of inertia for, about center of gravity, 50 Recuperative thermal oxidizers, 1013 Recuperators, 268–272, 301, 302 for air heating, 362, 369, 370 sizing resources for, 318 Recycle flow, 727 Reentrant inlets, 83 Referred flow rate, 867, 868 Reflectivity: spectral hemispheral, 181 total, 183 total hemispherical, 182 Reflux configuration, 309 Refractive index, 178 Refractories, 217 Refractory radiation, 584 Refrigerant 11, 431, 441–444 Refrigerant 12, 431 Refrigerant 13, 431 Refrigerant 22, 431–433 at atmospheric pressure, 20 enthalpy–log pressure diagram for, 21 in reciprocating compressors, 444 in rotary compressors, 444 saturated, 19–20 Refrigerant 30, 441, 442 Refrigerant 50, 433 Refrigerant 114, 431 Refrigerant 115, 432, 433 Refrigerant 123, 431, 432 Refrigerant 125, 431, 434 Refrigerant 170, 432 Refrigerant 290, 432 Refrigerant 502, 432 Refrigerant 600, 432

1076

Index Refrigerant 744, 433 Refrigerant 1120, 441, 442 Refrigerant 1150, 433 Refrigerant 134a, 431, 434 compressibility factor of, 24 enthalpy–log pressure diagram for, 25 interim properties, 23 thermodynamic properties of saturated, 22 Refrigerant 143a, 434 Refrigerant 410A, 431–432 Refrigerants, 429–437 A1 group, 430–433 A3 group, 430, 432, 433 B1 group, 430–432 B2 group, 430, 432 B3 group, 430, 432 classes of, 433, 434 closed-cycle selection, 434–436 comparative performance of, 433 numbering system, 429, 430 open-cycle selection, 436–437 physical properties of numbered, 32–35 regulations, 433–435 regulations on production / use of, 433– 435 saturated, 19–20 secondary, 423 thermophysical properties of, 19–20, 32–35 toxicity / flammability rating system, 429–431 types of, 430–433 Refrigerant 407C, 431 Refrigerant cost, 436 Refrigerant gas coolers, 424 Refrigerating machines, 101 Refrigeration, 421–463 absorption systems, 437–440 ammonia–water, 440 water–lithium bromide chillers, 437– 440 in cryogenics, 471–483 cascade refrigeration, 471–474 Claude or expander cycle, 473, 476– 480 Linde or Joule–Thomson cycle, 472, 473, 475 low-temperature engine cycles, 479, 481–483 cycles of, 423–429 closed-cycle operation, 423–428 compound / cascade, 423–426 ideal, 424, 425 losses in cycles, 428–429 open-cycle operation, 426, 428 simple, 422, 423 defrost methods, 459–460 air / electric / water, 459, 460 hot refrigerant gas, 459, 460 heat recovery from, 290 history of, 421 indirect, 440–444 principles of, 422–423 refrigerants, see Refrigerants system components of, 444–459 compressors, 444–450 condensers, 451–452 evaporators, 452–456 expansion devices, 454–459 system design considerations for, 460– 461 system specifications for, 461–463 units of measure for, 423 Regenerable fixed bed adsorption, 1015, 1016 Regenerative air preheating, 267–268 Regenerative gas turbine, 811 Regenerative thermal oxidizers, 1013 Regenerators, 301, 302 for air heating, 369, 370 cryogenic, 486, 488–493 sizing resources for, 318 Reheat coils, 539, 540 Reheat (refired) gas turbines, 810 Reinjection of geothermal fluids, 708, 710, 711, 714 Relative humidity, 533, 534, 536 Reliability, gas-turbine, 830, 832 Relief valves, 970, 971, 976, 977 Repowering, 882–883 Required surface equations, 302–303 Research octane number (RON), 898, 901 Reserve base of U.S. coal, 646, 647 Reservoirs: hydraulic-oil, 985 temperature, 99–101 Reservoir pressure, 72 Residual equations for vapor compression system, 555–557 Residual oils, 615, 634 Resistance(s): chip module thermal, 379–385 convection, 158 external, 382–384 flow, 378, 384 heat pipe thermal, 207–209 interface / contact, 373–375, 392–395 internal, 380–381 least, 136–137 of metals with temperature, 523 spreading, 372–373 thermal, 158, 225, 226, 546 total, 384–385

Index Resistance thermometers, 509, 510 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 1023 Restricted dead state, 121 Reverse-gas filters, 1011 Reverse osmosis, 1035–1036, 1039 Reversibility, 104 Reversible adiabatic flow, 61 Reversible operation, 99 Reynolds number (Re), 64, 66–69, 254, 258, 375–376 Reynolds transport theorem, 58, 60 RoDbaffles, 328 Rolling piston compressors, 445–446 Rolls-Royce, 786, 787 RON, see Research octane number Rotary compressors, 445–446 Rotary-cup atomization, 600 Rotary devices, positive-displacement, 718 gas movers: liquid ring pumps, 745, 747 lobe compressors, 747, 748 screw compressors, 747, 748 sliding-vane compressors, 745, 747 liquids pumps, 731, 733–736 gear pumps, 731, 733 peristaltic pumps, 734, 736 progressive cavity pumps, 734, 736 screw pumps, 733–735 Rotary engines, 890 advantages of, 912 schematic of processess for, 889 Rotary-hearth furnaces, 215 Rotary kiln furnaces, 216 Rotary pumps: kinetically-driven, 719–729 positive-displacement, 731, 733–736 Rotary vane compressors, 445, 446 Rotating biological contractors (RBCs), 1026 Rotating heat pipes, 358 Rotational flow, 52, 55 Rotors, 839, 841–842 Rotor speed, 812 Rough pipes, 79–80 Round entrances, 83 Russia, 755

