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					   Tutorial 4

  Information
Resources on the
      Web
Objectives                                          XP


• Find current news and weather information on
  the Web

• Obtain maps and city guides

• Find businesses and people on the Web

• Find library and text resources on the Web




New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition        2
Objectives                                          XP


• Learn how to cite Web resources
• Learn how copyrights affect your use of
  resources found on the Web
• Find graphics and multimedia resources on the
  Web
• Learn about the future of online publishing



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Current Information on the Web                      XP


• To help you find current news and information,
  many search engines and directories include
  sections devoted to news items
• The Excite directory’s home page includes a
  collection of hyperlinks to general news stories,
  sports scores, stock market reports, and weather




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Current Information on the Web                      XP




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Current Information on the Web                      XP




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Current Information on the Web                                                      XP

• Many search engines allow you to set a date range on the
  Advanced Search page
• HotBot provides two ways to search within a date range:
       – Choose one of HotBot’s preset time range options, such as “in the last
         week” or “in the last 3 months,” to limit your search to sites that were last
         modified within your selected time period
       – Limit searches to dates before or after a specific date
• AltaVista allows you to set an exact “between” date range on its
  advanced Search page
• AlltheWeb allows you to set separate “after” and “before” date
  filters; by setting both of these filters, you can construct an exact
  “between” date filter


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Date Filters on the                                 XP
HotBot Advanced Search Page




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Date Filters on the                                 XP
AltaVista Advanced Search Page




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Date Filters on the                                 XP
AlltheWeb Advanced Search Page




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Finding Web Sites that Have                            XP
Been Modified Recently
• Go to the Web site for a search engine or
  directory that allows date-range restrictions
• Formulate your search expression
• Set the date-range restriction in the search tool
• Run the search
• Evaluate the search results. If you do not find
  useful results, select an alternative search tool,
  and then run the search again


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Google Date-Filtered Search                         XP
Results




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Getting the News                                           XP

• Wire service (press agency or news service): an
  organization that gathers and distributes news to
  newspapers, magazines, broadcasters, and other
  organizations that pay a fee to the wire service
• Most news comes from the four largest wire services:
  United Press International (UPI) and the Associated
  Press (AP) in the United States, Reuters in Great Britain,
  and Agence France-Presse in France
• In addition to selling stories to news outlets around the
  world, these major wire services all display current
  news stories on their Web sites
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Getting the News                                                                   XP

• All of the major US broadcast networks, including ABC, CBS, CNN,
  Fox, MSNBC, NBC, and NPR have Web sites that carry news
  features
• Major newspapers have Web sites that include current news and
  many other features from their print editions
• Many broadcast news, wire services, and newspaper Web sites
  include search features that allow you to search the site for
  specific news stories
• Web news directories:
       – Offer links to the Web sites of newspapers and other media outlets
       – Internet Public Library – Online Newspapers site includes hyperlinks to
         hundreds of international and domestic newspapers



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Internet Public Library – Online                    XP
Newspapers




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Getting the News                                             XP

• News search engines let you search the content
  of current news stories in multiple publications
  and wire services
       – Yahoo! News includes news from the major wire services
         along with news it purchases from other leading
         newspapers and magazines
       – Google News includes stories from similar news sources
       – Some news search engines contain blogs
• Web logs (Weblogs or blogs): Web sites that
  contain commentary on current events written
  by individuals
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Weather Reports                                                       XP

• A number of Web sites offer weather information and
  forecasts
• Two of the most popular weather forecasting sites are:
       – The Weather Channel
       – AccuWeather
• Finding a weather forecast:
       – Open a weather information Web site in a Web browser
       – Locate the weather report for the city or area in which you are
         interested
       – Repeat the steps to find other weather forecasts in different
         weather information Web sites

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Weather Reports       XP




• The Weather
  Channel local
  forecast page for
  Nashville
Obtaining Maps and                                  XP
Destination Information
• A number of Web sites provide maps and driving
  directions
• Although the information provided by these sites
  is not perfect (new roads and detours caused by
  current construction work are not included),
  many people find them to be helpful travel aids
• One of the most popular of these sites is
  MapQuest


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Obtaining Maps and                                  XP
Destination Information




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Finding a Local Area                                XP
Map on the Web
• Open a Web site that offers maps in your Web
  browser
• Enter the location of the map you need to find
• Zoom the map scale in or out to suit your
  requirements
• Print or download the finished map




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Finding a Local Area   XP
Map on the Web


