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					      Part Two

   The Greek Sagas
Greek Local Legends
                          Chapter 17: The Theban Saga

The Founding of Thebes
    Boeotia in central Greece
    CadmusCadmeia
    Agenor, king of Tyre
    Herodotus: myth and history and the abduction of women

Europa
    Daughter of Agenor, brother of Cadmus
    Zeus as bull
    Voyage to Crete

Cadmus, Founder of Thebes
   Consultation with the Delphic oracle
   Oracle of the cow
   Founding of Cadmeia
   Spring of Ares and the guardian serpent
   Athena’s aid
   Spartoi (“sown men”)
   Servitude of Cadmus
   Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite
   Necklace of Harmonia
   Cadmus and HarmoniaIno, Semele, Autonoë, and Agave
   Tradition of the introduction of writing
   Transformation into serpents
The Theban Saga



 The Families of Labdacus and Lycus
     Deaths of Pentheus and Labdacus
     Laius, infant son of Labdacus
     Lycus, regent of Thebes, son of Chthonius (one of the Spartoi)
     Nycteus, brother of Lycus, father of Antiope
     Zeus visits Antiope in the form of a satyr.
     Twins Amphion (musician) and Zethus (herdsman)
     Deaths of Lycus and of Dirce, his wife
     Building of the walls of Thebes (Amphion’s lyre)
     Amphion marries Niobe; Zethus marries Thebe

 Laius
      Return of Laius
      Curse of Pelops for the abduction of his son Chrysippus

 Oedipus, son of Laius and Jocasta
     Exposure on Mt. Cithaeron and wounding of ankles
     Oedipus raised by Polybus and Merope, king and queen of Corinth
     Oedipus (“swellfoot”)
     Meeting at the crossroads

 Oedipus and the Sphinx
     Sphinx (“strangler”) terrorizes Thebes
     Sent by Hera
     The riddle of the Sphinx
     Oedipus’ success and marriage to Jocasta
The Theban Saga


The Recognition of Oedipus
    Differing versions
            Two Homeric passages
            Sophocles’ Oedipus Tyrannus
                   Oedipus and JocastaAntigone, Ismene, Polynices, and Eteocles
                   Plague afflicts Thebes for failing to find the murderer of Laius
                   Messenger from Corinth comes to Thebes and Oedipus learns that he is not the
                       son of Polybus and Merope
                   Servant comes forward who was given Laius’ infant son to expose and turns out
                   to be the sole survivor of the attack at the crossroads
                   Truth of Oedipus’ birth laid bare
                   Jocasta’s suicide
                   Oedipus blinds himself and is banished

The End of the Oedipus Tyrannus
    Regaining heroic stature
    Human and divine relationships
    Acceptance of the will of the gods
    Inevitability of fate
    Personal responsibility for actions committed

Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus
    Produced at Athens posthumously in 401 B. C.
    End of Oedipus’ life
    Precinct of the Eumenides
    Theseus
    Oedipus’ guilt or innocence
    Transformation to heroic status
    Opposition of Creon
    Polynices and his expedition to take Thebes
    Oedipus curses Polynices
The Theban Saga


 The End of the Life of Oedipus
     The miraculous and mysterious passing of Oedipus
     Accorded worship after his death

 Other Versions of the Myth of Oedipus
     Homer: Oedipus dies in battle; Epicaste (Jocasta) is not the mother of children
     Euripides’ Oedipus: servants of Laius blind Oedipus
     Euripides’ Phoenissae : Oedipus not in exile when the expedition of the Seven against Thebes
 comes;         Jocasta still alive; after the failure of the expedition, Jocasta kills herself over the bodies of
 her     sons; Oedipus exiled

 The Myth of Oedipus and Psychoanalytic Theory
     “Oedipus complex” of Sigmund Freud, 1910
     Importance of dreams
     Sublimation and repression of the truth
     Gradual perceptions
     Strength finally to face the truth

 The Seven against Thebes
     The preliminaries to the expedition
        Curse inflicted upon Polynices and Eteocles by Oedipus
        Agreement to rule in alternate years
        Eteocles assumes the kingship first
        Polynices goes to Argos
        Decision to attack Thebes
        Ancient treatments
               Aeschylus’ Seven against Thebes
               Euripides’ Phoenician Women
               Euripides’ Suppliant Women
               Sophocles’ Antigone
               Statius’ Thebaid
The Theban Saga


        The Seven against Thebes: Polynices, Adrastos, Tydeus, Capaneus, Hippomedon,
 Parthenopaeus,                       and Amphiaraüs
        Bribery of Eriphyle, Amphiaraüs’ wife, with necklace of Harmonia

 Incidents on the Journey from Argos to Thebes
      Death of infant Opheltes; establishment of Nemean Games
      Opheltes (“snake child”) becomes Archemorus (“beginner of death”)
      Tydeus slaughters Theban ambush party.

 The Failure of the Attack on Thebes
     Fulfillment of curse
     Atoning suicide of Menoeceus, son of Creon
     Eteocles and Polynices kill each other.
     Death of other heroes; barbarity of Tydeus

 Amphiaraüs
    Adrastus saved by swift steed, Arion
    Amphiaraüs swallowed by the earth along the river Ismenus
    Amphiaraüs, cult hero
The Theban Saga



 Antigone
              Sophocles’ Antigone
              Denial of burial to Polynices by Creon

              Antigone’s refusal to submit
              Antigone buried alive
              Defiance and suicide of Antigone
              Haemon, Creon’s son and fiancé of Antigone, kills himself
              Eurydice, Creon’s wife, kills herself

 Sophocles’ Portrayal of Antigone
             Antigone’s scorn of her sister, Ismene, and indifference towards Haemon
             Focus on Haemon’s love for Antigone
             Antigone as heroine: defiant, relentless, and fierce
             Antigone’s lament of her family’s destiny
             Euripides and the Theban saga
                            Fragmentary remains of Euripides’ Oedipus and Antigone
                            Oedipus blinded at the crossroads by servants of Laius
                            Antigone and Argia, Polynices’ widow, place Polynices’ body on Eteocles’ pyre
                            Antigone is caught and given to Haemon for execution
                            Antigone is hidden and gives birth to Haemon’s son
                            Haemon’s disobedience later realized and lovers commit suicide
                            Euripides’ Phoenissae (extant)
                                          Oedipus and Jocasta are still alive in Thebes when the Seven
                                          attack
                                          Antigone vows to bury Polynices and is sent into exile with
                                          Oedipus
The Theban Saga



  The Burial of the Seven against Thebes

  The Epigoni, Sons of the Seven against Thebes
      Alcmaeon, son of Amphiaraüs
      Epigoni (“later generation”)
      Thebes destroyed a generation before Trojan War

  Alcmaeon, Eriphyle, and the Necklace of Harmonia
      Alcmaeon kills Eriphyle for her treachery
      Flight to Arcadia
      Flight to region where the sun had not shone when Alcmaeon killed his mother
      Death of Alcmaeon
      Dedication of necklace in Delphi

  Tiresias
       Descended from the Spartoi
       Oracular vision/blindness
       Lived for seven generations
       Traditions about his loss of sight
              Ovid’s Metamorphoses
              Callimachus
       Death of Tiresias
       Tiresias in the Underworld
                      Chapter 18: The Mycenaean Saga

Pelops and Tantalus
    Pelops, son of Tantalus, from Asia Minor
    Suitor for Hippodamia, daughter of Oenomaüs, king of Pisa
    Hero cult of Pelops at Olympia
    Tantalus’ offense against the gods
            Dismemberment of Pelops
            Offers his son as a feast for the gods
            Punishment in Underworld
            Cannibalism and sacrificial rituals
            Demeter alone partakes of feast.
            Pelops’ ivory shoulder
            Pindar’s version: Poseidon’s love for Pelops
    The Pelopion
    Sacrifices to Zeus and Pelops
    Eponymous hero of the Peloponnese (“island of Pelops”)
    Temple of Zeus at Olympia
        West pediment: chariot race between Pelops and Oenomaüs
    The race between Pelops and Oenomaüs and the origin of the curse
            Variant: bribery of Myrtilus, son of Hermes
            Demand of Myrtilus and his death
            Curse of Myrtilus

Atreus and Thyestes
     Pelops becomes king of Pisa
     Quarrel between Thyestes and Atreus over Mycenae
     The possession of the golden-fleeced ram
     Thyestes’ seduction of Aërope, Atreus’ wife
     Atreus’ return and exile of Thyestes
     Banquet of Thyestes’ children and Thyestes’ curse
The Mycenaean Saga