1077

S
Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 1023 Safety considerations: with combustion, 608–612 with furnaces, 265 with LNG, 517 with nuclear power, 777–778 Salt-based coolants, 440, 442, 443 Salt-gradient ponds, 690–692

Sampling, coal, 658–659 Sankey diagram, 581 Saturated fluids, thermophysical properties of: carbon dioxide, 13 liquids, 152 mercury, 16 methane, 18 Refrigerant 22, 19–20 Refrigerant 134a, 22 sodium, 26 specific heat at constant pressure, 36 steam, 28–29 thermal conductivity, 39 vapor air, 9 viscosity, 40 water, 28–29, 202 Saturated (saturation) boiling, 198 Saturated solid state, 113 Saturated vapor state, 112 Saturation(s): at ambient temperature, 434 in fluid power systems, 989, 990 of moist air, 532–533 SBS (sick building syndrome), 543 Scale deposition, 997 Scaling, 452, 1036 Scf (standard cubic feet), 581 Schlieren method, 73 SCR, see Selective catalytic reduction Screening curve, 834 Screen wicks, 348, 349 Screw compressors, 446, 448, 747, 748 Screw pumps, 733–735 Scroll compressors, 446, 447 Scrubbing: dual alkali, 997 packed bed, 995, 996 perforated plate, 995, 996 wet, 267, 1007–1008 SDAs (spray dryer absorbers), 997 SDWA (Safe Drinking Water Act), 1023 Sealed housing for evaporative determination (SHED) test, 915, 916 Sealed-in, power burners, 597 Sea level chart for standard barometric pressure, 534, 535 Sealless tubular SOFC design, 946, 947 Seals, cryogenic, 508 SECA (Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance), 944 Seconds, Saybolt Universal (SSU), 634 Secondary coolants, 440–444 Secondary recirculation, 587–589 Secondary treatment, wastewater, 1025– 1026 Second law analyses, 850, 851

1078

Index Second-law efficiency, 122 Second law of thermodynamics, 94, 99– 102 engineering system component applications of, 114–116 for open systems, 103 and reversibility, 104 Seebeck effect, 409, 410 Segmented cell-in-series design, 946, 948, 949 Seider-Tate equation, 167, 168 Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), 1004– 1006 Selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), 1004–1006 Semianthracites, 650 Semicircles, moments of inertia for, 50 Semiconductors, 695 Sensible heat factor (SHF), 534, 537 Sensible heating / cooling, 536–537 Sensible-heat storage, 129 Sensible heat transfer, 303 Servo valves, 982, 987 Set point, 552 Settling (of suspended solids), 1024–1026 Sewers, 1028 SFC, see Specific fuel consumption Sg, see API gravity SGTs (steam generator tubes), 774 Shaft-type furnace, 215 Shale oils, 638, 641, 642 Shapes: and conduction heat transfer, 155, 156 and convection heat transfer, 171 Shear-controlled flow, 310 Shear stress, 47, 68, 77 Shear velocity, 77 SHED test, see Sealed housing for evaporative determination test Shells: diameter of, 305–306 and heat exchanger programs, 328 Shell and coil condensers, 451 Shell and tube condensers, 308–312, 451 correction for mixture effects, 312 gravity-controlled flow, 311 heat-transfer coefficients / pure components, 310–311 pressure drop, 312 selection of type, 308–309 shear-controlled flow, 310 temperature profiles, 309–310 Shell and tube evaporators, 454, 455 Shell and tube heat exchangers, 179, 295– 299 condensers, 308–312 correction for mixture effects, 312 heat-transfer coefficients / pure components, 310–311 pressure drop, 312 selection of type, 308–309 temperature profiles, 309–310 configurations of, 296–299 baffle types, 298, 299 E-type, 296, 297 F-type, 296, 297 G-type, 297, 298 H-type, 298 J-type, 296, 297 K-type, 298 X-type, 297, 298 overall heat-transfer coefficient for, 304 rating methods for, 305–316 condensers, 308–312 reboilers / vaporizers, 312–316 single-phase exchangers, 305–308 reboilers / vaporizers, 312–316 heat-transfer coefficients, 314, 315 maximum heat flux, 315–316 selection of type, 313 temperature profiles, 313, 314 schematic of, 296 single-phase exchangers, 305–308 baffle spacing / cut, 306 cross-sectional flow areas / flow velocities, 306–307 heat-transfer coefficients, 307, 308 pressure drop, 307, 308 tube length / shell diameter, 305–306 vibration in, 320–321 Shell and tube reboilers, 312–316 heat-transfer coefficients, 314, 315 maximum heat flux, 315–316 selection of type, 313 temperature profiles, 313, 314 Shell and tube single-phase exchangers, 305–308 baffle spacing / cut, 306 cross-sectional flow areas / flow velocities, 306–307 heat-transfer coefficients, 307, 308 pressure drop, 307, 308 tube length / shell diameter, 305–306 Shell and tube vaporizers, 312–316 heat-transfer coefficients, 314, 315 maximum heat flux, 315–316 selection of type, 313 temperature profiles, 313, 314 Shellside flow, 307, 308 maldistribution of, 320 temperature pinch in, 321 Shellside reboilers, 315 SHF, see Sensible heat factor Ship propulsion, 829

