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WEDNESDAY_ OCTOBER 26_ 2005

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					WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 26, 2005




 09:00 – 12:40   Concurrent Sessions

 11:40 – 12:40   Tutorial D

 12:40 – 14:00   Lunch

 14:00 – 15:00   General Lecture

 15:00 – 18:00   Concurrent Sessions

 15:20 – 16:20   Tutorial C




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     URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




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                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

                               TIME TRANSFER AND SYNCHRONISATION(A07)
                                      Convener: P. Banerjee, NPL (India)

Session     A07
Type        Oral Presentation
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 12:40
Room        HALL-D

09:00       A07.1(01712) NEAR-TERM TIME TRANSFER TECHNOLOGIES FOR INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC
            TIME (TAI), Demetrios Matsakis, U.S. Naval Observatory Washington, DC USA

The most precise modes of time-transfer currently used for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) involve either GPS
or Two Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer. This paper briefly describes their current and future
capabilities, with emphasis on how their uncertainties affect UTC. Most of these uncertainties are specific to the
equipment and methodology at each site, while others are specific to each baseline (pair of sites). The link
topology is particularly significant when different modes are combined, and methods for reducing the overall
uncertainty will be discussed.

09:20       A07.2(01592) A METHOD OF TIME SYNCHRONIZATION BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT GROUND
            RECEIVER STATIONS OF THE COHERENT RADIO BEACON EXPERIMENT USING GPS,
            Sreelatha.P., Sudha Ravindran and C V Devasia, Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai
            Space Centre, Trivandrum 695 022, India

The Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment is a national program for the study of low latitude ionosphere with
participation from various national institutes and universities across the country. The program involves the
simultaneous reception of beacon transmissions from Low Earth Orbiting beacon satellites at the ground receiving
stations, setup at different locations of the country. Time synchronization is thus essential for the data to be valid
for the generation of tomograms. An innovative method of time synchronisation using GPS is used here instead of
extracting the time code from the orbiting satellites. The paper presents in detail the GUI program developed in-
house for GPS synchronised data acquisition.

09:40       A07.3(01604) CLOCK RATE ESTIMATION FOR A BETTER AVERAGE ATOMIC TIMESCALE,
            Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Yuko Hanado, Noboru Kotake and Kuniyasu Imamura, National Institute of
            Information and Communications Technology Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, JAPAN

In the course of a investigation on the improvement of UTC(NICT) algorithm, we obtained an formula to estimate
a rate-change of an synthesized atomic timescale when a clock drops out from the clock ensemble. The formula
is well simplified and easy to handle with by introducing some appropriate assumptions and approximations. A
comparison between the estimated value and the result of real event was conducted and it was confirmed the
difference was a few parts in 10-15. This formula is now used to predict and confirm the rate-changes of
UTC(NICT) at the drop out of a Clock.

10:00       Tea/ Coffee Break

10:20       A07.4(01605) UPDATE ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION AND
            COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY                 TIME AND FREQUENCY TRANSFER RESEARCH
            ACTIVITIES, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Yukio Takahashi, Shin’ichi Hama and Takao Morikawa,
            National Institute of Information and Communications Technology Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, JAPAN

The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), formerly known as CRL, has been
conducted the research and development on time and frequency transfer. The recent activities in NICT on this
area are shown in this paper. The main subjects are (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) time and frequency
transfer in various methods, (2) two way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT): development of a multi-
channel modem, its operation and the establishment of new links, (3) precise time comparison using Engineering
Test Satellite (ETS)-VIII and (4) the time management system in Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS).

10:40       A07.5(01608) APPLICATION OF INSAT STFS BROADCAST TO ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY,
            A. K. Hanjura and A. Sen Gupta, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi,
            India


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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

 National Physical Laboratory (NPLI), New Delhi, is disseminating Standard Time and Frequency Signal (STFS) as
 a serial time code via Indian domestic satellite INSAT. Currently, the time service is via INSAT-3C. This one-way
 time transfer provides very precise time epoch to the user. Typical inaccuracy in the received time epoch is ~ 10 –
 20 ms. This national service has been in operation since March 1988. The STFS dissemination service of NPL is
 being used widely in India by many agencies like research laboratories, National Television Broadcast and All
 India Radio. However, the single largest user is the electric power sector, that uses the precise time information
 for its grid management. STFS systems are used by the Eastern grid and almost the entire Western power grid.
 Some stations of the Northern grid are also using this service and the number is increasing every year. In this
 paper, we shall describe a typical STFS receiving system and its interface with the power station equipment.
 Distribution of noise-free time signals in the high EMI environment, that is present in the power stations, and over
 distances exceeding few kilometers, requires conversion of signals into potential free contacts and later
 converting them to electrical signals at the other end using appropriate interface.

 11:00       A07.6(0757)      PERFORMANCE OF GEODETIC GPS RECEIVERS FOR ON-LINE TIMING
             APPLICATIONS, P. Banerjee (1), Anindya Bose(2), (1)National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110
             012, India, (2)Physics Department, Burdwan University, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal, India

 Multichannel GPS receivers with one pulse per second hardware output may be used for online timing
 applications. Aspects, those may tell upon performance of such GPS receivers are a) lack of calibration of the
 receiver delay and b) phenomenon of scintillation. Observations presented in the paper dictate that the timing
 from a GPS receiver needs to be calibrated with respect to any standard clock, linked to BIPM timing network for
 absolute accuracy. During peak solar cycle, the presence of scintillation may temporarily fade the signals of
 satellite(s) beyond threshold limit affecting the time transfer accuracy. This paper describes the analytical
 observations and possible remedial measures.

 11:20       End of the Session




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                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

                               INVERSE SCATTERING AND IMAGING(B03)
  Convener: Karl Langenberg (Germany) Co-convener(s): Jurgen Detlefsen (Germany) , Mitsuo Tateiba (Japan)

Session       B03
Type          Oral Presentation
Schedule      26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 12:40
Room          HALL-R

9:00          B03.1(0411) TIME REVERSAL IN RANDOM MEDIA AND SUPER RESOLUTION WITH SHOWER
              CURTAIN EFFECTS AND BACKSCATTERING ENHANCEMENT, Akira Ishimaru, Sermsak
              Jaruwatanadilok, and Yasuo Kuga, Electrical Engineering Department, University of Washington,
              Box 352500, Seattle, Washington, 98195 USA.

Time reversal has attracted considerable attention in recent years, particularly because of its potential for
communication and imaging through a complex environment. When a wave is emitted by a point source and is
received by an array of receivers, and time-reversed and back-propagated in the same medium, the wave is
refocused near the original source. This paper presents an analytical theory of the first and second moments of
time-reversed UWB pulse in a random medium. It makes use of the two-frequency mutual coherence function and
shows the super resolution due to the coherence length, the shower curtain effects, and the backscattering
enhancement.

9:20          B03.2(01498) A PROTOTYPE VHF/UHF TOWER RADAR FOR SUBSURFACE SENSING: SYSTEM
              DESCRIPTION AND DATA INVERSION RESULTS, M. Moghaddam(1) , L. Pierce(1), A.
              Tabatabaeenjead(1), J. Hoffman(2) and E. Rodriguez(2), (1) University of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
              MI,(2) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

To nondestructively obtain the characteristics of a multilayered rough ground, a multifrequency polarimetric radar
backscattering approach can be used. We have developed a tower-based prototype for the Microwave Observatory
of Subcanopy and Subsurface (MOSS) mission concept. The tower radar makes backscattering measurements at
VHF, UHF, and L-band frequencies. To focus the beam at various incidence angles within the beam width of the
antenna, the tower is moved vertically and measurements made at each position. The signals are coherently
summed to achieve focusing and image formation above and below the surface. This requires an estimate of wave
velocity profiles throughout the imaged region. Traditionally, radar images are formed with the assumption that
waves travel in free space. Here, however, the inhomogeneous profile needs to be calculated and used in image
formation in the subsurface, hence providing a physically based approach to radar processing. To solve the inverse
scattering problem for subsurface velocity profile simultaneously with radar focusing, we introduce a new method
using two nested iterations. The inner loop is an inverse scattering algorithm that produces subsurface wave
velocity for the layered medium given an estimate of the focused radar backscattering data. The outer loop uses
the results of the velocity profile inversion and forms an updated backscattering coefficient image. The process
continues until convergence is achieved. Numerical results will be shown using actual radar data acquired with the
MOSS tower radar system and compared with in-situ measurements. Implications of this class of measurements
for Earth and outer planetary exploration will be discussed.

9:40          B03.3(0896) INVERSION OF SUBSURFACE PROPERTIES OF A LAYERED MEDIUM WITH
              ROUGH BOUNDARIES , Alireza Tabatabaeenejad, Mahta Moghaddam, and Leland Pierce,
              Radiation Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of
              Michigan.

The focus of this work is on retrieving different parameters of a two-layer dielectric structure with rough boundaries.
The scattering data consist of measurements of the wave backscattered from the surface at different frequencies
and incidence angles. The inverse solution employed is based on optimization techniques. The inversion method is
then applied to the problem of estimating subsurface soil properties from a tower-based radar system operating at
the VHF and UHF bands. Initial images produced based on a-priori estimate of the soil dielectric constant are used
to obtain the first measurement of the backscattered fields. The measured backscattered fields can now be used in
the inversion algorithm to estimate soil properties. This process continues until convergence.

10:00         B03.4(0506) RECONSTRUCTION OF CYLINDRICAL METAL TARGETS USING THEIR
              FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN RCS VALUES, Hiroshi SHIRAI and Yoshinori HIRAMATSU,
              Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Science and
              Engineering,Chuo University, 1 – 13 – 27 Kasuga, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112 – 8551 Japan.

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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005


A simple target reconstruction algorithm is proposed for cylindrical metal scatterers using monostatic RCS data in
the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. By using the time domain RCS response at the local
frequency maxima at possible specular reflection angle, one easily estimates the locations of the facets by
measuring the wavefront arrival time difference from the scattering center. one may also be able to identify more
than two facets at the same direction, if they exist. We first assumed that the target is composed by plane square
facets. However our algorithm can be extended to handle for curved facets.

10:20        Tea/ Coffee Break

10:40        B03.5(0192) DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTIMATION SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC PARAMETERS FOR
             MANY TYPES OF MATERIALS AND ITS EVALUATION, Toshihide Tosaka(1), Isamu Nagano(2),
             and Satoshi Yagitani(2), (1) National Institute of Information and Communications Technology,
             Wireless Communications Department, EMC Measurement Group, 4–2–1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei,
             Tokyo 184–8795 Japan (2) Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa
             University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920–1192 Japan

We developed the estimation system of electric parameters. For the non-magnetic materials, the estimated relative
permeability was the same as the nominal values. For the ferromagnetic materials, the estimated relative
permeability varied 0% to 30% from the nominal values. For both types of materials, the estimated conductivities
were 0% to 9.8% different from nominal values. Next, we apply our estimation method to shielding sheets, and we
can estimate the electric parameters for items such as thin cloths. Then, we estimate the dielectric constant for
liquid materials. The accuracy is such that the estimated value is different from the nominal value by less than 2%.
These results show that we have successfully developed an estimation system of electric parameters for these
cases. Using our estimation system, we can estimate considering the frequency characteristics for electric
parameters in about 2 minutes.

11:00        B03.6(01007) INVERSE SOURCE CHARACTERIZATION FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE
             INTERACTIONS WITH THE ENVIRONMENT, A. Gati1, Y. Adane1, M. F. Wong(1), J. Wiart1 and
             V. Fouad Hanna(2),(1) France Télécom R&D – RESA/FACE 38-40, rue du Général Leclerc - 92794
             Issy Moulineaux.(2) Laboratoire Instruments et Systèmes d‟île de France - Case 252 - Université
             Pierre et Marie Curie 4, place Jussieu - 75252 Paris cedex 05

When modelling electromagnetic wave interactions with the environment, the source can be analysed separately
from the environment which can be modelled by asymptotic methods. This hybrid approach is interesting for
physical and algorithmic reasons. It allows also integrating measurement through the characterisation of the
sources. We present a new inverse source characterization technique. By knowing the 3D radiation pattern of a
source (measured or simulated), a reduced set of equivalent smaller sources can be found. The near field can be
reconstructed and due to the smaller size of the equivalent sources interactions with objects in the near field region
of the whole antenna are possible

11:20        B03.7(0122) A NEW AND EFFECTIVE MODEL FOR 3-D FORWARD AND INVERSE SCATTERING
             PROBLEMS IN LOSSY SCENARIOS, Lorenzo Crocco (1), Ilaria Catapano(1), Michele D’Urso (2)
             and Tommaso Isernia(3),(1) Istituto per il Rilevamento Elettromagnetico dell‟Ambiente IREA-CNR
             via Diocleziano 328, I-80124, Napoli (ITALY);(2) DIET - Università di Napoli Federico II Viale Claudio
             21, I-80125 Napoli (ITALY), (3) DIMET - Univ. Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, via Graziella, Loc.
             Feo di Vito,ITALY

The remarkable computational requirements of 3D scattering problems push towards the development of new
effective models. The CS-EB model, recently introduced for 2D scalar problems, allows to reduce computational
costs in forward problems and occurrence of false solutions in inverse problems. Therefore, it is convenient to
exploit this model also in the demanding 3D vectorial case. However, owing to the dyadic nature of the operators, a
suitable reformulation (named CS-EB-s) is required to preserve the expected advantages. In this communication,
formulation of CS-EB-s is discussed and its performances in scattering
problems in lossy media are assessed through several numerical examples.

11:40        B03.8(0821) EFFECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION APPROACHES TO MILLIMETER-WAVE IMAGING
             OF HUMANS, J. Detlefsen, A. Dallinger, S. Schelkshorn, Hochfrequenztechnik, Techn. Univ.
             Muenchen, Arcisstr. 21, Muenchen, Germany


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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Millimeter-wave systems are a promising approach for the imaging of humans. Reconstruction algorithms for
imaging in general are based on solutions to a linearized inverse scattering problem. Because of the short range
application reconstruction algorithms imply a high computational load and require advanced focusing techniques. In
the present approach scattering data only are acquired for a broad band of frequencies along circular lines
surrounding the object giving limited information. Several approaches based on synthetic aperture techniques
modified for cylindrical apertures including slant plane geometry are applied for this approach and will be compared
to wave number domain focusing methods. Specific methods of 2D reconstruction for selected cross sections of the
object including directions of maximum resolution are presented which reduce the reconstruction effort while
maintaining most of the image information.

12:00        B03.9(0418) MIGRATION BASED IMAGING USING THE UWB BEAM SUMMATIONALGORITHM,,
             Amir Shlivinski(1), Ehud Heyman(2), and Karl J. Langenberg(1), (1) Department of Electrical
             Engineering, University of Kassel, 34121 Kassel, Germany,(2) School of Electrical Engineering, Tel
             Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel,

A migration based imaging algorithm is implemented here using the ultra wideband Gaussian beam
summationmethod (UWB-GBS). A scatterer image embedded within known background medium is recovered by
correlating the backpropagated pulsed scattered wavefield with the forward propagating pulsed field. The
forward/backward propagations are performed by decomposing the fields into sets of Gaussian beam (G B)
propagators using the UWB-GBS, and the image is formed by generating cross-beam correlation functions (XB-CF)
by correlating pairs of forward/backward propagating GB‟s, and aggregating the products at each image point.
Numerical efficiency is gained using a-priori beam localization.