 Agamemnon, Clytemnestra, and Aegisthus
     Aegisthus, son of Thyestes and his daughter Pelopia
     Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, husband of Clytemnestra
     Agamemnon and ClytemnestraIphigenia, Electra, Orestes, and Chrysothemis
     Agamemnon, leader of the Greek expedition against Troy
            Sacrifice of Iphigenia at Aulis
            Role of Artemis
            Aeschylus’ Agamemnon
            Euripides’ Iphigenia in Aulis
     Adultery of Clytemnestra with Aegisthus
            Agamemnon murdered, along with Cassandra, by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus
            Homer’s version: murder committed by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus
            Aeschylus’ version: Clytemnestra acts alone

 Orestes and Electra
     Clytemnestra and Aegisthus usurp throne
     Orestes grows to adulthood in exile at the court of Strophius, king of Phocis
     Orestes’ duty to avenge his father’s murder
     Apollo’s command and Electra’s encouragement
     Homer’s Odyssey : Orestes praised for avenging his father
     Sophocles’ Electra : matricide is a just ordinance of Apollo
     Aeschylus’ Libation Bearers: and Euripides’ Electra: matricide elicits feeling of revulsion
            Orestes pursued by the Furies (Erinyes)
            Exile and redemption at Athens
     Aeschylus’ Eumenides: Orestes’ final acquittal and the transformation of the Erinyes into the
         Eumenides (“kindly ones”)
The Mycenaean Saga

  Treatments of Electra and Orestes

  Aeschylus’ Oresteia: Agamemnon, Libation Bearers, and Eumenides
      Movement from blood guilt and vengeance to justice of law courts, from darkness to light, from
         chthonian to olympian
      Agamemnon : curse reinvigorated against Agamemnon
      Libation Bearers : curse moves against Clytemnestra and Aegisthus, and through their deaths,
      against Orestes
      Eumenides : trial of Orestes and acquittal
             Orestes at Delphi
             Command of Apollo sends him to Athens and Athena
             Court of the Areopagus created by Athena; citizen jury
             Apollo’s defense
             Claim of the Erinyes
             Athena’s deciding vote
             Erinyes appeased and become the Eumenides (“kindly ones”)
             Establishment of Zeus’ will

  Sophocles’ Electra
      Electra as focal point
      Matricide accepted as divinely ordained

  Euripides’ Electra
       Debasement of heroic figures
       Electra’s sexual jealousy
       Electra and Orestes act together in the murder of Clytemnestra.

  Euripides’ Iphigenia in Tauris
       Orestes commanded to go to the land of the Tauri
       Sacrifice of foreigners
       Iphigenia discovered as priestess of Artemis
       Cleansing of matricide
       Iphigenia and Orestes return to Greece
The Mycenaean Saga


  Euripides’ Andromache
               Andromache has borne Neoptolemus a son
               Menelaüs and a childless Hermione plan to kill Andromache
               Orestes’ arrival and revelation of betrothal
               Neoptolemus murdered by Orestes
               Appearance of Thetis (deus ex machina)

  Eurpides’ Orestes
               Set in Argos after murder of Clytemnestra
               Tormented Orestes is nursed by Electra
               Condemnation of Orestes and Electra
               Plot to murder Helen and Hermione to avenge themselves on Menelaüs, who refused to aid
                  their cause
               Appearance of Apollo (deus ex machina)
               Helen immortalized; Orestes to go to Athens and be acquitted; Orestes will marry Hermione
                  and Pylades will marry Electra
               Euripides’ debasement of heroic figures
The Mycenaean Saga



  Additional Reading
       Orestes and the three Electras
              Aeschylus’ Libation Bearers (Choephori)
                     Orestes with Pylades at the grave of Agamemnon
                     Electra and a chorus of women bring offerings
                     Recognition scene between Orestes and Electra
                     Threnody: elaboration of their just revenge
                     Orestes and Pylades received by Clytemnestra
                     Aegisthus’ murder
                     Scene between Orestes and Clytemnestra
                     Orestes stands over victims, paralleling Clytemnestra’s earlier murder of
                        Agamemnon and Cassandra.
                     Orestes driven out by the Furies

              Sophocles’ Electra
                   Electra as focal point
                   Matricide accepted as divinely ordained
                   Orestes returns to Mycenae with Pylades
                           In Sophocles both Clytemnestra and Aegisthus take part in the murder of
                              Agamemnon.
                   Electra in mourning
                   Chrysothemis, foil for Electra
                   Bitter scene between Electra and Clytemnestra
                   Electra receives word that Orestes is dead
                   Recognition scene
                   Orestes kills Clytemnestra, then Aegisthus
The Mycenaean Saga



 Euripides’ Electra
               Debasement of heroic figures
               Electra’s sexual jealousy
               Orestes returns with Pylades
               Electra has been forced to marry a kind, but old, man
               More realistic recognition scene
               Aegisthus welcomes the strangers to a sacrificial banquet
               Orestes kills Aegisthus.
                      Electra gloats over Aegisthus’ corpse
               Clytemnestra arrives
               Confrontation between Electra and Clytemnestra
                      Issues of sexual rivalry, jealousy, and psychological perversity
                      Orestes must be goaded by his sister to commit the murder
               Electra and Orestes act together in the murder of Clytemnestra
               Desire for retribution and the trauma of matricide.
               Appearance of the Dioscuri
                      Electra to marry Pylades
                      Orestes to go to Athens for acquittal
                Chapter 19: The Trojan Saga and the Iliad

The Children of Leda
    Leda and Zeus (as a swan)
    Castor and Clytemnestra (mortal egg); Helen and Polydeuces (immortal egg)

The Dioscuri (“sons of Zeus”)
    Castor, tamer of horses and mortal
    Polydeuces (Roman Pollux), skilled in boxing and immortal
    Quarrel with Idas and Lynceus
           Rape of the Leucippides (“daughters of Leucippus”)
    Death of Castor
    Shared immortality of Castor and Polydeuces
    Patrons of sailors (St. Elmo’s fire)

Helen
    Menelaüs, king of Sparta and HelenHermione
    Paris (Alexander), son of Priam and Hecuba, the king and queen of Troy
    The seduction of Helen and the start of the Trojan War
    Variant: Stesichorus’ Palinode: the real Helen and the phantom Helen

The Judgment of Paris
    Wedding of Peleus and Thetis
    Eris, goddess of discord, and the golden apple (“for the most beautiful”)
    Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite vie for honor
    Paris chosen by Zeus to settle dispute
        Hecuba’s dream: Paris as firebrand
        Exposure as an infant
        Hermes leads goddesses to Paris for his judgment.
        Aphrodite wins with offer of Helen
        Lucian (Dialogue of the Gods 20)
The Trojan Saga


Troy and its Leaders
     Laomedon
        King of Troy
        Apollo and Poseidon commissioned to build walls of Troy
        Plague and sea monster sent as punishment
        Exposure of Hesione
        Heracles and the first Greek expedition to Troy
        Priam (Podarces) becomes king of Troy

     Priam and Hecuba
         50 sons and 12 (or 50) daughters
         Hecuba as tragic figure

     Paris (Alexander)
        Paris and Oenone, a nymph with power to heal
        Paris grows to maturity and is received back into Priam’s house
        Favorite of Aphrodite
        Vanity and sensuality
        Paris will ultimately kill Achilles

     Hector, Andromache, and Astyanax
        Hector, brother of Paris
               Greatest of Troy’s defenders
        Andromache, Hector’s wife
        Astyanax, infant son of Hector and Andromache

     Helenus, Deïphobus, and Troïlus
        Helenus, prophet who knew the course of the war’s end
               Caught by Odysseus; survives war
               Marries Andromache
        Deïphobus, husband of Helen after death of Paris
        Troïlus, killed by Achilles; story of Troïlus and Cressida a later development
The Trojan Saga


        Cassandra and Polyxena
              Cassandra, daughter of Priam
              Prophetess, though never believed
              Killed by Clytemnestra
        Polyxena, final virgin sacrifice before the tomb of Achilles

        Aeneas
             Son of Anchises and Aphrodite
             Prophecy about Aeneas and his descendants: future rulers of Troy
             Significant in Roman legends

        Antenor
              Brother of Hecuba
              Counsels return of Helen
              Spared by Greeks
              With wife, Theano, he founds Patavium (Padua) in Italy

        Glaucus and Sarpedon
              Leaders of Lycian contingent
              Glaucus, hereditary guest-friend of Diomedes
                    Killed by Ajax (son of Telamon)
              Sarpedon, son of Zeus and Laodamia
                    Zeus’ Struggle with Sarpedon’s Fate (moira )
                    Sarpedon, second to Hector in nobility on Trojan side
                    Expounds the demands of heroic arete (“excellence”)
        Rhesus
              Leader of Thracians
              Night raid of Odysseus and Diomedes
The Trojan Saga

 The Achaean Leaders
     Independent commanders of their contingents

      Agamemnon
           King of Mycenae
           “Lord of Men”
           Leader of expedition against Troy
           Greatest in prestige

      Menelaüs
           King of Sparta
           Brother of Agamemnon
           Husband of Helen