Index Shocks: normal, 73–75 oblique, 74–76 Short-tube restrictors, 458–459 Sick building syndrome (SBS), 543 SI engines, see Spark ignition engines Sieve analyses, 658 Sieve designations, 655, 656 Silastic, 504–505 Silastic LS-53, 504–505 Silicone rubber, 504–505 Simple refrigeration cycle, 422, 423 Simulation: airflow, 549–551 computer use in thermal design of process heat exchangers, 326–327 coupled building-environment, 550, 551 Simultaneous linear equations, 557 Simultaneous nonlinear equations, 557– 559 Single-chip package resistance, 384–385 Single-phase exchangers, 305–308 Single-rod hydraulic cylinders, 983 Singular fins, 406 Sintered metal wicks, 348, 349 SI (System International des Unites), 3 ´ Slagging, 656, 657 Sliding-vane compressors, 745, 747 Slightly superheated vapor state, 113 Sludge processing, 1025, 1027–1028 Smart LDAR, 1019 Smoke point, 634 Smooth pipes, 78–80 SNCR, see Selective noncatalytic reduction Sniffers, 1019 Sodium: in coal ash, 658 thermodynamic properties of saturated, 26 Sodium hypochlorite, 1026 SOFCs, see Solid oxide fuel cells Soft coal, see Bituminous coal Soil amendment, sludge as, 1027 Solar-altitude angle, 666 Solar-azimuth angle, 666 Solar cells, 695, 697–700 Solar collectors, 677–685 concentrating, 680–684 flat-plate, 677–680 testing of, 684, 685 Solar constant, 185 Solar day, 663 Solar energy, 663–700 availability of, 663–676 quantitative solar flux availability, 670, 672–676

1079

solar geometry, 663–667 sunrise / sunset, 668–671 photovoltaic applications of, 694, 695, 697–700 thermal applications of, 684–697 cooling, 693 energy storage, 693 mechanical space heating, 687, 688 passive space heating, 688–691 performance prediction for, 693–697 ponds, solar, 690–692 thermal power production, 692–693 water heating, 685–687 thermal collectors, solar, 677–685 concentrating, 680–684 flat-plate, 677–680 testing of, 684, 685 Solar energy conversion, 130–131 Solar flux availability, 670, 672–676 extraterrestrial, 670, 672 hourly conversions, 673–675 monthly averaged / daily conversions, 675–676 terrestrial, 673, 674 Solar fraction, 693–695 Solar geometry: declination / hour angle, 663–665 position, solar, 665–667 Solar-hour angle, 663–665 Solar incidence angle, 669–671 Solar incident radiation, 184–187 Solar One, 692 Solar ponds, 690–692 Solar position, 665–667 Solar-powered cooling, 693 Solar space heating: mechanical, 687, 688 passive, 688–691 Solar thermal applications, 684–697 cooling, 693 energy storage, 693 mechanical space heating, 687, 688 passive space heating, 688–691 performance prediction for, 693–697 ponds, solar, 690–692 thermal power production, 692–693 water heating, 685–687 Solar thermal power production, 692–693 Solar time, 665 Solar water heating, 685–687 Solenoids, 979–981 Solenoid operated four-way directional control valves, 979 Solids: thermal conductivity of, 147, 148 thermal properties of metallic, 150

