Agriculture by shanilahori



       The science, art, and business of cultivating soil, producing crops, and
raising livestock, farming.


       Agriculture is the production of food and goods through farming and
forestry. Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human
civilization, with the husbandry of domesticated animals and plants (i.e. crops)
creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated
and stratified societies. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural

      Agriculture encompasses a wide variety of specialties and techniques,
including ways to expand the lands suitable for plant raising, by digging water-
channels and other forms of irrigation. Cultivation of crops on arable land and
the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at the foundation of

       The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers,
fuels, raw materials, pharmaceuticals and stimulants, and an assortment of
ornamental or exotic panget products. In the 2000s, plants have been used to
grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics, and pharmaceuticals.

Agriculture Sectors
       This agriculture sector related to the production of all types of
agricultural animals, including both land animals and aquatic animals. Animals,
including horses, mules, oxen, camels, llamas, alpacas, and dogs, are often used
to help cultivate fields, harvest crops, wrangle other animals, and transport farm
products to buyers. Animal husbandry not only refers to the breeding and
raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk, eggs, or
wool) on a continual basis, but also to the breeding and care of species for work
and companionship. Livestock production systems can be defined based on feed
source, as grassland - based, mixed, and landless. Grassland based livestock
production relies upon plant material such as shrubland, rangeland, and pastures

for feeding ruminant animals. Operations specifically relating to the production
of agricultural animals, including:

         Animal Feeding Operations livestock-raising operations, cattle, dairy,
          sheep, and poultry farms, that congregate animals, feed, waste, and
          production operations on a small land area
         Aquaculture Operations facilities that actively cultivate under
          controlled conditions marine and freshwater aquatic organisms, such
          as catfish, shrimp, salmon, scallops, oysters, and trout.

         Pasture, Rangeland, and Grazing Operations livestock-raising
          operations where the animals graze or otherwise seek food in pastures
          or other open areas.

       This agriculture sector related to agricultural crop production. This sector
specifically related to the production of many types of agricultural crops,

     Food, feed, and fiber crops,
     Specialty crops, such as tobacco, herbs, spices, mushrooms, seed crops,
      and aquatic plants.

         This agriculture sector related to how forestry practices are affected by environmental
laws and regulations. This sector specifically related to the establishments that operate timber
tracts, tree farms, forest nurseries, and related activities, such as reforestation services and the
gathering of gums, barks, balsam needles, maple sap, Spanish moss, and other forest

Nurseries and Greenhouses
       This agriculture sector related to the requirements that apply to the
production of agricultural products in a nursery or greenhouse. This sector
specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown
in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and

Agriculture Statistics Of Pakistan
      Agriculture constitutes the largest sector of our economy. Majority of the
population, directly or indirectly, dependent on this sector. It contributes about

24 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and accounts for half of employed
labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings. It feeds
whole rural and urban population.

       The total geographical area of Pakistan according to agricultural statistics
of Pakistan 1998-99 is 79.61 million hectares (mha) (about 197 million acres),
of which only 25 % or 19.82 million hectares (about 48.96 million acres) are
currently under cultivation. Out of the total land area of Pakistan, the total land
area of Punjab is 20.6 mha (about 50.90 million acres), out of which 54 % or
11.04 mha (or 27.28 million acres) are cultivated. The total land area of Sindh is
14.1 mha (or 34.84 million acres), out of which nearly 39 % or 5.45 mha (or
13.45 million acres) are cultivated. The total land area of Balochistan is 34.7
mha (or 85.74 million acres), out of which only 4 % or 1.4 mha (or 3.46 million
acres) are cultivated, and the total land area of NWFP comprises of 10.2 mha
(25.20 million acres), out of which nearly 10% or 1.93 mha (or 4.77 million
acres) are cultivated. The vast areas of country generally own good fertile soil, a
favourable climate and with the world's largest elaborated canal irrigation
network. Pakistan is fortunate in that the soil, topography and climate are
generally suitable for the year round agriculture. Major agricultural areas lie
within the plains formed by Indus river and its tributaries namely Kabul,
Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej, which run in a general northeast/south-west
direction. Indus plains are like a tunnel with number of water sources at the top,
converging into single stream, which flows into the Arabian Sea, east of

                                      2008 Data

       The process of developing agricultural machines and substituting this
machine power for human and animal power in agricultural production practices
is farm mechanization.

Farm mechanization is based on total agricultural system, which is deeply
connected to socio-economic environment of each country. So farm
mechanization problem should be discussed from the point of view of, not only
farm mechanization itself, but also socio-economic background.

For establishment of better farm work system, it is necessary to analyze and
make a plan of them.

Systems engineering is one of the most powerful techniques how to apply the
farm machinery for taking optimal actions to solve these complex and difficult
mechanization problems.

Effect of Mechanization
1) Saving cost in labor shortage

2) Stabilization farm system by work timeliness

3) Improvement of farm work by high efficiency of machine

4) Increase yield by working precisely

5) Make multi-crop system feasible for farm management etc.