      Diomedes
           King of Argos and a great warrior
           Favored of Athena
           Wounds Ares and Aphrodite
           Associated with Odysseus
           The Palladium (statue of Pallas), talisman for Troy

      Nestor
               King of Pylos
               Oldest and wisest
               “His speech flowed more sweetly than honey.”
               Survives war

      Ajax the Greater of Salamis
             Son of Telamon
             Bulwark of the Achaeans
             Foil and rival of Odysseus
             Straightforward, brusque
The Trojan Saga


      Ajax the Less (or Lesser)
             Prince of Locrians, son of Oïleus
             Violation of Cassandra and his punishment

      Idomeneus
           Leader of Cretans, son of Deucalion
           Voluntary ally

      Odysseus
           Attempt to avoid war by feigning madness
           Crafty, cunning, of persuasive speech

      Achilles and His Son Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus)
             Prince of the Myrmidons in Phthia
             Greatest of Greek warriors
             Swift-footed, handsome
             Son of Peleus and Thetis
                    Peleus
                           Prince of Phthia, father of Achilles, son of Aeacus (king of Aegina), and brother
                              of Telamon
                           Death of Phocus, exile of Peleus to Phthia, and his purification by Eurytion
                           Participation in the Calydonian boar hunt
                           Accidental death of Eurytion
                           Purification by Acastus, son of Pelias and king of Iolcus
                           Acastus’ wife, Astydamia, falls in love with Peleus
                           Acastus attempts to kill Peleus but fails
                           Son of Peleus and Thetis destined to be greater than the fatherAchilles
The Trojan Saga




                    Thetis
                               Unwilling wife of Peleus
                               A Nereid (“child of Nereus”)
                               Attempts to escape from Peleus
                               Wedding of Peleus and Thetis
                               She leaves Peleus not long after the birth of Achilles
                               Thetis attempts to make Achilles immortal
                               Achilles’ heel
              Educated by the centaur Chiron
              Achilles’ fate: early death with glory, or long life without glory
              Disguised as girl and sent to Scyros
              Achilles’ disguise unmasked by Odysseus
              Achilles and Deïdamia, daughter of Lycomedes, King of ScyrosNeoptolemus (Pyrhhus)

 Phoenix and Patroclus
      Phoenix
          Banished by his father
           Welcomed by Peleus
          Companion and tutor to Achilles
      Patroclus
          Also received by Peleus
          Closest companion of Achilles
          Later tradition would see them as lovers
The Trojan Saga


 The gathering of the expedition at Aulis
     Aulis, on the coast of Boeotia, opposite Euboea
     Roughly 1,200 ships
     The sacrifice of Iphigenia
            The anger of Artemis and the prophet Calchas
            Calchas’ prophecy about the length of the war

 The Arrival at Troy
     Philoctetes
             Son of Poeas
             Island of Chryse and Philoctetes’ wound
             Abandonment of Philoctetes on Lemnos
             Bow of Heracles and the fate of Troy
             Philoctetes kills Paris

      Achilles heals Telephus
             Mysian Hero, son of Heracles
             “He that wounded shall heal.”

      Protesilaüs and Laodamia
            Protesilaüs killed by Hector as the Greeks come ashore
            Laodamia’s grief
            Brief return of Protesilaüs and Laodamia’s suicide
            Cycnus, son of Poseidon, turned into a swan
The Trojan Saga

The Iliad
     From the quarrel between Achilles and Agamemnon to the burial of Hector
     Chryseïs, daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo
     Plague sent by Apollo
     Briseïs taken from Achilles as recompense
     Wrath of Achilles and his refusal to fight
     Heroic arete (“excellence”) wounded
     Epiphany of Athena to Achilles
     Thetis and Zeus
     Truce and duel between Menalaüs and Paris
     The farewell of Hector and Andromache
     Embassy to Achilles
            Odysseus’ attempt to soften Agamemnon’s words
            Achilles’ response
            Roles of Phoenix and Ajax
     Trojan victory and fire at the Greek ships
     Patroclus enters struggle
     Death of Sarpedon
     Patroclus killed by Hector
     Achilles’ unquenchable grief and rage
     Shield of Achilles fashioned by Hephaestus
     Achilles’ return
     Death of Hector
     Mutilation of Hector’s corpse
     Priam’s journey to ransom the body of Hector
     Achilles relents
     Burial of Hector

The Olympian Gods in Battle
    Intimate involvement in conflict
    Theomachies (“conflicts between gods”)

The Universality of the Iliad
    War as universal human experience
The Trojan Saga



The Fall of Troy
     Sources: summaries of lost epics, tragedy, representations in art, and Vergil’s Aeneid
Achilles and Penthesilea, leader of the Amazons
Achilles and Memnon, son of Eos (Aurora), leader of the Ethiopians
Death of Achilles
     Wounded in the heel by Paris with the aid of Apollo
     Corpse recovered by Ajax
     Ghost of Achilles and the sacrifice of Polyxena

Odysseus and Ajax Compete for the Armor of Achilles
    Disgrace of Ajax, his madness, and suicide
    Sophocles’ Ajax

The Deaths of Paris and Priam
    Summons of Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) and Philoctetes
    Philoctetes kills Paris.
    Neoptolemus butchers Priam
    Vergil’s Aeneid

The Wooden Horse
    Epeus
    Homer’s Odyssey and the song of Demodocus
    Vergil’s Aeneid, Book 2: a detailed account of the sack of Troy
    Odysseus’ role
    Sinon
    Laocoön’s fear of the horse and his death, along with his two sons
The Trojan Saga


The Sack of Troy
    The wooden horse is brought inside Troy
    Greeks return from Tenedos
    Slaughter of Trojans
    Violation of Cassandra and her eventual murder
    Hecuba’s transformation; Cynossema (“dog’s tomb”)

The Trojan Women of Euripides
    Death of Astyanax

The Sack of Troy in the Aeneid
     Witness of Troy’s death throes, Aeneas, survives sack
    Anchises and Ascanius (Iulus)
    Creusa, Aeneas’ wife; her appearance as a ghost
The Trojan Saga



        Appendix
             Meleager and the Calydonian boar hunt
             The embassy to Achilles and Phoenix' cautionary tale of Meleager
                         After the Calydonian boar hunt Meleager, in a quarrel, killed his uncle, brother
                             of his mother Althaea
                         In grief Althaea prays for the death of her son
                         In anger Meleager withdraws from battle
                         Cleopatra, Meleager’s wife, successfully appeals to him, but he returns to battle
                             too late to receive the earlier offer of reward
                         In the Book 9 of the Iliad Phoenix uses the argument of lost rewards to try and
                             persuade Achilles to return to battle
             Calydonian boar hunt
                         The François Vase
                         Ovid’s version in the Metamorphoses
                                         Oeneus, descendant of Aeolus, king of Calydon, father of
                                            Deïanira
                                         Meleager, son of Oeneus
                                         Althaea, mother of Meleager, and the prophecy of the log
                                         Oeneus’ offense against Artemis
                                         Artemis sends a huge boar to ravage Calydon
                                         Gathering of heroes by Meleager
                                         Atalanta, daughter of Schoenus, a Boeotian king
                                         Atalanta is first to wound the boar; Meleager delivers the killing
                                            blow
                                         Meleager favors Atalanta
                                         Death of Althaea’s brothers
                                         The burning of the log and the death of Meleager
                                         Mourning women turned into guinea fowl (meleagrides)
The Trojan Saga


Homer’s version
              Boar sent by Artemis during war between Calydonians and Curetes
              Meleager kills boar
              Curse of Althaea; Meleager withdraws from the war
              Meleager relents, and returns and saves Calydon
Bacchylides’ fifth Epinician Ode
              Ghost of Meleager and Heracles
The tradition of Atalanta
              Euripides’ Phoenissae: Atalanta as the mother of Parthenopaeus, one of the Seven against
                  Thebes
                    Chapter 20: The Returns and the Odyssey
Epic Nostoi (“returns”)

Agamemnon, Menelaüs, and Nestor
    Athena’s anger at Ajax, son of Oïleus
    Agamemnon’s return and murder
    Menelaüs, Nestor, and Diomedes set sail together.
          Menelaüs in Egypt; Eidothea and Proteus
          Return of Helen and Menelaüs to Sparta
          Menelaüs in Elysian Fields
          Nestor’s return to Pylos

Diomedes
    Return to Argos; adultery of his wife, Aegialia
    Sails to Italy and received by Daunus, king of Apulia
    Hero cult

Idomeneus
     Return to Crete; adultery of his wife, Meda, and her murder
     Usurpation of throne by Leucus
            Story of Idomeneus’ sacrifice of his son
     Idomeneus driven to Calabria in southern Italy
     Hero cult
Philoctetes
     Return to Thessaly
     Driven to southern Italy
     Hero cult
The Returns