12:20        B03.10(0966) LINEAR AND NONLINEAR INVERSE SCATTERING IN ULTRASONIC AND
             ELECTROMAGNETIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION, Langenberg Karl J(1), René
             Marklein(2) and     Klaus Mayerk(2), (1) University of Kassel, Dept. Electrical Engineering
             Wilhelmshoeher Allee 71, Kassel, 34109, Germany,(2) University of Kassel

12:40        End of the session




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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

                           BEYOND 3G AND 4G WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS(C03)
                                     Convener: Hitoshi Yoshino(Japan)

Session     C03
Type        Oral Presentation
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 12:40
Room        HALL-4

9:00        C03.1(0463) A GEOMETRY-BASED STOCHASTIC MIMO CHANNEL MODEL FOR 4G BROADBAND
            PACKET ACCESS, Ernst Bonek, Werner Weichselberger, Markus Herdin, and Hüseyin Özcelik,
            Institut für Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universität When, Vienna, Austria
            (Invited)

We present a MIMO channel modeling approach that combines the advantages of geometry-based and stochastic
elements. The channel is characterized by a time- and delay-dependent MIMO channel matrix that contains the
impulse responses from each transmit to each receive antenna (for both polarisations), calculated from dual-
polarised double-directional wave propagation. Based on 5GHz indoor measurements it captures all essential
channel parameters of a broadband MIMO system for packet access, while providing reasonable simulation times
for the development of MIMO transceiver algorithms with arbitrary antenna array configurations in three-dimensional
environments with interference.

9:20        C03.2(01086) MULTI-HOP VIRTUAL CELLULAR NETWORK , Eisuke Kudoh and Fumiyuki Adachi,
            Dept. of Electrical and Communication Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku
            University, 6-6-05 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 Japan (Invited)

There is a strong demand for higher speed data transmissions in mobile communication services. However, there
will be a serious problem; as data transmission rate becomes higher, the peak transmit power becomes larger. This
paper introduces the wireless multi-hop virtual cellular network (VCN) concept suitable for non-real time high speed
packet data services in the future mobile communications. Each virtual cell consists of a central port, which is a
gateway to the network, and many distributed wireless ports. A novel multi-hop route construction algorithm and a
distributed dynamic channel allocation algorithm for multi-hop links channel are presented.

9:40        C03.3(0091) MULTI-USER DETECTION FOR SIGNALS HAVING DIFFERENT SYMBOL RATES, Koji
            Maeda, Takahiro Asai and Hitoshi Yoshino, Wireless Laboratories, NTT DoCoMo, Inc., Japan, 3-5
            Hikari-no-oka, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 239-8536 JAPAN (Invited)

This paper proposes a multi-user detector that detects signals having different symbol rates, within a reasonable
level of computational complexity. The proposed multi-user detector successively detects the signals based on
rejection of outof- band signals and replica generation using soft-decision output from channel decoders. A
performance comparison of the proposed method to a multi-user detector based on the maximum likelihood
sequence estimation (MLSE) is presented based on the computer simulations. The computer simulation results
show that the proposed method can separate the signals effectively, and that its BER performance for a narrow-
band signal approaches that of the MLSE-based multi-user detector when the symbol rate ratio of the wide-band
signal to the narrow-band signal becomes large.

10:00       C03.4(0373) A STUDY ON SUB-CARRIER SELECTING MC-CDMA (SCS-MC-CDMA) SYSTEM IN
            BROADBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, Teruya Fujii, Noboru Izuka, Hiroyoshi Masui, and
            Atsushi Nagate, Information and Communication Labs., Japan Telecom, 2-9-1 Hatchobori Chuo-ku,
            Tokyo, Japan (Invited).

We recently proposed an SCS-MC-CDMA system with time domain spreading. The system adopts a sub-carrier
selection method to reduce signal-processing loads at the mobile terminal; users are allocated an appropriate
number of sub-carriers based on their data rate. By extracting the assigned sub-carriers with a sub-carrier selection
filter, the users can make their signal processing loads match their data rate. We have also proposed an MMSE
combiner with channel estimation on a chip-by-chip basis for the system to counter a high maximum Doppler
frequency, which degrades the BER performance by the increase of the inter-code interference level. With our
proposed method, good BER performance can be realized even when the maximum Doppler frequency is as high as
1000Hz.


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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

10:20       Tea/Coffee Break

10:40       C03.5(0816) ADAPTIVE 4G UPLINK PROPOSAL BASED ON INTERLEAVE-DIVISION MULTIPLE
            ACCESS, Hendrik Schoeneich, Justus Christian Fricke and Peter Adam Hoeher, Faculty of
            Engineering, University of Kiel (Invited)

Efficiency and adaptivity play a major role in the design of fourth-generation (4G) wireless systems. 4G systems
should be bandwidth efficient, power efficient, and allow for low complexity transceivers. The systems should be
flexible with respect to data rate (link adaptation), data reliability (QoS), and service provisioning. Moreover, they
should operate on frequency-selective and fast-fading channels. In this paper, a system proposal for the 4G uplink
based on Interleave-Division Multiple Access (IDMA) is presented (“KIEL Proposal”), which fulfills the mentioned
requirements. Cross-layer issues are addressed.

11:00       C03.6(0933) ANALYTICAL BER COMPUTATION FOR INTERFERENCE CANCELLATION RECEIVER
            IN MC-CDMA SYSTEM, L.Nithyanandan and P.Dananjayan, Dept. of Electronics and Communication
            Engineering,Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry-605014, India.

Multiple Access Interference (MAI) is a factor, which limits the capacity and performance of CDMA system. The
conventional detector does not take into account the existence of MAI. Hence, a multi-user detection strategy is
used for mitigating the effects of MAI. Novel receiver structures that take advantage of knowledge of MAI signal
parameters are termed as Multi-user receivers and are more complex than conventional ones. This is because of
their capability of using MAI signal information to help recover the desired user. Interference cancellation receivers
have received a great deal of attention due to its advantages when compared with the other multi-user detectors.
The interference cancellation techniques can be broadly broken into successive and parallel schemes for canceling
multiple access interference. In order to utilize the advantage of both these two schemes, a Hybrid Interference
Cancellation (HIC) scheme for MC CDMA system is proposed. HIC combines both SIC and PIC to the correct
proportion so that the receiver performance is enhanced to reach the near optimal level. The objective of this work is
to analytically compute BER for MC CDMA hybrid interference cancellation receiver and to justify its optimality.

11:20       C03.7(01036) OPTIMUM SELECTION OF CHAOTIC SPREADING CODES FOR DS-CDMA SYSTEMS
            USING GENETIC ALGORITHM, Mahmoud M. Gad, Said E. El-Khamy and Shawki E. Shaaban,
            E.E. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 1544, Egypt.

This paper presents a novel method for the optimum selection of chaotic spreading code sets for Asynchronous DS-
CDMA systems based on Genetic Algorithm. The generation of binary chaotic codes is briefly discussed. Classical
code sets optimization methods as AO/LSE and CO/MSQCC is presented. The proposed Genetic Algorithm based
code optimization method is discussed. Finally, Numerical examples are used to illustrate the performance
improvement for CDMA system utilizing chaotic optimized codes over those utilizing classical codes, such as m-
sequence and Gold codes, optimized using classical methods.

11:40       C03.8(01089) A NEW METHOD OF CHAOTIC CODE QUANTIZATION FOR THE GENERATION OF
            EFFICIENT CDMA CODE SETS, Said E. El-Khamy, Mahmoud M. Gad, and Shawki E. Shaaban,
            E.E. Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 21544, Egypt

In this paper, we propose a new method for the selection of quantization threshold value for chaotic maps based on
the statistics of the map itself and not on the statistics of the individual generated codes. The new method is based
selecting the invariant probability density function (PDF) median value as a threshold value, which is independent of
the used initial conditions. Computer simulations are used to evaluate the balance of the generated codes. Chaotic
codes generated using this method are found to have better performance in Asynchronous CDMA Applications than
codes generated using zero-threshold method.

12:00       C03.9(01326) NEW MULTIPLE ACCESS METHOD FOR WIRELESS MOBILE SYSTEMS, Michael
            Bank, Boris Hill and Jacob Gavan, Com. Engineering, Holon Academic Institute of Technology,
            Golomb 52, Holon, Israel.




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                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Using an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) system to achieve good parameters can prove
to be an arduous task due to the effects of the Doppler Shift and delays. Here, favorable conditions for
orthogonalityutilization are diminished. In addition, problems exist in synchronization in the uplink from the receiver,
placed inside a car, which is traveling within the confines of a modern city. This article offers proposals for necessary
modifications to help decrease the negative influences of using an OFDMA system.

12:20        C03.10(0925) PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING OPPORTUNISTIC SCHEDULER IN CDMA
             SYSTEMS, K.Jayanthi and P.Dananjayan, Department of Electronics and Communications
             Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry-605014, India.

The unique characteristics of wireless networks, namely the time varying channel conditions and multi-user diversity
necessitates new scheduling solutions to be developed. The wireless resource is scarce, and mobile users perceive
time varying channel conditions. To effectively harness the precious resource and achieve higher network
performance, good scheduling schemes opportunistically seeking to exploit channel conditions is absolutely
essential. The prime objective of this work is to improve / maximize system performance (e.g. throughput, capacity)
under various fairness and QoS constraints. Simulation analysis of the proposed scheme is carried out under
CDMA environment. As expected, the obtained results prove to have higher throughput satisfying per user QoS
constraints in both environments. In addition to this, system capacity and resource utilization considerably
improved. Hence, this channel-based scheduler results in substantial system gain, which is the basic requirement in
a multi-user wireless scenario. However, a trade off always occurs between system throughput and user fairness.

12:40        End of the Session




98
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

                       HARDWARE ASPECTS OF METAMATERIAL STRUCTURES(D02)
                    Convener: Tatsuo Itoh (USA) Co-convener(s): Christophe Caloz (Canada)

Session      D02
Type         Oral Presentation
Schedule     26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 11:40
Room         HALL-3

9:00         D02.1(0707) NON-LINEAR EFFECTS IN NEGATIVE MAGNETIC META-MATERIALS, S. Anantha
             Ramakrishna(1),, S. O'Brien(2) and J.B. Pendry(3) (1)Department of Physics, Indian Institute of
             Technology, Kanpur 208016, India (2)Tyndall National Laboratories, University College, Lee Maltings,
             Prospect Row, Cork, Ireland (3)The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ,
             U.K. (Invited)

 It is well-known that sub-wavelength sized metallic structured materials such as the Split Ring Resonator (SRR) can
have an effective non-zero magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic permeability of such material can also become
negative in the vicinity of the internal LC resonance of the SRR structure due to the over-screened under-damped
response of the system. When imbedded in a Kerr non-linear medium, such structures show interesting non-linear
behaviour such as bistability etc. The non-linear material changes the capacitance of the structure, and hence the
effective medium permeability can be switched from negative to positive depending on the intensity of the
electromagnetic wave.

9:20        D02.2(01168) SUPER-COMPACT COMPOSITE RIGHT-/LEFT-HANDED TRANSMISSION LINE WITH
            VERTICALLY STACKED LEFT-HANDED UNIT CELLS, Yasushi Horii Yasushi Horii Faculty of
            Informatics, Kansai University 2-1-1 Ryozenji, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1095 Japan (Invited)

A novel super-compact multi-layered (ML) composite-right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is proposed.
This ML architecture consists of a periodic repetition of pairs of U-shaped parallel plates connected to a ground
enclosure by meander lines. This TL has its direction of propagation along the vertical direction, perpendicular to the
plane of the substrates, which gives a great advantage that a large electrical length can be achieved over an
extremely short TL length and small transverse footprint. A new equivalent circuit model is applied to the model, and
confirmed that the results show good agreement with the FEM and FDTD simulations and experiments

9:40       D02.3(01244) PLANAR SINGLE- AND DOUBLE-NEGATIVE MATERIAL IMPLEMENTATIONS AND
           APPLICATIONS, Atsushi Sanada Department of Applied Science, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1
           Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611, Japan, (Invited)

Implementations of possible classes of metamaterials in a planar configuration are presented and two
implementations are discussed focusing on 1) surface wave phenomenon of single-negative ( εµ < 0; ε: permittivity,
µ: permeability) materials and 2) via-free planar double-negative (DNG) materials. First, a magnetically negative
(MNG) material implementation interfaced with a double positive (DPS) material is shown and theoretical, numerical
and experimental results of the propagation characteristics of the surface wave are summarized. Then, a novel fully
distributed planar DNG material implementation without using vias is presented which is advantageous in high
frequency scalability and implementation feasibility. Its negative refractive index property is verified numerically.

10:00      D02.4(01629) LEFT HANDED ELECTROMAGNETIC MEDIA BASED ON METAMATERIALS, T. Crépin,
           X. Mélique, A. Marteau, E. Lheurette, T. Decoopman, O. Vanbésien and D. Lippens, Institut
           d‟Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille1, Avenue Poincaré, BP
           60069, 59652 Villeneuve D‟Ascq Cedex, France (Invited)

We report on the experimental assessment of left-handed electromagnetic media which are fabricated from
metamaterial-based transmission lines. Two kinds of micro-and nano-structured lines were fabricated namely (i) a
novel scheme of finline-based technology, which operates at microwave and (ii) a coplanar strip (CPS) scheme
which operates at Terahertz frequency. Experimental assessment is achieved for the finline technology in the
Frequency domain via the sign of the phase offset between two lines of various lengths while the C-L-type CPS line
was experimentally assessed using electro-optic sampling with direct evidence of a phase advance in the time
domain

10:20      Tea/Coffee Break

                                                                                                                    99
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

10:40      D02.5(0219) PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS OF DUAL-BAND OPERATION IN COMPOSITE
           RIGHT/LEFT-HANDED METAMATERIALS, C. Caloz(1) and T.(2), (1) Ecole Polytechnique de
           Montr´eal, Canada(2) University of California, Los Angeles, USA

Over the last five years, a number of novel guided-wave, radiated-wave and refractedwave microwave applications
based on electromagnetic metamaterials (MTMs) have been developed. In the context of the first category, this
paper explains the concept of composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) dual-band operation and
presents a number of applications illustrating this concept.

11:00      D02.6(0047) COUPLING ENHANCEMENT OF PARALLEL TRANSMISSION LINES USING A SLOT
           SPLIT RING RESONATORS DEFECTED GROUND PLANE, Shah Nawaz Burokur(1), Mohamed
           Latrach(2), Serge Toutain(3)

Through this paper, we show that the coupling between two parallel microstrip lines can be considerably enhanced
by the use of a Slot Split Ring Resonators (SSRRs) defected ground plane. We have more flexibility in the
fabrication process, especially concerning the distance separating the parallel lines. The separation of a signal at a
desired frequency and the signal outside this frequency on two different accesses is also achieved. Such a device
can be very useful in an autonomous system, where the signal recovered outside the desired frequency can be used
to bias active components, after being rectified to DC power.

11:20      D02.7(0508) UC-PBG ANTENNA ON THICK DIELECTRIC SUBSTRATE, M. Zedler(1), P. Russer(1)
           Lehrstuhl für Hochfrequenztechnik, Arcisstr, 21, 80333 Munich, Germany

Automotive systems for pre-crash detection will operate at frequencies around 77 GHz. In order to keep costs low, a
full integration of the radar system including the antenna into semiconductor chips is advantageous, but creates new
problems like strong coupling to substrate modes. In this paper we analyse an active antenna design with reduced
substrate mode excitation due to periodic surrounding. The integration of both an IMPATT diode based oscillator and
the antenna onto the same semiconductor chip has the advantage of reducing both size and costs for such systems
and inherently eliminates interconnection problems.

11:40      End of the Session




100
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

                                 NANOELECTRONICS(DT-TUTORIAL D)
        Convener: P. Russer (Commission Chair) Co-convener(s): F. de Fornel (Commission Vice-chair)

Session     DT
Type        Tutorial
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 11:40 - 12:40
Room        HALL-E

11:40       NANOELECTRONICS, Paolo Lugli

The miniaturization of electronic components has brought the feature size of devices into the nanometer domain. At
such dimensions, not only the device performance can significantly improve, but also new phenomena start
occurring that can be exploited for new type of devices and circuits. Therefore, nanoelectronic technologies are
expected to provide the basis for continued scaling of Moores law into the next decade, as well as providing the
potential for new sensing applications and hybrid architectures combined with traditional electronics. Nanoelectronic
technologies include (but are not limited to) ultra-scaled FETs, quantum SETs, RTDs, nanoscale spin devices,
superlattice arrays, quantum coherent devices, molecular electronic devices, and carbon nanotubes. In this tutorial,
an overview will be given of the underlying physics and fabrication issues of various nanoelectronic technologies,
their current state of the art, and of their perspectives for future applications.