6) Improvement of health by release from heavy work and improvement of
living conditions

7) Release from gender gap by saving time spent to farm work of woman

8) Level up rural development by spreading of engineering knowledge

      Rate of Work or Farm work capacity (or efficiency) varies by equipment
capacity, operator ability, and field and crop conditions.

Work abilities of machine or manual for field work, will be expressed by hours
per area, or area per hour, which is called as area capacity.

Work abilities of machine or manual for stationary work, will be expressed by
hours per weight, or weight per hour, which is called as material capacity.

In this textbook, Effective Field Capacity is commonly used as hectares or tons
per an hour, in a block of field or a unit of material. In the case of farm work by
machine, Effective Field Capacity will be expressed the value on a set of
machine with operators. In manual farm work, Effective Field Capacity will be
expressed the value by a worker.

Also, Work Capacity is defined the reciprocal of Effective Field Capacity, like
as hours per a hectare or a ton.

       Cost analysis, or cost accounting is a system of accounting in which
records of all cash and non-cash costs as well as returns. They are kept for the
purpose of preparing an account to show costs of production, returns, and net
profit or loss on the enterprise. Examples are labor, power, machinery use,
building use, fuel, and interest charges.

When we will examine economical evaluation of farm mechanization, we
should evaluate the profit of the farm management system. Generally, the profit
is the difference between the income and expenditure. Machinery cost is the
major expenditure of farm management system.

Management phases are shown as follows:

    Planning phase: Defining an objective for the system, selecting system
     components and predicting the expected performance of the system.
    Scheduling phase: Determining the time when the various operations are
     to be performed. Availability of time, labor supply, job priorities, and
     crop requirements are some important factors.
    Operating phase: Carrying out the operations with workers and machines.
     The operator of machinery will be self-supervised.
    Improving phase: Utilizing productivity measures and standards to
     improve the system.

Major crops of Pakistan
       As an agricultural Pakistan produces different varieties of crops. Some of
the major crops are cotton, wheat, rice and sugarcane. Total cropped area
constitute around 22.14 million hectares of the total area. The average per
capital income is $460 (approx). Major exports include raw cotton and cotton
products, rice, fish and fish products.

The country produces wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, maize and other cereal in
sufficient quantities. Wheat is the leading food grain in Pakistan. Now the wheat
production has reached to over 21 million tons annually.

Rice is the second most important food grain. It requires irrigation and is grown
as a Kharif crop. Maize is mostly grown in Kharif season.

Cotton is an important cash crop of the country. It is exported in sufficient

Other crops of food products millet, sorghum, soybean, dry beans, chickpeas,
tomatoes, pepper, tobacco.

The important fruits are date palm, apples, citrus, mangoes, bananas.

The production of all major food commodities in Pakistan have shown as
upward trend, but the increase was most significant in the case of poultry meat,
fruits, eggs, red meat and vegetables. Pulses also showed substantial increase in
production. Pakistan's major imports of food commodities include edible oils,
sugar, tea, dry milk and pulses. The country however, is a major exporter of rice
and cotton and other exports include fruits and some vegetables. Since
independence, the population increased many folds, similarly the grain
production increased several times. Besides green revolution, significant
production advances have been made in milk, fish, fruits and vegetables. To
propel agriculture of the country into 21st century, the quality of technical skills
and management of agricultural manpower must improve. Science, technology
and generation of new technology will of course be helpful in increasing the
agricultural productivity of the country.

Pakistan is very much sufficient in the production of rice and cotton. The
country had to export the surplus quantity of rice and cotton to the foreign
countries and in this way, the country received a remarkable amount and of
foreign exchange

Agriculture Problems in Pakistan
      More than two-thirds of Pakistanis live in rural areas, of which about 68
percent are employed in agriculture (40 percent of total labor force). The
agriculture sector accounts for about 22 percent of the national GDP and has
enjoyed steady growth for almost three decades, substantially contributing to
poverty reduction during the 1970s and 80s.

       However, recent trend of agriculture incomes is far less encouraging and
rural poverty was back to 38.9 percent by 2002, the same level where it was at
the beginning of the 1990s. This has occurred despite generally favorable
policies on prices and markets, and a relatively liberalized environment. While
consecutive droughts have certainly played a detrimental role in the
performance of the sector, it also faces significant structural constraints that
hinder the sector’s contribution to economic growth and poverty reduction.
Some major issues are these.