• Ryman Auditorium
  area map in Google
  Maps and MSN
  Maps & Directions
Obtaining Travel                                                 XP
Destination Information
• You can find a variety of useful information
  using city guide sites including information
  about entertainment, restaurants and specific
  attractions
• To use a city guide:
       – Go to a city guide Web site in your Web browser
       – Search the site for your destination city, region, or
         country
       – Explore the hyperlinks provided by the site for your
         destination

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Citysearch          XP




• The Ryman
  Auditorium Page
Finding Businesses and People                                         XP
on the Web
• Yellow pages directories: Web sites that store
  information about businesses only, similar to the
  printed yellow pages phone book
• White pages directories:
       – Let you search for individuals’ names, addresses, and
         telephone numbers
       – Collect information from published telephone directories and
         other publicly available information and index it by last name
       – Some Web sites make unpublished and unlisted telephone
         numbers available for public use
       – Response to concerns about privacy violations has led to most
         white pages sites offering people a way to remove their listing
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Finding Business Listings                           XP
on the Web
• Navigate to a yellow pages directory site in your
  Web browser
• Enter information about the nature and
  geographic location of the business that you
  want to find
• Run the search
• Examine and evaluate the results to determine
  whether you should revise your search or try
  another search engine

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Searching for Your                                  XP
White Pages Listing
• Open a white pages directory Web site in your
  Web browser
• Enter your name and part of your address
• Run the search, and then examine the search
  results
• Consider repeating the search with various
  combinations of partial address information or
  variants of the correct spelling of your name


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Online Library, Text, and                           XP
Multimedia Resources
• Virtually anybody can create a Web page on
  almost any subject
• Resources of this vast online library include text,
  graphics, and multimedia files




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Library Resources                                   XP

• The Web has made existing libraries more
  accessible to more people
• Library users should see many new and
  interesting research resources as traditional
  libraries and online collections of works that
  have serious research value begin to recognize
  each other as complementary
• The LibrarySpot Web site is a collection of
  hyperlinks organized in the same general way
  that a physical library might arrange its
  collections
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LibrarySpot Home Page                               XP




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Library Resources                                   XP




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Text and Other Archives                                XP
on the Web
• The Web contains a number of text resources, including
  dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedias, glossaries, and
  other reference works
• A computer interface allows you to enter a search term
  and saves you the trouble of scanning several pages of
  text to find the correct entry
• Many of the best resources offered on the Web require
  you to pay a subscription fee
• Free reference works on the Web are good enough to
  provide acceptable service for many users and are
  worth investigating

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Text and Other Archives                                         XP
on the Web
• Two of the most well-known Web sites for full
  text copies of works that are no longer protected
  by copyright:
       – Project Gutenberg: supported by donations
       – Bartlebycom: converted into a privately held
         corporate site in 1999; uses advertising to generate
         revenue
• The Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine
  provides snapshots of Web pages as they were at
  various points in the history of the Web

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Citing Web Research Resources                                                       XP

• The APA and MLA formats for Web page citations are
  similar to those of print citations. They include:
       – Name of the author or Web page creator (if known)
       – Title of the Web site in italics
              • If the page is untitled, provide a description of the page but do
                not italicize the description
       – Name of the site’s sponsoring organization (if any)
       – Date the page was retrieved
       – URL enclosed in chevron symbols (< >)
              • If you do not enclose the URL in chevron (or other) symbols, do
                not add a period at the end of the URL


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Citing Web Research Resources                       XP

• Citation formats for electronic resources are still
  emerging so you should check for updates to
  these styles before using them
• Always check to see if your instructor or editor
  has established guidelines that are different from
  these




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Citing Web Research Resources                       XP




New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition        36
Citing Web Research Resources                                  XP

• There is no clear standard specifying where or
  how to break long URLs at the end of a print
  line, but most authorities currently agree that:
       – URL should be broken at a slash that appears in the
         URL
       – Hyphen should not be added at the end of the line
         that occurs in the middle of the URL
• Any method of citing Web pages faces one
  serious, yet unsolved problem—moving and
  disappearing URLs

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Copyright Issues                                               XP


• Intellectual property: a general term that
  includes all products of the human mind
       – Products can be tangible or intangible
• Copyright: a right granted by a government to
  the author or creator of a literary or artistic
  work, the tangible expression of an idea
       – Right is for the specific length of time provided in the
         copyright law
       – Gives the author or creator the exclusive right to
         print, publish, or sell the work
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Copyright Issues                                            XP