12:40       End of the Session




                                                                                                                 101
                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

 TERRESTRIAL ELECTROMAGNETIC NOISES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS(E07)
                Convener: Ari Viljanen (Finland) Co-convener(s): M. Hayakawa (Japan)

Session     E07
Type        Oral Presentation
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 09.00 - 12:40
Room        HALL-B

9:00        E07.1(0262) RECENT STUDIES OF SCHUMANN RESONANCE AND ELF TRANSIENTS, A.P.
            Nickolaenko (1) and M. Hayakawa (2) ,(1) Usikov Institute for Radio-Physics and Electronics, National
            Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine,(2)12, Acad. Proskura street, Kharkov 61085, UKRAINE, The
            University of Electro- Communications 1-5-1, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, JAPAN (Invited)

9:20        E07.2(01064) CHARACTERISTICS OF GEOMAGNETICALLY INDUCED CURRENTS PRODUCED BY
            DIFFERENT TYPES OF GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY, Boteler David, Larisa Trichtchenko, Donald
            Danskin, Risto Pirjola , Natural Resources Canada , 7 Observatory Crescent , Ottawa , Ontario ,
            Canada (Invited)

9:40        E07.3(0797) SCHUMANN RESONANCES: IMPORTANCE OF THE DAY-NIGHT CAVITY
            ASYMMETRY, Olga Pechony and Colin Price, Aviv University, Geophysics and Planetary Sciences,
            Ramat Aviv, 69978, Israel

One of the important and long debated questions in Schumann Resonances (SR) modeling and data analysis is the
significance of changes in the lower ionosphere on the day and night side of the globe that create an asymmetry in
the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, influencing ELF wave propagation. Variations in the SR parameters are observed
as the terminator passes over stations at sunrise and sunset [1]. In order to simulate the observed fields, a TDTE-
based PUK model [2] was used. The PUK model allows simulating SR parameters in the day/night, or in the uniform
mode. Monthly observations from the OTD satellite were used to calculate the SR fields generated by global
lightning. Comparisons between observed and simulated SR parameters are presented.

10:00       E07.4(01123) EXPLORATION OF ATMOSPHERIC RADIO NOICE FIELD STRENGTH ( ARNFS ) AT
            TRIPURA AT VARIOUS FREQUENCIES, Barin Kumar De(1), S. S. De(2), Mihir Pal(3),(1) Department
            of Physics, Tripura University, Surayamaninagar, Agartala 799 130, West Tripura, Indi,(2) Centre of
            Advanced Study in Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700 009, India.(3)
            Department of Physics, Belonia College, Belonia, South Tripura, India.

10:20       Tea/Coffee Break

10:40       E07.5(0359) THE EFFECT OF RECENT VENUS TRANSIT ON ATMOSPHERIC VERTICAL
            POTENTIAL GRADIENT AND ELF-VLF PROPAGATION, S. S. De(1), B. K. De(2), S. K. Adhikari(1),
            B. K. Sarkar(1), S. K. Sarkar(3), A. Guha(1), P. K.Mandal(1), S. K. Mandal(1), H. P. Sardar(1) and M.
            Ray(1), (1) Centre of Advanced Study in Radiophysics and Electronics, 1, Girish Vidyaratna Lane,
            University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700 009, India (2) Department of Physics, Tripura University,
            Suriyamaninagar, Tripura (W) 799 130, India (3) Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92, A. P.
            C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India.




102
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Some experiments on June 8, 2004, the day of transit of Venus across the Sun, were undertaken at Kolkata
(latitude: 23O34‟ N) to observe effect, if any, of transit of Venus on fair-weather electric field, Schumann resonances
and VLF Sferics amplitudes. The observation was unbelievable as the Venus subtends only 1/32th of the cone
subtended by Sun on Earth. The result shows excellent correlation between their temporal variations during the
transit. How so small a speck in the backdrop of solar disc can cause so large effect is an open question. We have
tried to resolve the anomaly in this presentation.

11:00        E07.6(0055) A CORRELATION STUDY OF VLF SFERICS WITH ATMOSPHERIC VERTICAL
             ELECTRIC FIELD AT KOLKATA ALONG WITH ITS DEVIATION FROM GLOBAL CHARACTER, A.
             Guha (1), S. S. De (1), B. K. De (2) and P. K. Mandal (1), (1) Centre of Advanced Study in
             Radiophysics and Electronics, 1, Girish Vidyaratna Lane, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700 009, India
             (2) Department of Physics, Tripura University, Suriyamaninagar, Tripura (W) 799 130, India

The Study of atmospheric vertical potential gradient and VLF Sferics from lightning and its deviation from global
character in a tropical land station at Kolkata (latitude: 22034′ N) has been reported in this paper. Recent
measurements in atmospheric electricity parameters over Bay of Bengal and Antarctica are also suggesting a
change in the diurnal behavior of these parameters. We made a correlation study between vertical potential gradient
and VLF Sferics in different frequencies below 15 kHz and found that our results are consistent with the recent
findings. A preliminary explanation for the observed deviation has also been given.

11:20        E07.7(01129) AFTERNOON VLF ATMOSPHERICS DURING PRE-MONSOON AND MONSOON
             RAINY DAYS OBSERVED OVER N-E STATE TRIPURA, Barin Kumar De (1) and Sudip Debnath (2),
             (1)Department of Physics, Tripura University, Surayamaninagar, Agartala 799 130, West Tripura, India
             (2 Department of Forensic Research, Govt. of Tripura, Agartala 799 001, West Tripura, India

At Agartala we are in privileged position to study ARNFS from the local cloud discharge as well as from the distant
sources of Australia, Japan and Africa. In the Department of Physics, Tripura University, we are recording
atmospheric radio noise field strength (ARNFS) round the clock at various frequencies. Here we report preliminary
observations on VLF sferics at 27.2 kHz. The ARNFS exhibit remarkable rise prior to the afternoon rain. During pre-
monsoon the average value of rise is about 13.5 dB and that in monsoon is about 10.5 dB. It signifies severe
electrification in pre-monsoon compound to that in monsoon.

11:40        E07.8(0020) OBSERVATIONS OF ELF-VLF SFREICS IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC REGION, A. Kishore,
             S. Kumar, and V. Ramachandran, Electrical Communication Research Group, Department of Physics,
             University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.

A total of 450 selected tweeks recorded in the nighttime during a period of September 2003 – May 2004, at Suva
(18.08oS, 178.3o E), in the south pacific region, have been used to estimate, the cutoff frequency of different modes,
the total propagation distance, and the ionospheric reflection heights. Higher harmonics appeared predominantly in
the post-midnight period. The cutoff frequency of different modes ranged from 1.79 – 1.62 kHz. Estimated nighttime
ionospheric reflection heights varied from 80 – 95 km. The waveguide formed by the sea and the lower ionosphere
offers less attenuation than that formed by the earth and the lower ionosphere.

12:00        E07.9(01058) LOW FREQUENCY INDUCTION IN PIPELINES, POWER LINES AND CABLES,
             Trichtchenko Larisa, D. H. Boteler, Geomagnetic Laboratory, 7 Observatory Crescent, Ottawa,
             Ontario, Canada.

12:20        E07.10(0800) STATISTICS OF GLOBAL ELF TRANSIENTS DUE TO LIGHTNING, Eran Greenberg
             and Colin Price, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv,
             Israel.




                                                                                                                  103
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Schumann Resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic waves in the Earth-ionosphere cavity, induced primarily
by lightning discharges, with a fundamental frequency of about 8 Hz and higherorder modes separated by
approximately 6 Hz [1]. The SR are made up of the "background" signal resulting from global lightning activity, and
ELF "transients" resulting from particularly intense lightning discharged somewhere on the planet (ELF - extremely
low frequency range). Since transients within the earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning propagate globally in the
ELF range, we can monitor and study global ELF transients from a single station. Data from our Negev desert
(Israel) ELF site has been collected for more than 7 years using two horizontal magnetic components and a vertical
electric field ball-antenna. The ELF transients have been monitored in the 5-40Hz range with a sampling frequency
of 250Hz. In this paper we present statistics related to the probability distribution of ELF transients, and the spatial
and temporal variations in transient statistics as observed at our station. Williams [2] suggested that SR parameters
may be used to monitor planetary temperatures (linked to SR through the lightning flash rate, which increases
nonlinearly with temperature). More recently, Price [3] suggested to monitor global upper-tropospheric water vapor
changes with SR (water vapor and lightning activity are closely linked through thunderstorms). If it is possible to
monitor global temperature and water vapor changes through SR records from a single station, SR may be a
convenient and a low-cost tool for global climate change observations. Since ELF transients represent the most
intense lightning flashes, tracking their statistics may supply additional information regarding thunderstorm variability
on all spatial and temporal scales.

12:40        End of the Session




104
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                  NOVEL SENSORS AND DATA FUSION (F08)
                      Convener: A. Moreira (Germany) Co-convener(s): J. Hjelmstad (Norway)

Session    F08
Type Oral Presentation
Schedule 26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 12:40
Room       HALL-C

9:00         F08.1(01725) CONSIDERATIONS TOWARDS THE FUTURE OF SAR SYSTEMS, Wolfgang Keydel,
             Microwaves and Radar Institute, German Aerospace Research Center, D-82230 Oberpfaffenhofen,
             Germany (Invited)

Future SAR systems will be software based multi static systems with multi-polarization and multi-frequency
capability, multiple operation modes, and with individual transmit and receive antennas mounted on separate
platforms forming a sensor network. The most essential SAR system component is the antenna. An outlook in the
future SAR antenna development shows that the SAR Antenna will mutate to an Antenna SAR. Equipped with Digital
Beam Forming the requirements for permanent coverage, exemplary for both traffic ore disaster monitoring from
space respectively, can be fulfilled with special orbit configurations. Zooming into areas from special interest will be
possible without information loss.

9:20         F08.2(0598) RUSSIAN SPACEBORNE IMAGING RADARS: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL
             ACHIEVEMENTS AND PRIORITY PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT, V.S.Verba, L.B.Neronskiy,
             I.G.Osipov, “VEGA" Corp., 34, Kutuzovsky Ave., Moscow, 121170, Russia.

A retrospective overview of Russian (USSR) contribution in spaceborne radars for Earth observation creation and
development is under consideration as well as the technical and scientific experience accumulated in "Vega" Corp.
The directions of recent researches of spaceborne SAR design conception, SAR signal processing simulation, radar
database generation are discussed. The perspectives for radar remote sensing include putting into operation a multi
mode S-band SAR for “Condor-E” small spacecraft, a multiband polarimetry spaceborne SAR constructing, working-
out the design principles of high orbital SARs and UWB short pulse spaceborne SARs. References (29 names)
including on-line resources are given in the paper.

9:40         F08.3(01044) A MINIATURIZED WATER VAPOR PROFILING RADIOMETER FOR NETWORK-
             BASED 3-D MEASUREMENT OF THE TROPOSPHERIC WATER VAPOR FIELD, S. C. Reising(1), F.
             Iturbide-Sanchez(1), (2) R. W. Jackson, (1)Microwave Systems Laboratory, Electrical and Computer
             Engineering Dept., Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1373,(2) Laboratory for Millimeter-
             Wave Devices and Applications, Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept., University of
             Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003




                                                                                                                   105
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Knowledge of the temporal and spatial distribution of water vapor and liquid water in the troposphere is fundamental
for short- and medium-range prediction of precipitation and severe weather. Current measurements of these
quantities in the troposphere are limited by optical extinction in clouds (lidar), in temporal resolution (radiosondes), in
spatial resolution (GPS networks) and in spatial coverage (microwave radiometers). In order to facilitate three-
dimensional (3-D) measurements of resolution, a new Miniaturized Water Vapor profiling Radiometer (MWVR) has
been developed at Colorado State University and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. This new radiometer
takes advantage of recent advances in Monolithic Microwave and Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC)
technology to reduce substantially the mass, volume, power consumption and cost of passive microwave
instruments. A second MMICbased radiometer is under development to distinguish cloud liquid water from water
vapor. A network of scanning MWVRs is planned to demonstrate 3-D measurements of both water vapor and cloud
liquid water in near-real time.

10:00        F08.4(01518) NPOESS CONICAL MICROWAVE IMAGER/SOUNDER Soil Moisture Issues and
             Progress, Narinder Chauhan, NPOESS Integrated Program Office/Aerospace Corporation, 8455
             Colesville Road, Suite 1450, Silver Spring, MD 20910.

10:20        Tea/Coffee Break

10:40        F08.5(01444) AN ORBITING CM AND MM-WAVE OCCULTATION SYSTEM FOR PROFILING
             WATER, OZONE, TEMPERATURE, GEOPOTENTIAL AND CLOUDS, Kursinski Emil, Dale Ward,
             Dasheng Feng, David Flittner, George Hajj, Benjamin Herman, Stephen Leroy,Sanjay Limaye,
             Stig Syndergaard, Chris Walker, Atmospheric Sciences, UNiversity of Arizona, 1118 E. Fourth St.,
             Tucson, Arizona, USA 85721.

11:00        F08.6(01643) SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR PAYLOAD OF RADAR IMAGING SATELLITE (RISAT)
             OF ISRO, Tapan Misra, S.S. Rana, K.N. Shankara, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space
             Research Organisation (ISRO), Ahmedabad-380015, India (Invited)

Multimode SAR system of Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) is planned to provide complementary imaging capability
along with optical images from the well established IRS class of satellites. RISAT, based on active antenna
technology, supports variety of resolution and swath requirements in C-band. Both conventional stripmap and
scanSAR modes are supported with dual polarization operation. Additionally a quad polarization stripmap mode is
provided for availing additional resource classification. In all these modes resolutions from 3m-50 m can be achieved
with swath ranging 30 km –240 km. On experimental basis, a sliding spotlight mode is also available. The system is
capable of imaging on either side of flight track depending upon prior programming of the satellite. The satellite will
be placed in sunsynchronous orbit with 6am-6pm local time condition. This orbit configuration is chosen to maximize
solar power availability. The satellite has on-board solid state recorder for supporting beyond ground station visibility
of operation. The satellite is planned to be launched in 2007 and is expected to fulfill the requirements of remote
sensing with all weather and day night operation capability.

11:20        F08.7(01346) THE LORAM EXPERIMENT: AN OVERVIEW, Philippe Dreuillet(2), Pascale Dubois-
             Fernandez(3), Per-Olov Frölind(1), Anders Gustavsson(1), Björn Hallberg(4), Olivier Ruault du
             Plessis(3), Gary Smith(4) and Lars M.H. Ulander(1), (1)Swedish Defence Research Agency FOI),
             P.O. Box 1165, SE-581 11, Linköping, SWEDEN (2)ONERA, fort de Palaiseau, Chemin de la Hunière,
             91761, Palaiseau Cedex, FRANCE (3)ONERA, base aérienne 701, Ecole de l'Air 13661, Salon Air
             Cedex, FRANCE (4)Department of Radio and Space Science, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-
             412 96 Göteborg, SWEDEN

The joint French-Swedish multi-frequency SAR campaign LORAM was conducted in Sweden last year. A
comprehensive data set was successfully co-registered by the airborne radar sensors CARABAS-II, LORA and
RAMSES. Imaging of controlled stationary and dynamic ground scenarios will allow various studies across frequency
bands in the interval 20 MHz to 10 GHz, e.g. evaluating ways to fuse SAR imagery and moving target indicator
information to provide surveillance and targeting information. Some flight missions were made to collect forest clutter
over an area where extensive ground truth data are available. A summary the LORAM activities with imagery
examples will be given.




