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					Section 2

Physical and Chemical Data*

Peter E. Liley, Ph.D., D.I.C., School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University. (physical and chemical data) George H. Thomson, AIChE Design Institute for Physical Property Data. (Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, 2-221) D.G. Friend, National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO. (Tables 2-333, 2-334, Figs. 2-25, 2-26) Thomas E. Daubert, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University. (Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties) Evan Buck, M.S.Ch.E., Manager, Thermophysical Property Skill Center, Central Technology, Union Carbide Corporation. (Prediction and Correlation of Physical Properties)

GENERAL REFERENCES PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Tables 2-1 2-2 Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Physical Properties of Organic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 2-7 2-28 2-12 2-13 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-48 2-49 2-50 2-55 2-57 2-61 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-3 Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from −15 to 0°C . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from −16 to 0°C . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids. . . . . . . . . 2-6a Alphabetical Index to Substances in Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, and 2-221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm . . . . 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm. . . . . . VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables and Figures 2-9 Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . 2-10 Partial Pressures of HCl over Aqueous Solutions of HCl . . .

2-76 2-76 2-76

Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Partial Pressure of H2O Vapor (Fig. 2-1). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of H3PO4 Aqueous: Weight of H2O in Saturated Air (Fig. 2-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and SO2 over Aqueous Solutions of Sulfur Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfuric Acid Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Pressure, bar, of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions . . . . Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and HBr over Aqueous Solutions of HBr at 20 to 55°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of HI over Aqueous Solutions of HI at 25°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressures of the System: Water-Sulfuric Acid-Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HN3 . . Vapor Pressure of Aqueous Diethylene Glycol Solutions (Fig. 2-3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mole Percentages of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . Partial Pressures of NH3 over Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . .

2-77 2-77 2-77 2-78 2-80 2-82 2-83 2-84 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-85 2-86 2-87

* The contributions of J.K. Fink, Argonne National Laboratory; U. Grigull, Tech. Universität, Munich, Germany; and H. Sato, Keio University, Japan, are acknowledged. 2-1

2-2
2-24 2-25 2-26 2-27

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of NH3 . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-88 2-89 2-89 2-89 2-88 2-89 2-90 2-91 2-92 2-93 2-94 2-95 2-96 2-97 2-98 2-99 2-100 2-101 2-102 2-103 2-104 2-105 Sodium Chloride (NaCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Silicates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfide (Na2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate (Na2S2O3⋅5H2O). . . . . . . . Stannic Chloride (SnCl4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stannous Chloride (SnCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Nitrate [Zn(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-105 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-106 2-107 2-109 2-109 2-109 2-109

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES Chart for Gases at High Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Content of Air (Fig. 2-4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-28 Density (kg/m3) of Water from 0 to 100°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29 Density (kg/m3) of Mercury from 0 to 350°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-30 Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS Units and Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-31 Aluminum Sulfate [A12(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-32 Ammonia (NH3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-33 Ammonium Acetate (CH3COONH4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-34 Ammonium Bichromate [(NH4)2Cr2O7]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35 Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-36 Ammonium Chromate [(NH4)2CrO4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-37 Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-38 Ammonium Sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39 Arsenic Acid (H3A3O4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-40 Barium Chloride (BaCl2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-41 Cadmium Nitrate [Cd(NO3)2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-42 Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43 Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44 Calcium Hypochlorite (CaOCl2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45 Calcium Nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-46 Chromic Acid (CrO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-47 Chromium Chloride (CrCl3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-48 Copper Nitrate [Cu(NO3)2]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49 Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-50 Cuprous Chloride (Cu2Cl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51 Ferric Chloride (FeCl3). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52 Ferric Sulfate [Fe2(SO4)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53 Ferric Nitrate [Fe(NO3)3] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-54 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-55 Hydrogen Bromide (HBr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-56 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-58 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-60 Hydrofluosilic Acid (H2SiF6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-61 Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-62 Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-63 Nickel Chloride (NiCl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64 Nickel Nitrate [Ni(NO3)2] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65 Nickel Sulfate (NiSO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-66 Nitric Acid (HNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67 Perchloric Acid (HClO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-68 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-69 Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-70 Potassium Bromide (KBr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-71 Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-72 Potassium Chromate (K2CrO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-73 Potassium Chlorate (KClO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-74 Potassium Chloride (KCl) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-75 Potassium Chrome Alum [K2Cr2(SO4)4]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-76 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-77 Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-78 Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-79 Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-80 Potassium Sulfite (K2SO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-81 Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82 Sodium Arsenate (Na3AsO4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-83 Sodium Bichromate (Na2Cr2O7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-84 Sodium Bromide (NaBr). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-85 Sodium Formate (HCOONa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-86 Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-87 Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-90 2-90

2-91 2-91 2-93 2-94

2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-99 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-100 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-101 2-102 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-103 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-104 2-105 2-105

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS Units and Units Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-106 Formic Acid (HCOOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-107 Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-108 Oxalic Acid (H2C2O4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-109 Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-110 Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-111 Densities of Mixtures of C2H5OH and H2O at 20°C . . . . . . . 2-112 Specific Gravity (60°/60°F [(15.56°/15.56°C)]) of Mixtures by Volume of C2H5OH and H2O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-113 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-114 Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-115 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-116 Hydrazine (N2H4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-117 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS Tables 2-118 Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-119 Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOLUBILITIES Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-120 Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-121 Acetylene (C2H2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-122 Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-123 Ammonia (NH3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-124 Ammonia (NH3)—Low Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-125 Carbon Dioxide (CO2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-126 Carbon Monoxide (CO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-127 Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-128 Chlorine (Cl2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-129 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-130 Ethane (C2H6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-131 Ethylene (C2H4). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-132 Helium (He) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-133 Hydrogen (H2)—Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-134 Hydrogen (H2)—Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-135 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-136 Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-137 Methane (CH4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-138 Nitrogen (N2)—Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-139 Nitrogen (N2)—Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-140 Oxygen (O2)—Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-141 Oxygen (O2)—Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-142 Ozone (O3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-143 Propylene (C3H6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-144 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THERMAL EXPANSION Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermal Expansion of Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-145 Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-109 2-109 2-110 2-111 2-111 2-112 2-113 2-114 2-115 2-115 2-116 2-116 2-117

2-119 2-120 2-120 2-121 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-125 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-126 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-127 2-128 2-128 2-128

2-128 2-128 2-128 2-129

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
2-146 2-147 2-148 Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances. . . . . . . . . . . Cubical Expansion of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cubical Expansion of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-130 2-131 2-131 2-132 2-132 2-133 2-133 2-133 2-133 2-134 2-134 2-134 2-134 2-134 2-135 2-135 2-135 2-135 2-135 2-136 2-136 2-140 2-140 2-140 2-140 2-141 2-141 2-141 2-142 2-142 2-142 2-143 2-143 2-143 2-144 2-144 2-144 2-145 2-145 2-145 2-146 2-146 2-146 2-147 2-148 2-149 2-149 2-150 2-150 2-151 2-153 2-154 2-156 2-161 2-161 2-161 2-169 2-170 2-175 2-178 2-199 Cp /Cv: Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1-atm Pressure . . 2-200 Specific Heat Ratio, Cp /Cv, for Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-201 Acetic Acid (at 38°C). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-202 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-203 Aniline (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-204 Copper Sulfate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-205 Ethyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-206 Glycerol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-207 Hydrochloric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-208 Methyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-209 Nitric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-210 Phosphoric Acid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-211 Potassium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-212 Potassium Hydroxide (at 19°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-213 Normal Propyl Alcohol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-214 Sodium Carbonate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-215 Sodium Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-216 Sodium Hydroxide (at 20°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-217 Sulfuric Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-218 Zinc Sulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPECIFIC HEATS OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS Tables 2-219 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids . . . . . . . 2-219a Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HEATS OF COMBUSTION Table 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-222 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies, hT − h298 (kJ/kgmol), of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-223 Ideal Gas Entropies, s°, kJ/kgmol⋅K, of Combustion Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-3
2-183 2-183

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-149 Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-150 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc; Pr = P/Pc) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-151 Joule-Thomson Data for Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-152 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-153 Joule-Thomson Data for Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-154 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Argon. . . . . . . . . . . 2-155 Joule-Thomson Data for Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-156 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Carbon Dioxide . . 2-157 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Deuterium . . . . . . 2-158 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Ethane. . . . . . . . . . 2-159 Joule-Thomson Data for Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-160 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Normal Hydrogen. . 2-161 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Methane . . . . . . . . 2-162 Joule-Thomson Data for Nitrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-163 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Propane. . . . . . . . . CRITICAL CONSTANTS Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-164 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPRESSIBILITIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-165 Compressibility Factors for Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-166 Compressibility Factors for Argon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-167 Compressibility Factors for Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-168 Compressibility Factors for Carbon Monoxide . . . . . . . . . . . 2-169 Compressibility Factors for Ethanol. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-170 Compressibility Factors for Ethylene. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-171 Compressibility Factors for Normal Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . 2-172 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 60 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-173 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-174 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 66 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-175 Compressibility Factors for Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-176 Compressibility Factors for Methane (R50) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-177 Compressibility Factors for Methanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-178 Compressibility Factors for Neon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-179 Compressibility Factors for Nitrogen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-180 Compressibility Factors for Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-181 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-182 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-183 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 124 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-184 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 134a . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-185 Compressibility Factors for Water Substance (fps units) . . . 2-186 Compressibility Factors of Water Substance (SI units) . . . . . 2-187 Compressibility Factors for Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-188 Compressibilities of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-189 Compressibilities of Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LATENT HEATS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-190 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-191 Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-192 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-193 Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds 2-195 Specific Heat [kJ/(kg·K)] of Selected Elements. . . . . . . . . . . 2-196 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids . . . . . . . . 2-197 Specific Heats of Organic Solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-198 Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-184 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185 2-185

2-186 2-186

2-186 2-187

2-195 2-199 2-200

HEATS OF SOLUTION Tables 2-224 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water . . . . . . 2-201 2-225 Heats of Solution of Organic Compounds in Water (at Infinite Dilution and Approximately Room Temperature). . . . . . . . 2-204 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES Explanation of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-226 Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Acetone . . . . . . . . . 2-227 Saturated Acetylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-228 Saturated Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-229 Thermophysical Properties of Compressed Air . . . . . . . . . . . 2-230 Enthalpy and Psi Functions for Ideal-Gas Air . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Air (Fig. 2-5) . . . . . . . . . 2-231 Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-232 Saturated Ammonia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Ammonia (Fig. 2-6) . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ammonia (Fig. 2-7) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-233 Saturated Argon (R740) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-234 Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed Argon . . . . . . . . 2-235 Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium Data for the Argon-NitrogenOxygen System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-236 Thermodynamic Properties of the International Standard Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-237 Saturated Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-238 Saturated Bromine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-239 Saturated Normal Butane (R600). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-240 Superheated Normal Butane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-205 2-205 2-205 2-206 2-206 2-207 2-208 2-212 2-213 2-214 2-214 2-215 2-216 2-217 2-217 2-218 2-221 2-221 2-222 2-222 2-223