Neoptolemus
    Return over land accompanied by Helenus and Andromache
    Leaves Phthia with them and his wife, Hermione, and comes to Molossi in Epirus
    Killed at Delphi
    Hero cult

Odysseus
    Return of Odysseus: elements of folktale and romantic legends grafted onto the saga
    Adventures of Odysseus followed by a captivity of seven years on the island of Ogygia with
       Calypso, his location at the beginning of Homer’s Odyssey
    Ten years wandering

Story of Odysseus
     As the Odyssey opens: Odysseus with Calypso on Ogygia; Penelope, his wife, beset by suitors;
and      Telemachus, his son, struggling to grow to adulthood in his father’s absence
     Odysseus himself will sing the song of his adventures to the Phaeacians
     Poseidon’s wrath
     Athena’s protection

The Cicones and the Lotus Eaters
    Cicones
           Thracian city of Ismarus sacked by Odysseus
           Gift of wine for sparing Maron, priest of Apollo
    Lotus Eaters
        Fruit of the lotus, which blots out the desire to return home

The Cyclopes (One-Eyed Giants)
    Polyphemus, son of Poseidon
    Polyphemus’ cave
    Odysseus as Nobody (Outis)
    Blinding of the Cyclops
    Escape on the underside of a ram
    Disclosure of Odysseus’ name
    Polyphemus’ curse
The Returns


Aeolus and the Laestrygonians
    Aeolus, keeper of the winds
    Gift to Odysseus: bag of winds
    Stupidity of Odysseus’ men
    Aeolus’ refusal of additional aid
    Laestrygonians: sinking of all of Odysseus’ ships but his own

Circe
     Island of Aeaea
     Sorceress, daughter of the Sun
     Men transformed into swine
     Hermes’ aid: moly
     Odysseus spends one year with Circe; birth of Telegonus
     Circe counsels journey to Underworld

The Nekuia (Book of the Dead)
    Odyssey, Book 11
    Tiresias
    Meeting with old comrades
           Agamemnon
           Achilles
           Ajax

The Sirens, the Planctae, Charybdis, and Scylla
    In Homer the Sirens are human in form.
            In the later tradition they become birdlike, with women’s heads
            The song of the Sirens
            Odysseus lashed to the mast; crew’s ears stopped up with wax
    “The Wandering Rocks” (Planctae)
    Scylla, monster with girdle of six dogs’ heads
    Charybdis, a whirlpool
The Returns


The Cattle of the Sun (Helius)
    Island of Thrinacia
    Theft of the cattle
    Loss of all of Odysseus’ men

Calypso
    Daughter of Atlas
    Ogygia
    Seven years’ captivity of Odysseus

The Phaeacians
    Approach to Scheria, island of the Phaeacians
    Rescue of Leucothea
    Nausicaä
    Palace of Alcinoüs and Arete
    Odysseus’ tale
    Return of Odysseus to Ithaca
    Punishment of the Phaeacians

Ithaca
     Suitors courting Penelope
     Penelope’s ruse of the loom
     Telemachus, growing to manhood, but still too young to succeed his father
     Odysseus, recognized by Eumaeus and Telemachus
     Odysseus’ entrance into the palace in the guise of a beggar
     Ill treatment by Melanthius, a hanger-on
     Argus, Odysseus’ old dog, recognizes his master and dies
     Odysseus receives insults from the suitors and another beggar, Irus
     Euryclea, Odysseus’ old nurse
     The contest of the bow
The Returns


The Bow and the Killing of the Suitors
    The suitors fail
    Telemachus nearly succeeds
    Odysseus strings bow and begins to kill the suitors, beginning with Antinoüs
    Medon, the herald, and Phemius, the bard, are spared
    Twelve maid-servants who colluded with the suitors are hanged
    Melanthius is mutilated and killed

Telemachus
    Hero as a young man
    Athena’s aid as Mentes
    Worthy son of his father
    Mini-odyssey to Pylos and Sparta to learn word of his father

Penelope
    Perfect match for her husband, who is polytropos (“man of many twists and turns”)
    Penelope’s dream about her geese
    Penelope’s cunning and guile
    Her steadfastness and resourcefulness
    Periphron (“circumspect”)
    The secret of the bed: a living olive tree

Naming Odysseus
    Odysseus from Greek odyssamenos (“causing hatred or having hatred directed at oneself”)
    George Dimock’s “man of pain”
    Anonymity/naming of Odysseus
    Odysseus controls the revelation of his name (cf. Outis [“nobody”])
    Man of many disguises and deceptions as to his identity
The Returns


The End of the Odyssey
    Hermes escorts souls of suitors to Underworld
    Penelope praised by Agamemnon
    Contrast with Clytemnestra
    Revelation to Laërtes, father of Odysseus
    A final stuggle with Laertes, Odysseus, and Telemachus fighting alongside one another
    Athena and Zeus enforce a settlement

Odysseus and Athena
    Odysseus’ strengths of wisdom, guile, and cunning are fitting complements to the attributes of
    Athena

The End of Odysseus’ Life
    Tiresias’ prophecy
    Telegonus, son of Circe and Odysseus, kills Odysseus

The Universality of the Odyssey
    Archetype of the legendary quest
    Odysseus (Roman Ulysses), symbol of patience, and perseverance; importance for the Stoics
    Plato’s Myth of Er and Odysseus’ choice for his next life
    Odysseus and Penelope: exemplars of human and heroic arete (“excellence”)
              Chapter 21: Perseus and the Legends of Argos
Hera and Phoroneus
    Argos’ connection with Corinth and Thebes, and the eastern Mediterranean
    Mycenaean Argolid
    Center for the worship of Hera
    Argive Heraeum
    Phoroneus establishes the kingdom of Argos
    Contest between Poseidon and Hera for patronage of Argos
    Poseidon’s wrath/rivers dry up
    Inachus, river in region and father of Phoroneus

Perseus

    Danaë and Acrisius
         AbasProetus and Acrisius
         Acrisius, king of Argos, father of Danaë
         Proetus, king of Tiryns
         Oracle about Danaë’s son
         Imprisonment of Danaë in brazen chamber
         Zeus as shower of gold
         Birth of Perseus
         Danaë and Perseus put in chest and set adrift
         Island of Seriphos and the fisherman Dictys (net)

    Polydectes
          Polydectes, brother of Dictys and king of Seriphos
          Desire for Danaë
          Banquet and Perseus’ ill-considered offer of the Gorgon’s head
          Aid promised by Hermes and Athena
Perseus


The Graeae
    Three daughters of Phorcys, the Graeae (or Graiai, “aged ones”)
    Graeae have knowledge of the location of the Three Nymphs, who had magic objects
        A cap of invisibility, a pair of winged sandals, and bag, or kibisis
       Hermes’ gift of the scimitar
    Graeae share one eye and one tooth between them


The Gorgons
    At the edge of the world; usually North Africa
    Pindar’s Pythian Ode 10: Perseus’ journey to the north and the Hyperboreans
    One mortal Gorgon: Medusa
    The power to turn men to stone
    Birth of Chrysaor (“he of the golden sword”) and Pegasus from body of Medusa, pregnant by
        Poseidon
    Hippocrene (“horse’s fountain”) on Mt. Helicon, home of the Muses
    Association with music and poetry
    Pindar’s Pythian Ode 12: description of Athena’s invention of the double-flute in imitation of the
        Gorgon’s lament for Medusa

Andromeda
    Early addition to Perseus’ legend
    Andromeda, daughter of King Cepheus and Queen Cassiepea
    Ethiopia or the Levant
    Cassiepea’s hubris
    Poseidon’s sends a sea monster to ravage country
    Andromeda to be sacrificed to placate monster
    Perseus promises rescue, if he is allowed to marry Andromeda.
    Cepheus’ brother, Phineus, Andromeda’s former fiancé, and a band of armed men turned to stone
    Perses, son of Perseus and Andromeda
    Perseus and Andromeda return to Seriphos
Perseus


The Origin of the Libyan Snakes, the Atlas Range, and Coral
    Gorgon’s blood drips upon land of Libya, producing poisonous snakes
    Atlas refuses hospitality to Perseus and is turned to stone; the origin of the Atlas Range
    Head of Medusa laid upon leaves and branches; transformation to coral

Polydectes and Perseus’ Return to Argos
     Polydectes and his followers turned to stone
     Dictys becomes king of Seriphos
     Return of magic objects
     Gorgon’s head, given to Athena, is placed on her aegis

The Death of Acrisius
    Acrisius’ flight to Larissa in Thessaly
    Perseus kills Acrisius with ill-aimed discus
    Perseus returns to Tiryns; exchange of kingdoms with Megapenthes
    Perseus founds Mycenae
    Hero cult
    Children of Perseus and Andromeda: kings of Mycenae
    Heracles and Eurystheus