1080

Index Solid fuels: for combustion, 580 for firing systems, 601–606 and ash handling, 605–606 granular / larger, 603–605 pulverized, 602–604 Solid hemispheres, 88 Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), 922, 923, 935–938, 944–949 advantages of, 945 degradation, 936–938 heat management, 936 materials / performance of, 945–949 operating principles for, 927–929 performance / efficiency of, 932 polarization curve, 933–935 technical issues, 945 Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), 944 Solid-state radiation, 228–236 emissivity–absorptivity, 230, 231 radiation charts, 230, 232 Solstices, 668 Sonic atomization, 600 Sonic flow, 53 Sonic limit, 204, 206, 344 Sonic speed in fluids, 47 Soot blowing, 606 ‘‘Sour’’ natural gas, 616 Space heating, solar: mechanical, 687, 688 passive, 688–691 Space Shuttle orbiter, 922, 950 Spain, 837 Spark ignition (SI) engines, 888–894 comparison of, 909–912 effect of engine speed on efficiency of, 909, 910 effect of load on efficiency of, 909 homogeneous charge, 888–892 2-stroke, 890–892 4-stroke, 888–890 knock in, 895–897 stratified charge, 892–894 direct-injection, 893–894 divided-chamber, 892–893 Spark shadowgraph, 73 Specific fuel consumption (SFC), 823– 825 Specific gravity, 628–630, 632–633 Specific heat: at constant pressure, 105 at constant pressure of saturated liquids, 36 at constant volume, 105 ratio of principal, for liquids / gases at atmospheric pressure, 37 of secondary coolants, 443 Specific speed, 67, 724–725 Specific volume of moist air, 533–534 Spectral emissive power, 180 Spectral hemispheral absorptivity, 182 Spectral hemispheral emissivity, 181 Spectral hemispheral reflectivity, 181 Spectral hemispheral transmissivity, 182 Spectral irradiation, 181 Specular radiation, 184 Speed: specific, of pumps / turbines, 67 and turbulent flow, 68 Spheres: drag coefficients for, 87 flow past, 171 forced convection flow across, 396 free convection from, 175 heat conduction in hollow, 154 transient heat conduction in, 160, 165, 166 Spines, cylindrical, 403 Spiral plate heat exchangers, 299, 300 Spool-in-sleeve valves, 976 Spray cooling, 413–417 Spray dryer absorbers (SDAs), 997 Spray ponds, 451 Spray-type evaporators, 454, 455 Spreading resistance, 372–373 Squares, moments of inertia for, 50 Square cylinders, 88 Square entrances, 83 SR, see Stoichiometric ratio SS, see Suspended solids SSU (seconds, Saybolt Universal), 634 Stability, 52 combustion, 579–580 of flares, 1018–1019 and fluid statics, 52 of hydraulic oils, 965 of secondary coolants, 443 Stacks, furnace, 255 Stack draft, 257, 259 Stack-type recuperators, 268–269 Stage velocity triangles, 865, 866 Stage work, 866 Staggered tubes, 171 Staging of air, 607 Stagnation point heating for gases, 173– 174 Stagnation pressure, 72 Stagnation temperature, 71, 173 Standard cubic feet (scf), 581 Standby pressure, 434 Stanton number (St), 400 Starner and McManus fin arrays, 389

Index Start-related wear-out mechanisms, 830, 831 States (term), 96 Statics, fluid, 47–52 aerostatics, 49, 51–52 liquid forces on submerged surfaces, 48–50 manometers, 48, 49 stability, 52 Stationary blade, 875–877 Steady flow, 52, 57 Steady flow energy equation, 60 Steady incompressible flow in entrances of ducts, 80, 82–83 Steady-state, one-dimensional heat transfer with no heat sink, 147 Steady-state heat conduction: in furnaces, 227, 238–240 two-dimensional, 155–158 Steady-state with heat generation, 147 Steam, saturated, 28–29 Steam atomization, 221 Steam cooling, 799 Steam generator tubes (SGTs), 774 Steam injection, 819–820 Steam loss, 284 Steam stripping, 1034, 1039 Steam turbines, 833, 844–884 blade path design, 858, 861–881 blade aerodynamic considerations, 879–881 blade-to-blade flow analysis, 879 field test verification of flow field design, 873–879 flow-field solution techniques, 872 low-pressure turbine design, 869–872 stage performance characteristics, 865–869 thermal to mechanical energy conversion, 861–863 turbine stage designs, 863–865 heat engine / energy conversion processes, 845, 847–852 historical background, 844–847 thermodynamic properties, 852–860 trends / developments, 882–884 industry trend, 882 repowering, 882–883 technology trend, 883–884 Steepest descent method, 558 Stefan-Boltzmann equation, 494 Stefan-Boltzmann law, 178, 180, 228 Stirling cycle, 479, 481, 482 Stoichiometric combustion, 576 Stoichiometric ratio (SR), 577–579 Storage: and EGM, 129–130

1081

of natural gas, 616 solar thermal power, 692–693 Stratified charge SI engines, 892–894 direct injection, 893–894 divided chamber, 892–893 Streamline curvature, 872 Streamlines, 53–55 Streamtubes, 861–862 Stripping: air, 1033–1034 steam, 1034 Subbituminous coal, 645, 647, 648, 650– 651 Subcooled boiling, 198 Subcooling, 511 Subcritical flow, 53 Subcritical region, 87 Submerged jets, 413, 414, 416 Submerged surfaces, 48–50 Submergence effect, 453–456 Submersible pumps, 728 Subsonic flow, 53, 86 Subsonic gas flow, 83 Substrate conduction, 381–382 Suction (evaporating) pressure, 434 Suitability (of heat exchanger programs), 325 Sulfides, 1030 Sulfur: in coal, 652 emissions control of, 607 fuel-cell poisoning by, 937 in organic compounds, 1012 Sulfur oxides: air pollution control of, 994–1000 coal cleaning, 998 costs, 999–1000 dry sorbent injection, 997–998 flue gas desulfurization, 994–997 fluid bed combustion, 998 fuel switching, 998 furnace sorbent injection, 997–998 residue disposal / utilization, 999 spray dryer absorbers, 997 emissions control of, 607 as pollutants, 993, 994 Sunrise, 668–671, 675 Sunset, 668–671 Sunspace passive heating, 689, 690 Superconductivity, 521, 523–528 applications, 524–528 definition, 521 element limits to, 521, 523 resistance of metals with temperature, 521, 523 theory of, 524 Supercritical flow, 53