2-4
2-241 2-242 2-243 2-244 2-245 2-246 2-247 2-248 2-249 2-250 2-251 2-252 2-253 2-254 2-255 2-256 2-257 2-258 2-259 2-260 2-261 2-262 2-263 2-264 2-265 2-266 2-267 2-268 2-269 2-270 2-271 2-272 2-273 2-274 2-275 2-276 2-277 2-278 2-279 2-280 2-281 2-282 2-283 2-284 2-285 2-286 2-287 2-288 2-289 2-290 2-291 2-292 2-293 2-294

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Saturated Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superheated Carbon Dioxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Carbon Monoxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Carbon Monoxide (Fig. 2-8) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Carbon Tetrachloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Carbon Tetrafluoride (R14) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Cesium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Chlorine . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Chlorine (Fig. 2-9) . . . Saturated Chloroform (R20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Decane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Normal Deuterium. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Deuterium Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deuterium Oxide Gas at 1-kg/cm3 Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Diphenyl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Ethane (R170) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superheated Ethane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Ethyl Alcohol (Fig. 2-10). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Ethylene (Ethene—R1150) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Ethylene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Fluorine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluorine Gas at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flutec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Halon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Helium3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Helium4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superheated Helium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helium4 Gas at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated n-Heptane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hexane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Hydrazine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated n-Hydrogen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed n-Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated para-Hydrogen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Hydrogen Peroxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrogen Sulfide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Hydrogen Chloride at 1 atm (Fig. 2-11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Isobutane (R600a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Krypton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Lithium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lithium Bromide—Water Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Mercury. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Mercury (Fig. 2-12) . . Superheated Methane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Methanol . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed Methanol . . . . . Saturated Methyl Chloride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Neon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Neon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Nitrogen (R728) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Diagram for Nitrogen (Fig. 2-13) . . . Thermophysical Properties of Nitrogen (R728) at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Nitrogen Tetroxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Nitrous Oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Nitrous Oxide (Fig. 2-14) . . . . . . . . . . . Nonane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Octane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Oxygen (R732) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-Entropy Chart for Oxygen (Fig. 2-15) . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixture at 1 atm (Fig. 2-16) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pentane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Potassium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Potassium (Fig. 2-17) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Propane (R290). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Propylene (Propene, R1270) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Compressed Propylene (Propene, R1270). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 11 (Fig. 2-18) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 12 (Fig. 2-19) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-224 2-225 2-225 2-226 2-227 2-227 2-228 2-229 2-230 2-231 2-231 2-232 2-232 2-232 2-233 2-233 2-234 2-235 2-235 2-236 2-237 2-239 2-239 2-239 2-239 2-239 2-240 2-241 2-241 2-242 2-242 2-243 2-243 2-244 2-246 2-246 2-246 2-247 2-248 2-248 2-249 2-249 2-249 2-250 2-251 2-252 2-253 2-254 2-255 2-256 2-256 2-257 2-257 2-258 2-259 2-259 2-259 2-260 2-261 2-261 2-262 2-263 2-264 2-264 2-264 2-265 2-266 2-267 2-268 2-269 2-269 2-270 2-270 2-271 2-306 2-307 2-308 2-309 2-310 2-311 2-312 2-313 2-314 2-315 2-316 2-317 2-318 2-319 2-320 2-321 2-322 2-323 2-324 2-325 2-326 2-327 2-328 2-329 2-330 2-331 2-332 2-333 2-334 2-335 2-336 2-337 2-338 2-339 2-340 2-341 2-342 2-343 2-344 2-345 2-303 2-304 2-305 Saturated Refrigerant 13B1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 22 (Fig. 2-20) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Compressed R22 . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Difluoromethane (R32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Heat at Constant Pressure, Thermal Conductivity, Viscosity, and Prandtl of R32 Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA MP 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA MP 39 at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 32 (Fig. 2-21) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated KLEA 60 . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated KLEA 61 . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for KLEA 60 (Fig. 2-22). . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for KLEA 61 (Fig. 2-23). . Saturated SUVA HP 62 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA HP 62 at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated KLEA 66 . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for KLEA 66 (Fig. 2-24) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA MP 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA MP 66 at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA HP 80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA HP 80 at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA HP 81 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SUVA HP 81 at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 113. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 114. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 115. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant 123 . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 123 (Fig. 2-25) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Refrigerant 125 . . . Thermophysical Properties of Refrigerant 134a . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 125 (Fig. 2-26) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Compressed Gaseous Refrigerant 134a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant 141b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Refrigerant 134a (Fig. 2-27) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant 142b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant R143a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant R152a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 216. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 245. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant C 318 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 500. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 502. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 503. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Refrigerant 504. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Refrigerant 507 . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Rubidium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermophysical Properties of Saturated Seawater . . . . . . . . Saturated Sodium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mollier Diagram for Sodium (Fig. 2-28) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide at 1 atm (Fig. 2-29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Sulfur Dioxide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Saturated Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy-Concentration Diagram for Aqueous Sulfuric Acid at 1 atm (Fig. 2-30) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy–Log-Pressure Diagram for Sulfur Hexafluoride (Fig. 2-31) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated SUVA AC 9000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Solid/Vapor Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Saturated Water Substance–Temperature (fps units) . . . . . . Saturated Water Substance–Temperature (SI units) . . . . . . . Saturated Liquid Water–Miscellaneous Properties . . . . . . . . Thermodynamic Properties of Compressed Steam . . . . . . . . Density, Specific Heats at Constant Pressure and at Constant Volume and Velocity of Sound for Compressed Water, 1–1000 bar, 0–150°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specific Heat and Other Thermophysical Properties of Water Substance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-272 2-272 2-273 2-273 2-274 2-274 2-275 2-276 2-276 2-276 2-277 2-278 2-278 2-279 2-280 2-281 2-281 2-281 2-282 2-283 2-283 2-283 2-284 2-284 2-284 2-285 2-286 2-286 2-287 2-287 2-288 2-289 2-289 2-290 2-291 2-292 2-293 2-294 2-294 2-295 2-295 2-296 2-296 2-297 2-297 2-298 2-298 2-298 2-299 2-299 2-300 2-301 2-302 2-302 2-303 2-303 2-303 2-304 2-304 2-304 2-305 2-306 2-308 2-309 2-311 2-313

2-346 2-347

2-295 2-296 2-297 2-298 2-299 2-300 2-301 2-302

2-348 2-349 2-350 2-351 2-352 2-353 2-354 2-355 2-356

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
2-357 Thermodynamic Properties of Water Substance along the Melting Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-358 Saturated Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-359 Compressed Xenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-360 Surface Tension (N/m) of Saturated Liquid Refrigerants . . . 2-361 Velocity of Sound (m/s) in Gaseous Refrigerants at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-362 Velocity of Sound (m/s) in Saturated Liquid Refrigerants. . . TRANSPORT PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units Conversions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Additional References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tables 2-363 Transport Properties of Selected Gases at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-364 Viscosities of Gases: Coordinates for Use with Fig. 2-32. . . . Nomograph for Determining (a) Absolute Viscosity of a Gas as a Function of Temperature Near Ambient Pressure and (b) Relative Viscosity of a Gas Compared with Air (Fig. 2-32) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-365 Viscosities of Liquids: Coordinates for Use with Fig. 2-33 . . Nomograph for Viscosities of Liquids at 1 atm (Fig. 2-33) . . 2-366 Viscosity of Sucrose Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomograph for Thermal Conductivity of Organic Liquids (Fig. 2-34) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-367 Thermal Conductivity Nomograph Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 2-368 Prandtl Number of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-369 Prandtl Number of Liquid Refrigerants. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-370 Thermophysical Properties of Miscellaneous Saturated Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-371 Diffusivities of Pairs of Gases and Vapors (1 atm) . . . . . . . . . 2-372 Diffusivities in Liquids (25°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-373 Thermal Conductivities of Some Building and Insulating Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-374 Thermal-Conductivity-Temperature Table for Metals . . . . . 2-375 Thermal Conductivity of Chromium Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-376 Thermal Conductivity of Some Alloys at High Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-377 Thermal Conductivities of Some Materials for Refrigeration and Building Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-378 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at High Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-379 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at Moderate Temperatures (Nusselt). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-380 Thermal Conductivities of Insulating Materials at Low Temperatures (Gröber) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-381 Thermal Diffusivity (m2/s) of Selected Elements . . . . . . . . . 2-382 Thermophysical Properties of Selected Nonmetallic Solid Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREDICTION AND CORRELATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pure Component Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 1 Estimate the Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure of 2-Butanol Using the Ambrose Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 2 Estimate the Critical Temperature and Critical Pressure of 2-Butanol, Which Has an Experimental Normal Boiling Point of 372.7 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 3 Estimate the Critical Volume of 2-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . Critical Compressibility Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Freezing Temperature (Melting Point) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Boiling Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 4 Estimate the Normal Boiling Point of 2-Butanol. . . . . . . Acentric Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Characterizing Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prediction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 5 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of 1-Butene at 98°C. . . . . . Example 6 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of Tetralin at 150°C . . . . . . Example 7 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of Thiophene at 500 K. . . . Example 8 Estimate the Vapor Pressure of Acetaldehyde at 0°C . . . Ideal Gas Thermal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
o Heat Capacity, C p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 9 Using Eq. 2-48 to Estimate the Ideal Gas Heat Capacity of Acetone (C3H6O) at 600 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 10 H°298 of 2-Butanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f Gibbs Energy of Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 11 G°298 of Phenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f Entropy of Formation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Vaporization and Fusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Vaporization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 12 Estimate Hv of Propionaldehyde at 350 K . . . . . . . . . . Example 13 Estimate Hv of Ethyl Acetate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 14 Estimate Hv of Ethyl Acetate at 450 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . Enthalpy of Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid and Liquid Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 15 Estimate Solid Heat Capacity of Dinenzothiophene. . . Liquid Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 16 Estimate Liquid Heat Capacity of 2-Butanol. . . . . . . . . Example 17 Estimate Liquid Heat Capacity of 1,4 Pentadiene . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Density Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 18 Estimate the Molar Volume of Isobutane at 155°C and 1.0 MPa Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 19 Estimate the Molar Volume of Isobutane at 155°C and 8.6 MPa Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Density Prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 20 Estimate the Density of Saturated Liquid Propane at 0°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 21 Estimate the Liquid Density of n-Nonane at 104.5°C and 6.893 MPa Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Density Prediction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Correlation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 22 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of Propane at 101.3 kPa and 80°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 23 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of a Mixture of Propane and Methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 24 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol at 251°C and Atmospheric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 25 Estimate the Vapor Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide at 350 K and a Total Pressure of 20 MPa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Viscosity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 26 Estimate the Liquid Viscosity of cis-1,4dimethylcyclohexane at 0°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vapor and Liquid Thermal Conductivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 27 Estimate Thermal Conductivity for n-Hexane. . . . . . . . Example 28 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide at 370 K and Low Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 29 Estimate the Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Dioxide at 370 K and 10 MPa Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 30 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of a Mixture. . . . . . . . . Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 31 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Octane at 373.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 32 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Octane at 473.15 K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 33 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Butanol . . . . . . . . Example 34 Estimate the Thermal Conductivity of n-Propionaldehyde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 35 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of n-Butanol . . . . . . . . Example 36 Estimate Thermal Conductivity of a Mixture. . . . . . . . . Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 37 Estimate the Diffusivity of Benzene Vapor Diffusing into Air at 30°C and 96.5 kPa Total Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 38 Estimate the Diffusivity of Hydrogen (1) in Nitrogen (2) at 60°C and 17.23 MPa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 39 Estimate the Infinite Dilution Diffusivity of Propane (1) in Chlorobenzene (2) at 25°C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Diffusivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Tension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 40 Estimate Surface Tension for Mercaptan. . . . . . . . . . . . Example 41 Estimate Surface Tension for Isobutytic Acid . . . . . . . . Example 42 Estimate Surface Tension of a Mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 43 Estimate Surface Tension of a Water-Methanol Mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flammability Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-5
2-347 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-348 2-349 2-349 2-350 2-350 2-350 2-350 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-351 2-354 2-355 2-355 2-355 2-355 2-357 2-358 2-359 2-360 2-361 2-361 2-362 2-362 2-363 2-363 2-363 2-364 2-365 2-366 2-367 2-367 2-367 2-367 2-368 2-368 2-368 2-368 2-369 2-369 2-369 2-369 2-370 2-370 2-370 2-370 2-371 2-371 2-371 2-372 2-372 2-372 2-372 2-373 2-374