106
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

11:40       F08.8(01306) JOINT ISRO-DLR SAR CAMPAIGN OVER INDIA: MISSION GOALS AND FIRST
            RESULTS, Chakraborty Manab, Ralf Horn, Sushma Panigrahy, Irena Hajnsek, S Mohan, Bernd
            Gabler, S Chowdhury, Rolf Scheiber, Markus Limbach, K. L. Majumdar, Alberto Moreira,
            TSDD/ARG/RESIPA, Space Applications Centre, Jodhpur Tekra, Ambavadi Vistar, Ahmedabad,
            Gujarat, INDIA, 380015 (Invited)

12:00       F08.9(01156) MEASUREMENT SYSTEM OF AIRBORNE-BASED GPS DOWN-LOOKING
            OCCULTATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS, Takayuki Yoshihara (1), Naoki Fujii (1), Kazuaki
            Hoshinoo (1), Keisuke Matsunaga (1), Shinji Saitoh (1), Takeyasu Sakai (1), Toshitaka Tsuda (2),
            Yuichi Aoyama (3), Satoshi Danno (2),(1) Electronic Navigation Research Institute, IAI, 7-42-23
            Jindaiji-Higashimachi, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-0012 Japan       (2) Research Institute for Sustainable
            Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 Japan,(3) National Institute of
            Information and Communication Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo

Airborne-based GPS down-looking occultation is expected to estimate atmospheric refractivity profile below a flight
level and to provide water vapor information in the lower troposphere. Because it is required to continuously and
accurately observe Doppler shift of occultation GPS satellite signal that is caused by the atmospheric propagation
delay, it is necessary to track weak signal and to estimate accurate velocity of GPS antenna motion on aircraft. To
realize this novel technique, we developed observational system, including a special GPS receiver and a GPS/INS
hybrid positioning system. We have set up them on the experimental aircraft (Beachcraft B99 Airliner) of the
Electronic Navigation Research Institute (ENRI) and conducted nine flight experimental campaigns since October
2003 and obtained more than 47 datasets. This paper presents the observational system and preliminary
experimental results.

12:20       F08.10(01534) FUSION OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MICROWAVE SENSORS DATA FOR
            ENHANCEMENT OF GEOPHYSICAL FEATURE, O.P.N. Calla, S.K. Mishra and O.P. Acharya
            International Centre for Radio Science, „OM NIWAS‟A-23 Shastri Nagar Jodhpur – 342003 (Invited)

In microwave remote sensing the passive sensor measures the brightness temperature, which depends upon the
physical temperature and emissivity. The active sensor measures scattering coefficient. These parameters are
function of geophysical parameters of the natural materials. When both electrical parameters are used in fusion there
is enhancement in the geophysical parameters. The saline soil has been used for study of enhancement of its
geophysical parameters using both passive and active sensors. The effects of polarization look angle have also been
included for the study. The measured and estimated value of these parameters have been included in the study.

12:40       End of the Session




                                                                                                                 107
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                           IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON RADIO SYSTEMS(G02A)
                      Convener: H. Chandra (India) Co-convener(s): P. Lassudrie (France)

Session       G02a
Type          Oral Presentation
Schedule      26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 12:40
Room          HALL-5

9:00          G02a.1(0893) CHARACTERIZATION AND SIMULATION OF HF PROPAGATION IN A REALISTIC
              DISTURBED AND HORIZONTALLY INHOMOGENEOUS IONOSPHERE, Strangeways Hal, N.N.
              Zernov, V.E. Gherm, Electronic Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, W.
              Yorks, U.K., LS2 9JT

9:20          G02a.2(0458) MEASUREMENTS AND SIMULATION OF HF OFF-GREAT CIRCLE PROPAGATION
              EFFECTS OVER NORTHERLY PATHS, E.M. Warrington , A.J. Stocker, N.Y. Zaalov and D.R.
              Siddle, Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, U.K.

9:40          G02a.3(0089) AN EFFICIENT IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION SIMULATOR FOR HIGH
              FREQUENCY SIGNALS, Kin Shing Yau, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The
              University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia.

The use of High-Frequency (HF) propagation in the ionosphere is still prevalent. The ability to acquire the behavior
of the channel and the knowledge of how the channel will affect the propagating signals in advance is imperative to
ensure the reliability, and maintain adequate performance, of modern wide-bandwidth HF systems. In this paper, an
efficient ionospheric propagation simulator that focuses mainly on fading of signals will be presented. Possible
applications for this efficient simulator include real-time channel evaluation and frequency management system, as
well as forming a test-bed in testing various fading mitigation techniques.

10:00         G02a.4(0151) SIMULATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE LOW LATITUDE IONOSPHERE ON THE
              PERFORMANCE OF A SATELLITE-BASED AUGMENTATION SYSTEM, Emanoel Costa,CETUC-
              PUC/Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ, BRAZIL

A model of TEC applicable to the Brazilian sector was developed by coupling the effects of the equatorial anomaly,
represented by PIM 1.7, to a statistical model of the effects of plasma bubbles, derived from data recorded by the
RBMC/IBGE. The model was used to analyze the combined effects of the two phenomena on the performance of a
Satellite-Based Augmentation System (SBAS) in the Brazilian sector. These effects will be described on the basis
of the cumulative distribution functions of the errors in the horizontal and vertical positions of users, assuming
uniformly-deployed networks of Reference Stations of the SBAS.

10:20         Tea/ Coffee Break


108
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

10:40         G02a.5(0460) AN INTERPRETATION OF SHORT TERM TEC VARIATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF
              SPACE-BASED RADARS, Fraser David,P S Cannon,N C Rogers,S Slilcock and ,C Griffin,
              QinetiQ St Andrews Road Worcs Malvern United Kingdom WR14 3PS.

11:00         G02a.6(0782) IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION EFFECTS ON GROUND AND SPACE BASED
              RADARS, Knepp Dennis, Communications and Radar, ATK Mission Research, 10 Ragsdale Dr Su
              201, Monterey, CA, USA 93940.

11:20         G02a.7(0482) IONOSPHERIC TIME DELAY VARIATIONS OVER A LOW LATITUDE STATION AT
              HYDERABAD, A.D.Sarma(1), T.Madhu(2), D.R.Lakshmi(1) and B.M.Reddy(1), (1) R & T Unit for
              Navigational Electronics, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 007, India. (2)S.R.K.R. Engineering
              College, Chinna-Amiram, Bhimavaram-534 204

Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems (SBASs) such as the Indian GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation
(GAGAN) are being developed to aid the civil aviation in precision approach and in other operations. Accurate
information on local TEC morphology is essential for developing region specific models. GPS data used in the
statistical TEC variability study was recorded at NERTU, Osmania University, Hyderabad using an Ionospheric
Calibration System (Model No: AOA‟s ICS-4000Z). The time delay statistics presented here reveal certain features
of the local ionosphere including the non applicability of the secant law in the conversion of the slant to vertical
delay. The analysis when extended to several other stations would be useful in developing a suitable ionospheric
time delay model for GAGAN.

11:40         G02a.8(0702) FIRST RESULTS FROM WIDE – WIDEBAND IONOSPHERIC DISTORTION
              EXPERIMENT, Cannon Paul,Keith Groves and Neil Rogers, Communications QinetiQ St Andrews
              Road Worcs Malvern United Kingdon.

12:00         G02a.9(0416) MULTI-INSTRUMENT INVESTIGATIONS OF SPACE WEATHER STORM FRONTS,
              Foster John,Anthea Coster and WIllial RIdeout, MIT Route 40 Westford MA USA.

12:20         G02a.10(01399) ON THE DEFINITION AND EXPERIMENTAL USE OF IONOSPHERIC INDICES
              TO EVALUATE SPACE WEATHER EFFECTS ON GNSS POSITIONING, N. Jakowski, S. Stankov
              and V. Wilken, D. Klaehn

12:40         End of the Session




                                                                                                                 109
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




  IONOSPHERIC MODIFICATION BY HIGH-POWER RADIO WAVES: COUPLING OF PLASMA PROCESSES
                                              (HG2)
                Convener: T. Leyser (H, Sweden) Co-convener(s): Sa. Basu (G, USA)

Session      HG2
Type         Oral Presentation
Schedule     26-Oct-05, 09:00 - 12:40
Room         HALL-6

9:00         HG2.1(0875) URSI 2005 INVITED HF PAPER, Carlson Herbert, Chief Scientist, AFOSR, 4015
             Wilson Blvd,rm713, Arlington, VA, USA, 22203-1954 (Invited)

9:20         HG2.2(0-01293) DESCRIPTION OF THE HAARP GAKONA IONOSPHERE/RADIO SCIENCE
             RESEARCH FACILITY AND RECENT RESEARCH RESULTS, Paul Kossey(1) and E. J. Kennedy
             (2), (1) Air Force Research Laboratory; 29 Randolph Road, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731, (2) US Naval
             Research Laboratory; 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (Invited)

The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program is completing the construction of a facility in Gakona,
Alaska, to include a 3600 kW high-frequency (HF) transmitter for active research and a suite of radio and optical
diagnostic instruments, to study physical processes in the ionosphere resulting from interactions with high power
radio waves. A description of the major components of the facility is presented, including technical details of its
current and planned performance capabilities. The facility has been used in numerous research campaigns since
1998, when it reached its present HF transmitting power of 960 kW. We present recent results from these research
activities in the areas of ELF/VLF wave generation in the ionosphere, artificial optical emissions, and trans-
ionosphere measurements.

9:40         HG2.3(0801) IONOSPHERIC MODIFICATION FOR PUMP FREQUENCIES AROUND THE
             SECOND ELECTRON GYRO-HARMONIC: FIRST RESULTS, M. J. Kosch (1,2), T. Pedersen (1), J.
             Hughes (3), R. Marshall (4), E. Mishin (5), A. Senior (2),M. McCarrick (6), E. Gerken (7), D.
             Sentman (3), C. Selcher (8), P. Bernhardt (8) and F.T. Djuth (9), (1) Communication Systems,
             Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4WA, UK, (2) Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB,
             Boston, USA, (3) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, USA, (4) STARLab, Stanford
             University, Stanford CA, USA, (5) Boston College, Chestnut Hill MA, USA, (6) BAE Systems,
             Washington D.C., USA, (7) SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA, (8) Navy Research Laboratory,
             Washington D.C., USA, (9) Geospace Research, El Segundo CA, USA.




110
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

The Alaskan HAARP facility has been used for ionospheric wave-plasma experiments near the second electron
gyro-harmonic frequency. Novel observations include: (1) strong enhancement of the artificial optical emission
intensity, which (2) maximize ~7 kHz above the second gyro-harmonic; (3) plasma density irregularities are
greater/smaller for pump frequencies just above/below the second gyro-harmonic; (4) a ring-like optical structure
appeared when pumping just above the second gyro-harmonic; (5) bright irregular optical structures appeared for
pump frequencies up to 450 kHz above the ionospheric critical frequency; (6) there is evidence for the Thermal
Parametric and Parametric Decay instabilities acting simultaneously

10:00         HG2.4(0489) OBSERVATIONS OF IONOSPHERIC FINE STRUCTURE USING HEATER-INDUCED
              ARTIFICIAL AIRGLOW, Gerken Elizabeth, Elizabeth Gerken,SRI, International Menlo Park CA

We have designed and installed a telescopic imaging and photometric system at the High Frequency Active
Auroral Research Program (HAARP) antenna array in order to observe ionospheric fine structure. We have in
particular observed dramatic enhancement in airglow brightness when the HAARP heater beam is aimed along the
geomagnetic field lines (15 degrees from vertical). Structured airglow patches are frequently observed to drift
through the heater beam, especially during heating near a gyroharmonic. In the March 2004 campaign, the
telescopic system observed unexpected small bright 557.7 nm airglow spots in the presence of aurora during E-
layer heating transmissions.

10:20         Tea/ Coffee Break




10:40         HG2.5(0282) IONOSPHERIC MODIFICATION AT TWICE THE ELECTRON CYCLOTRON
              FREQUENCY, F. T. Djuth(1), T. R. Pedersen(2), E. A. Gerken(3), P. A. Bernhardt(4), C. A.
              Selcher(5), W. A. Bristow(6) and M. J. Kosch(7), (1)Geospace Research, Inc., El Segundo, CA,
              USA, (2) Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, USA, (3)Electrical and
              Computer Engineering Dept., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA(4)Plasma Physics Division and (5)
              Information Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D. C., USA, (6)
              Geophysical Institute, UAF, Fairbanks, AK, USA(7)Communications Systems, Lancaster University,
              Lancaster, UK

11:00         HG2.6(01075) ELF/VLF WAVE-INJECTION ADN MAGNETOSPHERIC PROBING WITH HAARP,
              Inan Umran, Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Packard Bldg., Rm. 355, 350 Serra Mall,
              Stanford U, Stanford, California, USA (Invited)

With its location at L=4.9, on closed field lines most of the time, the HAARP facility offers unique opportunities for
ELF/VLF wave-injection experiments and magnetospheric probing. Initial experiments involving ship-board
observations in the geomagnetically conjugate region and on low (DEMETER) and high-altitude (CLUSTER)
satellites have demonstrated the feasibility of such experiments, with amplification of injected ELF/VLF waves,
triggering of new emissions, and the generation of lower hybrid waves being observed. We review the recent
observations and plans for a new range experiments that are planned to be carried out with HAARP in the next few
years.

11:20         HG2.7(0781) MAGNETIC RESPONSE OF THE IONOSPHERE TO PULSED HEATING, K.
              Papadopoulos (1,2), T. Wallace (1), G. Milikh (2), W. Peter(1) and M. McCarrick (1 ), (1) BAE
              Systems-ATI1, 1250 24th St., Washington DC 20037, USA,(2) University of Maryland2, College Park
              MD 20742, USA (Invited)

Temporally resolved waveforms of ELF/VLF waves between 50 Hz and 8 kHz generated by modulating the auroral
electrojet using the HAARP transmitter are presented. The puzzling behavior of the generation efficiency as a
function of the modulation frequency observed in HAARP and EISCAT experiments can simply be attributed to the
observed temporal waveform of the magnetic fields, that contains a previously neglected transient response of the
ionosphere to the modulated heating. A comprehensive model based on the experimentally observed Green‟s
function magnetic response of the ionosphere to pulsed heating can explain quantitatively the observed frequency
scaling.

11:40         HG2.8(01554) THE GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HF-INDUCED PLASMA WAVE
              PHENOMENA, M. T. Rietveld(1), B. Isham(2), T. Hagfors(3), M. J. Kosch(4), V. Belyey(5), B. Z.

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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

             Khudukon(6),E. D. Tereschenko(6), R. Yu. Yurik(6), (1) EISCAT, Ramfjordmoen, N-9027
             Ramfjordbotn, Norway (2) Interamerican University, Bayamon, Puerto Rico, USA (3) Max-Planck
             Institut fur Sonnensystemforschung, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany(4) Dept. of
             Communication Systems, InfoLab21, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4WA, U.K.(5) University of
             Tromso, N-9037 Tromso, Norway(6) Polar Geophysical Institute of the Kola Scientific Center,
             Russian Academy of Sciences, 183010 Murmansk, Russia (Invited)

12:00        HG2.9(0635) ESTIMATING THE FIELD-PARALLEL SCALE LENGTH OF ARTIFICIAL F-REGION
             STRIATIONS BY MEANS OF HF RADAR BACKSCATTER, Senior Andrew(1),,M. J. Kosch(1),,N.
             D. Borisov(2),T. K. Yeoman(3),M.T. Rietveld(4),F. Honary(1),(1) Dept. of Communication Systems,
             InfoLab21, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4WA, U.K.(2) IZMIRAN, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow
             Region, Russia,(3) 4) EISCAT Scientific Association, Ramfjordmoen, 9027 Ramfjordbotn, Norway.

We used the HF coherent scatter radar at Hankasalmi, Finland to observe striations generated by the EISCAT HF
facility near Tromso, Norway. By sweeping the radar frequency we can estimate the field-parallel scale length of
the irregularities, since ionospheric refraction brings rays at higher frequencies to orthogonality with the
geomagnetic field (necessary to receive backscatter) at higher altitudes. In daytime conditions, the scale length
was ~20 km. This approach assumes highly aspect-sensitive irregularities. Recent observations of radar
backscatter from striations in an ionosphere perturbed by travelling disturbances may indicate evidence of lower
aspect-sensitivity.