1082

Index Supercritical region, 87 Superinsulation, 495–496 Supersonic flow, 53, 75, 90, 173–174 Surface(s): equations for heat-exchanger, 302–303 as term, 302 Surface heat exchangers, 290 Surface tension, 47 and heat pipes, 337 of liquids, 38 Surface-transportation engines, 828–829 Surface-type economizers, 425 Surge point, 449, 742 Suspended solids (SS), 1023–1027 Swashplate setting, 971–973 Sweetening processes, 607 ‘‘Sweet’’ natural gas, 616 Swirl, effect of: inner and outer swirl, 594, 596 turbulent diffusion flame types, 592– 593 1A—zero swirl, moderate axial momentum, 592, 593 1B—zero swirl, very high axial momentum, 592, 593 3—high swirl, low axial momentum, 593 2—moderate swirl, moderate axial momentum, 592, 593 Swirl chamber IDI diesels, 895 Swirl number, 589 Synthetic fuels, 218, 615 Synthetic natural gas, 218–219 System evaluation, thermal, 555–559 cost estimation, 559 engineering-level system simulation, 555–557 equation solvers, 557–559 System International des Unites (SI), 3 ´ in vapor flow, 347, 348 Temperature glide, 429 Temperature measurement, 509–510 Temperature pinch, 296, 322 Temperature profiles: furnace, 246–247, 273 for shell and tube condensers, 309–310 for shell and tube reboilers, 313, 314 Temperature reservoirs, 99–101 Tensile strength, 498, 501 Tension wrapped fins, 301 Terrestrial solar flux, 673, 674 Testing: of heat pipes, 353, 354 of solar collectors, 684, 685 Tetrafluoroethane, 433 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, 431 THCs, see Total hydrocarbons Theoretical air (TA), 899 Thermal aspects of combustion, 580–584 Thermal comfort, 540–542 Thermal comfort indices, 541, 542 Thermal conductivity, 147–153 on cryogenic construction materials, 501–503 of furnace materials, 224, 225 of gases, 147, 149 of heat pipes, 344–348 of liquids, 147, 149 of saturated liquids, 39 of solids, 147, 148 temperature dependence of, 147–149 Thermal control techniques, 401–417 cold plate, 406–409 extended surface / heat sinks, 401–406 spray cooling, 413–417 thermoelectric coolers, 409–413 Thermal design of process heat exchangers with computers, 324–330 incrementation, 324 input data, 327–330 main convergence loops, 324–325 program quality / selection, 327 rating / design / simulation, 326–327 Thermal diffusivity, 225 Thermal efficiency, 847 Thermal expansion coefficient, 106, 226 Thermal-gravimetric effect, 471 Thermal interface resistance, 392–395 Thermal loads, building, see Building thermal loads Thermal modeling of electronic equipment cooling, 371–385 chip module thermal resistances, 379– 385 conduction heat transfer, 371–375 convective heat transfer, 375–378

T
Tangentially-fired burners, 603, 604 Tanks, 985 Tank inventory measurement, 511 Target rod and plate, 594, 595 Tar sands, oils from, 642, 643 TA (theoretical air), 899 TDC, see Top dead center Teflon, 503, 508 Teflon FEP, 506–507 Teflon TFE, 506–507 TEMA, see Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association Temperature cross, 296, 297 Temperature drops: across liquid–vapor interface, 345–347 across shell and wick, 344–346

Index radiative heat transfer, 378–379 Thermal NOx, 606, 1001 Thermal oxidizers, 1013 Thermal radiation, 178, 179 Thermal radiation properties of gases, 193–198 CO2, 193, 194, 197, 198 H2O, 193, 195 mean beam length, 193, 194, 196 radiative exchanges, 194–196 Thermal resistance, 148, 158 of chip modules, 379–385 of furnace materials, 225, 226 heat pipe, 207–209 for packaging materials, 380, 381 Thermal resistance network, 378–379 Thermal storage wall (TSW), 689 Thermal systems optimization, 554–571 methodology, 562–571 automotive air-conditioning case— single objective, 562–567 condensing unit case— multiobjective, 564, 565, 567– 571 symbols used for, 571 toolbox for, 554–562 drivers, 559–562 system evaluation, 555–559 Thermal to mechanical energy conversion, 861–863 Thermal transmittance, 546 Thermistors, 509, 510 Thermochemical properties at 1.013 bar, 298.15 K, 41–42 Thermocouples, 509, 510 Thermodynamics, 94–116 analysis of engineering system components, 113–116 closed systems: first law, 97–99 second law, 99–102 constructal theory vs., 142 definitions used in, 96 energy minimum principle, 102, 103 first law of, 97–99 laws of, 97–104 first, 94, 97–99 open systems, 102–104 second, 94, 99–102 open systems, 102–104 relations among thermodynamic properties, 104–113 second law of, 99–102 subscripts used in, 95–96 symbols / units used in, 94–95 Thermodynamic charts, 751 Thermodynamic properties: of ice / water, 27