2-315 2-315 2-316 2-317 2-317 2-318

2-318 2-318 2-318 2-319 2-320

2-321 2-322 2-323 2-324 2-324 2-324 2-325 2-325 2-326 2-328 2-330 2-333 2-334 2-335 2-335 2-335 2-335 2-336 2-336 2-336 2-337

2-337 2-337 2-338 2-339 2-340 2-340 2-340 2-342 2-342 2-344 2-344 2-344 2-344 2-344 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-345 2-346 2-346 2-346 2-347 2-347 2-347

GENERAL REFERENCES
Considerations of reader interest, space availability, the system or systems of units employed, copyright considerations, etc., have all influenced the revision of material in previous editions for the present edition. Reference is made at numerous places to various specialized works and also, when appropriate, to more general works. A listing of general works may be useful to readers in need of further information. ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentals, IP and SI editions, ASHRAE, Atlanta, various dates; Beaton, C.F. and G.F. Hewitt, Physical Property Data for the Design Engineer, Hemisphere, New York, 1989 (394 pp.); Benedek, P. and F. Olti, Computer-Aided Chemical Thermodynamics of Gases and Liquids, Wiley, New York, 1985 (731 pp.); Daubert, T.E. and R.P. Danner, Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals, 4 vols., Hemisphere, New York, 1989 (2030 pp.); suppl. 1, 1991 (456 pp.); suppl. 2, 1992 (736 pp.); Gmehling, J., Azeotropic Data, 2 vols., VCH Weinheim, Germany, 1994 (1900 pp.); Kaye, S.M., Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items, U.S. Army R&D command, Dover, NJ, 1980; King, M.B., Phase Equilibrium in Mixtures, Pergamon, Oxford, 1969; Lyman, W.J., W.F. Reehl et al., Handbook of Chemical Property Estimation Methods, McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1982 (929 pp.); Ohse, R.W., Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Blackwell Sci. Pubs., Oxford, England, 1985 (1020 pp.); Reid, R.C., J.M. Prausnitz et al., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987 (742 pp.); Sterbacek, Z., B. Biskup et al., Calculation of Properties Using Corresponding States Methods, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1979. Compilations of critical data include Ambrose, D., “Vapor-Liquid Critical Properties,” N.P.L. Teddington, Middx. rept. Chem 107, 1980 (62 pp.); Brule, M.R., L.L Lee et. al., Chem. Eng., 86, 25 (Nov. 19, 1979) 155–164; Kudchaker, A.P., G.H. Alani et al., Chem. Revs., 68 (1968) 659–735; Matthews, J.F., Chem. Revs., 72 (1972) 71–100; Reid, R.C., J.M. Prausnitz et al., The Properties of Gases and Liquids, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987 (741 pp.); Ohse, R.W. and H. von Tippelskirch, High Temp.—High Press., 9 (1977) 367–385; Young, D.A., “Phase Diagrams of the Elements,” UCRL Rept. 51902, 1975 (64 pp.); republished in expanded form by the University of California Press, 1991. Rothman, D. et al., Max Planck Inst. f. Stromungsforschung, Ber 6, 1978 (77 pp.). PUBLICATIONS ON THERMOCHEMISTRY Pedley, J.B., Thermochemical Data and Structures of Organic Compounds, 1, Thermodyn. Res. Ctr., Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (976 pp., 3000 cpds.); Frenkel, M., G.J. Kabo et al., Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds in the Gas State, 2 vols., Thermodyn. Res. Ctr., Texas A&M Univ., 1994 (1825 pp., 2000 cpds.); Barin, I., Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, 2 vols., 2d ed., VCH Weinheim, Germany 1993 (1834 pp., 2400 substances); and Gurvich, L.V., I.V. Veyts et al., Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Substances, 3 vols., 4th ed., Hemisphere, New York, 1989, 1990, and 1993 (2520 pp.). See also Lide, D.R. and G.W.A. Milne, Handbook of Data on Organic Compounds, 7 vols., 3d ed., Chemical Rubber, Miami, 1993 (7000 pp.); Daubert, T.E., R.P. Danner et al., Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Chemicals: Data Compilation, extant 1995, Taylor & Francis, Bristol, PA, 1995; Database 11, N.I.S.T. Gaithersburg, MD. U.S. Bureau of Mines publications include Bulletins 584, 1960 (232 pp.); 592, 1961 (149 pp.); 595, 1961 (68 pp.); 654, 1970 (26 pp.) Chase, M.W., C.A. Davies et al., JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 3d ed., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 14 suppl 1., 1986 (1896 pp.).

2-6

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-1 Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Abbreviations Used in the Table a., acid A., specific gravity with reference to air = 1 abs., absolute ac., acetic acid act., acetone al., 95 percent ethyl alcohol alk, alkali (i.e., aq. NaOH or KOH) am., amyl (C5H11) amor., amorphous anh., anhydrous aq., aqueous or water aq. reg., aqua regia atm., atmosphere or 760 mm. of mercury pressure bk., black brn., brown bz., benzene c., cold cb., cubic cc, cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless or white conc., concentrated cr., crystals or crystalline d., decomposes D., specific gravity with reference to hydrogen = 1 d. 50, decomposes at 50°C; 50 d., melts at 50°C with decomposition delq., deliquescent dil., dilute dk., dark eff., effloresces or efflorescent et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gel., gelatinous gly., glycerol (glycerin) gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal hyg., hygroscopic i., insoluble ign., ignites lq., liquid lt., light m. al., methyl alcohol mn., monoclinic nd., needles NH3, liquid ammonia NH4OH, ammonium hydroxide solution oct., octahedral or., orange pd., powder pl., plates pr., prisms or prismatic pyr., pyridine rhb., rhombic (orthorhombic) s., soluble satd., saturated sl., slightly soln., solution subl., sublimes sulf., sulfides tart. a., tartaric acid tet., tetragonal tr., transition tri., triclinic trig., trigonal v., very vac., in vacuo vl., violet volt., volatile or volatilizes wh., white yel., yellow ∞, soluble in all proportions <, less than >, greater than 42 , about or near 42 −3H2O, 100, loses 3 moles of water per formula weight at 100°C

Formula weights are based upon the International Atomic Weights of 1941 and are computed to the nearest hundredth. Refractive index, where given for a uniaxial crystal, is for the ordinary (ω) ray; where given for a biaxial crystal, the index given is for the median (β) value. Unless otherwise specified, the index is given for the sodium D-line (λ = 589.3 mµ). Specific gravity values are given at room temperatures (15° to 20°C) unless otherwise indicated by the small figures which follow the value: thus, “5.6 18° ” indicates a specific gravity of 5.6 for the substance 4 at 18°C referred to water at 4°C. In this table the values for the specific gravity of gases are given with reference to air (A) = 1, or hydrogen (D) = 1. Melting point is recorded in a certain case as “82 d.” and in some other case as “d. 82,” the distinction being made in this manner to indicate that the former is a melting point with decomposition at 82°C, while in the latter decomposition only occurs at 82°C. Where a value such as “−2H2O, 82” is given it indicates loss of 2 moles of water per formula weight of the compound at a temperature of 82°C. Boiling point is given at atmospheric pressure (760 mm. of mercury) unless otherwise indicated; thus, “8215 mm.” indicates the boiling point is 82°C when the pressure is 15 mm.