12:20         HG2.10(0724) A NEW THEORY OF POLAR ELECTROJET MODULATION BY GROUND-BASED
              HF TRANSMITTERS, R. J. Riddolls, Defence Research and Development Canada – Ottawa 3701
              Carling Avenue, Ottawa Ontario Canada K1A 0Z4.
The modulation of electrojet current in the ionospheric D region by a ground-based HF transmitter is investigated.
An analytic theory is developed that includes exponential plasma conductivity variation with altitude. The predicted
modulated current distribution is similar to a vertical current loop.The theoretical results are compared with the
author's experiments of 10 November 2002 using the HAARP HF transmitter at Gakona, Alaska. In those
experiments, the vertical profile of antenna current was deduced by monitoring the VLF radiation from the
ionosphere during a modulation frequency sweep. The HAARP results are shown to be largely consistent with the
theoretical modeling.

12:40        End of the Session




112
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                     BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF EMF (K02)
                     Convener: Jitenra Behari (India) Co-convener(s): Rafi Korenstein (Israel)

Session:      K02
Type:         Oral Presentation
Schedule:     26-Oct-2005, 09:00-12:40
Room:         HALL-A

9:00          K02.1(01745) RF EXPOSURE OF TWO GENERATIONS OF NON-RESTRAINED WISTAR RATS,
              V. Hansen, T. Reinhardt, A. Bitz, J. Streckert, J. Buschmann, Chair of Electromagnetic Theory,
              Faculty of Electrical, Information and Media Engineering, University of Wuppertal, D-42097
              Wuppertal, Germany

9:20          K02.2(0412) EFFECTS OF EXTREMELY LOW FREQENCY MAGNETIC FIELDS ON CYTOSOLIC
              FREE CALCIUM: EVALUATION OF CELL CYCLE DEPENDENCE, C.R. McCreary (1) , S.J. Dixon
              (2), L.J. Fraher (2), J.J.L. Carson(1) and F.S.Prato (1), (1) Bioelectromagnetics, Imaging Program,
              Lawson Health Research Institute and Department of Nuclear Medicine and MR, St. Joseph‟s Health
              Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 4V2, (2) SchulichSchool of Medicine and
              Department of Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1

Previous results from our lab have suggested that calcium signalling in cells in G2-M phases of the cell cycle was
increased with extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure. The objective of this study is to determine which
magnetic field conditions elicit an effect on cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+]c). Synchronized Jurkat E6.1
cells were exposed to a null static magnetic field, a parallel combination of 60 Hz, 100 Tpeak sinusoidal (AC) and
78.1 T static (DC) magnetic fields, the AC field alone or the DC field alone. Unlike the previous experiments, no
significant differences in [Ca2+]c were detected between exposure conditions.

9:40          K02.3(01211) PATTERN OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR IN RATS EXPOSED TO CHRONIC ELF
              MAGNETIC FIELD, Mathur R, Neurophysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, All India
              Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

10:00         K02.4(0196) CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR EFFECTS OF ELF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS,
              Junji Miyakoshi, Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of
              Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, 036-8564, Japan


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                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Most of the published experimental results suggest that very low-density exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF)
electromagnetic fields do not have a clearly demonstrated potential to cause genotoxic effects. We designed and
manufactured several equipments for exposure of cells to high-density (5 to 400 mT) ELF electromagnetic fields.
This paper reviews our studies on the effects of ELF electromagnetic fields with or without other factors, such as
chemical agents or ionizing radiation.

10:20         Tea/Coffee Break

10:40         K02.5(0755) CYTOGENETIC STUDIES IN MAMMALIAN SOMATIC CELLS EXPOSED TO
              RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION: AN OVERVIEW, Laxmi Vijaya, Radiation Oncology, The
              UNiversity of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, Texas, USA TX
              78229

11:00         K02.6(0503) PROTEIN KINASE C ACTIVITY IN RATS BRAIN EXPOSED TO LOW INTENSITY 2.45
              GHZ MICROWAVE RADIATION, Paulraj R and J. Behari, School of Environmental Sciences,
              Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India

Present work describes the effect of microwave radiation (2.45GHz) on calcium dependent protein kinase activity
(PKC) on developing rat brain. 30 days old Wistar rats were used for this study. The rats were exposed 2 h/day for
35 days at a power density of 0.34 mW/cm2 (SAR. 1.0 W/kg). After exposure, rats were sacrificed and PKC activity
was determined in whole brain, hippocampus, and whole brain minus hippocampus separately. A significant
decrease in the enzyme level was observed in the exposed group as compared to the sham-exposed group. These
results indicate that this type of radiation could affect membrane bound enzymes associated with cell signalling,
proliferation and differentiation. This may also suggest an affect on the behaviour of chronically exposed rats.

11:20         K02.7(01576) ACTIVATION OF CELLULAR STRESS RESPONSE BY RF-EMF AND ITS POSSIBLE
              IMPACT ON CELL PHYSIOLOGY, Dariusz Leszczynski, Functional Proteomics Group, STUK -
              Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Laippatie 4, FIN-00880 Helsinki, Finland.

The question whether microwave radiation, that is emitted by mobile phones (radio-frequency modulated
electromagnetic fields: RF-EMF), might exert any detrimental health effects remains unanswered. There is still
insufficient number of studies showing that microwave radiation causes not only biochemical but also physiological
responses in living cells without heating them (non-thermal effects). One way to demonstrate whether cells respond
to the low-level microwave radiation is to determine whether exposure causes activation of the cellular stress
response. Several recent studies have indicated that RF-EMF increases expression or phosphorylation of certain
stress response proteins (Daniells et al. Mutation Research 399, 1998, 55-64; de Pomerai et al. Nature 405, 2000,
417-418; Leszczynski et al. Differentiation 70, 2002, 120-129; Leszczynski et al. Proteomics 4, 2004, 426-431;
Nylund & Leszczynski, Proteomics 4, 2004, 1359-1365; Czyz et al. Bioelectromagnetics 25, 2004, 296-307).
However, there have been also presented, at various scientific meetings, studies that have failed to replicate these
published data. These reports, though, are yet unpublished and, therefore, they are still not possible to thoroughly
review. What is often missing in the studies of the effects of RF-EMF, is the evidence that the changes in gene or
protein expression or activity are of sufficient magnitude to alter cell physiology. The very limited, to date available,
evidence concerning effects of RF-EMF-induced stress response on the down-stream physiological events will be
also reviewed.

11:40         K02.8(0116) AN IN VITRO STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF 2.45-GHZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
              ON EXPRESSION OF HSP70 IN CHO-K1 CELLS, Tomohide Sonoda(1), Saki Hiromoto(2), Rui
              Tokunaga(3), Yukihisa Suzuki(4), Kanako Wake(5), Soichi Watanabe(6), Junji Miyakoshi(7),
              Masao Taki(8), (1) (2),(3),(4),(8) Tokyo Metroporitan University, Department of Electrical
              Engineering,1–1, Minamiosawa Hachioji–shi, Tokyo 192–0397 (Japan), (5),(6) National Institute of
              Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei-shi, Tokyo, 184-8795
              (Japan), (7) Hirosaki University, Faculty of Medicine, 5 Zaifu-cho, Hirosaki-shi, Aomori, 036-8562
              (Japan)




114
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

Biological effects of electromagnetic fields are drawing concerns along with increasing usages of high frequency
electromagnetic fields. The scientific basis of these effects needs to be clarified to promote further developments of
wireless technology. Regarding their biological effects, thermal effects caused by energy absorption are considered
as a dominant effect. Current safety guidelines set limits against thermal effects in terms of the specific absorption
rate (SAR [W/kg]). However, biological effects do not seem to be negligible in exposures to significantly high
electromagnetic fields even if the temperature rise is suppressed. The objective of this study is to investigate such
possible athermal effects of intense RF fields under isothermal conditions. We have developed an in vitro exposure
apparatus to investigate the effects of high-frequency electro-magnetic fields (HFEMF). The SAR and thermal
distributions in a culture dish are discussed based on the numerical and experimental results. We have performed
experiments on the effects of microw aves on the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP). The result shows that
the expression of HSP70 in CHO-K1 cells is explained by the thermal effects at the position of the cells.

12:00         K02.9(0470) ACUTE OCULAR CHANGES THROUGH 60 GHZ MILLIMETER WAVE EXPOSURE,
              M. Kojima(1), Y. Yamashiro(2), Masahiro Hanazawa(2), H. Sasaki(1), Kanako Wake(3), So-ichi
              Watanabe(3), Masao Taki(4), Yoshitsugu Kamimura(5), Kazuyuki Sasaki(2), Department of
              Ophthalmology, Kanazawa Medical Uniersity (1) , Division of Vision Research for Environmental
              Health, Kanazawa Medical University (2) , National Institute of Information and Communications
              Technology (3), Department of Electrical Engineering Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo
              Metropolitan University (4), Department of Information Science, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya
              University (5) 1-1, Daigaku, Uchinada-machi, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa-ken, 920-0293, JAPAN

Purpose: To investigate acute ocular changes, progression and healing by 60 GHz exposure in rabbits. Methods:
The doses of 1,500 or 3,000 mW/cm2 for 6 minutes of 60 GHz micro-wave exposure were unilaterally administered
to the eyes of rabbits. Results: Miosis and iris vasodilation but no corneal opacity were observed immediately after
exposure with 3,000 mW/cm2. Corneal opacification and corneal epithelial damage were seen 1-7 days after
exposure. Half of the rabbits in the 1,500 mW/cm2 exposure-group showed the same symptoms as those in the
3,000 mW/cm2 exposure-group. Conclusions: This system is useful for investigating ocular injury by millimeter-
waves.



12:20         K02.10(0203) LEFFECTS OF THZ ON HUMAN SKIN MODELS, Clothier Richard, School of
              Biomedcial Sceinces, University of Nottingham, Medical School, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK,
              NG12 5EF.

12:40         End of the Session




                                                                                                                   115
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                    ELECTROMAGNETIC DOSIMETRY(A11)
                                        Convener: N. Kuster, ETH (CH)

Session     A11
Type        Oral Presentation
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 18:00
Room        HALL-D

15:20       A11.1(0994) ELECTRIC FIELD ESTIMATIONS IN A SEMI-ECHOIC ENVIRONMENT OF A TRAIN
            CARRIAGE CONSIDERING OF IMPLANTABLE CARDIAC PACEMAKER EMI FROM CELLULAR
            RADIOS, Toshio Nojima, Takashi Hikage, Yuki Sumi, Soichi Watanabe and Takashi Shinozuka,
            Graduate school of information science and Technology, Hokkaido university, Kita-14, nishi-9,
            Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

The electromagnetic field (EMF) distributions created inside a train arriage by the cellular radios of the passengers
are analyzed and the impact their electromagnetic interference (EMI) on the implantable cardiac pacemakers is
evaluated based upon the analysis results. Spaces formed by conductive surfaces, e.g., train carriages and cars,
are typical environments requiring assessment. In this paper, both precise computer simulations and experiments
using 800 MHz and 2 GHz transmitters in an actual train carriage confirm that excessively high EMF, high enough
to affect the normal functions of the pacemaker, does not occur inside the carriage provided the safe distance of
22 cm specified for pacemaker users is kept.

15:40       A11.2(01169) ELECTROMAGNETIC DOSIMETRY FOR A WALKIE-TALKIE SET-UP, L. Martens, G.
            Vermeeren, Department of Information Technology, Ghent University, Gaston Crommenlaan 8-201, B-
            9050 Ghent, Belgium

Nowadays, the walkie-talkie is becoming popular again with adults and children. The revival of the walkie-talkie can
mainly be attributed to the free-of-charge connection and the improved connection quality. The latter originates
from the developed digital walkie-talkie standard known as PMR446. PMR446 stands for Private Mobile Radio. The
operating frequency band centers around 446 MHz. The effective radiated power, or ERP, may not exceed 500
116
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

mW. The combination of the rather low radio frequency, the radiated power of up to 500 mW and the position of the
walkie-talkie in front of the head (different from a mobile phone position), demands an evaluation of the Specific
Absorption Rate or SAR in the human body. The walkie-talkie has been first modeled in free space as a helical
antenna mounted on a ground plane. The model has been simulated using the numerical tools SEMCAD and
FEKO. The simulations have been validated in terms of input impedance and near-fields with a physical model that
consisted of the real helical antenna mounted on a rectangular PCB with the same dimensions as the case of the
walkie-talkie. A very good agreement has been observed between the simulated and the measured results.
Further, the local SAR averaged over 1 g and 10 g of body mass, has been first assessed in a flat phantom. The
influence of the distance d between the phantom and the device has been examined. The flat phantom set-up has
the advantage of an easy positioning of a portable device in front of it and, thus, an easy to reproduce SAR
measurement. Again, very good agreement between simulations and measurements on the physical model and the
real device have been obtained. The SAR has also been simulated in different child heads at different distances
from the head and the averaged SAR has been compared with the safety limits. Experimental validation of the SAR
in a phantom with a real head shape has been done in the standard SAM phantom.

16:00       A11.3(01494) RELIABLE PREDICTION OF MOBILE PHONE PERFORMANCE FOR DIFFERENT
            DAILY USAGE PATTERNS BY NUMERICAL METHODS, N. Chavannes(1), P. Futter(2), R. Tay(3),
            K. Pokovic(2), and N. Kuster(1), (1) IT‟IS Foundation, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
            (ETH),(2) Schmid & Partner Engineering AG (SPEAG), Zurich, Switzerland,(3) Motorola Electronics
            Private Ltd., Singapore.

This study discusses the suitability of numerical methods as robust analysis and prediction tools regarding the RF
performance of CAD derived mobile telecommunications equipment (MTE) such as mobile phones. The
investigation was conducted using one of the latest commercial quadband mobile phones and in addition included
head and different hand models targeting a detailed assessment of inuse situations. In particular, the effect of the
user‟s hand position on the antenna performance was given a special focus. In the simulation different parameters
were evaluated such as impedance, efficiency, farfield, as well as EM nearfield distributions. The results are
compared to measurements obtained with the latest tools available. The resulting reliable prediction for various
daily usage configurations demonstrate the usability of numerical methods in the early design phase of devices
such as complex highend multiband mobile phones.
16:20        Tea/ Coffee Break

16:40       A11.4(01496) ENERGY ABSORPTION IN LAYERED BIOLOGICAL TISSUES IN THE NEAR- AND
            FAR-FIELD OF ANTENNAS OF BODY-MOUNTED DEVICES, Andreas Christ, Anja Klingenböck,
            Niels Kuster, Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT‟IS), Zeughausstr.
            43, 8004 Zurich, Switzerland

The assessment of the user exposure due to novel wireless body-worn and handheld devices and new usage
patterns of cellular phones requires that a large variation of parameters be considered with respect to frequency
range, exposed location and distance to the body as well as tissue composition. A generic body model consisting of
skin, fat and muscle tissue was developed to characterize the SAR with respect to anatomically correct variations
of the tissue layers and near- and far-field coupling. Different effects in layered tissues, namely standing waves in
the far-field and enhanced E-field coupling in the near field of small antennas at low frequencies, can lead to an
increase in SAR in comparison to the homogeneous representation of the body.

17:00       A11.5(01598)     PRACTICAL STUDIES ON CALIBRATIONS AND UNCERTAINTIES OF SAR
            MEASUREMENT, S. Watanabe(1), A. Suzuki(1), Y. Yamanaka(1), T. Shinozuka(1), Y. Ichino(1), T.
            Oonishi(1), S. Uebayashi(1), L. Hamada(2), and T. Iwasaki(3),(1) National Institute of Information
            and Communications Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan, (2)Telecom Engineering Center,
            Japan,(3)Electro-Communication University, Japan

SAR measurement methods for evaluation of compliance with the RF safety guidelines have been standardized.
The calibration and validation of the measurement systems are important to maintain the reliability and
reproducibility of the SAR measurements. Analysis of uncertainties of the SAR measurements is especially crucial
because it gives quantitative accuracy. We have therefore performed various measurements to evaluate
uncertainties relating to SAR measurements. In the presentation, we will demonstrate various uncertainties
evaluated experimentally and also point out several problems in evaluation procedures described in the standard
documents from a practical standpoint.