Saga and Folktale
    Numerous folktale motifs
          Magical conception of hero by princess
          Discovery of hero as a child by noise of his playing
          Evil king and good brother
          Rash promise of the hero
          Supernatural assistance
          Three old women with advice
          Monsters of terrible visage
          Vindication of hero and punishment of villain
Perseus


Other Legends of Argos
    The family of Inachus
        Io, daughter of Inachus
            Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound and Supplices
            Beloved by Zeus
            Her transformation to a cow
            The jealousy of Hera
            Put under the ever-watchful eyes of Argus
                    Hermes Argeïphontes (“slayer of Argus”)
            A gadfly compels Io to wander, eventually all the way to Egypt
            Io’s restoration to human form
            Birth of Epaphus, ancestor of Heracles
                    Identification of Epaphus with Apis by Egyptians
            Io worshiped as Isis
            Io originally a goddess
                    She may have been a form of Hera
                    Isis represented as woman with cow’s horns (as the moon-goddess Astarte)

     The Descendants of Io
          Io as founder of royal families of Egypt, Argos, Phoenicia, Thebes, and Crete
          Libya, daughter of Epaphus
          Agenor and Belus, twin sons of Epaphus
          Agenor, king of Tyre, father of Cadmus and Europa
          Belus, father of twins, Aegyptus and Danaüs
Perseus



 The Daughters of Danaüs
     Danaüs forced to leave Egypt
     Danaïds (his fifty daughters)
     Arrival in Argos
     Danaüs becomes king.
     Aegyptus’ fifty sons claim their fifty cousins as brides.
     The crime of the Danaïds and their punishment in the Underworld
     Hypermnestra spares Lynceus;AbasProetus and Acrisius

 Amymone
    Danaïd Amymone and Poseidon
    The creation of the spring Amymone

 Other Argive Heroes
     The seer Melampus
     The Seven against Thebes, including Tydeus, father of Diomedes, hero of the Trojan War
Perseus


 Appendix

 Bellerophon
               Grandson of Sisyphus
               Bellerophon’s blood guilt
               Exiled to Tiryns, at the court of King Proetus
               Proetus’ wife Stheneboea (or Antea)
               Accusations against Bellerophon
               Bellerophon sent to Iobates, king of Lycia, father of Stheneboea, to be killed
               Exploits of Bellerophon imposed by Iobates
                              Chimaera
                              The Solymi
                              The Amazons
                              An ambush
               Bellerophon, father of Hippolochus (Glaucus’ father), Isandrus and Laodamia, the mother
                   of Sarpedon
               Laodamia killed by Artemis
               End of Bellerophon
               Euripides’ Bellerophon
               Pindar’s Olympian Ode 13
               Introduction of Pegasus into the myth of Perseus
               Euripides’ Stheneboea (in which Bellerophon kills Stheneboea)
                                       Chapter 22: Heracles
Heracles—Man, Hero, and God

Amphitryon and Alcmena
   Electryon, king of Mycenae
   Conflict with Pterelaüs, king of the Teleboans
   Amphitryon, son of Electryon’s brother, Alcaeus, betrothed to Alcmena
   Death of Electryon
   Treachery of Comaetho, daughter of Pterelaüs, and his golden hair
   Zeus disguised as Amphitryon
   Alcmena and ZeusHeracles
   Alcmena and AmphitryonIphicles
   Plautus’ Amphitruo

The Birth of Heracles and His Early Exploits
    Hostility of Hera
    Birth of Eurystheus hastened
    Heracles’ birth delayed
    The infant Heracles and the snakes
    Heracles’ tutors: Amphitryon (chariot driving), Autolycus (wrestling), Eurytus (archery), and   Linus
        (music)
    Death of Linus
    The daughters of Thespius
    Marriage to Megara, daughter of Creon

The Madness of Heracles
    Heracles kills Megara and their children.
    Purified by Thespius
    The Delphic oracle and the twelve Labors
    Now called Heracles, formerly Alcides
    Variations of chronological sequence:
       Eurpides’ Heracles
       Sophocles’ Trachiniae
       Apollodorus
Heracles


The Twelve Labors
    Athloi (“Labors”); immortality the ultimate prize
    Assistance given by Athena and Heracles’ nephew Iolaüs
    Six Labors take place in the Peloponnesus.
    Six Labors occur outside of Greece.

     The Peloponnesian Labors (along with Parerga (“side exploits”)

           1. The Nemean Lion
                  Club and lion skin

           2. The Lernaean Hyrdra
                  Arrows dipped in Hydra’s poison

           3. The Cerynean Hind
                  Pindar’s Olympian Ode 3

           4. The Erymanthian Boar
                  Parergon: Encounter with centaur Pholus
                     Chiron’s immortality

           5. The Augean Stables
                  Augeas, son of Helius (the Sun) and king of Elis
                  Heracles’ expedition against Augeas
                  Institution of the Olympic Games

           6. The Stymphalian Birds
Heracles


     The Non-Peloponnesian Labors

           7. The Cretan Bull

           8. The Mares of Diomedes
                  Diomedes, son of Ares and Thracian king
                     Parergon: Admetus, king of Pherae
                     Struggle with Thanatos (“death”)
                     Restoration of Alcestis, wife of Admetus

           9. The Girdle of Hippolyta
                  Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons
                     Parergon: Heracles in Troy and his rescue of Hesione
                     Priam (Podarces) given throne

           10. The Cattle of Geryon
                  Conquest of death
                  Geryon, three-bodied monster, son of Oceanid Callirhoë and Chrysaor
                  Orthus (or Orthrus), two-headed hound
                  Cup of Helius (“the sun”)
                  Pillars of Heracles
                  Parerga
                      Attack of the Ligurians
                      Struggle with Eryx, king of Mt. Eryx, at the western end of Sicily
                      Killing of Alcyoneus
                  Variant of Geryon story:
                           Herodotus
                           Echidna (“snake woman”)
Heracles




           Melampus and the Cattle of Phylacus
             Bias and Melampus, children of Amythaon
             Melampus, a seer with the power to talk to animals
             Bias, a suitor of Pero, daughter of Neleus
             Bride-price of cattle of Phylacus, king of Phylace
             Aid of Melampus and his imprisonment
             Story of the woodworms
             The impotence of Iphiclus is cured and he becomes the father of Podarces and Protesilaüs
             Melampus given cattle as reward
             Parallels with the theft of the cattle of Geryon as a conquest of death
             Melampus, like Heracles, a conqueror of death
Heracles




           11. The Apples of the Hesperides
                 Conquest of death
                 Hesperides, daughters of Night
                 The guardian serpent Ladon
                 Golden apples given by Ge to Hera
                 Nereus, a sea-god, informs Heracles
                 Variant: aid given by Atlas
                 Tree as symbol of immortality (Tree of Life)
                 Parerga
                                Killing of Busiris, king of Egypt
                                Killing of Antaeus, son of Ge and Poseidon
                                Rescue of Prometheus

           12. Cerberus
                 Conquest of death
                 Cerberus, three-headed hound of Hades
                 Aid of Hermes and Athena
                 Additional incidents
                               Encounter with Theseus and Perithoüs
                               Ghost of Meleager
                               Deïanira, daughter of Meleager, offered to Heracles as wife
                               Euripides’ Heracles
Heracles



Other Deeds of Heracles
    Cycnus, a brigand and a son of Ares
    Syleus, a robber
    Cercopes, pair of dwarfs
          Folktale elements
          “To beware the black-bottomed man”
    Hylas
          Heracles, as Argonaut
          Loss of Hylas, Heracles’ companion
          Cult of Hylas at Cios

     Military expeditions
             Gigantomachy
             Attack upon Laomedon, king of Troy
             Attack upon Augeas, king of Elis
             Attack upon Neleus, king of Pylos; Nestor spared and became king
                    Periclymenus and his transformation into a bee
             Attack upon the god Hades
             Attack upon Hippocoön, king of Sparta
                    Death of Iphicles
                    Heracles and AugeTelephus, eventual king of Mysians
                    Ally of Aegimius, king of the Dorians
             Conflicting traditions: brutality of Heracles, a glutton and a drunkard, contrasted with Heracles
             as a paragon of virtue
Heracles


Heracles, Deïanira, and Iole
    Marriage to Deïanira
           Daughter of Oeneus, king of Calydon
           Struggle with Acheloüs
           The horn of Amalthea
           The centaur Nessus
           The deception of Nessus and the love potion
           Heracles and DeïaniraHyllus, a son, and Marcaria, a daughter
    Iole
           Daughter of Eurytus, king of Oechalia
           Refusal of Iole by Eurytus
           Murder of Iphicles, brother of Iole
           Heracles at Delphi
           Attempt upon the sacred tripod
           Struggle with Apollo and Zeus’ intervention
           Slave to Omphale from one year

