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Prof. T. Shivanandam
      Akhil Sonthalia
      Hitesh Rustagi
        Nitin Jain

   Robotics, computer-controlled machine that is a programmable machine that
    imitates the actions or appearance of an intelligent creature–usually a human.
   To qualify as a robot, a machine has to be able to do two things:
     1) get information from its surroundings, and
     2) do something physical–such as move or manipulate objects.
   It was first used in the 1921 play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal
    Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek.
   Robots are able to perform repetitive tasks more quickly,
    cheaply, and accurately than humans.
   The word robot has been used since to refer to a machine
    that performs work to assist people or work that humans find
    difficult or undesirable.
   Robots really work for people and perform tasks for them
    that may be dangerous.
Early Mythology

The notion of putting
 machines to work for us
 to perform routine tasks on
 command can be credited to
 great thinkers like Aristotle
 (384-322 BC).
               13th – 15th Century
   Inventors were busy developing real automatons that
    mimicked human mannerisms. This first generation of
    robots were clock controlled ornaments with self-moving
   An automated rooster erected on top of the cathedral in
    Strasbourg in 1350 is a good example. It was designed to
    flap its wings and crow every day at noon.
                      18th Century
In 1774 inventors Pierre and
  Henri-Louis      Jacquet-Droz
  unveiled the ―Automatic
  Scribe”. This lifelike figure of
  a boy could draw and write
  any message up to 40
  characters long. A robot
  woman playing a piano was
  another one of their great
                         19th Century
   Unlike the toy automatons of18th
    century, robots of the 800s were chiefly
    designed to meet the growing demands of
    a flourishing industrial society.
   A good example is this Textile Machine.
    Operated by punch cards, this
    programmable Loom was capable of mass
    production and is one of the earliest
    machines to store a programme designed
    to control its entire operation.
                    19th Century (cont.)
   1890: Thomas Edison used a
    condensed       version     of    his
    phonograph invention in the design of
    the famous talking doll.

                                            1898: Nikola Tesla, a famous
                                            inventor, patents the first
                                            remote controlled device. The
                                            'teleautomaton' was a crewless
                                            boat that was controlled from a
                                            distance without wires.
                                 20th Century
   1921: The first reference to the word robot is
    made in a play by Czech writer Karel
    Capek (1890 - 1938) - R.U.R (Rossum's
    Universal Robots). The word comes from the
    Czech ―robota‖ which means serf or one in
    subservient labour.

                                                     In the play, the Czech robot is defined as "a
                                                     worker of forced labour". After this Play,
                                                     electromechanical automatons were
                                                     referred to as robots.
                     20th Century (cont.)
   1968: SRI International, formerly known
    as the Stanford Research Institute, builds
    and tests the first mobile robot with
    vision capability. 'Shakey' was equipped
    with a television camera, a range finder
    and sensors.
   Shakey was the first mobile robot
    that could think and respond to the
    world around it.
                20th Century (cont.)
   1968: The General Electric
    Walking Truck was the
    first manual controlled
    walking truck.
                    20th Century (cont.)
   1969: Stanford University develop the first
    electrically powered computer controlled
    robotic arm. This becomes standard for
    research projects
   1974: Professor Sheinman, of Stanford Arm
    fame, forms Vicarm Inc. to market a version of
    the arm controlled by microcomputer for
    industrial applications. This robotic arm,
    known as the Silver Arm performs small-parts
    assembly using touch sensitive sensors.
   A machine that looks like a human being and performs
    various complex acts of a human being.
   A device that automatically performs complicated often
    repetitive tasks.
   A mechanism guided by automatic controls.
   The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is the
    human arm, but with some differences. For example, a robot
    arm can extend by telescoping—that is, by sliding cylindrical
    sections one over another to lengthen the arm.
   Grippers, or end effectors, are designed to mimic the function
    and structure of the human hand. Many robots are equipped
    with special purpose grippers to grasp particular devices such
    as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder.
   The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric
   A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the
    gripper to the desired position in a process known as inverse
    kinematics. Some multi-jointed arms are equipped with servo,
    or feedback, controllers that receive input from a computer.

   Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown
    environment will require multiple sensors and controls, such as
    ultrasonic or infrared sensors, to avoid obstacles.
(1) Industrial Robots:
   Cartesian robot /Gantry robot: Used for pick and place work, application of
    sealant, assembly operations, handling machine tools and arc welding. It's a robot
    whose arm has three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with a Cartesian

   Cylindrical robot: Used for assembly operations, handling at machine tools, spot
    welding, and handling at die casting machines. It's a robot whose axes form a
    cylindrical coordinate system.

   Spherical/Polar robot: Used for handling at machine tools, spot welding, die
    casting, fettling machines, gas welding and arc welding. It's a robot whose axes form
    a polar coordinate system.
   SCARA robot: Used for pick and place work, application of sealant, assembly
    operations and handling machine tools. It's a robot which has two parallel rotary
    joints to provide compliance in a plane.

    Articulated robot: Used for assembly operations, die casting, fettling machines,
    gas welding, arc welding and spray painting. It's a robot whose arm has at least three
    rotary joints.

   Parallel robot: One use is a mobile platform handling cockpit flight simulators. It's
    a robot whose arms have concurrent prismatic or rotary joints.
(2) Other Robots:
   Demeter : A robot agricultural harvester which is a model for commercializing
    mobile robotics technology.

   Pioneer robot is a remote reconnaissance system for structural analysis of the
    Chornobyl Unit 4 reactor building. Such robots are used to investigate hazardous
    and dangerous environments.

   Robotic underwater rovers are used to explore and gather information about
    many facets of our marine environment.

   Higher quality and lower cost to the manufacturing
   Loss to the unskilled jobs but create new jobs for skilled
    people in software and sensor development.
   Machines have to be maintained and people will have to
    be trained on there repair.
   Machines are being developed that can perform cognitive tasks, such as strategic planning and
    learning from experience.

   Increasingly, diagnosis of failures in aircraft or satellites, the management of a battlefield, or the
    control of a large factory will be performed by intelligent computers.

   Mobile robots which would run around outside the class room but be controlled by the
    students in the class.

   Hydroponics Garden which would be a living, growing garden controlled by robotics.

    Scanning the Skies which you could set times and locations for pictures from these robots,
    sent to you over the computer.
 The sense of automation as an activity without direct presence of
human has been changing in the course of development of human activity.
Recently there has been a
 stabilization of the spectrum of motifs of automation, mainly of
production processes in the following order: rapid reaction to the change
of market (tempo of products innovation), decreasing the dispersal of
quality, increasing the effectivity, flexibility (quick and effective functional
adjustment in relation to required change of product). Those motifs
considerably influence recent state of art of robotics as well as the trends
of further development.

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