1083

of liquid / saturated vapor air, 9 relations among, 104–113 of saturated methane, 18 of saturated Refrigerant 134a, 22 of saturated sodium, 26 Thermodynamic systems, 96 Thermodynamic temperature scale, 100 Thermoelectric coolers: analysis of, 412–413 design equations, 410–411 equations for thermoelectric effects, 409–410 optimizations, 411–412 Thermometers, 97, 509–510 Thermophysical properties of fluids, 3–45 at atmospheric pressure: ethane, 30 ethylene, 30 of methane, 19 n-butane, 30 n-hydrogen, 30 nitrogen, 31 oxygen, 31 propane, 31 propylene, 31 ratio of principal specific heats for liquids / gases, 37 of Refrigerant 22, 20 combustion products, 43–44 compressibility factor of Refrigerant 134a, 24 of condensed / saturated vapor carbon dioxide (200K to critical point), 13 conversion factors, 5 enthalpy–log pressure diagram: for carbon dioxide, 15 for mercury, 17 for Refrigerant 22, 21 for Refrigerant 134a, 25 ethane, 30 ethylene, 30 of gaseous carbon dioxide at 1 bar pressure, 14 ideal gas: air, thermophysical properties of, 10– 11 combustion products, sensible enthalpies of common, 43–44 methane, 19 n-butane, 30 n-hydrogen, 30 nitrogen, 31 oxygen, 31 phase transition data for the compounds, 8–9 phase transition data for the elements, 5–7

1084

Index Thermophysical properties of fluids (continued ) physical properties of numbered refrigerants, 32–35 propane, 31 propylene, 31 psychometric chart, 45 ratio of principal specific heats for liquids / gases, 37 Refrigerant 22, 20 Refrigerant 134a, 23, 24 of saturated liquids: specific heat at constant pressure, 36 viscosity, 40 of saturated mercury, 16 of saturated refrigerant, 19–20 of saturated steam / water, 28–29 specific heat at constant pressure of saturated liquids, 36 surface tension of liquids, 38 thermal conductivity of saturated liquids, 39 thermochemical properties at 1.013 bar, 298.15 K, 41–42 thermodynamic properties: of ice / water, 27 of liquid / saturated vapor air, 9 of saturated methane, 18 of saturated Refrigerant 134a, 22 of saturated sodium, 26 of U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 12 viscosity of saturated liquids, 40 Thermosiphons: horizontal, 316 solar water heating with, 687 vertical, 316 Thermostatic expansion valves (TXVs), 454–457 Thermosyphons, 204, 353, 354 Thin films, 166 Thin-film evaporation, 345–347 Thomson effect, 409, 410 Thorium, 760 Thorium-233, 765 Three-dimensional flow, 52 Three-dimensional shapes, 88 Three Mile Island, 777 Three-way valves, 979 Threshold limit value–time weighted average (TLV-TWA), 429, 430 Throttles, 114–115 Throughput, pump, 724 Thrust, 823 Thrust-specific fuel consumption (TSFC), 823 Tilt factors, 675, 676 Time behavior of reactor power level, 771–772 Time marching, 880 Time-related wear-out mechanisms, 830, 831 Tip diameter, 813 TLEV (transitional low-emission vehicle), 914 Tokomak, 525 Top dead center (TDC), 888, 890 Topping units, 850 Torque, 901–904 Total absorptivity, 183 Total compressor power, 752 Total emissive power, 180 Total flow exergy, 124 Total heat exchange, 537 Total hemispheral emissivity, 180, 181 Total hemispherical absorptivity, 182 Total hemispherical reflectivity, 182 Total hemispherical transmissivity, 182 Total hydrocarbons (THCs), 913, 914, 916 Total nonflow exergy, 124 Total reflectivity, 183 Total shear stress, 47 Total transmissivity, 183 Total volatile organic compound (TVOC) mixtures, 543, 544 Towers, wind, 839 Toxicity: of hydraulic fluids, 966 and refrigerant selection, 442 Toxicity rating system, refrigerant, 429– 432 Trains: gas turbines used in, 787 high-speed, 525, 528 Transient heat conduction, 160–166 in cylinders, 160, 163, 164 in plane walls, 160–162 in spheres, 160, 165, 166 Transitional flow, 53 Transitional low-emission vehicle (TLEV), 914 Transition boiling, 199 Translation flow, 55 Transmissivity: spectral hemispheral, 182 total, 183 total hemispherical, 182 Transonic blade flow, 879–880 Transonic flow, 53