     Omphale
          Queen of the Lydians
          Heracles as woman

     The death of Heracles
           The reception of Ceyx, king of Trachis
           Sophocles’Trachiniae
           Jealousy of Deïanira
           Blood of Nessus and the poisoned robe
           Heracles’ torment
           Pyre on Mt. Oeta
           Hyllus promises to marry Iole
           Poeas, father of Philoctetes, given Heracles’ bow for lighting pyre
           Mortality of Heracles burned away
           Immortality on Olympus; marriage to Hebe
Heracles

Heracles: Man, Hero, and God
    Homer’s Odyssey
    Heracles’ name (“glory of Hera”)
    Associations with Argos, Mycenae, Tiryns, Boeotia, and Trachis
    Origins of Heracles
    Similarities to Eastern figures:
           One of the twelve Egyptian gods
           Phoenician Melkart
           Israelite Samson
           Mesopotamian Gilgamesh
           Cilician Sandas
           Indian Indra
    Master of animals
    Diverse treatment of character
           Sophocles’ Trachiniae
           Euripides’ Heracles and Alcestis
           Aristophanes’ Frogs
    Figure of fortitude, attaining immortality by virtue
           Story of Prodicus of Ceos
           Heracles at the crossroads

The Heraclidae
    Alcmena, Eurystheus, and the children of Heracles
           Persecution of Eurystheus
           Death of Eurystheus
           Euripides’ Heraclidae
                  Alcmena and children received by King Demophon, son of Theseus and king of
                      Athens
                  Marcaria’s self-sacrifice
           Pindar’s Pythian Ode 9
                  Iolaüs kills Eurystheus
           Cults of Eurystheus, Iolaüs, and Alcmena
           Alcmena in Elysium, becomes wife of Rhadamanthys, brother of Minos
Heracles


The Return of the Heraclidae (“Sons of Heracles”)
    Dorian tribes in the Peloponnesus at the end of the Mycenaean period
    Truce of one hundred years
    The return of the Heraclidae
    Division of region
           Lacedaemon (Sparta) to Procles and Eurysthenes
           Argos to Temenus
           Messene to Cresphontes
                  Subjugation of Messene by the Spartans
             Chapter 23: Theseus and the Legends of Attica

The Early Kings and Their Legends

       Cecrops, Erichthonius, and Erechtheus
             Authochonous (“sprung from the earth”)
             Cecrops, earliest king
                    Sprung from the earth
                    Serpent-shaped in lower half of his body
                    Founder of Attica (Cecropia)

              Erichthonius, another early figure in Attic mythology
                     Serpent-shaped (-chthon- element in his name means “earth”)
                     Hephaestus’ sexual advances upon Athena
                     The daughters of Cecrops:
                            Pandrosos (“bright”), Aglauros (“dew”), and Herse (“all-dew”)
                            Originally fertility goddesses
                            Driven to madness and suicide
                     Erichthonius is credited with establishing the Panathenaea and the wooden statue
                            of Athena on the Acropolis
                     Confusion with grandson and successor, Erectheus
Theseus


          Erechtheus
                Both Erechtheus and Erichthonius are forms of Poseidon
                Prophecy of cult worship
                Poseidon-Erechtheus and a sacrifice of bulls
                Erectheum, temple on the Acropolis dedicated to Athena Polias (guardian of the city) and
                   Erectheus
                      Sacred objects
                         Wooden cult statue of Athena
                         The tomb of Erectheus
                         The salt spring caused by Poseidon’s trident blow
                          Athena’s olive tree
                      Erechtheum and other shrines associated with earliest myths of Athens
                      Bronze Age Mycenaean fortress of Athens built on Acropolis
                      Erechtheus, defender of Athens
                             Wards off attack of Eleusinians by the Thracian Eumolpus
                                       Eumolpus, ancestor of hereditary priests of Eleusis
                             Sacrifice of the daughters of Erechtheus and Praxithea
                             Death of Eumolpus
                             Euripides’ Erechtheus
                             Variant: Euripides’ Ion
                                 Creusa alone not sacrificed
                      Euripides’ Medea
                      Ovid’s Metamorphoses
                             Hermes and HerseCephalus
                             Aglauros filled with envy and transformed into a rock
 Theseus


 Cephalus and Procris
     Cephalus and Eos (“dawn”)
     Cephalus and Procris, daughter of Erechtheus
     Ovid’s Metamorphoses
            Cephalus tempted by Aurora to make trial of Procris
            Procris’ shame and refuge with Artemis
            Laelaps, a hound that always caught its prey
            An unerring javelin
            Subsequent reconciliation between Cephalus and Procris
            Transformation of Laelaps and his prey into a statue
            Death of Procris

 Philomela, Procne, and Tereus
      Pandion, successor of Erichthonius, father of Philomela and Procne
      Tereus, Thracian king, given Procne in marriageItys
      Rape and mutilation of Philomela by Tereus
      Murder of Itys; served to Tereus at a feast
      Transformation of Procne into a nightingale, Philomela into a swallow, and Tereus into a hoopoe;
             for Latin authors Philomela became a nightingale and Procne a swallow

The Ion of Euripides
      Pandion, succeeded by Erechtheus
      Creusa, daughter of Erechtheus, not sacrificed by her father
      Apollo and CreusaIon
      Ion exposed, but saved by Hermes
      Ion brought to Delphi and made temple servant
      Creusa given as wife to Xuthus
      Xuthus’ attempt upon Ion’s life
      Ion, ancestor of four Ionic tribes
      Colonization of part of the coast of Asia Minor and the islands; Ionia
Theseus


Orithyia and Boreas and Their Children
     Orithyia, daughter of Erechtheus, and Boreas (North Wind)Zetes and Calaïs; and Cleopatra
         and Chione
            Zetes and Calaïs, Argonauts
            Chione and PoseidionEumolpus
            Cleopatra and Phineus

The Confused Genealogy of the Kings of Athens
    Repetition of Pandion and Cecrops in the kingship lists
    Pandion exiled by Metion, his uncle
    Pandion’s flight to Megara
    Four sons: Aegeus, Pallas, Nisus, and Lycus
    Recovery of kingship of Athens
           Aegeus becomes king of Athens
           Nisus becomes king of Megara

Theseus
    Aegeus is another form of Poseidon; connection with the Aegean Sea
    Poseidon as father of Theseus
    Childlessness of Aegeus
    Consultation of the Delphic oracle: “not to undo the wineskin’s mouth”
    Pittheus, king of Troezen
    Aethra, daughter of King Pittheus
    Theseus grows to maturity; the rock, the sword, and the sandals
    Journey to Athens
    Hero of Attica
    Associations with Heracles
Theseus


 Theseus’ Six Labors on His Journey from Troezen to Athens
     1. Periphetes, or Corynetes (“club man”), brigand and son of Hephaestus
     2. Sinis, or Pityocamptes (“pine bender”), at the Isthmus of Corinth, robber
     3. The Crommyon sow
     4. Sciron and the gigantic turtle
     5. Cercyon at Eleusis
     6. Procrustes (“the stretcher”)

 Theseus Is Recognized by Aegeus
     Bacchylides of Ceos, Dithyramb 18
     Medea’s attempts upon the life of Theseus
     Medus, son of Aegeus and Medea
     Recognition of Theseus
     Theseus foils plot hatched by Pallas, Aegeus’ brother.

 The Bull of Marathon
     Capture of bull (sometimes identified with the bull of Heracles’ Labors)
     Sacrifice to Apollo Delphinius
     Hecale, old woman who entertained Theseus
     Honors to Zeus Hecalus

 The Minotaur
     Androgeus, son of King Minos of Crete, killed in Attica
     Vengeance of Minos against Athens and Megara, an ally of Athens
     Treaty made with Aegeus
          Tribute of seven Athenian youths and seven girls to be fed to the Minotaur in the Labyrinth
     Theseus volunteers to go to Crete.
     On the voyage:
              Midas’ attack on the maid Eriboea and his claim to be a son of Zeus
              Theseus’ claim to be Poseidon’s son
              The sign of the ring
              Bacchylides’ Dithyramb 17
     Assistance of Ariadne, daughter of Minos
     Killing of the Minotaur
Theseus


Ariadne on Naxos
     Ariadne and the wreath (or Amphitrite’s wreath)
     Flight of Ariadne and Theseus to Naxos (or Dia, its earlier name)
     Abandonment of Ariadne and the arrival of Dionysus
     Transformation of the wreath to the constellation Corona
     Ariadne, originally divine, perhaps a form of Aphrodite
     Hesiod’s Theogony
     Catullus 64
     Ovid’s Ars Amatoria 1
     Homer: Ariadne killed by Artemis on Naxos
     Variant: Ariadne dies in Cyprus giving birth to Theseus’ child
             Institution of ritual
             Ariadne Aphrodite
             Imitation by young men of women in childbirth