Solubility is given in parts by weight (of the formula shown at the extreme left) per 100 parts by weight of the solvent; the small superscript indicates the temperature. In the case of gases the solubility is often expressed in some manner as “510° cc” which indicates that at 10°C, 5 cc. of the gas are soluble in 100 g. of the solvent. The symbols of the common mineral acids: H2SO4, HNO3, HCl, etc., represent dilute aqueous solutions of these acids. See also special tables on Solubility. REFERENCES: The information given in this table has been collected mainly from the following sources: Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Longmans, New York, 1922. Abegg, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, S. Hirzel, Leipzig, 1905. Gmelin-Kraut, Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie, 7th ed., Carl Winter, Heidelberg; 8th ed., Verlag Chemie, Berlin, 1924. Friend, Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry, Griffin, London, 1914. Winchell, Microscopic Character of Artificial Inorganic Solid Substances or Artificial Minerals, Wiley, New York, 1931. International Critical Tables, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1926. Tables annuelles internationales de constants et donnes numeriques, McGraw-Hill, New York. Annual Tables of Physical Constants and Numerical Data, National Research Council, Princeton, N.J., 1943. Comey and Hahn, A Dictionary of Chemical Solubilities, Macmillan, New York, 1921. Seidell, Solubilities of Inorganic and Metal Organic Compounds, Van Nostrand, New York, 1940. Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. s. i. s. s. d. to CH4 69.8715° 400 sl. s. i. 0.00010418° v. s. d. slowly i. i. i. Hot water i. d. s. s. d. v. s. sl. s. i. v. s. d. i. i. i. Other reagents s. HCl, H2SO4, alk. s.a.; i. NH4 salts s.al., act., CS2 s. al., CS2 s. a.; i. act. s. et., chl., CCl4; i. bz. 50 al.; s. et. s. a., alk.; i. a. s. al., CS2 s. alk. d. v. sl. s. a., alk. v. sl. s. a., alk. s. a., alk.; i. ac.

Name Aluminum acetate, normal acetate, basic bromide bromide carbide chloride chloride fluoride (fluellite) fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitride oxide oxide (corundum) phosphate

Formula Al Al(C2H3O2)3 Al(OH)(C2H3O2)2 AlBr3 AlBr3·6H2O Al4C3 AlCl3 AlCl3·6H2O AlF3·H2O Al2F6·7H2O Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3·9H2O Al2N2 Al2O3 Al2O3 AlPO4

Formula weight 26.97 204.10 162.07 266.72 374.82 143.91 133.34 241.44 101.99 294.05 77.99 375.14 81.96 101.94 101.94 121.95

Color, crystalline form and refractive index silv., cb. wh. pd. wh., amor. trig. col., delq. cr. yel., hex., 2.70 wh., delq., hex. col., delq., trig., 1.560 col., rhb., 1.490 wh., cr. pd. wh., mn. rhb., delq. yel., hex. col., hex., 1.67–8 wh., trig., 1.768 col., hex.

Specific gravity 2.7020° 3.01 25° 4 2.95 2.44 25° 4 2.17 2.42 3.05 3.99 4.00 2.59
25° 4

Melting point, °C 660 d. 200 d. 97.5 d. 100 d. >2200 1945.2atm. d. −4H2O, 120 −2H2O, 300 73 21504atm. 1999 to 2032 1999 to 2032

Boiling point, °C 2056 268 182.7 ; subl. 178 −6H2O, 250 d. 134 d. >1400 2210
752mm

*By N. A. Lange, Ph.D., Handbook Publishers, Inc., Sandusky, Ohio. Abridged from table of Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds in Lange, “Handbook of Chemistry.” 2-7

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 796.40 556.49 362.21 209.96 524.29 342.12 906.64 956.72 964.40 948.76 998.84 916.56 17.03 77.08 337.33 79.06 97.96 114.11 157.11 272.22 53.50 444.05 373.14 367.52 152.09 44.06 252.10 392.21 37.04 57.05 63.06 51.11 35.05 196.03 1235.95 80.05 80.05 64.05 439.02 142.12 125.08 117.50 228.20 115.04 Color, crystalline form and refractive index mn., 1.590 col., mn., 1.524 col. wh., mn., 1.3389 col., tri., 1.529 wh. cr. col., oct., 1.4594 gn. or vl., oct., 1.4842 vl., oct., 1.485 col., mn., 1.4564 red or gn., cb., 1.4814 col., oct., 1.4388 col. gas, 1.325 (lq.) wh., hyg. cr. pl. mn. or rhb., 1.5358 col., cb., 1.7108 col. pl. wh. cr. wh. wh., cb., 1.639, 1.6426 yel., cb. tet. pink., cb. yel., mn. col., cb. or., mn. mn. wh., hex. wh., rhb., 1.390 col., mn., delq. col., rhb. in soln. only mn. col., mn. col., tet., 1.611 col., rhb. or mn. wh. nd. cb. col., rhb. col., trimetric col., rhb., 1.4833 wh., mn., 1.5016 col., tet., 1.5246 1.53 3.065
17°

Name Aluminum (Cont.) potassium silicate (muscovite) potassium silicate (orthoclase) Aluminum potassium tartrate sodium fluoride (cryolite) sodium silicate sulfate Alum, ammonium (tschermigite) ammonium chrome ammonium iron potassium (kalinite) potassium chrome sodium Ammonia† Ammonium acetate auricyanide bicarbonate bromide carbonate carbonate, carbamate carbonate, sesquichloride (salammoniac) chloroplatinate chloroplatinite chlorostannate chromate cyanide dichromate ferrocyanide fluoride fluoride, acid formate hydrosulfide hydroxide molybdate molybdate, heptanitrate (α), stable −16° to 32° nitrate (β), stable 32° to 84° nitrite osmochloride oxalate oxalate, acid perchlorate persulfate phosphate, monobasic 2-8

Formula 3Al2O3·K2O·6SiO2· 2H2O Al2O3·K2O·6SiO2 AlK(C4H4O6)2 AlF3·3NaF Al2O3·Na2O·6SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·(NH4)2SO4· 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3·(NH4)2SO4· 24H2O Fe2(SO4)3·(NH4)2SO4· 24H2O Al2(SO4)3·K2SO4· 24H2O Cr2(SO4)3·K2SO4· 24H2O Al2(SO4)3·Na2SO4· 24H2O NH3 NH4C2H3O2 NH4CN·Au(CN)3·H2O NH4HCO3 NH4Br (NH4)2CO3·H2O NH4HCO3· NH2CO2NH4‡ (NH4)2CO3· 2NH4HCO3·H2O NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2PtCl4 (NH4)2SnCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 NH4CN (NH4)2Cr2O7 (NH4)4Fe(CN)6·6H2O NH4F NH4F·HF HCO2NH4 NH4HS NH4OH (NH4)2MoO4 (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O‡ NH4NO3 NH4NO3 NH4NO2 (NH4)2OsCl6 (NH4)2C2O4·H2O NH4HC2O4·H2O NH4ClO4 (NH4)2S2O8 NH4H2PO4

Specific gravity 2.9 2.56 2.90 2.61 2.71 1.64 20° 4 1.72 1.71 1.76 26° 4 1.83 1.675
20° 4

Melting point, °C d. 1450 (1150) 1000 1100 d. 770 93.5 100 d. 40 92 89 61 −77.7 114 d. 200 d. 35–60 subl. 542 d. 58 subl. d. d. 350 d. d. d. 180 36 d. 185 d. 114–116 d.

Boiling point, °C

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. i. s. sl. s. i. 31.30° 3.90° 21.2
25°

Hot water

Other reagents

s. i. 89100° ∞ 100° i. HCl d. a. i. al. s. al. i. al. ∞93° 50 i. al.
45°

−20H2O, 120; −24H2O, 200

12425° −18H2O, 64.5 5.70° 20 106.4 −33.4 d.
0°

121.7 7.496°

i. al. 14.820° al.; s. et. s. al.; sl. s. act. i. al. i. al. s. al., et., act. i. al., CS2, NH3

0.817−79° 0.5971 (A) 1.073 1.573 2.327 15° 4

89.90° 1484° s. 11.90° 6810° 10015° 2515° 2015°

v. s. 2730° 145.6100° 6765° 5049° 77.3100° 1.25100° v. s. d. v. s. v. s. d. 53180°

subl. 520

2.4 1.91712° 0.79100° (A) 2.15
12° 2.21 12 1.266

d. 180; subl. in vac. subl. 120

29.4 0.715° s. 33.315° 40.530° s. 47.230° s. v. s. v. s. 1020° v. s. s. d. 4425° 118.30° 365.835° s. 2.50° s. 10.90° 58.20° 22.70°

0°

s. NH3; sl. s. al., m. al. 0.005 al. sl. s. act., NH3; i. al. s. al. s. al.; i. act. i. al. s. al.; i. NH3 s. al. s. al.

2.27 1.66 25° 4 1.725 25° 4 1.69 2.93 20° 4 1.501 1.556 1.95 1.98 1.803 19° 4

d. 169.6 expl. d. d. d. 120 d. 210 d. 210

d. 241.830° 58080° d. 11.850° 46.9100° d. 173.2100°

i. al., NH3 i. al. 3.820° al., 17.120° m. al.; v. s. NH3 s. al. sl. s. al.; i. NH3 220° al.; s. act.; i. et. i. ac.

phosphate, dibasic phosphate, metaAmmonium phosphomolybdate silicofluoride sulfamate sulfate (mascagnite) sulfate, acid sulfide sulfide, pentasulfite sulfite, acid tartrate thiocyanate vanadate, metaAntimony chloride, tri- (butter of antimony)* oxide, tri- (valentinite) oxide, tri- (senarmontite) sulfide, tri- (stibnite) sulfide, pentatelluride, triAntimonyl potassium tartrate (tartar emetic) sulfate, normal sulfate, basic Argon Arsenic (crystalline) (α) Arsenic (black) (β) Arsenic (yellow)(γ) acid, orthoacid, metaacid, pyropentoxide sulfide, di- (realgar) sulfide, pentaArsenious chloride (butter of arsenic) hydride (arsine) oxide (arsenolite) oxide (claudetite) oxide Auric chloride cyanide Aurous chloride cyanide Cf. also under Gold Barium acetate acetate bromide *Usually the solution. †See special tables. ‡Usual commercial form.