17:20       A11.6(01550) ON THE WORST CASE TEMPERATURE RISE IN A ONE-DIMENSIONAL TISSUE

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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

            MODEL EXPOSED TO RADIOFREQUENCY RADIATION, Theodoros Samaras(1), Andreas
            Christ(2) and Niels Kuster(2), (1) Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,GR-
            54124 Thessaloniki, Greece, (2) Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society
            (IT'IS),Zeughausstrasse 43, CH-8004 Zürich, Switzerland

The present study aims at determining the physiological and physical parameters at specific local exposure
situations of the human trunk and limbs, which may lead to the worst-case temperature rise inside the tissues. A 1D
model of a tissue slab and the FDTD technique were used for the temperature calculations. The results indicate
that the IEEE standard for RF exposure is more conservative than the ICNIRP guidelines, in terms of temperature
rise and that adiabatic conditions on the skin can lead to high temperatures in it. The role of fatty tissue as an
insulation layer is also investigated.

17:40       A11.7(01767) PROPOSAL OF ACCURATE SAR-PROBE CALIBRATION USING REFERENCE
            ANTENNAS IN THE LIQUID AT HIGHER FREQUENCY, Nozomu Ishii(1), Ken-ichi Sato(2), Lira
            Hamada(3), Soichi Watanabe(3), (1) Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, 8050, Ikarashi 2-
            nocho, Niigata, 950-2181, Japan, (2) NTT Advanced Technology Co., 3-9-11, Midori-cho, Musashino,
            Tokyo 180-0012, Japan (3) National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1,
            Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo, 184-8795, Japan

For the accurate SAR probe calibration above 3 GHz, we propose a new calibration technique, in which the field
intensity radiated from the reference antenna is estimated by the Friis transmission formula in the tissue equivalent
liquid and two-antenna method. To minimize the error, the gain of the antenna, the attenuation and phase
constants are determined by fitting the measured S21 between two antennas to the theoretical curves. In this
paper, we discuss the principle of the new calibration and validate it by use of the methods of moment. Also, we
deal with the limitation of the regression range in the experiment.

18:00       End of the Session




                         NUMERICAL, ASYMPTOTIC AND HYBRID METHODS(B05)
                    Convener: Prabhakar Pathak(USA) Co-convener(s): Giuliano Manara (Italy)

Session      B05
Type         Oral Presentation
Schedule     26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 18:00
Room         HALL-R

15:20        B05.1(0136) BUFFER-ZONE ITERATIVE METHOD FOR WIDE-BAND ELECTROMAGNETIC
             SCATTERING, Conor Brennan and Marissa Condon, School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City
             University, Ireland.

15:40        B05.2(01566) SPECTRAL FDTD:A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE ANALYSIS OF PERIODIC
             STRUCTURES, A. Aminian and Y. Rahmat-Samii, Electrical Engineering Dept., U of California at
             Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095,USA

16:00        B05.3(0660) THE HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT - BOUNDARY INTEGRAL - MULTILEVEL FAST
             MULTIPOLE - UNIFORM GEOMETRICAL THEORY OF DIFFRACTION METHOD, ThomasF.
             Eibert and Andreas Tzoulis , FGAN-FHR, Neuenahrer Str. 20, 53343 Wachtberg, Germany

The Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) is hybridized with the ray-optical Uniform Geometrical Theory of
Diffraction (UTD) and the methodology is combined with the hybrid Finite Element Boundary Integral Technique
(FEBI). Thus, a very general hybrid FEBI-MLFMM-UTD technique results that can be applied to a wide variety of
radiation and scattering problems. The MLFMM acceleration of the BI provides for the necessary flexibility to treat
medium size objects within the numerically exact part of the hybrid technique and the asymptotic UTD must only be
applied to large objects. The formulation of the method is discussed and numerical results are presented.

16:20        Tea/ Coffee Break

16:40        B05.4(01374) ELECTROMAGNETIC SCATTERING FROM A FINITE STRIP GRATING,G.

118
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

              Manara(1) P. Nepa(1), F. Bertoncinio(2), O. Aydin Civi(3) and V.B. Erturk(4)(1) Dept. of
              Information Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy,(2) Dept. of Electrical Systems, University of
              Pisa, Pisa, Italy,(3) Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Eng., Middle East Tech. University, Ankara,
              Turkey(4) Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Eng., Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

The paper is aimed at presenting some numerical results relevant to the scattering from a finite large planar surface
made of parallel dense free-standing metallic strips. The scattered field is evaluated by means of both a UTD
solution and an efficient MoM solution. A comparison between the UTD scattered field and the MoM data will be
presented to assess the accuracy of the asymptotic solution as well as the limits of validity of the approximate
boundary conditions used to model the strip grating surface. Specific attention is also devoted to the phenomenon
of surface wave excitation.

17:00         B05.5(0880) A TRAVELING WAVE EXPANSION FOR THE UTD ANALYSIS OF THE COLLECTIVE
              RADIATION AND SCATTERING FROM LARGE FINITE PLANAR ARRAYS, P. H. Pathak, P.
              Janpugdee and R. J. Burkholder, ElectroScience Lab, Department of Electrical Engineering, The
              Ohio State University, 1320 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212, USA

An improved traveling wave (TW) expansion is introduced to efficiently describe the current distribution over a large
finite planar array when it is excited either internally for the phased array radiation configuration, or by an external
plane wave for the scattering configuration. The array distribution is first obtained from a numerical moment method
(MoM) based solution of the governing integral equation for the array element currents. The TW basis set for
accurately representing this distribution is then extracted from a suitable parameter estimation method. The TW
representation facilitates a UTD analysis which provides a description of the collective fields radiated or scattered
from an entire realistic array at once in terms of only a few rays which arise from the array interior, as well as from
the edges and corners of the array element truncation boundary. In general, a UTD solution can be developed to
describe the collective radiation and scattering from the whole array at once when the array distribution is relatively
smooth and weakly tapered. In contrast, most realistic array distributions contain ripples that are more pronounced
near the array edges and corners. Thus, the new method is reviewed for representing the realistic, complex array
distributions in terms of simpler Tws. Numerical results will be presented to illustrate the utility of the TW-UTD
method for large array analysis.
17:20          B05.6(01381) HYBRID METHOD BASED ON CURRENT MODES FOR SCATTERING AND
               RADIATION FROM COMPLEX BODIES, Catedra Felipe,Carlos Delgado, Jose Gomezjose,
               Universidad De Al Calla, Escuelspolitecnica, Universidad De al Cala, Spain.

17:40         B05.7(01321) MACRO-SCALE AND ELEMENT-SCALE SYNTHETIC BASIS FUNCTIONS FOR THE
              METHOD OF MOMENTS ANALYSIS OF FINITE PLANAR PERIODIC ARRAYS, Cucini Alessio,
              University of Siena, Via Roma 56, Siena, Italy.

18:00         End of the session




                                                                                                                        119
                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                             TUTORIAL C(CT)
         Convener: M. Akaike (Commission Chair) Co-convener(s): A.F. Molisch (Commission Vice-chair)

Session     CT
Type        Tutorial
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 16:20
Room        HALL-E

15:20       CTa: Ultrawideband (UWB) communications and ranging, R. Kohno

Ultra Wideband(UWB) wireless technology must be quite attractive for researchers and engineers in a field of
wireless communications and ranging because it has various advantages such as ultra high-speed, high-capacity
transmission, high-resolution ranging and so on. Therefore, a wireless new business using these advantages has
been developed and is mostly ready for commercial at this moment. However, as far as UWB systems interfere
regular operation of existing systems in a common band, no UWB system can be approved to be in commercial
service. This tutorial lecture introduces primitives and state of arts in a UWB technology and focuses on the
coexisting problem.

15:50       CTb: Signal Processing for Analog Smart Antennas, Takashi Ohira, ATR Wave Engineering
            Laboratories, 2-2-2 Hikaridai Seika-cho “Keihanna Science City”, Kyoto 619-0288, Japan

Analog smart antennas are based on RF analog variable circuit devices controlled with an SINR estimator and a
weight optimizer algorithm. They are expected to offer dramatically low power consumption and low fabrication cost
in smart antennas, especially for battery-operated personal wireless devices. This lecture overviews their possible
hardware architectures. It introduces the weight control criteria dedicated for analog beam formers in trained and
blind adaptation. These control criteria work with optimizers such as the steepest-gradient algorithm.

16:20       End of the Session



120
                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                       MULTIANTENNA SYSTEMS (C08)
                                       Convener: Surenda Prasad(India)

Session     C08
Type        Oral Presentation
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 16:40 - 18:00
Room        HALL-4

16:40       C08.1(01584) CODING FOR MIMO WIRELESS SYSTEMS, Erik Stauffer and Arogyaswami Paulraj,
            Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Systems Laboratory, Stanford University, 228
            Packard, 350 Serra Mall, Stanford, Ca 94305 USA (Invited)

MIMO wireless systems have received a great deal of attention recently, in part due to the promise of increased
throughput, extended range, and improved reliability. Achieving the gains of the MIMO channel requires coding that
can take advantage of these channel resources. This work studies the performance of different concatenated space-
time coding and outer channel coding and develops some practical guidelines for coding design of MIMO wireless
systems.

17:00       C08.2(01597) JOINT CHANNEL ESTIMATION AND SYMBOL DETECTION FOR OSTBC IN
            FREQUENCY SELECTIVE CHANNELS, Zhiguo Ding, Rohit U. Nabar and Darren B. Ward,
            ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON, Exhibition
            Road, LONDON, LONDON, UK, SW7 2BT (Invited)

17:20       C08.3(01531) SPACE-TIME-FREQUENCY CODES FOR MIMO-OFDM SYSTEMS, Rajan B.Sundar
            Department of Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012
            (Invited)




                                                                                                              121
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

17:40       C08.4(0453) FPGA PROTOTYPING OF MIMO DETECTOR FOR OVER-1GBPS WIRELESS
            TRANSMISSIONS, Toshiaki Koike(1), Yukinaga Seki(1), Hidekazu Murata(2), Susumu Yoshida(1),
            and Kiyomichi Araki(2), (1) Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi,
            Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 Japan(2) Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of
            Technology, 2–12–1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 Japan

We developed two types of practical maximum-likelihood detectors (MLD) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)
multiplexing systems with a capability of 1 Gbps-class real-time processing speed, using a field programmable gate
array (FPGA) device. We introduce two simplified metrics for implementations; referred to as a Manhattan metric
and a correlation metric. In using the Manhattan metric, the detector needs no multiplication operations, at the cost
of slight performance degradation within 1 dB. By using the correlation metric, the MIMO-MLD can significantly
reduce the complexity in both multiplications and additions without any performance degradation. This paper
demonstrates the BER performance of these MLD prototypes through the use of an all-digital baseband 4 × 4 MIMO
testbed integrated on the same FPGA chip.

18:00       End of the Session




                               MILLIMETER WAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS(D01)
            Convener: Roberto Sorrentino (Italy) Co-convener(s): Ching-Kuang C. Tzuang (China SRS)

Session     D01
Type        Oral Presentation
Schedule    26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 17:20
Room        HALL-3

15:20       D01.1(01812) MEMS BASED TUNABLE CIRCUITS FOR MILLIMETRE WAVE SYSTEMS, Tauno
            Vähä-Heikkilä, Jussi Varis, and Jussi Tuovinen, MilliLab, VTT Information Technology, Tietotie 3,
            Espoo, PO Box 1202, 02044 VTT, Finland (Invited)

In this paper we describe millimetre wave impedance matching circuits based on Microelectro Mechanical Systems
(MEMS) technology enabling easily more than one octave operation. The designs are based on the use of capacitive
switches in a triple, double, and singe stub configurations as well as in a distributed transmission line design. The
use of capacitive switches will enable 2^n number of impedance points (n is number of the switches), which cover
practically fully the smith chart. Furthermore, very wide band and low loss operation of the tuner has been
demonstrated. Measured results are shown over 20-110 GHz.

15:40       D01.2(0934) SYSTEM INTEGRATIONS OF PLANAR SLOT ARRAY ANTENNAS FOR MILLIMETER
            WAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS, Makoto Ando, Jiro Hirokawa, Department of Electrical and Electronic
            Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, S3-19, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552,
            Japan (Invited)




122
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

The authors have developed high-efficiency and mass-producible planar slot array antennas using unique single-
layer waveguide structures. They are categorized into four types; all are structurally quite simple and low cost while
they inherit low loss characteristics from waveguides. Recent studies are directed to integrations for microwave and
millimeter wave systems. This paper describes two examples of the system integrations using the single-layer
waveguide arrays as well as their outstanding performances. Alternating-phase-fed waveguide arrays have realized
drastic cost reduction of fixed wireless access systems in 25 GHz band while post-wall waveguide arrays have been
implemented in 60GHz band RF modules for Gigabit Home-link systems.

16:00        D01.3(0711) DEVELOPMENT AND STUDY OF A CW MILLIMETER WAVE IMPATT DIODE POWER
             COMBINER, Nabin Chandra Mandal, Dibyendu Ghoshal and Sitesh kumar Roy, Centre of
             Advanced Study in Radiophysics & Electronics, Calcutta University, 1, Girish Vidyaratna Lane Kolkata –
             700009

A two-diode power combiner using silicon single drift region Ka-Band IMPATT diodes has been designed, fabricated
and its millimeter wave properties has been studied. The diodes have been mounted in a single rectangular
millimeter wave cavity fitted with two resonant cap structures placed parallel to each other along the central axis of
the wave-guide (Fig.1). With a view to extract large amount of millimeter wave powers from a single oscillator mount,
a study of the dependence of output millimeter wave power on the mutual separation of the active device within the
power combiner cavity has been carried out. The variation of the frequency of the combined millimeter wave signals
has also been studied. It has been noticed that for the present circuit level combiner comprising two almost identical
active devices, the output frequency of the combiner circuit lie at an intermediate level between the individual
frequencies of the two-millimeter wave signal generated within the combiner mount. It has been further found that
the combining efficiency of the output power depends on the path difference between the two mm wave signals
generated from the IMPATT diodes, which propagate towards the load.

16:20        Tea/Coffee Break

16:40        D01.4(01232) CONVERGED OPTICAL AND WIRELESS NETWORKING - CHALLENGES FOR
             PHOTONICS AND ELECTRONICS, Marian Marciniak, National Institute of Telecommunications,
             Department of Transmission and Fiber Technology, 1 Szachowa Street, 04-894 Warsaw, Poland,

Fixed and mobile communications will continue to converge coming years. Amongst other, this is also a goal of the
Next Generation Networking initiative adopted by The International Telecommunication Union for the 2005-2008
Study Period. While a general belief is the Internet will support the majority of services, it should be carefully noted to
select and separate the services in the network is a necessary condition to assure the Quality of Service and security
for the individual ones. This paper proposes to allocate different services with different kinds of traffic and QoS
requirements to different wavelengths in a single wavelength-division multiplexed optical network in order do satisfy
the requirements of the customer specific to particular service used.

17:00        D01.5(0947) SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES IN MILLIMETRE WAVE RADIO SYSTEMS, V. E.
             Lyubchenko, T. A. Briantseva, and I. A. Markov, Institute of Radioengineering & Electronics, Russian
             Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaja St.11, GSP-3, 103907, Moscow, Russia.

