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Communication Powered By Docstoc
Communication is a process of transferring information lentity to another. Communication
processes interacted between at least two agents. Communication is commonly defined as "the
imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs".

                           Types Of Communication Skills
Intra-personal communication skills :

This implies individual reflection, imaginination and thinking. One example of this is thinking.
According to the experts this type of communication include communicating with Allah in

Interpersonal communication skills :

This is direct, face-to-face communication that occurs between two persons. It is essentially a
dialogue or a conversation between two or more people.

Focused Interactions :

This primarily results from an actual encounter between two persons. This implies that the two
persons involved are completely aware of the communication happening between them.

Unfocused interactions :

This occurs when one simply observes or listens to persons with whom one is not conversing.
This usually occurs at stations and bus stops, as well as on the street, at restaurants, etc.

Non verbal communication skills :

This includes aspects such as body language, gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, etc.,
which also become a part of the communicating process; as well as the written and typed modes
of communications.

Mass communication :

This is generally identified with tools of modern mass media, which includes: books, the press,
cinema, television, radio, etc. It is a means of conveying messages to an entire populace.

                                         Cover letter
A cover letter or covering letter is a letter of introduction attached to, another document such as a
résumé or curriculum vitae.

characteristics of cover letter:

A cover letter typically accompanies each resume you send out. Your cover letter may make the
difference between obtaining a job interview and having your resume ignored, so, it makes good
sense to devote the necessary time and effort to writing effective cover letters.
A cover letter should complement, not duplicate your resume. Its purpose is to interpret the data-
oriented, factual resume and add a personal touch. A cover letter is often your earliest written
contact with a potential employer, creating a critical first impression.

There are three general types of cover letters:

      The application letter which responds to a known job opening .
      The prospecting letter which inquires about possible positions.
      The networking letter which requests information and assistance in your job search.

Your cover letter should be designed specifically for each purpose outlined above as well as for
each position you seek. Do not design a form letter and send it to every potential employer (you
know what you do with junk mail.

Effective cover letters explain the reasons for your interest in the specific organization and
identify your most relevant skills or experiences (remember, relevance is determined by the
employer's self-interest). They should express a high level of interest and knowledge about the

                                        Business letter
A business letter is a letter written in formal language, usually used when writing from one
business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their
customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter will depend on the
relationship between the parties concerned.

                          Characteristics of Business Letter

The parts of a business letter include the date, sender's address, recipient's address, salutation,
body, closing, signature line and any enclosures. Every part is strategically placed on a business
letter with strict guidelines and different layouts.


The date line of the letter shows when the letter was finished. Write out the month completely,
followed by the day and the year, 2 inches from the top of the page. The sender's address is
optional but can fit in the letter in 2 different places, if included. The address can go 1 line below
the date, no need to exclude the sender's name or add the address just below the signature line.
The recipient's address, also called the inside address, should begin 1 line below the sender's
address with a personal title included. For the salutation, use the full name of the recipient
followed by a colon. The closing, such as "Thank you," needs only the first word capitalized,
followed by a comma. Add 4 lines for a signature between the closing and the sender's name.


The body of the letter should be concise; the paragraphs should simply state the main point of the
letter, explain the importance, give details and background information about the topic and
request action from the recipient.

There are 3 different business letter formats: block format, modified block format and semi-
block format. A block format is the most commonly used; the paragraphs are left justified and
single spaced, except for between paragraphs which is double spaced.
The modified block layout is the same as the block, but the date and signature are started in the
center of the page.
The semi-block format is the least used. Each paragraph is indented; the date and signature are
centered on the page.


Business letters should always be written on 8½-by-11 inch paper with at least 1-inch margins.
The most accepted and widely used font for business letters is Times New Roman size 12.

                                 Chronological Resume
The chronological resume is probably the one with which most people are familiar. On it, work
experience is listed in reverse chronological order (most recent job first). The period of time
during which you were employed is listed first, followed by the name of the employer and then
the employer's location. A description for each job is also included. Following work history is a
section on education. If you are trying to show career growth, a chronological resume may be the
way to go. If your most recent job is store manager, while the one before that is department
manager, and the one before that is sales clerk, you can show a history of promotion. However, if
your work history has been spotty or if it has been stagnant you shouldn't use a chronological
resume. If you are changing careers, a chronological resume is not for you either.

                                  Cooperative learning
takes many forms and definitions, but most cooperative approaches involve small, heterogeneous
teams, usually of four or five members, working together towards a group task in which each
member is individually accountable for part of an outcome that cannot be completed unless the
members work together; in other words, the group members are positively interdependent. A
example of interdependence can be found in the relationship between language-minority and
language-majority students in two-way immersion programs. Native and non-native English
speakers work together to become bilingual.

                            Different Types of Interviews
One-to-one Interview

This is the most common type of Interview. In the One-to-one interview the candidate for
employment meets directly with the interviewer.

Phone interview

Phone Interviews are becoming increasingly popular among large corporations who are
conducting a mass-hiring of employees. These interviews are conducted entirely over the phone
and eliminate bias that may arise from a candidate’s appearance, mannerisms, or ethnicity. Often
times, phone interview questions are structured and the question are behavioral in nature; to
further eliminate bias.

Group interview

In the group interview style you will be interviewing simultaneously with two or three other
candidates all vying for the same position. In this interview style one or more applicants may be
asked the same question or the pool of applicants can be broken into teams to determine a
solution to a problem posed by the interviewer. This style of interviewing is most common in the
technology fields or any field where group cohesiveness is of extreme importance.

Panel Interview

A panel interview involves three or more members of the hiring organization meeting
simultaneously with the person being considered for the position. This interview style is most
common in academia or when hiring a senior level corporate executive. The term “search
committee” is commonly used to describe a Panel Interview.