(NH4)2HPO4 (NH4)4P4O12 (NH4)3PO4·12MoO3· 3H2O (?) (NH4)2SiF6 NH4·SO3NH2 (NH4)2SO4 NH4HSO4 (NH4)2S (NH4)2S5 (NH4)2SO3·H2O NH4HSO3 (NH4)2C4H4O6 NH4CNS NH4VO3 Sb SbCl3 Sb2O3 Sb2O3 Sb2S3 Sb2S5 Sb2Te3 (SbO)KC4H4O6·a H2O (SbO)2SO4 (SbO)2SO4·Sb2(OH)4 A As4 As4 As4 H3AsO4·a H2O HAsO3 H4As2O7 As2O5 As2S2 As2S5 AsCl3 AsH3 As2O3 As2O3 As2O3 AuCl3·2H2O Au(CN)3·6H2O AuCl AuCN Ba Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2·H2O BaBr2

132.07 388.08 1930.55 178.14 114.12 132.14 115.11 68.14 196.38 134.16 99.11 184.15 76.12 116.99 121.76 228.13 291.52 291.52 339.70 403.82 626.35 333.94 371.58 683.13 39.94 299.64 299.64 299.64 150.94 123.92 265.85 229.82 213.94 310.12 181.28 77.93 197.82 197.82 197.82 339.60 383.35 232.66 223.22 137.36 255.45 273.46 297.19

col., mn., 1.53 col., mn. yel. cb., 1.3696 col. pl. col., rhb., 1.5230 col., rhb., 1.480 yel.-wh. or.-red pr. col., mn. rhb. col., mn. col., mn., 1.685 col. cr. tin wh., trig. col., rhb., delq. rhb., 2.35 cb., 2.087 bk., rhb., 4.046 golden gray wh., rhb. wh. pd. wh. pd. col. gas met., hex. bk., amor. yel., cb. col., hyg. wh., hyg. col. wh., amor. red, mn., 2.68 yel. oily lq. col. gas col., cb., fibrous, 1.755 col., mn., 1.92 amor. or vitreous or. cr. yel. cr. yel. cr. silv. met. col. wh., tri. pr., 1.517 col.

1.619 2.21 d. 2.01 1.769 20° 4 1.78 132 235 d. 146.9 d. d. d. d. 149.6 d. 630.5 73.4 656 652 550
0°

13115° s. 0.0315° subl. d. 160 490 18.517.5° 1340° 70.60° 100 v. s. s. 10012° s. 450° 1200° 0.4418° i. 601.60° v. sl. s. 0.0001718° i. 5.268.7° d. i. 5.60° cc i. i. 16.7 d. to form d. to form 59.50° i. 0.0001360° d. 20 cc sl. s. sl. s. 1.210° v. s. d. 290 1140 d. v. s. d. i. d. 58.80° 7530°(anh.) 980°

i. act. i. 55.5 35750° 103.3100° s. alk.; i. al., HNO3 s. al.; i. act. i. al., act., CS2 v. sl. s. al.; i. act. 12025° NH3 i. al., act. 8760° 17020° 3.0570° i. ∞72° sl. s. d. i. 35.7100° d. d. 2.2350° cc i. i. 50 H3AsO4 H3AsO4 76.7100° d. i. d. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. 2.9340° v. s. v. s. d. i. d. 75.0100° 7940°(anh.) 149100° sl. s. al. s. al., act., NH3, SO2 i. al., NH4Cl s. aq. reg., h. conc. H2SO4 s. al., HCl, HBr, H2C4H4O6 s. HCl, KOH, H2C4H4O6 s. HCl; alk., NH4HS, K2S; i. ac. s. HCl, alk., NH4HS s. gly.; i. al. 5.1515° gly. 2425° cc al. s. HNO3 s. HNO3, aq. reg., aq. Cl2, h. alk. s. alk. s. alk., al. s. K2S, NaHCO3 s. HNO3, alk. s. HCl, HBr, PCl3 sl. s. alk. i. al., et. i. al., et. s. HCl, alk., Na2CO3; i. al., et. s. HCl, al., et.; sl. s. NH3 s. al. s. HCl, HBr; d. al. s. KCN; i. al., et. s. a.; d. al. i. al. v. s. m. al.; v. sl. s. act.

1.41 2.03 12° 4 1.60 1.305 2.326 6.68425° 3.14 20° 4 5.67 5.2 4.64 4.120 2.60 4.89 1.65−288°; 1.402−185.7°; 1.38 (A) 5.72714° 4.720° 2.020° 2.0–2.5 4.086 (α)3.50619°; (β)3.25419° lq. 2.163 2.695 (A) 3.865 25° 4 3.85 3.738

d. 170 1380 220.2 1570

−2S, 135 629 −a H2O, 100 −189.2 81436atm. d. 358 35.5 d. d. 206 (α)tr. 267; (β)307 −18 −113.5 subl. subl. 315 d. −185.7 subl. 615

−H2O, 160 d. 565 d. 500 130 −55; d. 230

7.4 3.5 2.468 2.19 4.781 24° 4

d. 50 AuCl3, 170 d. 850 −H2O, 41 847

2-9

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 333.22 197.37 197.37 197.37 304.27 322.29 208.27 208.27 244.31 171.38 315.50 261.38 225.38 153.36 169.36 313.49 331.35 233.35 602.04 448.68 279.42 233.42 169.42 233.54 301.63 9.02 209.00 528.03 279.91 315.37 485.10 305.02 466.00 466.00 466.00 260.46 61.84 10.82 55.29 69.64 123.69 128.92 159.83 339.99 112.41 230.50 266.53 172.42 183.32 Color, crystalline form and refractive index col., mn., 1.7266 wh., rhb., 1.676 wh., hex. wh. col. col., mn., 1.577 col., mn., 1.7361 col., cb. col., mn., 1.646 col., mn. col., mn., 1.5017 col., cb., 1.572 wh. cr. col., cb., 1.98 gray or wh. pd. pearly sc. tri. wh., rhb. nd., 1.635 wh., cb. wh., rhb. pr. col., rhb., 1.636 col., cb., 2.155 yel.-gn. red, rhb. gray, met., hex. silv. wh. or reddish, hex. wh. pd. bk. nd. wh. cr. col., tri. hex. pl. yel., rhb. yel., tet. yel., cb. wh., amor. wh., tri. gray or bk., amor. or mn. bk. cr. col. glass, 1.459 tri., 1.456 col.; in soln. only rhb., or red lq. red, oct. silv. met., hex. col. col., mn. wh., trig. wh., cb. Specific gravity 3.69 4.29 Melting point, °C −2H2O, 100 tr. 811 to α tr. 982 to β 174090atm 414 d. 120 tr. 925 962 −2H2O, 100 77.9 592 1923 −O, 800 −8H2O, 100 Boiling point, °C d. d. 1450 Solubility in 100 parts Cold water v. s. 0.002218° 0.002218° 20.350° s. 310° 39.30° 1.670° 5.615° 5.00° 0.00168° 1.50° v. sl. s. 0.168 d. 0.015 i. 0.01 0.02617° 0.0001150° d. s. 4115° i. i. i. d. d. d. i. i. i. i. sl. s. 2.660° 2550 >3500 >1500 58.78 767 d. i. i. 1.10° sl. s. v. s. 4.220° s. i. v. s. v. s. i. 90
0°

Name Barium (Cont.) bromide carbonate (witherite) carbonate (α) carbonate (β) Barium chlorate chlorate chloride chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate (nitrobarite) oxalate oxide peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, pyrosilicofluoride sulfate (barite, barytes) sulfide, monosulfide, trisulfide, tetraBeryllium (glucinum) Bismuth carbonate, subchloride, dichloride, trinitrate nitrate, suboxide, trioxide, trioxide, trioxychloride Boric acid Boron carbide oxide oxide (sassolite) Bromic acid Bromine hydrate Cadmium acetate acetate carbonate chloride

Formula BaBr2·2H2O BaCO3 BaCO3 BaCO3 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO3)2·H2O* BaCl2 BaCl2 BaCl2·2H2O† Ba(OH)2 Ba(OH)2·8H2O Ba(NO3)2 BaC2O4 BaO BaO2* BaO2·8H2O BaH4(PO4)2 BaHPO4 Ba3(PO4)2 Ba2P2O7 BaSiF6 BaSO4 BaS BaS3 BaS4·2H2O Be(Gl) Bi Bi2O3·CO2·H2O BiCl2(?) BiCl3* Bi(NO3)3·5H2O BiONO3·H2O Bi2O3 Bi2O3 Bi2O3 BiOCl H3BO3 B B4C B2O3 B2O3·3H2O HBrO3 Br2 Br2·10H2O Cd Cd(C2H3O2)2 Cd(C2H3O2)2·2H2O* CdCO3 CdCl2

Hot water v. s. 0.0065100° 0.0065100° 84.880° s. 59100° 76.8100° 101.480° 34.2100° 0.002424° 90.880° d. d. d.

Other reagents s. al. s. a.; i. al. s. a.; i. al. sl. s. al., act. sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al. sl. s. HCl, HNO3; i. al. v. sl. s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4Cl; i. al. s. HCl, HNO3, abs. al.; i. NH3, act. s. dil. a.; i. act. s. dil. a.; i. al., et., act. s. a. s. a., NH4 salts s. a. s. a., NH4 salts sl. s. HCl, NH4Cl; i. al. s. conc. H2SO4; 0.006, 3% HCl d. HCl; i. al. i. al., CS2 s. dil. a., alk. s. aq. reg., conc. H2SO4, HNO3 s. a. s. al. 4219° act.; s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a. s. a.; i. act., NH3, H2C4H4O6 22.220° gly., 0.2425° et.; s. al. s. HNO3; i. al. i. a. s. a., al., gly. s. al., et., alk., CS2 s. a., NH4NO3 s. m. al. s. al. s. a., KCN, NH4 salts; i. NH3 1.5215° al.; i. et., act.

3.179 3.856 24° 4 3.097 24° 4 4.495 16° 2.188 3.24428° 2.658 5.72 4.958 2.9 4.16515° 4.116° 3.920° 4.27915° 4.49915° 4.2515° 2.988 1.816 9.8020°
20° 4°

1560 1560 −8H2O, 550 d. 2000

1580 d. d. 400 d. 200 1284 271 d. 163 230 d. 30 d. 260 820 860 tr. 704 185 d. 2300 2450 577 d. d. 100 −7.2 d. 6.8 320.9 256 −H2O, 130 d. <500 568

tr. to mn. 1149

0.09100° 0.00028530° d. s. v. s. sl. s. d. i. i.