• Creations that can be copyrighted include virtually all
  forms of artistic or intellectual expression:
       – Books
       – Music
       – Artworks
       – Recordings (audio and video)
       – Architectural drawings
       – Choreographic works
       – Product packaging
       – Computer software

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Copyright Issues                                    XP

• In the US, works created after 1977 are
  protected for the life of the author plus 70 years
• Registration is no longer required in the US; a
  work created after 1977 is automatically
  copyrighted unless the creator makes a specific
  statement on the work that it is not copyrighted
• Once the copyright has expired, the work is in
  the public domain, which means you are free to
  copy the files without requesting permission
  from the source
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Copyrights and Ideas                                XP

• The idea contained in a product is not
  copyrightable
• The expression of an idea is what creates a work
  that can be copyrighted
• A collection of facts can be copyrighted, but only
  if the collection is arranged, coordinated, or
  selected in a way that causes the resulting work
  to rise to the level of an original work


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Copyright Protection and                                  XP
Internet Technologies
• When you use your Web browser to read text, see a
  graphic image, listen to a sound, or view a video clip,
  your Web browser downloads the multimedia element
  from the Web server and stores it in a temporary file on
  your computer’s hard drive
• A new, intermediate level of ownership that did not
  exist before the emergence of the Web is created
  during this process
• Because computer files are even easier to copy than a
  picture in a book, the potential for Web copyright
  violations is much greater

New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition              42
Ethical Issues:                                                   XP
Fair Use and Plagiarism
• The US copyright law includes an exemption
  from infringement actions for fair use of
  copyrighted works
• Fair use:
       – Use of a copyrighted work includes copying it for use
         in criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching,
         scholarship, or research
       – Definition is intentionally broad and can be difficult
         to interpret


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Fair Use and Plagiarism                                         XP

• Court cases on fair use usually turn on two considerations:
       – How the copyrighted material was used
       – Amount of copyrighted material that was used
• When you make fair use of a copyrighted work in your
  school assignments or research, always be careful to provide
  a citation to the original work
• Plagiarism: failure to cite the source of material that you use
  (even though it is in the public domain and not protected by
  copyright)
• A number of companies have created Web sites that
  teachers can use to identify plagiarism in papers that
  students submit
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Fair Use and Plagiarism                   XP


• Turnitin.com Research Resources pages
Fair Use and Plagiarism                                     XP

• Free files often carry a restriction against selling or
  redistributing them, even though you may be able to
  use them without cost on your own personal Web page
• You must carefully examine any site from which you
  download multimedia files to determine what usage
  limitations apply
• If you cannot find a clear statement of copyright terms
  or a statement that the files are in the public domain,
  you should not use them on your Web page or
  anywhere else


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Images and Graphics on the Web                                             XP

• Graphics Interchange Format (GIF):
       – Older format for images that does a very good job of
         compressing small- or medium-sized files
       – Most GIF files have a gif filename extension
       – Can store only up to 256 different colors
       – Widely used on the Internet for images that have only a few
         distinct colors, such as line drawings, cartoons, simple icons,
         and screen objects
• Animated GIF file: combines several images into a
  single GIF file and gives the appearance of cartoon-like
  animation

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Images and Graphics on the Web                                 XP


• Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG):
       – Newer file format that stores more than 16 million
         colors
       – Particularly useful for photographs and continuous-
         tone art (images that do not have sharp edges)
       – Most JPEG files have a jpg filename extension




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Images and Graphics on the Web                         XP

• GIF and JPEG formats offer file compression,
  which is important on the Web
• Uncompressed graphics files containing images
  of significant size or complexity are too large to
  transmit efficiently
• JPEG file compression is lossy
• A lossy compression procedure erases some
  elements of the graphic. The greater the level of
  compression, the more graphic detail is lost

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Images and Graphics on the Web                             XP

• Other graphic file formats on the Web include:
       – Windows bitmap file format (bmp)
       – Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) (tif)
       – PC Paintbrush format (pcx)
       – Portable Network Graphics (PNG) format (png)
• Windows bitmap, TIFF, and PC Paintbrush formats are all
  uncompressed graphics formats and Web page designers
  usually avoid them because they take too long to download
• The PNG format is a new format that the World Wide Web
  Consortium has approved as a standard


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Images and Graphics on the Web                      XP

• One of the best Web resources for the fine arts is
  the WebMuseum site, which occasionally
  features special exhibitions
• Many search engine and Web directory sites
  have improved their image classification
  databases




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Multimedia on the Web                               XP