Index Triangles: and constructal theory, 136 moments of inertia for, about center of gravity, 50 Trichlorofluoromethane, 431, 433 Trickling filters, 1024–1026 Tritium, 765 Trough collectors, 680–682 T–S diagrams, 465, 467 TSFC (thrust-specific fuel consumption), 823 TSW (thermal storage wall), 689 Tubes: diameter of, 329 film condensation inside horizontal, 203 film condensation outside horizontal, 203 forced convection in, 400 and heat exchanger programs, 328–329 laminar flow for short, 167, 168 layout of, 329 length of, 305–306, 329 material used in, 329 number of, 306 pitch of, 329 turbulent flow in circular, 168–169 types of, 328–329 vibration in, 320–321 Tube banks: in cross-flow, 172 film condensation outside horizontal, 203 forced convection flow across, 397, 398 staggered vs. aligned, 171 Tube diameter (OD), 565 Tube-in-tube condensers, 451 Tubesheets, 295 Tubeside flow, 307, 308, 320–321 Tubeside forced circulation boiling, 316 Tubeside reboilers, 315 Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA), 296, 319, 320, 328, 330 Tubular SOFC design, 946, 947 Tunnel kiln furnaces, 215 Turbines: gas, 779–835 laws of thermodynics applied to, 116 steam, 844–884 wind, 837–842 Turbine meters, 511 Turbine pumps, 728 Turbine stage, 780 Turbine stage designs, 863–865 Turbofans, 826–828

1085

Turbulent diffusion flame types, 592–596 effect of swirl, 592–593 type 1, 592, 593 type 2, 592, 593 type 3, 593 stabilization methods, 593–596 burner tile, 594, 595 deflector plate on fuel gun, 594, 596 effects of inner / outer swirl, 594, 596 fuel rich, low-velocity pocket, 594, 595 graded air entry, 594, 595 target rod and plate, 594, 595 Turbulent eddy viscosity, 47 Turbulent flames: diffusion-mixed, 591–592 premixed, 586 Turbulent flow, 53 in circular tubes, 168–169 in ducts, 78–81 on flat plate, 170 fully-developed, 78–81 in furnaces, 258 and growth of boundary layers in pipe, 76 laminar vs., 67–68 local losses in contractions / expansions / pipe fittings, 83, 84 TVOC mixtures, see Total volatile organic compound mixtures Two-dimensional flow, 52 Two-dimensional shapes, 88 Two-dimensional steady-state heat conduction, 155–158 Two-fluid atomization, 600 Two-pass shell, 296, 297 Two-phase refrigeration distribution, 453 Two-phase thermosyphons, 204 2-stroke homogeneous charge SI engines, 890–892, 911–912 Two-way valves, 979 TXVs, see Thermostatic expansion valves

U
Ultimate analysis (D3176), 652 Ultrasonic atomization, 600 Ultraviolet, 179 Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 1026–1027 Unconstrained equilibrium state, 102 Underdrain systems, 1025–1026 Underlapped valves, 977, 978 Uniform flow, 53 Union Pacific railroad, 787 United Kingdom, 755 United States: CFCs banned in, 433

1086

Index United States (continued ) coal resources in, 646 coal uses in, 649 fuel demand in, 217 gas-turbine power in, 844 helium in natural gases in, 520 sewers in, 1028 solar radiation in, 674 steam-turbine power in, 844 wind turbine installations in, 837, 838 U.S. Bureau of Mines, 520, 646 U.S. Coal Reserves, 646 U.S. commercial nuclear reactors, 756, 758–763 boiling-water, 758, 761, 762 high-temperature gas-cooled, 758, 760– 763 pressurized-water, 756, 758–760 U.S. Department of Energy, 706, 799, 828, 944 U.S. Energy Information Administration, 531 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 646, 703 U.S. geothermal resource base, 703, 704 U.S. National Weather Service (NWS), 673 U.S. standard atmosphere, 49, 51, 532 measurement of, 52 properties of, 51 thermophysical properties of, 12 U.S. Standard sieves, 656 United Technologies Company (UTC), 923, 925 University of Minnesota Extension Service, 1018 Unsteady flow, 52, 57 Upwind, 837 Uranium, 755 Uranium-233, 760, 765 Uranium-235, 764, 765, 769 USGS, see U.S. Geological Survey UTC, see United Technologies Company Utilization factor, 770 U-tubes, 295 UV radiation, see Ultraviolet radiation Vapor air, 9 Vapor compression refrigeration cycle, 422–423 Vapor compression system: network representation of, 556 residual equations for, 556 Vapor density, 436 Vapor-dominated resources, 704–706 Vapor flow, temperature drop in, 347, 348 Vaporizers: critical heat flux in, 322–323 inadequate blowdown in, 323–324 shell and tube, 312–316 shell and tube heat exchangers, 312– 316 Vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE), 309 Vapor–liquid separation, 453 Vapor-phase heat-transfer coefficient, 312 Vapor pressure, 47, 444 Vapor pressure drop, 341–342 Vapor pressure thermometers, 509, 510 Variable air volume (VAV), 552 Variable-conductance heat pipes (VCHPs), 356–358 Variable-displacement pumps, 969, 971– 974 VAV (variable air volume), 552 VAWT (vertical axis wind turbine), 839 VCHPs, see Variable-conductance heat pipes Velocity(-ies): fluid kinematics, 53 and furnaces, 254, 255, 257, 259 gas, 61 and laminar flow, 67 Velocity convergence loop, 325 Velocity heads, 254–256, 259 Velocity measurements, 89–91 Velocity profile, 78 Venezuela, 643 Ventilation, 548 Venting, inadequate, 323–324 Venturi flow meters, 91, 93 Venturi mixers, 261 Venturi scrubbers, 995, 996 Vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT), 839 Vertical ground-loop GHP systems, 715, 716 Vertical plate, 201 Vertical single tubepass, 296, 297 Vertical thermosiphons, 316 Vertical tubes, 311 Vertical walls, 176 Vespel, 506–507 Vibration, 320–321 View factor, see Configuration factor