The millimetre wave (MMW) frequency region is of more and more interest for wide band telecommunication and
imaging systems, material spectroscopy, medical treatments, collision avoidance radars and other applications. In
spite of the problems in technology, higher price of basic components in comparison with those at microwaves
MMWs meet expanding interest of the consumers, and are considered as the most challenging communication
service of the current decade. High level of absorption in the atmosphere, that limits the application of MMW in
telecommunication systems, can be used for to improve the confidentiality of wireless telecommunication systems
and provide multipoint interactive video service, indoor communications and wireless access to local area networks.
MMW imaging is not so influenced with smoke, fog, and atmospheric drops. Therefore it has significant advantages
over optical and infrared one. Discovering of the objects, covered with dielectric materials, is possible at MMW and
specific lines in the absorption spectrum give new tools for indication of insertions (e.g. water in the oil) and
atmospheric pollutions. Positive influence of MMW irradiation to human body is now used in medical treatments.
Doppler radars give appropriate accuracy and space resolution to provide collision avoidance in any weather. In
some cases the functions of collision avoidance and telecommunication systems can be combined

17:20        End of the Session


                                                                                                                      123
                      URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




               NEAR-FIELD CHARACTERIZATION FOR OPTICS AND MICROWAVES(DB1)
           Convener: Frédérique de de Fornel (D, France) Co-convener(s): Kazuo Tanaka (B, Japan)

Session    DB1
Type       Oral Presentation
Schedule   26-Oct-05, 17:20 - 18:00
Room       HALL-3

17:20      DB1.1(01292) NEAR FIELD IMAGING OF LIGHT CONFINEMENT AND PROPAGATION IN SOI
           BASED PHOTONIC CRYSTAL DEVICES, Benoit Cluze(l), DavyGérard,Emmanue(l), Picard,
           Thomas Charvolin (1), Emmanuel Hadjand (1), and Fréderique de Fornel (2), (1) CEA-G/SPM M
           /DRFM C/SiNaPS,17rue desmartyrs,38054 Grenoble Cedex9,France cluzel         (2) Universitéde
           Bourgogne/on,rnce, CNRS/LPUB,9av. A. Savary,BP47870,21078DijFa

17:40      DB1.2(01790) OBSERVATION AND NEAR FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF OPTICAL MODES IN
           ACTIVE PHOTONIC CRYSTAL MICROCAVITY, N. Louvion(1), D. Gérard(2), J. Mouette(1), F. de
           Fornel(2), C. Seassa(1)l, X. Letartre(1), A. Rahmani, S. Callard(1), (1)1Laboratoire d'Electronique,
           Optoélectronique et Microsystèmes, CNRS UMR 5512, Ecole Centrale de Lyon 36, avenue Guy de
           Collongue, F-69134 Ecully, France 2Laboratoire de Physique de l'Université de Bourgogne, CNRS
           UMR 5027, Boîte Postale 47870 F-21078, Dijon Cedex, France

18:00      End of the Session




124
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




        FINDING FAILURE CONDITIONS FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS USING ANALYTIC AND EMPIRICAL
                                        TECHNIQUES (E02)
                                   Convener: Robert Gardner (USA)

Session      E02
Type         Oral Presentation
Schedule     26-Oct-05, 15.20 - 18:00
Room         HALL-B

15:20        E02.1(01620) THE HIGH-POWER IMPULSE-LIKE RADIATOR JOLT, Carl E. Baum and Ad D.V. Giri,
             University of New Mexico, Dept of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
             (Invited)

In this paper, we describe a large, high voltage transient system built at the Air Force Research Laboratory, Kirtland
AFB, NM, during 1997-1999. The pulsed power system centers around a very compact resonant transformer capable
of generating over 1 MV at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 600 Hz. This is switched via an intergrated transfer
capacitor and an oil peaking switch onto an 85-Ω Half-IRA (Impulse Radiating Antenna). This unique system will
deliver a far radiating field with a full-width half maximm (FWHM) on the order of 100 ps, and a field-range product (r
Efar) of ~5.3 MV, exceeding all previously reported results by a factor of several.

15:40        E02.2(0180) NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN COMPONENTS FOR UWB RADARS, Farr Everett, Farr
             Research, Inc., 614 Paseo Del Mar NE, Albuquerque, USA (Invited)

16:00        E02.3(01390) RECENT METHODS TO ENHANCE THE PROMPT APERTURE HEIGHT OF IMPULSE
             RADIATING ANTENNAS IN COMPACT PACKAGES, Tyo Scott, Mustafa Doganm, Jerald
             Buchenauerc, Everett Farr, University of New Mexico, MSC 01 1100, Albuquerque, USA, (Invited)

16:20        Tea/Coffee Break

16:40        E02.4(0025) NOISE FLOOR CONDITIONS DURING LONG DISTANCE RADIO COMMUNICATION, S.
             De, T. Datta, M. De, and A. B. Bhattacharya, Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani,
             Nadia, 741235, India (Invited)

                                                                                                                  125
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

The present work reports the typical noise floor conditions experienced by a radio communication station and the
severe interference effect caused due to atmospheric radio noise to communication system. Emphasis is laid on
different factors affecting the low frequency noise spectrum. Our study of the frequency spectra of atmospheric radio
noise field strength at VLF band when superposed over the reported data indicates a significant decrease of the
noise level from kHz to MHz band. The variation of the noise level at VLF exhibits clear high values during the cloudy
months May to September. The spectral behaviour of the noise level has been examined considering the activity of
the sources. The present study provides information about the wave propagation, propagation of the atmospherics
itself and the mechanism of lightning discharges.

17:00        E02.5(0774) A PHYSICAL BASIS FOR EMPIRICAL ELECTROMAGNETIC EFFECTS RESEARCH , R.
             Gardner, Consultant, 6152 Manchester Park Circle, Alexandria, VA 22310 USA (Invited)

The goal of susceptibility analysis is to predict the outcome of an illumination of a complex electronic system by an
electromagnetic wave. This paper describes the process of designing susceptibility tests and interpretation of those
tests in physical terms. Significant use is made of regression analysis, but physical laws are used to constrain the
analysis. In the end, we develop the means to verify the chosen physics-based approximations with empirical results
from susceptibility tests. The results can then be used to design future tests and to estimate the susceptibility of
systems that cannot be tested.

17:20        E02.6(01401) TECHNIQUES RELEVANT TO THE ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC
             INTERFERENCE EFFECTS ON ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS, C. Ropiak(1), R. Gardner(2) and I.
             Kohlberg(3),(1) Envisioneering, Inc. 4485 Danube Dr., Suite 46, King George VA 22485 USA,(2)
             Consultant, 6152 Manchester Park Circle, Alexandria, VA 22310 USA,(3) 3)Institute for Defense
             Analyses, 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria VA 22311 USA (Invited)

17:40        E02.7(01043) THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING ASSESSMENT OF HEMP AND IEMI
             UPSET OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS (INVITED FOR SESSION E2), I. Kohlberg(1), R. Boling(1), R.
             Gardner(2), C. Ropiak(3), (1) Institute for Defense Analyses, 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria VA
             22311 USA (2) Consultant, 6152 Manchester Park Circle, Alexandria, VA 22310 USA (3) Envisioneering
             Inc., 4485 Danube Drive, King George, VA 22485 USA (Invited)

This paper discusses the major analytical techniques and processes for assessing the response and upset of
complex digital systems to the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) and to wideband pulsed Intentional
Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI). We focus on electronic or communication information systems in a building
containing computer network(s) with power cables and interconnecting data cables. External power and data cables
enter the interior region that contains the system as well. The digital systems are considered to have a unit
subsystem of a pair of electronic systems that store and process information connected by some communications
channel such as a data bus.

18:00        End of the Session




126
                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                   SCATTERING AND DIFFRACTION EFFECTS IN REMOTE SENSING (F05)
                                  Convener: T.M. Elfouhaily (France)

Session    F05
Type       Oral Presentation
Schedule   26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 18:00
Room       HALL-C

15:20      F05.1(0448) MICROWAVE AND HF MULTI-FREQUENCY RADARS FOR DUAL-USE COASTAL
           REMOTE SENSING APPLICATIONS, Dennis B. Trizna and Lillian Xu, Imaging Science Research,
           Inc., 9310A Old Keene Mill Road, Burke, VA 22015, USA

15:40      F05.2(01234) DUAL-POLARIZATION RADAR MEASUREMENTS OVER THE SEA SURFACE:
           TOWARD A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE SEA SURFACE
           AND THE ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES AT C-BAND, Mouche Alexis, Danièle Hauser, Vladimir
           Kudryavtsev, CETP, CETP/IPSL/CNRS, 10-12 avenue de l'Europe, Velizy, France 78140.

16:00      F05.3(0998) RETRIEVING THE OCEAN SALINITY FROM SMOS OBSERVATIONS BY THE USE OF
           NEURAL NETWORKS, Estelle Obligis (1) , Sylvie Labroue (1), Adel Amar (1), Sylvie Thiria (2),
           Michel Crepon (2) and Carlos Mejia (2) (Invited),(1) CLS, 8-10 rue Hermes, 31520 Ramonville St Agne,
           France,(2) LOCEAN, Université de Paris VI, 4 place Jussieu, Tour 45-55, 75252 PARIS Cedex05,
           France

The neural network methodology is applied to the sea surface salinity retrieval from SMOS brightness temperatures.
The inversion, algorithm has been tuned on a representative database, with simulated brightness temperatures and
ancillary parameters (wind speed, sea surface temperature and salinity). Different cases are compared to analyze
the retrieval quality. The effect of the instrumental accuracy expected on the SMOS measurements and of the
sensitivity to the ancillary parameters are assessed. The inversion algorithm shows a global accuracy of about 0.6
psu and furthermore, it is very robust to potential errors on the input parameters.

16:20      Tea/Coffee Break




                                                                                                              127
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

16:40      F05.4(01458) ANALYSIS OF SEA SURFACE REFLECTIVITY MULTI-ANGLE DEPENDENCE AT L-
           BAND IN VIEW OF SEA SURFACE SALINITY RETRIEVAL, Nicolas Reul, laboratoire oceanographie
           spatiale, ifremer, centre de brest, plouzané, bretagne, france, 29290 (Invited)

17:00      F05.5(01022) ESTIMATING AN EMPIRICAL SMOS FORWARD MODEL AND ITS CO-VARIANCE FOR
           OCEAN SALINITY BY THE USE OF NEURAL NETWORKS, Crepon Michel, Estelle Obligis, Sylvie
           Labroue, Carlos Mejia, Sylvie Thiria, LOCEAN, IPSL/UPMC, 4 place Jussieu, Paris, Seine, France
           75005 (Invited)

17:20      F05.6(0634) SOIL MOISTURE ESTIMATION USING MULTI-INCIDENCE AND MULTI-POLARIZATION
           ASAR DATA, Nicolas Baghdadi(1), Noha Holah(1) and Mehrez Zribi(2),(1) Bureau de Recherches
           Géologiques et Minières (BRGM ~ French Geological Survey) BP 6009, 45060 Orléans, France,(2)
           CETP/CNRS, 10/12, avenue de l'Europe, 78140 Velizy, France, (Invited)

Soil moisture and surface roughness are significant indicators for hydrologic studies and the monitoring of
agricultural environments. These parameters play an important role in the distribution of precipitation between runoff
and infiltration. The launch of the new European Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) in March 2002, carrying the C-
band Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR), should enable the scientific community to improve and increase
its ability to retrieve physical parameters, based on ENVISAT‟s capability of providing images in HH, HV, and VV
polarizations (two polarizations are possible simultaneously) and at various incidence angles between 15° and 45°.

17:40      F05.7(0921) AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON A FAST AND ACCURATE 3-D IMAGING ALGORITHM
           FOR UWB PULSE RADAR SYSTEMS, Takuya Sakamoto(1), Shouhei Kidera(1), Toru
           Sato(1),Tomohiko Mitani(2), Satoshi Sugino(3), (1)Department of Communications and Computer
           Engineering, Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto,
           606-8501, Japan (2) Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokajo, Uji-shi,
           Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan (3) )Advanced MEMS Development Center, Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd.,
           1048, Kadoma, Osaka, 571-8686, Japan

A UWB pulse radar is promising as an environment measurement method for household robots and rescue robots.
SEABED algorithm, one of the radar imaging algorithms, can estimate 3-D target shapes in a short time, which
cannot be accomplished by conventional algorithms. However, the estimated image of SEABED algorithm has a
systematic error even in a noiseless environment, which is caused by the difference between the transmitted
waveform and received waveform. In the paper, we quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of SEABED algorithm, and
investigate the relationship between the error and the distance to the target. We show the application result for both
of a numerical simulation and an experiment.

18:00      End of the Session




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                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                           IONOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON RADIO SYSTEMS(G02B)
                      Convener: H. Chandra (India) Co-convener(s): P. Lassudrie (France)

Session       G02b
Type          Oral Presentation
Schedule      26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 18:00
Room          HALL-5

15:20         G02b.1(01113) LOW-LATITUDE SIGNATURE OF STORM ENHANCED DENSITY ON 8
              NOVEMBER ) AND SPATIAL GRADIENT OF IONOSPHERIC TOTAL ELECTRON CONTENT,
              Takashi Maruyama, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 2-1
              Nukuikita 4-chome, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan

Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) anomalously increased after sunset over Japan, during a magnetic storm
on 8 November 2004. The TEC enhancement was larger at higher latitudes, and it reached 90 TEC units at 45.0°
N. The enhancement was interpreted as a low latitude signature of a storm enhanced density (SED) plume.
Previously, SED/TEC plumes were only reported at the American longitudes, and this led to a hypothesis that a
particular geomagnetic field configuration at those longitudes plays a role in formation of these plumes. The present
observation indicates that SED/TEC plumes can be formed at any longitude on the earth.

15:40         G02b.2(0378) EFFICIENCY OF THE RUSSIAN GROUND-BASED VLF NAVIGATIONAL SYSTEM
              UNDER IMPACT OF THE SPACE WEATHER DISTURBANCES, Shirochkov Alexander and
              Ludmila Makarova, Geophysical Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute 38 Bering Street Saint-
              Petersburg Saint-Petersburg Russia.

16:00         G02b.3(0684) GEOMAGNETIC STORM EFFECTS IN EQUATORIAL IONIZATION ANOMALY AND
              EQUATORIAL SPREAD-F, Chandra Harish and Som Sharma, Space & Atmospheric Sciences
              Division Physical Research Laboratory Navrangpura Ahmedabad Gujarat India

16:20         Tea/ Coffee Break
16:40         G02b.4 (01378) IONOSPHERIC EQUATORIAL ANOMALY STUDIES DURING SOLAR STORMS,
              Alexandre B. V. Oliveira and F. Walter,Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica ,Pça. Mal. Eduardo
              Gomes, 50 - Vila das Acácias,São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil

The ionosphere is the major source of error in GNSS receivers. Models for single frequency time delay correction
do not work at low geomagnetic latitude regions (±20º), where the ionosphere has a peculiar behavior, known as
the Ionospheric Equatorial Anomaly (IEA). In order to study the global behavior of the IEA, dynamic maps have
been generated based on IONEX data. These maps allow the study of the Vertical Total Electron Content behavior
since January, 1999. These maps show also the Kp values, Sun Spot Number, and Solar Flux. In this way a
                                                                                                                  129
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

correlation between the IEA with the solar activity can be easily done.

17:00         G02b.5(0457) SPACE WEATHER STUDIES AT THE CREST OF THE EQUATORIAL IONIZATION
              ANOMALY USING GPS RECEIVER, R. Pandey and N. Dashora, Department of Physics, M. L. S.
              University, Udaipur .

17:20         G02b.6(0673) EXPANDING IONOSPHERE DURING GEOMAGNETIC STORM, T. L. Gulyaeva
              (1,2) and B. Jayachandran (3), (1) Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radiowave
              Propagation,Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region, 142190 Russia .(2) Space
              Research Center, Warsaw, Poland (3) Research Guide, Department of Physics, S.N College,
              KOLLAM, Kerala, India.

17:40         G02b.7(0509) THE REACTION OF MID-LATITUDE IONOSPHERE ON STRONG IONOSPHERIC
              STORMS ON THE BASE OF THE EAST-SIBERIAN GROUND-BASED RADIO INSTRUMENT
              NETWORK DATA, Shpynev Boris,A.V. Tashchilin,A.P. Potekhin,V.I. Kurkin,A.V. Medvedev,K.G.
              Ratovsky,A.V. Zavorin and E.L. Afraimovich, STP SD RAS Lermontov 126, p/o Box 4026 Irkutsk
              Irkutskayi region Russia.