• Many Web site designers include sound or video
  clips to enhance the information on their pages
• Sound and video files often require that you add
  software extensions to your Web browser
• Software extensions, or plug-ins, are usually
  available as free downloads
• Firms that offer media players as free downloads
  earn their profits by selling encoding software to
  developers who want to include audio and video
  files in that format on their Web sites
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Multimedia on the Web                               XP

• A computer must be equipped with a sound card
  and either a speaker or earphones to play an
  audio file
• The Wave (WAV) format digitizes audio
  waveform information at a user-specified
  sampling rate and can be played on any
  Windows computer that supports sound
• The size of WAV files limits their use on the Web
  to situations that require only short, lower-
  quality audio information
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Multimedia on the Web                                        XP

• The MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) format is a
  standard adopted by the music industry for controlling
  devices that create and read musical information
• The MIDI format digitally records information about each
  element of the sound, including its pitch, length, and volume
• It is easier to edit music recorded in the MIDI format
  because you can manipulate the individual characteristics of
  the sound with precision
• MIDI files are much smaller than WAV files and are often
  used on the Web. They usually have a midi or mid file
  extension


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Multimedia on the Web                               XP

• The UNIX operating system’s audio file format is
  known as the AU format because its file
  extension is normally au
• AU files are approximately the same size as WAV
  files that store the same information




New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition        55
Multimedia on the Web                                          XP

• Streaming transmission:
       – Web server sends the first part of the file to the Web
         browser, which begins playing the file; while the
         browser is playing the file, the server is sending the
         next segment of the file
       – Popular technique for transferring both sound and
         video files
       – Allows you to access very large audio or video files in
         much less time than the download-then-play
         procedure requires


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Multimedia on the Web                               XP

• Another streaming video format that has
  become popular is Adobe’s Flash format. You
  must download and install one of the real file
  players from the firm’s Web site to play these
  files
• Flash video files requires that your Web browser
  have the Adobe Flash Player software




New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition        57
Multimedia on the Web                                       XP

• The International Standards Organization’s Moving
  Picture Experts Group (MPEG) has created a series of
  standards for compressed file formats
• Older video file formats are also available on the Web,
  including AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) format and
  QuickTime format
• One minute of video and sound recorded in either of
  these formats results in a file that is about 6 megabytes,
  which is a very large file to transmit over slower types of
  Internet connections


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Multimedia on the Web                                       XP

• MP3:
       – MPEG format’s audio track
       – Somewhat lower in quality than WAV format files,
         but they are 90 percent smaller
       – Became wildly popular just as disk storage on
         personal computers dropped in price and CD writers
         (also called CD burners) became affordable for home
         use
       – CD that might hold 15 songs in WAV format (about
         40 megabytes per song) could hold 150 popular
         songs in MP3 format (about 4 megabytes per song)
New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition                59
Ethical and Legal Concerns:                                XP
Sharing Audio Files
• The smaller size of MP3 files made it easy to send
  them from one person to another through the
  Internet
• File sharing software, such as Napster and Kazaa,
  became very popular
• File-sharing activity is unethical because it deprives
  the creators of the audio works of their rights to
  control distribution and to profit from their work
• File-sharing is also illegal in many countries,
  including the United States

New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition               60
Legal MP3 File Distribution                                             XP


• Portable digital music players that use flash memory
  technology can store thousands of songs
• A number of Web sites now sell digital music in MP3
  and other formats
       – Some charge per song; others charge a monthly fee that
         allows subscribers to download as many songs as they wish
       – Most place restrictions on the number of copies you can
         make of each song
       – Some restrict you from converting downloaded song files
         into other formats, or they restrict the types of devices on
         which you are permitted to play the song

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Future of Electronic Publishing                                                XP

• Information can now be disseminated more rapidly than ever and
  in large quantities, but with a low required investment
• E-zines:
       – Web-based magazines
       – Are appearing on the Web in increasing numbers
       – Can focus on specialized, narrow interests
       – Usually managed by an editor
• Blogs and wikis:
       – Written by a single person or group of people who wish to express a
         particular point of view or convey information
       – Most blogs focus on issues about which people have strong opinions



New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition                                   62
Summary                                             XP

• Current news stories, weather information,
  maps, and information about travel destinations
  can be found on the Web by using specialized
  search engines and Web directories
• Online library resources and other research and
  reference resources are available on the Web




New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition        63
Summary                                             XP

• You learned some facts about copyright
  protection, fair use, and avoiding plagiarism in
  the use of text, images, and multimedia files that
  you find on the Internet
• Graphics and multimedia resources can be
  accessed on the Web
• There are several image, sound, and video file
  formats common on the Web


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