Theseus Becomes King of Athens
    Theseus on Delos
           The Crane dance (geranos)
           Imitation of the windings of the Labyrinth
    Sailing to Athens and the suicide of Aegeus
           The naming of the Aegean Sea
    Synoecism of Attica (union of villages into a political unit around Athens)
    Refounding of Isthmian Games
Theseus


 The Amazons
     Expedition against Amazons with Heracles
     Antiope and TheseusHippolytus
     Symbol of conquest over barbarism

 Theseus and Pirithoüs
     Pirithoüs, king of Lapiths and son of Ixion, friend of Theseus
     Fight between Lapiths and Centaurs
     Attempt to get wives: Pirithoüs (Persephone); Theseus (Helen)
            Helen kidnapped, hidden with Aethra, and rescued by the Dioscuri
            Menestheus and the institution of cult to the Dioscuri
            Aethra becomes servant of Helen
            Pirithoüs and Theseus in the Underworld; the magic chairs
            Rescue of Theseus by Heracles

 Theseus, Phaedra, and Hippolytus
     Aphrodite and Artemis
     Phaedra (“bright”), daughter of Minos
     Theseus and PhaedraDemophon and Acamas
     Phaedra may have divine origins
     Love of Phaedra for Hippolytus
     The role of Phaedra’s nurse
     Phaedra’s letter of accusation and suicide
     Banishment of Hippolytus by Theseus
     Theseus’ prayer to Poseidon
     Death of Hippolytus
     Euripides’ two tragedies about Hippolytus
     Seneca’s version
     Racine’s Phèdre
     Cult of Hippolytus at Troezen in connection with Artemis
     Cult of Hippolytus at Athens in connection with Aphrodite
     Resurrection by Asclepius; resurrected Hippolytus as Virbius to Romans
Theseus


Theseus as Champion of the Oppressed
    Kings of Athens as protectors of victims of tyranny
           Protection of Medea by Aegeus
           Protection of Oedipus and the mothers of the Seven against Thebes by Theseus
           Theseus as noble king in later literature
                 Statius’ Thebaid
                 Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, “The Knight’s Tale”
                 Shakespeare’s Midsummer Night’s Dream (as Duke Theseus)

Other Adventures of Theseus
    Association with the Argonauts
    Association with the Calydonian boar hunt
    “Not without Theseus”
    “A second Heracles”
    End of Theseus’ life
           Exiled from Athens
           Menestheus assumes kingship.
           Theseus sails to Scyros and is killed by Lycomedes
           Menestheus dies at Troy
           Sons of Theseus regain throne
    The recovery of the “bones of Theseus” after the capture of Scyros in the Persian Wars by the
Athenian      Cimon at the command of the Delphic oracle

Theseus in Greek Tragedy
    Contrast between the character of Theseus of Euripides’ Hippolytus and that in other sources
    Elements in legend of Theseus develop before fifth century
    Idealized portrait of Theseus created with the emergence of democracy and the establishment of the
       Athenian Empire
           Theseus in Euripides’ Suppliants and Heracles; Sophocles’ Oedipus at Colonus
Theseus


Demophon
   Assistence given to the Heraclidae (“children of Heracles”)
   Love of Phyllis, a Thracian princess and her suicide; transformation into an almond tree

Codrus
    Last king of Athens
    Sacrifice of his life for the city

Minos
    Daedalus and Minos
         Daedalus, son or grandson of Metion, brother of Cecrops
         Craftsman and inventor
         Assistance of nephew Perdix, who invented the saw
         Daedalus’ attempted murder of Perdix, who was transformated into a partridge (perdix)
         The bull from the sea sent by Poseidon in answer to Midas’ prayer
         Pasiphaë’s love for the bull and Daedalus’ wooden cow
         Birth of the Minotaur
         Construction of the Labyrinth
         Historical elements behind the myth
                Importance of the bull in Cretan civilization
                Labrys or double-headed axe, a common sacred object
                The maze and the layout of the palace at Cnossus
         Minos and Pasiphaë, originally divine figures
                Minos as son and friend of Zeus
                Pasiphaë (“all shining”) as daughter of Helius
Theseus


The Flight of Icarus
    Escape of Daedalus and his son, Icarus, from Crete
    The wings of wax
    The death of Icarus and the Mare Icarium
    Ovid’s Metamorphoses
    Daedalus reaches Sicily
    Cocalus, the king of Camicus
    Pursuit of Minos
    Ruse of the spiral shell
    Death of Minos

The Family of Minos
    Children of Minos and Pasiphaë: the sons Catreus, Deucalion, Glaucus, and Androgeos; the
       daughthers Ariadne and Phaedra
           Catreus, king of Crete
                  Althaemenes, son of Catreus and the oracle of his fate
                  Death of Althaemenes’ sister Apemosyne
                  Death of Catreus at the hands of his son
                  Althaemenes swallowed by the earth; hero cult established
           Deucalion (not of the flood legend)
                  Father of Idomeneus, Cretan leader at Troy
           Glaucus and the vat of honey
                  Polyidus, a seer
                  The simile of the mulberry
                  Polyidus’ imprisonment and his resurrection of Glaucus
           Androgeos
                  Killed in Attica
                  Minos’ attack on Megara
                  Nisus, king of Megara and his purple lock of hair
                  The treachery of his daughter, Scylla
                  Transformation into bird: Scylla into the ciris; Nisus into a sea eagle forever in pursuit
                  Chapter 24: Jason, Medea, and the Argonauts

Introduction: The Minyae
     Crew of the Argo comprising heroes from the generation before the Trojan War
     Minyae, descendants of gods and ancestors of noble families
     Importance of Iolus in Thessaly and Miletus in Ionia
     Reflection of colonization from eighth century onward
     Folktale elements
            Aea (“land”)
            Aeëtes (“man of the land”)
            Hero set a number of impossible tasks
            Success of adventure
            Aid by local princess
            Marriage

The Golden Fleece
    Quest motif
    Athamas, Boeotian king, and mysterious first wife Nephele (“cloud”)Phrixus and Helle
    Nephele returns to the sky
    Athamas marries Ino, daughter of Cadmus
    Jealousy of Ino towards her stepchildren
    Intrigue of Ino with the aid of the Delphic oracle to murder her stepchildren
    Escape of Phrixus and Helle on a golden-fleeced ram, given by Hermes
    Death of Helle; the naming of the Hellespont
    Phrixus makes land at Colchis on the Black Sea
    Received by King Aeëtes, son of Helius, brother of Circe and Pasiphaë
    Phrixus and Chalciope, daughter of AeëtesArgus, Melas, Phrontis, and Cytisorus
    Fleece given to Aeëtes, hung up in a grove sacred to Ares, guarded by a serpent
Jason

 Jason and Pelias
     Cretheus, brother of Athamas, king of Iolcus, husband of Tyro
     Poseidon and TyroPelias
     Cretheus and TyroAeson, rightful heir of the throne of Iolcus
     Pelias’ usurpation
     Aeson and PolymedeJason
     The child Jason sent away to be raised by Chiron and his mother, Philyra
     Jason’s return
     “Beware the man with one sandal.”
     Hera disguised as an old woman and the loss of one of Jason’s sandals
     Promise or condition to fetch the Golden Fleece and then become the rightful king

 The Argonauts
     The ship Argo
     Built by Argus, son of Arestor, with Athena’s help
     Incorporation of a piece of oak from Zeus’ shrine at Dodona
     The crew
             Orpheus and Heracles, neither originally part of expedition
             Heroes from Thessaly, including Jason
             Heroes from the Peloponnese, including Augeas, king of Elis
             Heroes who took part in the Calydonian boar hunt, including Meleager
             The parents of the heroes of the Trojan War
                    Peleus (father of Achilles)
                    Telamon (father of Ajax the Greater)
                    Oileus (father of Ajax the Lesser)
                    Nauplius (father of Palamedes)
             The seers Idmon and Mopsus
             Castor (horseman) and Polydeuces (boxer)
             Idas and Lynceus (of especially keen sight)
             Periclymenus, son of Neleus, who could change his shape
             Euphemus, son of Poseidon (unusually fast runner)
             Zetes and Calaïs, winged sons of Boreas
             Argus, the shipwright
             Tiphys, the helmsman
Jason

The Voyage to Colchis
    Hypsipyle and the Lemnian women
          Crime and punishment of the women of Lemnos
          King Thoas, father of Hypsipyle, son of Dionysus, spared and transported to the land of the
              Tauri, where he becomes priest of Artemis
          One-year stay of the Argonauts
          Jason and Hypsipyletwins Euneos and Thoas (or Nebrophonus)
          Hypsipyle’s deception in saving her father discovered
                 She is exiled and becomes servant of Lycurgus, king of Nemea, and nurse of his son
                 Opheltes
                 Institution of the Nemean Games
          Statius’ Thebaid
          Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica
          Ovid’s Heroides

        Cyzicus and Cios
              Initiation in to the mysteries at Samothrace
              Aid to the Doliones and Cyzicus, king of Cyzicus
              Accidental killing of the Doliones
              Cios and the loss of Hylas and Heracles

        Amycus
             Land of the Bebryces on the Euxine (Black) Sea
             Amycus, king of the Bithynian tribe
             Polydeuces beats Amycus in boxing match and kills him.