2767 1450 d. 300 447 −5H2O, 80 1900

6.86 4.86 4.75 2.82 4.92815° 8.9 8.55 8.20 7.7215° 1.43515° 2.32 2.54 1.85 1.49 3.11920°; 5.87 (A) 8.6520° 2.341 2.01 4.2584° 4.047 25° 4

i. i. i. i. sl. s. 40.2100° i. i. 15.7100° s. d. 3.1330° i. i. 147100°

960

chloride cyanide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide oxide oxide, subCadmium sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide (greenockite) Calcium acetate aluminate aluminum silicate (anorthite) arsenate bromide carbonate (aragonite) carbonate (calcite) chloride (hydrophilite) chloride chloride citrate cyanamide ferrocyanide fluoride (fluorite) formate hydride hydroxide hypochlorite hypophosphate lactate magnesium carbonate (dolomite) magnesium silicate (diopside) nitrate (nitrocalcite) nitrate nitride nitrite oxalate oxalate oxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, pyro- (brushite) phosphide silicate (α) (pseudowollastonite) silicate (β) (wollastonite) sulfate (anhydrite)

CdCl2.2a H2O Cd(CN)2 Cd(OH)2 Cd(NO3)2 Cd(NO3)2.4H2O* CdO CdO Cd2O CdSO4 CdSO4.H2O 3CdSO4.8H2O* CdSO4.H2O CdSO4.7H2O CdS Ca Ca(C2H2O2)2.H2O Ca(AlO2)2 CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 Ca3(AsO4)2 CaBr2 CaCO3 CaCO3 CaCl2* CaCl2.H2O CaCl2.6H2O Ca3(C6H5O7)2.4H2O CaCN2 Ca2Fe(CN)6.12H2O CaF2 Ca(HCO2)2 CaH2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(ClO)2.4H2O Ca2P2O6.2H2O Ca(C3H5O3)2.5H2O CaO.MgO.2CO2 CaO.MgO.2SiO2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2.4H2O* Ca3N2 Ca(NO2)2.H2O CaC2O4 CaC2O4.H2O CaO CaO2.8H2O CaH4(PO4)2.H2O CaHPO4.2H2O Ca3(PO4)2 Ca(PO3)2 Ca2P2O7 Ca2P2O7.5H2O Ca3P2 CaSiO3 CaSiO3 CaSO4

228.36 164.45 146.43 236.43 308.49 128.41 128.41 240.82 208.47 226.49 769.54 280.53 334.58 144.47 40.08 176.18 158.02 278.14 398.06 199.91 100.09 100.09 110.99 129.01 219.09 570.50 80.11 508.31 78.08 130.12 42.10 74.10 215.06 274.15 308.30 184.42 216.52 164.10 236.16 148.26 150.11 128.10 146.12 56.08 216.21 252.09 172.10 310.20 198.04 254.12 344.20 182.20 116.14 116.14 136.14

col., mn., 1.6513 wh., trig. col. col. nd. brn., cb. brn., amor, 2.49 gn., amor. rhb. mn. col., mn., 1.565 col. mn. yel.-or., hex., 2.506 silv. met., cb. wh. nd. col., rhb. or mn. tri., 1.5832 wh. pd. delq. nd. col., rhb., 1.6809 col., hex., 1.550 wh., delq., cb, 1.52 col., delq. col., trig., 1.417 col. nd. col., rhombohedral yel., tri., 1.5818 wh., cb., 1.4339 col., rhb. wh. cr. or pd. col., hex., 1.574 wh., feathery cr. granular col., eff. trig., 1.68174 wh., mn. col., cb. col., mn., 1.498 brn. cr. delq., hex. col., cb. col. col., cb., 1.837 pearly, tet. wh., tri. wh., mn. pl. wh., amor. wh., tet., 1.588 col., biaxial, 1.60 wh., mn. red cr. col., pseudo hex., 1.6150 or mn.(?) col., mn., 1.610 col., rhb., 1.576, or mn, 1.50

3.327 4.79 15° 4 2.455 17° 4 8.15 6.95 8.192 18° 4 4.691 24° 4 3.78620° 3.09 3.05 2.48 20° 4 4.58 20° 1.55 3.6720° 2.765 3.353 25° 4 2.93 25° 2.711 4 2.152 15° 4 1.6817° 1.7 3.18020° 2.015 1.7 2.2

tr. 34 d. >200 d. 300 350 59.4 d. 900–1000 d. 1000 tr. 108 tr. 41.5 tr. 4 1750100atm 810 d. 1600 1551 760 d. 825 1339103atm. 772 29.92 −2H2O, 130 1330 d. d. 675 −H2O, 580 d. −2H2O, 200 −3H2O, 100 d. 730–760 1391 561 42.7 900 d. −H2O, 200 2570 −8H2O, 100 −H2O, 100 d. 1670 975 1230 >1600 1540 tr. 1190 to α 1450(mn.)

132

16820° 0.024718° 0.0002625° 109.70° 2150° i. i. 76.50° s. 114.20° s. 350−5° 0.000001 d. 520° d. 0.01325° 1250° 0.001220°† 0.001425° 59.50° s. v. s. 0.08518° s. d. s. 0.001618° 16.10° d. 0.1850° delq.; d. i. 10.5 0.032 i. 1020° 2660° d. 770° 0.0006713° i. Forms Ca(OH)2 sl. s. 0.0224.5° 0.0025 i. i. sl. s. d. 0.009517° 0.29820°
18°

180100° 32659.5° i. i. 60.8100° s. 127.660° s. Colloidal d. 45.580° i. 312105° 0.002100° 0.002100° 347260° s. v. s. 0.09626° d. 15090° 0.001726° 18.4100 0.077100° d. ∞ i. 376151° v. s. d. 41790° 0.001495° i. d. d. 0.075100° d. i.

2.0515° m. al. s. a.; NH4OH, KCN s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. v. s. a. s. al., NH3; i. HNO3 s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. d. a., alk. i.act., NH3 i. al. i. al. i. al. s. a.; v. s. NH4OH s, a.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. HCl s. dil. a. s. al., act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4Cl s. a., NH4Cl s. al. s. al. s. al. 0.006518° al. i. al. sl. s. a. i. al., et. d. a.; i. bz. s. NH4Cl d. a. s. HCl, H4P2O6 ∞h. al.; i. et.

subl. in N2, 980 1200 30

1810 >1600 −6H2O, 200 −4H2O, 185

2.872 3.3 2.36 1.82 2.6317° 2.2334° 2.24° 2.2 3.32 2.220 16° 4 2.306 16° 4 3.14 2.82 3.09 2.25 2.5115° 2.905 2.915 2.96

1415° al.; s. amyl al., NH3 s. dil. a.; i. abs. al. s. 90% al. s. a.; i. ac. s. a.; i. ac s. a.; i. al. s. a. d.; i. al., et. s. a.; i. al., ac. i. a. s. a. s. a.; i. NH4Cl s. dil. a.; i. al., et. s. HCl s. a., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts

2850 expl. 275 d. 200

tr. 1193 to rhb.

0.1619100°

*Usual commercial form. †The solubility of CaCO3 in H2O is greatly increased by increasing the amount of CO2 in the H2O. 2-11

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 172.17 214.31 72.14 156.17 260.22 210.28 260.30 288.00 12.01 12.01 12.01 44.01 76.13 28.01 98.92 60.07 68.03 114.98 398.31 397.21 172.13 404.31 140.13 568.44 712.57 132.91 210.58 70.91 215.04 518.08 441.55 116.52 494.32 158.38 266.48 109.01 103.03 139.07 400.18 373.15 152.02 392.20 482.28 662.44 716.49 Color, crystalline form and refractive index col., mn., 1.5226 col. pr. col., cb. wh., cr., 1.595 col., rhb. wh., delq. cr. col., tri., 1.56 wh., tet., 1.9200 bk., amor. col., cb., 2.4195 bk., hex. col. gas col. lq. col., poisonous, odorless gas poisonous gas gas gas yel.-red lq. yel., gelatinous red, mn. wh. or pa. yel., cb. yel., rhb. steel gray, cb. or hex. wh., mn. or rhb. tri. silv. met., hex. lq. rhb., or gn.-yel. gas rhb. red-brn., delq. delq. col. lq. gn. pink, trig. vl. or gn., hex. pl. gn., rhb. gn. or blue, gelatinous gn. purple pr. purple, mn. dark gn., hex. rose pd. gn. vl. vl., cb., 1.564 Specific gravity 2.32 2.815° Melting point, °C −1a H2O, 128 d. 15 −2H2O, 100 d. d. d. 650 Boiling point, °C −2H2O, 163 Solubility in 100 parts Cold water 0.2230° v. s. d. 0.004318° 0.0370° s. 71.29° 0.2 i. i. i. 179.70° cc 0.20° 0.00440°; 3.50° cc v. s. sl. d. 1330° cc d. d. i. s. d. i. 18.98 250° d. v. s. 1.460°; 31010° cc s. v. s. s. d. s. i.§ v. s. d. i. i. i. s. s. i. i.† s. s. 12020°
0°

Name Calcium (Cont.) sulfate (gypsum) sulfhydrate sulfide (oldhamite) sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate tungstate (scheelite) Carbon, cf. table of organic compounds Carbon, amorphous Carbon, diamond Carbon, graphite dioxide disulfide monoxide oxychloride (phosgene) oxysulfide suboxide thionyl chloride Ceric hydroxide hydroxynitrate oxide sulfate Cerium Cerous sulfate sulfate Cesium Chloric acid Chlorine hydrate Chloroplatinic acid Chlorostannic acid Chlorosulfonic acid Chromic acetate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate

Formula CaSO4·2H2O Ca(SH)2·6H2O CaS CaSO3·2H2O CaC4H4O6·4H2O Ca(CNS)2·3H2O CaS2O3·6H2O CaWO4 C C C CO2 CS2 CO COCl2 COS C3O2 CSCl2 2CeO2·3H2O Ce(OH)(NO3)3·3H2O CeO2 Ce(SO4)2·4H2O Ce Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3·8H2O Ce HClO3·7H2O Cl2 Cl2·8H2O H2PtCl6·6H2O H2SnCl6·6H2O HO·SO2·Cl Cr2(C2H3O2)6·2H2O CrCl3 CrCl3·6H2O* CrF3 Cr(OH)3 Cr(OH)3·2H2O Cr(NO3)3·9H2O* Cr(NO3)3·7a H2O Cr2O3 Cr2(SO4)3 Cr2(SO4)3·5H2O Cr2(SO4)3·15H2O Cr2(SO4)3·18H2O

Hot water 0.25750° v. s. d. 0.002790° 0.2285° v. s. d.