Mock Interview

The Mock Interview allows prospective job candidates to practice their interviewing skills in a
simulated interview environment. Mock interviews provide constructive feedback to the
participants to enhance job prospects by improving interview skills.

Career fair interview

A conversation during a career fair can be considered a screening interview. It is generally, 2-10
minutes in length with a human resources representative or a technical manager in your field. If
mutual interest is established, it is likely you will be invited for further interviews.

Site interview

The site interview takes place at the employer's site. It is a selection interview, following a
successful screening interview (phone, career fair, on-campus). This is very good news for you
since you are now 50% closer to a job offer. There is however, still work to do!

Behavioral Interviewing (Behavior Based Interviewing or Structured Interviews)

A structured interview is a type of interview that is utilized by many larger organizations.
This interview is especially popular when there is more than one of the same position
available within the organization. In a structured interview every applicant for the
position is asked the same questions as every other applicant applying for the position. A
structured interview may contain standard interview questions, behavioral interview
questions, or a combination of the two.

           Importance Of Effective Communication In Business
There are a multitude of problems in business that are caused by ineffective communication.
Misunderstandings, conflict, giving your company a negative image, lower productivity.
Communication skill is the life blood of successful business enterprise and it takes many forms;
internal and external, in writing, on the phone and in person.
Effective communication within a company between departments and individual colleagues is
essential for a productive working environment. Just as clear and professional communication
with clients is imperative to secure and maximise business opportunities. This article deals with
the fundamental principles of effective business communication skills.

There are many elements that constitute effective communication. One of the primary
considerations is the selection of the most appropriate method or medium. If you are
communicating something which requires traceability then an email or letter can be best, while
other conversations are much better had face-to-face and can appear impersonal and
lackadaisical if carried out in writing.

Every small piece of communication that comes from a company speaks volumes and makes an
impact, whether it is good or bad, hence attention to detail is a major communication skill. Many
organisations take for granted the ability to communicate effectively in writing or on the phone,
however many employees might not have received specialist training in these disciplines.

Communication skills training is essential as it provides a safe environment in which to review
how a company and individuals within that company communicate, using expert guidance to
develop those skills. Communication skills such as building a non-intrusive relationship swiftly
on the phone, expressing oneself clearly and professionally in an email, or presenting in public
with confidence can be improved by applying practical techniques and strategies.

                                Importance of Listening
Listening is an important component in the process of communication. It is an instrument, which
we keep on using throughout life for gathering information and acquiring knowledge. Whatever
be the circumstances if we do not listen carefully we are likely to land ourselves in trouble or an
embarrassing situation. All successful executives and managers are usually good listeners. It is
not exaggerating to say that more than 50% of the working day of an executive is spent in
listening to someone. The cultivation of listening skills therefore deserves much attention as the
other three ways of communication namely speaking, writing and reading. A number of benefits
would accrue if this skill is developed.

      Improve your intellectual ability to understand and evaluate the views and opinions
       expressed by others.
      Enable yourself to gather proper and accurate information, facilitating appropriate
       decision making.
      Assist yourself to establish rapport with co-workers quickly.

"Pronunciation" refers to the way a word or a language is usually spoken, or the manner in which
someone utters a word. If someone said to have "correct pronunciation," then it refers to both
within a particular dialect.

A word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many
factors, such as: the area in which they grew up, the area in which they now live, if they have a
speech or voice disorder, their ethnic group, their social class.
In phonetics, enunciation is the act of speaking. Good enunciation is the act of speaking clearly
and concisely. The opposite of good enunciation is mumbling or slurring. See also
"pronunciation" which is a component of enunciation. Pronunciation is to pronounce sounds of
words correctly.Annunciate is to specifically communicate. An annunciator panel on a piece of
equipment or aircraft console communicates to the pilot or operator the status of the equipment.
There are visual annunciators and auditory annunciators such as fire alarm enunciators that flash
lights and light bells.

                            Psychology of Communication
Communication is the basis of human and non-human interaction and we can all communicate
with a touch or a sound, a look or a symbol, a word or a sentence and also by doing or saying
nothing at all. The body is an important interface in communication and I’ve discussed this in the
psychology of body in which body language is shown to play an important role in
communication. We communicate with our mates through intimate body language and sexual
interaction is a very important communication tool in humans and also in animals. The
psychology of communication will include the different elements or stages of communication in
an individual such as

      Absorption of external information through listening or reading etc,
      Interpretation of the stimuli received, and
      Reaction to the information obtained through behavior

The three stages of the communication process as in absorption or taking in information, the
interpretation or deriving meaning of the information and reaction or responding to the
information are facilitated by the following elements:

1. Absorption or taking in information – is through sense organs and we simply absorb the
sounds and colors, the spoken words and all external data provided to us. Absorption is an
objective process

2. Interpretation or analysis of information – involves using brain mechanisms and analyzing
external stimuli as well as details such as expressions and subtle verbal and non verbal cues, so
interpretation is a subjective process

3. Reaction or response to the stimuli – uses physical communication routes such as speech,
language or expressions through facial and bodily movements. Reactions are the result of a
subjective and an objective process. This is because when presented with certain stimuli we all
have a set of predictable responses which are objective but depending on how we interpret the
situation subjectively, the reactions might vary to an extent.

Communication is central to our modern life, yet it is a difficult and complicated process and a
gap remains between the ideas communicated and the ideas perceived. This communication gap
as it is generally called is closed only with proper consideration of all verbal, non verbal, indirect
and direct elements of the communication process. So in a personal or business meeting the
communication process involves not just presentation of the ideas of people verbally but also the
non verbal facial and bodily expressions.

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