18:00         End of the Session


                          MICROSCOPIC PROCESSES IN BOUNDARY LAYERS(H01)
                Convener: B. Lembege (France) Co-convener(s): T. Hada (Japan) , G. Lakhina (India)

Session       H01
Type          Oral Presentation
Schedule      26-Oct-05, 15:20 - 18:00
Room          HALL-6

15:20         H01.1(01276) KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF SOLITARY WAVES: APPLICATION TO BOUNDARY
              LAYERS, Omura Yoshiharu , Kyoto University,Gokasho,Uji, Kyoto, Japan 611-0011 Invited)

15:40         H01.2(01090) SHOCK MEASUREMENTS BY DOUBLE STAR AND CLUSTER: KINETIC EFFECTS,
              Parks George, I. Dandouras, M. Wilber, E. S. Lee, M. Goldstein, E. Lucek, H. Reme, C. Carr, A.
              Fazerkeley, B. Cao and K. Meziane, Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way,
              Berkeley, CA, USA 94720 (Invited)

16:00         H01.3(01095) MICROINSTABILITIES IN COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS: RECENT SIMULATION
              RESULTS, Shuichi Matsukiyo(1) and Manfred Scholer(2), (1) ESST Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga
              Koen, 816-8580 Kasuga, Japan(2) Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching,
              Germany (Invited)

Microinstabilities in a foot of a supercritical (quasi-)perpendicular shock wave are investigated. A two dimensional full
particle simulation with periodic boundary conditions show that a variety of different instabilities get excited in a time
period shorter than ion gyro period. The most dominant instability is the modified two-stream instability (MTSI) which
leads to strong electron heating through the secondary generated electron acoustic instability (EAI). Influences of the
MTSI on global shock structures are discussed by performing additional one dimensional full particle shock
simulation.

16:20         Tea/ Coffee Break

16:40         H01.4(01167) CLUSTER OBSERVATION OF MIRROR TURBULENCE AT THE MAGNETOPAUSE:
              CONSTRAINTS FOR KINETIC MODELLING, G. Belmont(1), F. Sahraoui(1), L. Rezeau(2), J-L.
              Pincon(3), N. Cornilleau Wehrlin(1), A. Balog(4), (1) CETP/IPSL/CNRS, Vélizy, France (2)
              CETP/IPSL/UPMC, Vélizy, France (3) LPCE/CNRS, Orléans, France (4) The Blackett Laboratory,
              Imperial College, London, UK (Invited)

Cluster magnetic data are used for analyzing the properties of turbulence in the magnetosheath, upstream of the
magnetopause. Turbulent energy is confirmed to be injected at large scale (~2000 km) on the linear mirror mode via
the classical kinetic instability due to ion temperature anisotropy. But we also show that it cascades toward small

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                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

wavelengths, at least down to the smallest analyzable ones by the k-filtering technique (~100 km), in a very
anisotropic manner mainly along the flow direction. This finding is shown to hold important potential consequences
for magnetopause reconnection, and the implications for modeling are emphasized.

17:00        H01.5(01772) CLUSTER OBSERVATION OF THE DIFFUSION REGION IN THE CENTER PLASMA
             SHEET, Z.Y.Pu (1), C.J.Xiao (2), Z.X.Liu (3), A.Korth (4), M.Fraenz (4), A.Balogh (5), K. H.
             Glassmeier (6), H. Reme (7) and N. Cornilleau-Wehrlin (8), (1) School of Earth and Space
             Sciences, Peking University, China (2) National Astronomical Observatories, CAS, China (3) CSSAR,
             Chinese Academy of Science, China (4) Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany (5)
             SAPG, The Blackett Lab, Imperial College, UK (6) IGM, TU Branuschweig, Germany (7) CESR, France
             (8) CETP, France (Invited)

17:20        H01.6(01082) WAVE PARTICLE INTERACTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH VELOCITY DISPERSED ION
             STRUCTURES OBSERVED BY THE CLUSTER SATELLITES, Ashour-Abdalla Maha(1), J.N.
             Leboeuf(1), D. Schriver(1), J.M. Bosqued(2), N. Cornilleau-Werhlin(2) and V.I. Sotnikov(3),
             (1)Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, UCLA, 3863 Slichter Hall, Los Angeles, California,
             USA 90095-1567 (2)CETP/CNRS/UVSQ, France(3)University of Reno, USA (Invited)




17:40        H01.7(01607) ROLE OF LHD INSTABILITIES IN RECONNECTION: APPLICATION TO THE TAIL, I.
             Shinohara(1), K. G. Tanaka(2) and M. Fujimoto(2), (1)Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency /
             Institute of Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara 229-8510 Kanagawa, Japan (2)
             Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology , 2-12-1 Ookayama,
             Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan (Invited)

18:00        End of the Session




                                                                                                              131
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                MM/SUB-MM TECHNIQUES AND SCIENCE(JB2)
                                        Convener: Richard Hills (UK)

Session:      JB2
Type:         Oral Presentation
Schedule:     26-Oct-2005, 15:20-18:00
Room:         PLENARY

15:20         JB2.1(01099) ASTE: THE ATACAMA SUBMILLIMETER TELESCOPE EXPERIMENT, Hajime
              Ezawa1, Ryohei Kawabe1, Kotaro Kohno2, Satoshi Yamamoto2,and the ASTE team, (1)
              National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, (2) School of Science, The University of Tokyo

15:40         JB2.2(0562) THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY: TECHNICAL MILESTONES AND SCIENTIFIC
              HIGHLIGHTS, Patel Nimesh, Submillimeter Array, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics,
              60 Garden Street, MS78, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 2141

16:00         JB2.3(01366) APEX, THE ATACAMA PATHFINDER EXPERIMENT, R.S. Booth(2), R. Güsten(1),
              K. Menten(1), L-Å Nyman(3), (1) Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hugel 69,
              Bonn, Germany (2) Onsala Space Observatory, S-43992, Onsala, Sweden (3) European Southern
              Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, Garching bei München, Germany.

16:20         TEA/ COFFEE BREAK

16:40         JB2.4(0610) SUBMILLIMETER WAVE SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS, Hemant H. Davé, Ashish
              Dubey, Satheesh Thampi, R. P. Singh, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009, India

Limitations imposed by the atmosphere at submillimeter frequencies have restricted researchers from retrieving
crucial information regarding astronomical sources. With the availability of sensitive detectors and new generation
of telescopes, the terahertz instrumentation has improved drastically over the past two decades. Recent
technological developments in the THz region have lead to various applications in astronomy, atmospheric
research, defense and medical fields. In this paper, we present the state-of-art high spectral resolution heterodyne
receiver system from 300 GHz to 3 THz range with its possible future applications.

17:00         JB2.5(01210) DEVELOPMENTS OF A MULTI-FOURIER TRANSFORM INTERFEROMETER,
              Hiroshi Matsuo (1), Izumi Ohta (1), Makoto Hattori (2), Jun'ichi Takahashi (2), Hironori
              Miyamoto (3), (1) Advanced Technology Center, National Astronomical observatory of Japan,
              Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan, (2) Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-
              8578, Japan, (3) Department of Physics, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba, 274-8510, Japan.


132
                        URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

17:20         JB2.6(0090) TURBULENCE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS: 13CO MOPRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE
              GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD ASSOCIATED WITH RCW106, I. Bains (1), M. Hunt (1), M. G.
              Burton (1), T. Wong (1,2), (1)School of Physics, UNSW, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia, (2)Australia
              Telescope National Facility, CSIRO, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 2121, Australia.

17:40         JB2.7(01663) PROPERTIES OF HIGH MASS STELLAR CORES FROM SIMBA 1200 µM
              IMAGING, Ramesh Balasubramanyam1, T.K. Sridharan2, Yang Wang2, Tyler Bourke2,
              Quizhou Zhang2 & Henrik Beuther2, (1) Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080, (2)
              Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, USA.

Tracing young massive stars is important to understand and contrast their early evolution with those of the
lowmass stars. Their low numbers, short life-time and energetic evolution make identifying young ones difficult
requiring galaxy wide searches. Since the massive stars are deeply embedded in molecular clouds, only
observations in radio-submillimeter- FIR wavebands are useful. Methanol masers are known to mark the early
phases of massive stars identified from IRAS PSC using FIR colors. The lack of strong radio continuum emission
further improves this filter. We had chosen 88 such southern objects, potentially tracing the youngest phase, and
observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to obtain accurate positions of the methanol masers and to
confirm the feebleness of the coincident radio emission. We have further imaged these objects and their
neighbourhood using the 37 element 1200 µm bolometer on the Swedish-ESO sub-millimeterwave telescope in
Chile. The millimeter emission especially traces the dust mass, enabling us to determine the properties of the
warm gas in the immediate vicinity of these objects. In this paper, we present the millimeter observations and
discuss the derived properties, such as the column density, volume density, core masses and the correlation
between the 6 cm and 1.2 mm emission.

18:00         End of the Session




                                                                                                              133
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005




                                      MECHANISMS OF INTERACTION (K01)
                                        Convener: Guglielmo d'Inzeo (Italy)

Session:      K01
Type:         Oral Presentation
Schedule:     26-Oct-2005, 15:20-18:00
Room:         HALL-A

15:20         K01.1(01209) INTERACTION OF NEURONAL ACTIVITY WITH AN EM PERTURBATION IN A
              NOISY ENVIRONMENT: MODELING FIRING AND BURSTING NEURONS, A. Paffi, M. Giannì, F.
              Maggio, M. Liberti, F. Apollonio, G. D’Inzeo, ICEmB@ Department of Electronic Engineering, "La
              Sapienza" University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy

In order to describe the complex process of neuronal encoding in a noisy environment, a double compartment
neuron model (axo-somatic and dendritic areas) has been realized. The model, accounting for noise due to ionic
channels stochastic gating, is able to reproduce realistic behaviours such as different firing regimes and bursting
responses. Simulations, in presence of a 50 Hz field-induced perturbation over membrane potential, show a
significant shift in the transition threshold between bursting and firing regimes. Spike times occurrences within firing
show a periodic variation coherent with the EM signal, accounting for the neuronal encoding of the exogenous EM
field.

15:40         K01.2(0982) MECHANISM OF THE EFFECT OF SINE-WAVE MAGNETIC FIELDS ON THE
              DESENSITIZATION OF THE 5-HT1B SEROTONIN RECEPTOR, B. Veyret, J. Espinosa, I.
              Lagroye, M. Souques, G. Ruffié, J.P. Gernez and I. Magne, 16 Av Pey Berland, pessac, Gironde,
              France

The binding properties of the 5-HT1B receptor were studied under exposure to AC and DC magnetic fields in rat
brain membranes. This was a successful attempt at replicating the findings of Massot et al. (2000). DC fields had a
different effect compared to AC fields. Modeling of the data using the extended ternary complex model yielded
good fits for all data. The hypothesis is that the bipolar nature of the AC field explains the different nature of the
effects observed with AC and DC exposures.

16:00         K01.3(01096) A STUDY OF WARMTH SENSATION PRODUCED BY MILLIMETERWAVE
              EXPOSURE, Takeshi KONNO(1), Masahiro HANAZAWA(2), Soichi WATANABE(2), Masao
              TAKI(3), and Hiroshi SHIRAI(1), (1)Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Communication
              Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1 – 13 – 27 Kasuga, Bunkyo,
              Tokyo 112 – 8551 Japan., (2)National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4 –
              2 – 1 Nukuikitamachi, Koganei,Tokyo 184 – 8795 Japan., (3)Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1 – 1
              Minamiosawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192 – 0397, Japan.




134
                          URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

The distributions of Specific Absorption Ratio (SAR) and temperature rise in a human body exposed to millimeter
wave (MMW) have been evaluated by theoretical and numerical methods with a one-dimensional multi-layer model.
This model consists of three layers i.e. skin, fat, and muscle, which are modeled as surface region of a human
body. From our Calculation, significant SAR and temperature rise appear only around the skin surface compared
with the case of exposure at lower frequencies. Our study shows that incident power density of 5 mW=cm2, which
is a safety guideline level in MMW region, can make perceivable warmth sensations, which are not adverse health
effects (warmth pain).

16:20         Tea/Coffee Break

16:40         K01.4(01665) TRANSPORT OF MOLECULES AND ELECTRONS BY ELECTRIC FIELD IN
              BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS, Jiří Pokorný(1), Jiří Hašek(2) and František Jelínek(1) (1)Institute of
              Radio Engineering and Electronics ASCR, Chaberská 57, 182 51 Prague 8, Czech
              Republic,(2)Institute of Microbiology ASCR, Vídeňská 1083, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Microtubules in the cytoskeleton in eucaryotic cells are electrically polar polymer structures with energy supply.
Extraordinary elastic deformability at very low stress and high polarity are essential conditions for formation of
interfacial slip layer at the surface protecting vibrations in the microtubule from cytosol viscous damping.
Microtubules satisfy conditions for excitation of coherent polar vibrations and generation of endogenous
electromagnetic field with a strong electric component in their vicinity. The electric field exerts forces on charges,
dipoles, multipoles, and on dielectrical particles (through dielectrophoretic effect) and may provide the driving force
for coherent motion. The Wiener-Lévy process with symmetry breaking is used for description of motion of
electrons and molecules. Thermally driven motion and motion driven by deterministic forces (with inseparable
thermal component) are analyzed. Probability density as a function of distance and of time and probability as a
function of time of random and directed transport of molecules and electrons are evaluated under different
conditions. Analysis of probability displays dominant effect of the electrical forces on directed transport of electrons
and molecules. We assume that directed motion driven by electric field might be important at short and medium
distances up to about 50 – 100 nm and may provide supplementary transport to that of motor proteins.

17:00         K01.5(0870) MICROWAVE CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN BLOOD USING DIELECTRIC
              WAVEGUIDE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM, Kamariah Ismail1 (1), Deepak K. Ghodgaonkar (1),
              Mohamed Saifulaman Mohamed Said (2), Zaiki Awang (1) and Mazlina Esa (3), Microwave
              Technology Center, (1) Faculty of Electrical Engineering, (2) Institute of Biotechnology, Universiti
              Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia, (3) Radio Communication Engineering
              Department, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai,
              Johor, Malaysia

The use of microwave is increasing in various applications and there is a growing concern about possible health
hazards. Thus, there is a need to study the interaction of microwave with living organisms, especially, its effect on
biological materials. In this study, open-ended waveguide, dielectric waveguide and free-space techniques were
used for dielectric measurements. Complex permittivity of the sample is computed based on the measured
reflection (S11) and transmission (S21) coefficients. All these techniques are nondestructive in nature. Complex
permittivity data of aqueous human DNA and human blood will be investigated for resonance and anomalous
dispersion in 8 to 26.5 GHz frequency range.

17:20         K01.6(0647) MODAL PUMPING DEPLETION EFFECTS IN FROEHLICH MODEL OF THE
              ELECTROMAGNETIC ACTIVITY OF BIOLOGICAL CELLS, Fedor Šrobár, Institute of Radio
              Engineering and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Chaberská 57, Praha 8,
              CZ-182 51

Vibrating polar molecular entities in biological cell‟s interior can emit electromagnetic radiation. Fröhlich postulated
rate equations for occupancy numbers ni of the vibrations which can be written as ni = si–[ni]-[ni (ni,nj)]x where,
on the right-hand side, the first term represents the rate of change of the occupancy number due to energy supply,
the second due to linear, and the third due to nonlinear interactions with the heat bath. In our previous work, we
applied a diagrammatic method to bring out the feedback features of this model. This approach is generalized by
assuming that pumping source can exhibit depletion phenomena dependent on occupation numbers.

17:40         K01.7 (02024) THE SPECIFICITY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ACTION ON
              BIOELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES, F. Apollonio, G. D’Inzeo, M. Giannì, M. Liberti, C.
              Merla, A. Paffi, M. Pellegrino. ICEmB, ICEmB@ Department of Electronic Engineering, "La

                                                                                                                     135
                         URSI GA – Oral presentations  Wednesday, October 26, 2005

              Sapienza" University of Rome, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome, Italy

An important issue in the modalities of interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological systems is the possible
capability of the electromagnetic field to induce an effect as an immediate consequence of the signal pattern
specificity. In this context a methodology based on two essential steps is proposed. First point is the
characterization of the „primary interaction step‟, to be investigated at molecular or atomic level. Second point is
related to the definition of a complete model able to simulate a tissue level (a neuronal tissue) in which the
biological information exchanged by cells is prevalently coded by electro physiological processes.

18:00         End of the Session




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