Other reagents s. a., gly., Na2S2O3, NH4 salts s. al. s. a. s. H2SO3 sl. s. al. v. s. al. i. al. s. NH4Cl; i. a. i. a., alk. i. a., alk. i. a., alk. s. a., alk. s. al.; et. s. al., Cu2Cl2 s. ac., CCl4, bs.; d.a. v. s. alk., al. s. et. s. a.; sl. s. alk. carb.; i. alk

1.87316° 6.06 1.8–2.1 3.5120° 2.2620° lq. 1.101−87°; 1.53 (A); solid 1.56−79° 22° lq. 1.261 20 ; 2.63 (A) lq. 0.814−195°; 4 0.968 (A) 1.392 19° 4 lq. 1.24−87°; 2.10 (A) lq. 1.1140° 1.50915° 7.3 3.91 6.920° cb.; 6.7 hex. 3.91 2.88617° 1.9020° 1.28214.2° lq. 1.56−33.6°; 2.490° (A) 1.23 2.431 1.97128° 1.78725° 2.75715° 1.835 25° 4 3.8

>3500 >3500 >3500 −56.65.2atm. −108.6 −207 −104 −138.2 −107

4200 4200 4200 subl. −78.5 46.3 −192 8.2756mm −50.2760mm 7761mm 73.5

i. i. i. 90.120° cc 0.01450° 0.001850° 2.3220° cc d. 40.330° cc

1950 645 −8H2O, 630 28.5 <−20 −101.6 d. 9.6 60 19.2 −80 subl. 83 >1000 −2H2O, 100 36.5 100 1900 100 1400

i. Slowly oxidized 0.4100° 7.640° 0.57 ; 17730° cc
30°

s. H2SO4, HCl s. dil. H2SO4 s. dil. a.; i. al.

670 d. 40 −34.6

s. a., al., NH3 s. alk. s. alk. s. al., et. d. al.; i. CS2 4.7615° m. al. i. a., act., CS2 s. al.; i. et. sl. s. a.; i. al., NH3 s. a., alk.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., alk. s. a., alk., al., act. sl. s. a. i. a. s. al., H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. al.

v. s.

151.5765mm 1200–1500 d. d.

sl. s.

d. 100 d.

5.21 3.012 1.86717° 1.722°

i. s. s. i. d. 67° d.

−10H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

sulfide Chromium trioxide (chromic acid) Chromous chloride hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide (daubrelite) Chromyl chloride Cobalt carbonyl sulfide, diCobaltic chloride chloride, dichro chloride, luteo chloride, praseo Cobaltic chloride, purpureo chloride, roseo hydroxide oxide sulfate sulfide Cobalto-cobaltic oxide Cobaltous acetate chloride chloride nitrate oxide sulfate sulfate sulfate (biebeorite) sulfide (syeporite) Copper Cupric acetate acetate aceto-arsenite (Paris green) ammonium chloride ammonium sulfate carbonate, basic (azurite) carbonate, basic (malachite) chloride (eriochalcite) chloride chromate, basic cyanide dichromate ferricyanide ferrocyanide formate hydroxide lactate nitrate nitrate *Usual commercial form. †Also a soluble modification.

Cr2S3 Cr CrO3 CrCl2 Cr(OH)2 CrO CrSO4·7H2O CrS CrO2Cl2 Co Co(CO)4 CoS2 CoCl3 Co(NH3)3Cl3·H2O Co(NH3)6Cl3 Co(NH3)4Cl3·H2O Co(NH3)5Cl3 Co(NH3)5Cl3·H2O Co(OH)3 Co2O3 Co2(SO4)3 Co2S3 Co3O4 Co(C2H3O2)2·4H2O CoCl2 CoCl2·6H2O* Co(NO3)2·6H2O CoO CoSO4 CoSO4·H2O CoSO4·7H2O* CoS Cu Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O (CuOAs2O3)3· Cu(C2H3O2)2* CuCl2·2NH4Cl·2H2O CuSO4·4NH3·H2O 2CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 CuCl2 CuCl2·2H2O CuCrO4·2CuO·2H2O Cu(CN)2 CuCr2O7·2H2O Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 Cu2Fe(CN)6·7H2O Cu(HCO2)2 Cu(OH)2 Cu(C3H5O3)2·2H2O Cu(NO3)2·3H2O* Cu(NO3)2·6H2O

200.02 52.01 100.01 122.92 86.03 68.01 274.18 84.07 154.92 58.94 170.98 123.06 165.31 234.42 267.50 251.46 250.47 268.49 109.96 165.88 406.06 214.06 240.82 249.09 129.85 237.95 291.05 74.94 155.00 173.02 281.11 91.00 63.57 181.66 199.67 1013.83 277.51 245.77 344.75 221.17 134.48 170.52 374.75 115.61 315.62 614.63 465.21 153.61 97.59 277.74 241.63 295.68

brn.-bk. pd. gray, met., cb. red, rhb. wh., delq. yel.-brn. bk. pd. blue bk. pd. dark red lq. silv. met., cb. or. cr. bk., cb. red cr. or., mn. gn., rhb. rhb. brick red bk. bk. blue cr. bk. cr. bk., cb. red-vl., mn., 1.542 blue cr. red, mn. red, mn., 1.4 brn., cb. red pd. red pd., mn.(?), 1.639 red, mn., 1.483 brn. nd. yel.-red met., cb. dark gn., mn. gn. blue, tet., 1.670, 1.744 blue, rhb. blue, mn., 1.758 dark gn., mn., 1.875 brn.-yel. pd. gn., rhb., 1.684 yel.-brn. yel.-gn. bk., tri. yel.-gn. red-brn. blue, mn. blue, gelatinous dark blue, mn. blue, delq. blue, rhb.

3.7719° 7.1 2.70 2.75

−S, 1350 1615 197 d. d.

2200

i. i. 164.90° v. s. d. i. 12.350 i. d. i. i. i. s. s. 4.260° v. s. 0.2320° 16.120° i. i. d. i. i. s. 457° 116.50° 84.030°(anh.) i. 25.60° s.

d. i. 206.7100° v. s. i.

3.97 1.92 8.920° 1.7318° 4.269 2.94 1.701620° 1.847 25° 1.819 25 5.18 4.8 6.07 1.705318.7° 3.356 25° 1.924 25 25° 1.883 25 5.68 3.71025° 3.13
25° 1.948 25 5.4518° 8.9220° 1.930 20° 4 1.882

1550 −96.5 1480 51 subl.

117.6 2900 d. 52

i. d. s. 12.7446.5° 1.03146.5° 24.8716° i. i. i. s. 10596° 17780° 334.990° (anh.) i. 83100° s. s. i. 20 99.380° d. d. d. 107.9100° 192.4100° d. i. d. d. 45100° 66680° ∞

s. h. HNO3 s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; i. HNO3 s. H2SO4, al., et. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. conc. a. i. dil. HNO3 sl. s. al. v. s. a. s. et. s. a. s. al., et., CS2 s. HNO3, aq. reg. s. a.; al. i. al., NH4OH s. a.; i. al. i. al. sl. s. HCl s. a.; i. al. s. a. s. H2SO4 d. a. s. H2SO4; i. HCl, HNO3 s. a., al. 31 al.; 8.6 act. v. s. et., act. 10012.5° al.; s. act.; sl. s. NH3 s. a., NH4OH; i. al. 1.0418° m. al.; i. NH8 2.58° al. s. a., aq. reg. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4 7 al.; s. et.; gly. s. a., NH4OH s. a. i. al. s. NH4OH, h. aq. NaHCO3 s. KCN; 0.03 aq. CO 5315° al.; 6815° m. al. s. al.; et., NH4Cl s. HNO3, NH4OH s. KCN, C5H5N s. a.; NH4OH s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. a., NH8 0.25 al. s. a., NH4OH, KCN, al. sl. s. al. 10012.5° al. s. al.

d. 100 −1a H2O, 100 d. 900

−4H2O, 140 subl. 86 <100 d. 1800 d. 880 d. 96.8 >1100 1083 115 d. 110 d. 150 d. 220 d. 498 −2H2O, 110 −2H2O, 260 d. −2H2O, 100

1049 −6H2O, 110 d.

−7H2O, 420 2300 240 d.

3380° 0.0003818° i. s. 7.2 i. 33.80° 18.05 i.
21.5°

1.98 1.81 3.88 3.9 3.054 2.3922.4° 2.28618° 1.831 3.368 2.0473.9° 2.074

Forms Cu2Cl2 993 d.

i. 70.70° 110.40° i. i. sl. s. i. i. 12.5 i. 16.7 38140° 243.70°

−H2O 114.5 −3H2O, 26.4 −HNO3, 170

2-13

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 79.57 79.57 365.69 252.67 159.63 249.71 95.63 265.69 353.47 187.15 198.05 179.16 402.67 466.24 165.14 80.58 143.14 443.38 159.20 159.20 52.02 Color, crystalline form and refractive index bk., cb. bk., tri., 2.63 blue-gn. bk. gn.-wh., rhb., 1.733 blue, tri., 1.5368 blue, hex. or mn., 1.45 1 gn. pd. rhb. pl. yel. wh., cb., 1.973 wh., mn. brn.-red brn.-red red cr. yel. red, cb., 2.705 gray-bk. bk., rhb. bk., cb. poisonous gas Specific gravity 6.40 6.45 6.35 3.60615° 2.286 15.6° 4 4.6 Melting point, °C d. 1026 d. 1026 −3H2O, 140 d. d. >600 −4H2O, 110 tr. 103 d. 4.4 3.53 2.9 d. 422 474.5 1366 d. Boiling point, °C Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. i. i. i. 14.30° 24.3 0.00003318° 0.0215° d. i. 1.5225° i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.000518° 0.000518° 45020° cc
0°

Name Cupric acetate (Cont.) oxide (paramelaconite) oxide (tenorite) oxychloride phosphide sulfate (hydrocyanite) sulfate (blue vitriol or chalcanthite) sulfide (covellite) tartate Cuprous ammonium iodide carbonate chloride (nantokite) cyanide ferricyanide ferrocyanide fluoride hydroxide oxide (cuprite) Cuprous phosphide sulfide (chalcocite) sulfide Cyanogen Cyanogen compounds, cf. table of organic compounds Ferric acetate, basic ammonium sulfate, cf. Alum chloride (molysite) chloride ferrocyanide (Prussian blue) hydroxide lactate nitrate oxide (hematite) sulfate sulfate (coquimbite) Ferroso-ferric chloride ferricyanide (Prussian green) oxide (magnetite; magnetic iron oxide) oxide, hydrated Ferrous ammonium sulfate chloride (lawrencite) chloroplatinate ferricyanide (Turnbull’s blue) ferrocyanide formate hydroxide nitrate oxide

Formula CuO CuO CuCl2·2CuO·4H2O Cu3P2 CuSO4 CuSO4·5H2O* CuS CuC4H4O6·3H2O CuI·NH4I·H2O Cu2CO3 Cu2Cl2 Cu2(CN)2 Cu3Fe(CN)6 Cu4Fe(CN)6 Cu2F2 CuOH Cu2O Cu6P2 Cu2S Cu2S C2N2

Hot water i. i. 75.4100° 205100° 0.1485° i. i.