        Phineus and the Harpies and the Symplegades
              Salmydessus on the Euxine
              Received by King Phineus, a blind prophet
              The Harpies (“snatchers”), two winged monsters who snatch away or befoul Phineus’ food
              Harpies driven off by Zetes and Calaïs
              Phineus’ prophecy of the expedition and good counsel
                 The Symplegades (“clashing rocks”)
Jason


The Voyage through the Euxine Sea
    Mariandyni and their king, Lycus
    Idmon killed by a boar
    Death of Tiphys
    Ancaeus, new helmsman
    Island of Ares and the Stymphalian Birds
    Phrixus’ four sons
    Sailing up the river Phasis to Colchis

Jason at Colchis
    Jason’s tasks
           To yolk a pair of brazen-footed, fire-breathing bulls
           To plow a field and sow the dragon’s teeth
           To kill the armed men that sprang up from the teeth

        Medea’s role
             Medea, Aeëtes’ younger daughter
             Falls in love with Jason through the agency of Hera and Aphrodite
             Priestess of Hecate, niece of Circe
             Magic ointment to protect Jason from fire or iron
             Jason with the aid of Medea succeeds in his tasks.
             Eurpides’ Medea and Medea’s larger role in Jason’s legend

        Ovid’s narrative
               Restoration of Jason’s heroic stature
Jason


The Return of the Argonauts
    Jason wins Fleece and Medea
    Pursuit of the Colchians, led by Apsyrtus, Medea’s brother
    Death of Apsyrtus
    Pindar’s narrative
           Journey to Ocean and to the “Red Sea” (Indian Ocean)
           Portage of the ship?
           Lemnos and the Lemnian Games
    Apollonius’ narrative and the marriage of Jason and Medea
           Sailing to Italy and a visit with Circe, Medea’s aunt
           Purification of Jason and Medea
           The Planctae, Scylla and Charybdis, and the Sirens
           Land of the Phaeacians and King Alcinoüs and Queen Arete
           Marriage of Jason and Medea
           Voyage to Libya
           Portage of ship to lake Tritonis, past the garden of the Hesperides
           Mopsus killed by a snake
           Aid of Triton
    Talus
           An island near Crete guarded by a bronze giant, Talus
           Vulnerable ankle
           Death of Talus
    The end of the journey
           Iolcus
           Pelias given Fleece
           Dedication of Argo to Poseidon
           Death of Jason years later, struck on the head by a piece of rotting timber from the Argo
           Confused geographical details of the voyage
Jason


Jason and Medea in Greece
    Iolcus
            Pelias refusal to give up throne
            Medea’s magic arts and the death of Pelias at the hands of his daughters
    Corinth
            Pollution of murder and exile to Corinth
            Euripides’ Medea
            Connection between Medea and Corinth
                    In an alternate version of the legend Jason becomes king of Corinth
            Medea’s connection with Hera
            Death of the children and their cult
            Version of Euripides:
                    Creon as king of Corinth and Medea’s flight to Athens
                    Jason’s marriage to Glauce (or Creusa), daughter of Creon
                    Medea’s deadly wedding gifts to the princess
                    The deaths of Glauce and Creon
                    Medea murders her children.
                    Escape to Athens in Helius’ chariot
                    Reception of Medea in Athens by Aegeus
    Athens
        Aegeus and MedeaMedus
        Arrival of Theseus and his attempted murder
        Medea’s flight to Persia and return to Colchis
Jason


Interpretations of the Saga
     The Argonauts in later literature
             Argonauts and Homer
             Corinthian poet Eumelos, 8th century
             Apollonius of Rhodes and the Argonautica, 3rd century
             Ovid’s Metamorphoses
             Valerius Flaccus’ Argonautica, 1st century A. D.
             Statius’ Thebaid
             Euripides’ Medea
             Modern versions of the legend
     The hero’s quest
             The quest and Propp’s model
             Elements of legend belong to the earliest stages of Greek mythology

Additional Reading
     Euripides’ Medea
            Three encounters between between Jason and Medea
         Chapter 25: Greek and Roman Legends in Ovid’s Poetry
Introduction
     Presence of local heroes and heroines and local cults
     Panhellenic cults and heroes and heroines
     Legends surviving in tragedies, epics, and other poems
     Legends surviving in other works of art
             Importance of vase-paintings
     Compilations of mythology
             Apollodorus’ Library (2nd century A. D.)
             Hyginus’ Genealogiae (2nd century A. D.)
             Ovid’s Amores and Heroides
                    Use of myth for artistic embellishment or allusion
                    Heroides
                           Fifteen letters from mythological heroines to absent lovers, together with three
                           pairs of letters between lovers
                    Ovid’s understanding of the psyche of his heroines
                    Two tales from the Heroides
                           Hero and Leander
                                          Leander, man from Abydos
                                          Hero, priestess of Aphrodite in Sestos
                                          Lovers separated by the Hellespont
                                          Drowning of Leander
                                          Suicide of Hero
                           Cydippe and Acontius
                                          Cydippe, a girl from Ceos
                                          Acontius, social inferior to Cydippe
                                          Trick of the apple’s inscription
                                          Cydippe is unwittingly bound by vow.
Legends


          Ovid’s Fasti
                 Ovid’s exile to Tomis in 8 A. D.
                 Fasti left half-finished in six books
                 Poem on festivals of the Roman calendar
                 Characters often speak directly in response to the author’s questions.
                 Flora and Zephyrus
                 Flora, an Italian fertility goddess of flowering
                 Floralia, six-day spring festival
                 Rape and marriage to Zephyrus, god of the West Wind
                 Associated with the Seasons (in Latin, Horae) and the Charites or the Graces (Gratiae)
                 Use of Greek mythology to give narrative substance to Roman/Italian divinities who
                    have no myths
          Ovid’s Metamorphoses
                 Ovid’s work has exercised the most important influence in the transmission of Greco-
                 Roman mythology
                         Epic poem in dactylic hexameter
                 Pomona and Vertumnus
                         Pomona, an Italian fertility deity, no Greek equivalent, linked to fruit
                         Etruscan god, Vertumnus, could assume different disguises (Latin vertere—“to
                             turn” or “to change”)
                         Vertumnus, as an old woman, advises Pomona to marry.
                         Vertumnus employs the story of Iphis and Anaxarete to persuade her (see next
                             screen).
                 Ceyx and Alcyone
                         Ovid’s Metamorphoses: tragic, romantic lovers
                         Ceyx, king of Trachis and son of Eosphorus (Lucifer, the Morning Star)
                         Alcyone, his wife, daughter of Aeolus
                         Impersonations of Zeus and Hera
                         Transformation into sea-birds
Legends


          Atalanta and Milanion (or Hippomenes)
                 Arcadian Atalanta is often confused with Boeotian Atalanta who was the first to
                 wound the Calydonian boar.
                 Arcadian Atalanta: virgin, also a member of the Calydonian boar hunt
                 Attempted to join the Argonauts
                 Nursed by a bear
                 The condition of the footrace
                 Milanion (Hippomenes)
                 The three golden apples
                 Sacrilege and transformation into lions
          Anaxarete and Iphis
                 City of Salamis on Cyprus
                 Anaxarete spurns Iphis.
                 Iphis hangs himself in despair.
                 Anaxarete turned to stone
                 Cult statue of Venus at Salamis (Venus Prospiciens)
          Iphis
                 Setting in Crete
                 Iphis, daughter of Ligdus
                 Telethusa, Iphis’ mother
                 Iphis raised as a boy
                 Iphis and Ianthe
                 Iphis transformed into a boy
          Baucis and Philemon
                 From Phrygia
                 Poor, pious, aged couple
                 Welcome given to Zeus and Hermes
                 Baucis and Philemon spared from the flood
                 Their cottage transformed into a temple
                 Transformation of the couple into trees, an oak and a linden
Legends

          Byblis and Caunus
                 Byblis, daughter of Miletus, and her brother Caunus
                 Confession of love
                 Caunus leaves Miletus
                 Byblis, following her brother, is transformed into a fountain
          Pyramus and Thisbe
                 The location of the story is Babylon in Ovid
                 Origin may be Cilicia in southern Asia Minor
                 Neighbors and lovers
                 Rendezvous at the tomb of Ninus
                 Thisbe’s arrival and the approach of the lion
                 Pyramus’s arrival and discovery of the bloody veil
                 Suicides of Pyramus and Thisbe
                 White fruit of mulberry tree turned to purple
                 Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream

				
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