V
Vacuum insulation, 494–495 Vacuum pumps, 737 Valves: hydraulic, 974–983, 990, 991 laws of thermodynics applied to, 114– 115 loss coefficients for, 84 Valve-driven motors, 963 Vanadium, 634 Vane pumps, 969, 970

Index View factors for solid-state radiation, 230, 231, 233–236 Vinylidene, 504–505 Viscosity, 47, 62 of diesel fuels, 637 of fuel oils, 600, 601 of hydraulic oils, 963–965 of saturated liquids, 40 of secondary coolants, 443 Viscous dissipation, 62 Viscous flow: boundary layers, 68–71 in ducts, 76–86 compressible gas flow in pipes with friction, 83, 85–86 fully developed incompressible flow, 77 fully developed laminar flow, 78, 79 fully developed turbulent flow, 78–81 local losses in contractions / expansions / pipe fittings– turbulent flow, 83, 84 steady incompressible flow in entrances, 80, 82–83 and incompressible boundary layers, 67–71 laminar / turbulent flow, 67–68 Viscous forces: and laminar flow, 67 and turbulent flow, 68 Viscous limit, 204, 206, 343 Viscous liquid cooling, 320 Viscous shear drag, 69 Visible spectrum, 179 Vitiated air, 578 Viton, 504–505 Viton-A, 508 VLE (vapor–liquid equilibrium), 309 VOCs, see Volatile organic compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 993, 1016, 1018 Volume, 56, 57, 60 Volumetric efficiency, 723, 903, 906, 908, 909, 973 Volumetric flow fluid measurements, 91– 93 Von Karman’s equation, 78 ´ ´ Vorticity, 56, 57

1087

W
Wairekei Fields (New Zealand), 706 Wankel engines, see Rotary engines WASH-1400, 777 Washability data, 659–660 Wastes: combustible, 267 radioactive, 267

Waste fuels, 580 Waste heat recovery systems, 267–272, 362, 364 recuperator combinations, 271, 272 recuperator systems, 268–271 regenerative air preheating, 267–268 Waste incineration systems, 1020 Wastewater treatment, 1022. See also Municipal wastewater treatment Water: thermal radiation properties of, 193, 195 thermodynamic properties of, 27 thermophysical properties of saturated, 28–29, 202 Water-cooled condensers, 451, 452 Water cooling, 799, 803 Water defrost, 459, 460 Water heating, solar, 685–687 Water-injection flares, 1018 Water–lithium bromide absorption chillers, 437–440 Water management, 939–942 Water pollution control, 1022–1040 historical background of, 1022–1023 industrial wastewater / hazardous waste treatment, 1029–1040 activated carbon adsorption, 1030– 1033 activated sludge treatment, 1039 air stripping, 1033–1034 chemical precipitation / clarification, 1029, 1030 ion exchange, 1037–1039 membrane technologies, 1034–1037 steam stripping, 1034 municipal wastewater treatment, 1023– 1029 advanced systems, 1028–1029 biological methods, 1024 disinfection, 1026–1027 final settling, 1026 in-depth filtration, 1027 microorganisms, 1024 nitrogen, 1024 preliminary treatment, 1024 primary settling, 1024, 1025 secondary treatment, 1025–1026 and sewers, 1028 sludge processing, 1027–1028 technologies, 1029 Water solubility, 443 Water table test, 880 Water wash systems, 803 Wave angles, 75 Wave drag, 86 Wear-out mechanisms, 829–830

1088

Index Weber number (We), 65, 66 Wedges, supersonic flow past, 75 Welded plate exchangers, 299 Well water, 451, 452 Westinghouse, 782, 795, 946 Wet bulb temperature, 533 Wet ESPs, 1008 Wet flue gas desulfurization, 994–996 Wet scrubbing, 267, 1007–1008 Wheels, 780 Wheel speed Mach number, 853, 855 Wicks: capillary limits of, 205 effective thermal conductivities of, 345 fabrication of, 348–350 in heat pipes, 203–208 permeability of, 205 porosity pf, 340, 341 thermal conductivity for liquidsaturated, 207 Wien’s displacement law, 180 Windbox burners, 597, 598 Windows, heating load through, 547 Wind turbines, 837–842 configurations, 837–839 market / economics, 837, 838 power production / energy yield, 839– 841 rotor / drivetrain design, 841–842 Wires, thin, 166 Wobbe index, 218–219, 619–620, 623 Work: of compression, 749–752 in cryogenic process, 478 power vs., 62 Working fluids for heat pipes: charging of, 351–353 compatibility of, 352 selection of, 348, 349, 351, 352 temperature ranges of, 351 Work transfer, 97–99 Work transfer rate, 121 World Coal Study, 645

X
X-component equation, 60 X rays, 179 X-type shell and tube heat exchangers, 297, 298, 308, 309, 311, 328

Y
Yield strength, 498, 501

Z
Zeldovich mechanism, 791 Zeotropes, 429, 430, 435 Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV), 914


				
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