    Poorly functioning factor markets and constrained access to assets
     limit opportunities for rural growth and poverty reduction. More than 60
     percent of poor rural households are not farm households, with no access
     to land or water. 38 percent of small landowning farmers are also poor.
     Incomes from non-farm activities, including agricultural products
     processing, trade, construction, and transport services already account for
     63 percent of total rural incomes. Well-functioning factor markets to
     facilitate access to assets (land, capital, water) and linkages with non farm
     sector are crucial for the growth.
    Inequality and land concentration: The agriculture sector is
     characterized by strong inequality in the distribution of assets,
     particularly land and water. About 2 percent of the households control
     more than 45 percent of the land area. Large farmers have also captured
     the subsidies in water and agriculture, as well as the benefits of
     agricultural growth. Agriculture credit schemes have also mostly
     benefited large farmers who have capitalized the implicit subsidies
     through higher land prices and cheaper access to mechanization rather
     than labor.
    Agricultural growth is constrained: The capacity of the agriculture
     R&D system has declined sharply during the last decade, and both the
     adoption of Green Revolution technologies and the extension of irrigation
     have reached saturation levels. Technology for rain fed areas and
     livestock is needed while the past focus has been the irrigation sector.
     Livestock has been the fastest growing sub-sector, and now comprises
     almost half of the agricultural GDP. Another constraint comes from
     inefficient output markets and rent seeking in the supply chain systems,

    with value being captured by intermediaries. Liberalized markets and the
    new WTO regime could offer new opportunities for growth if the
    Government adopts an effective diversification strategy.
   Unsustainable water resources management: Irrigation is the single
    most critical component of water management in the country. However,
    it shows signs of inefficiency and degradation: i) low conveyance
    efficiency at 45 percent and deferred maintenance cause both
    considerable water losses (though much of that goes back into the
    aquifer) and deterioration of major infrastructure (barrages); ii) illegal
    pumping from canals and inaccessibility to water by the tail-enders result
    in unequal water distribution; iii) the lack of transparency of the actual
    water flow causes inter-provincial water allocation clashes and inefficient
    water management systems; iv) supply-driven system cannot
    accommodate farmers’ specific needs; v) cost recovery is low because of
    bureaucracy and lack of accountability by the service provider (Irrigation
    Department); vi) water logging, salinity, pollution, and land degradation
    are becoming significant; and vii) storage management and water
    scheduling should be improved for water shortages during the winter and
    oversupply during the summer necessitate
   Weak rural service delivery: Pakistan has taken major decisions to
    devolve authority to local governments to improve service delivery This
    means the roles of different tires of government has been better defined,
    and downward accountability strengthened. This is a dynamic process,
    and the country still faces implementation challenges. However,
    strengthening service delivery and enhanced citizen participation is
    critical for the development of the non-farm sector, the rural investment
    climate, and governance.

Conclusions of Problems
   Policy and Institutional Reforms: Recent reforms on the liberalization
    of input markets and trade should be consolidated to take advantage of
    new opportunities offered by the WTO agreement. Agriculture and
    irrigation policies will need to focus on diversification into high value
    products, agro-processing, and better integration in supply chains. For the
    poor to benefit, increases in productivity should be reflected in lower
    food prices, higher employment and rural wages. At the same time the
    research and extension system need to be revised towards more demand-
    driven, participatory approaches based on public-private partnership.
   Irrigation Sector. Institutional reforms and investments need to proceed
    in parallel. At the primary level, long term solutions are needed for inter-
    provincial drainage problems and environmental flows to the Indus delta.
    At the same time, the safety of infrastructure (especially barrages) will

    need to be guaranteed. At the secondary level, the introduction of water
    entitlements and rights, greater participation of stakeholders, transfer of
    asset management to water users, development of accountable service
    delivery institutions, and improved water pricing and cost recovery
    policies are needed. At the tertiary level, a better integration between
    irrigation and agriculture would help the whole system to become more
    demand driven.
   Land: The high inequality in the existing land tenure structure calls for a
    comprehensive approach that is socioeconomic and politically feasible.
    On the one hand, it requires better land markets functions through: (i)
    improvements in the land administration system, including
    computerization of land records and reduction of transaction costs; (ii)
    land taxation policies to reduce incentives for speculative purposes; and
    (iii) market-based land purchase schemes to facilitate land access across
    size groups. On the other hand, better allocation of State-owned lands
    should be further pursued to address landlessness.
   Finance: Access to formal and informal credit by medium- and small-
    size farmers and non-farm enterprises should be expanded. For the poor,
    micro-credit programs that accept other forms of collateral besides land,
    matching grants for income generating activities, and savings-based
    schemes may be more appropriate to increase access to micro-finance
    services. An adequate regulatory framework also needs to be put in place
    for this.
   Natural resources. The degradation of land, water, forests and natural
    ecosystems is pervasive and mostly affects the poor. The situation in
    Sindh with respect to land use, salinity, degradation of the wetlands, and
    floods will need special attention, given the large externalities involved.
    Policies and public programs will need to address the incentive structure
    for sustainable use and mitigation measures.
   Participation and accountability: The importance to target the poor to
    share the benefit of growth and to address their immediate needs is
    widely recognized. The Government’s devolution initiative strengthened
    accountability and aimed to improve rural service delivery through
    capacity building for local governments and communities, and citizen
   Livelihood opportunities. Social mobilization and increased capacity for
    collective action will enhance opportunities for livelihood and income
    generating activities and greater "voice" in dealing with the private sector
    and markets. Support for the basic infrastructure and social services
    delivery would help improving the rural investment climate, a vibrant
    private sector, employment and livelihood opportunities, and linkages
    between farm and non-farm sectors.


To top