Other reagents s. a.; KCN, NH4Cl s. a., KCN, NH4Cl s. a. s. HNO3; i. HCl i. al. 1.18° al. s. HNO3, KCN s. a., KOH s. NH4I s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4OH, al. s. KCN, HCl, NH4OH; sl. s. NH3 s. NH4OH; i. HCl s. NH4OH; i. NH4Cl s. HF, HCl, HNO3; i. al. s. a., NH4OH s. HCl, NH4Cl, NH4OH s. HNO3; i. HCl s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. s. HNO3, NH4OH; i. act. 230020° cc al.; 50018° cc et.

Forms CuO, 650 −5H2O, 250 d. 220

3.4 6.0 6.4 to 6.8 5.6 5.80 lq. 0.866−17.2°; 1.806 (A)

908 −a H2O, 360 1235 1100 1130 −34.4

subl. 1100 −O, 1800

i. i.

−20.5

Fe(OH)(C2H3O2)2 FeCl3 FeCl3·6H2O* Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 Fe(OH)3 Fe(C3H5O3)3 Fe(NO3)3·6H2O Fe2O3 Fe2(SO4)3 Fe2(SO4)3·9H2O FeCl2·2FeCl3·18H2O Fe′′′ Fe′′ [Fe(CN)6]6 4 3 Fe3O4 Fe3O4·4H2O FeSO4·(NH4)2SO4· 6H2O FeCl2 FePtCl6·6H2O Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2 Fe2Fe(CN)6 Fe(HCO2)2·2H2O Fe(OH)2 Fe(NO3)2·6H2O FeO

190.95 162.22 270.32 859.27 106.87 323.06 349.97 159.70 399.88 562.02 775.49 1662.70 231.55 303.61 392.15 126.76 571.92 591.47 323.66 181.92 89.87 287.96 71.85

brn., amor. bk.-brn., hex. delq. red-yel., delq. dark blue red-brn. brn., amor., delq. rhb., delq. red or bk., trig., 3.042 rhb., 1.814 yel., trig. yel., delq. gn. bk., cb., 2.42 bk. blue-gn., mn., 1.4915 gn.-yel., hex., 1.567 yel., hex. dark blue blue-wh., amor. lt. gn. cr. bk. 2.80411° 282 37 d. −1a H2O, 500 35 1560 d. d. 480 d. 50 d. 180 1538 d. d. d. delq. d. d. 3.4 5.7 60.5 1420 d. 315 280

i. 74.40° 2460° i. i. v. s. 1500° i. sl. s. 440 s. i. i. i. 180° 64.410° v. s. i. i. sl. s. 0.00067 2000° i. 535.8100° ∞ d. i. v. s. ∞ d. d. s. i. i. 10075° 105.7100° v. s.

s. a.; al. v. s. al.; et. +HCl s. al., act., gly. s. HCl, conc. H2SO4; i. al., et. s. a.; i. al., et. i. et. s. al., act. s. HCl i. H2SO4, NH3 s. abs. al. s. d. h. HCl i. al. s. a. i. al. 100 al.; s. act.; i. et. i. dil. a., al. s. a., NH4Cl s. a.; i. alk.

3.4 to 3.9 1.68420° 5.12 3.09718° 2.1 5.2 1.864 2.7 2.714

30025° i.

2-14

phosphate (vivianite) silicate sulfate (siderotilate) sulfate (copperas) sulfide cf. also under iron Fluoboric acid Fluorine Fluosilicic acid Gadolinium Gallium bromide Glucinum cf. Beryllium Gold Gold, colloidal Gold salts cf. under Auric and Aurous Hafnium Helium Hydrazine formate hydrate hydrochloride hydrochloride, dinitrate nitrate, disulfate sulfate Hydrazoic acid (azoimide) Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydriodic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid) Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid Hydrogen peroxide selenide sulfide Hydroxylamine hydrochloride nitrate sulfate

Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O FeSiO3 FeSO4·5H2O FeSO4·7H2O* FeS HBF4 F2 H2SiF6 Gd GaBr3 Au Au Hf He N2H4 N2H4·2HCO2H N2H4·H2O N2H4·HCl N2H4·2HCl N2H4·HNO3 N2H4·2HNO3 N2H4·a H2SO4 N2H4·H2SO4 HN3 HI HI·H2O HI·2H2O HI·3H2O HI·4H2O HBr HBr·H2O HBr (47.8% in H2O) HBr·2H2O HCl† HCl (45.2% in H2O) HCl·2H2O HCl·3H2O HCN HF HF (35.35% in H2O) H2 H2O2‡ H2Se H2S NH2OH NH2OH·HCl NH2OH·HNO3 NH2OH·a H2SO4

501.64 131.91 241.99 278.02 87.91 87.83 38.00 144.08 156.9 309.47 197.20 197.20 178.6 4.00 32.05 124.10 50.06 68.51 104.98 95.06 158.08 81.09 130.12 43.03 127.93 145.94 163.96 181.98 199.99 80.92 98.94 80.92 116.96 36.47 36.47 72.50 90.51 27.03 20.01 20.01 2.016 34.02 81.22 34.08 33.03 69.50 96.05 82.07

blue, mn., 1.592, 1.603 mn. gn., tri., 1.536 blue-gn., mn. bk., hex. col. lq. gn.-yel. gas

2.58 3.5 2.2 1.89914.8° 4.84 lq. 1.51−187°; 1.3115° (A)

i. 1550 64 1193 −223 −5H2O, 300 −7H2O, 300 d. 130 d. −187 s. 32.80° 0.00061618° ∞ d. s.

i. s. 14950° ∞ s. s. i.

s. a.; i. ac. i. al. i. al. s. a.; i. NH3 s. al.

delq. cr. yel. met., cb. blue to vl. hex. col. gas col. lq. cb. col. yel. lq. wh., cb. cr. nd. delq. pl. rhb. col. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas; 1.325 (lq.) col. lq. col. lq. wh. cr. col. gas; 1.256 (lq.) col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. poisonous gas or col. lq., 1.254 gas or col. lq. col. lq. col. gas or cb. col. lq., 1.333 col. gas col. gas rhb., delq. col., mn. col. cr. col., mn. 19.320° 1063 2600

s. i. s.

s. aq. reg., KCN; i. a. s. aq. reg., KCN; i. a.

12.1 0.1368 (A) 1.011 15° 4 1.0321° 1.42

>1700 <−272.2 1.4 128 −40 198 70.7 104 85 254 −80 −50.8 −43 −48 −36.5 −86

>3200(?) −268.9 113.5 118.5739.5mm subl. 140 d. 37 −35.5 127774mm

1.378 4.40° (A) 1.715°

2.710° (A) 1.78 1.486 2.11−15° 1.2680° (A) 1.48 1.46 −18.3° 4 0.697
18°

−67

0.970° cc ∞ s. ∞ v. s. s. 174.910° v. s. v. s. 3.05522° ∞ 4250010° cc ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 2210°

1.0850° cc ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. v. s. 27.6560° ∞ v. s.

Absorbed by Pt s. al. ∞ al.; i. et. sl. s. al. s. al. i. al. v. sl. s. abs. al. ∞ al. s. al. ∞ al. s. al. s. al. s. al. s. al. Stable at −15.5° and 1 atm., and at −11.3° and 2.5 atm. s. al. s. al., et. s. al. s. al. s. al. ∞ al., et.

130100°

−11 −111 −15.35 0 −24.4 −14 −83 −35 −259.1 −0.89 −64 −82.9 34 151 48 170 d.

126 −85 d. d. 26 19.4 120 −252.7 151.4 −42 −59.6 56.522mm d. d. <100
760mm

∞ s. 82.30° ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 0° to 19.4° v. s. 2.10° cc ∞ 3774° cc 4370° cc s. 83.317° v. s. 32.90°

s. 56.160°

0.98813.6° 1.15 lq. 0.0709−252.7° 0.06948 (A) 1.438 20° 4 2.12−42° 1.1895 (A) 1.3518° 1.6717°

v. s. 0.8580° cc 27022.5° cc 18640° cc d. v. s. d. 68.590° sl. s. Fe, Pd, Pt s. a., et.; i. petr. et s. CS2, COCl2 9.5415° cc al.; s. CS2 s. a., al. s. al.; i. et. v. s. abs. al. v. sl. s. al.; i. et., abs. al.

*Usual commercial form. †Usual commercial form about 31 percent. ‡Usual commercial forms 3 or 30 percent. 2-15

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 96.92 146(?) 114.76 175.93 253.84 333.84 1120.91 193.10 55.85 55.85 55.85 55.85 55.85 179.56 195.90 125.71 83.91 119.97 119.97 647.43 83.70 138.92 207.21 325.30 379.35 505.46 608.56 584.54 807.75 489.06 347.13 453.03 676.24 291.26 367.05 267.22 775.67 278.12 323.22 546.43 297.25 687.65 331.23 430.42 223.21 223.21 Color, crystalline form and refractive index yel. soft, tet. met. col., rhb. blue-bk., rhb. wh., trimetric brn., delq. mn. wh. met., cb. gray silv. met., cb. silv. gray gray gray pseudo hex. pa. yel. lq. gray yel.-gray, oct. yel., rhb. yel., cb. hex. col. gas lead gray silv. met., cb. wh. cr. wh., mn. wh., rhb. wh. wh. nd. wh. nd. tri., 1.82 wh., mn., 1.9097 hex. rhb., 2.03 col. nd. col., rhb. wh., rhb., 2.0763 wh., hex. wh., rhb., 2.2172 yel., mn., 2.42 or.-yel. nd. wh., rhb. cb. col., cb. or mn., 1.7815 bk., amor. yel., tet. yel., rhb., 2.61 4.4615° 5.94 6.4215° 15° 6.85 15 6.66 6.6 6.14 5.80 6.12 4.56 7.592 4.53 8.34 9.53 8.0 d. 140 d. >200 802 expl. 350 373 d. 315 d. 400 501 844 d. 190 −H2O, 130 d. 470 d. red heat 888 954760mm d. −H2O, 280 7.320° 4.6290° 4.9320° 4.799 25° 4 22.420° 7.03 7.8620° 7.6 to 7.8 7.6 to 7.8 7.86 7.4 1.45721° 6.35 6.1 20° 4 4.87 5.0 4.6 20° 4 2.818 (A) 6.1520° 20° 11.337 20 3.251 20° 4 2.55 1.689 155 110 d. 113.5 d. 300 2350 1275 1535 1375 1075 1505 1837 −21 d. >560 tr. 450 1171 d. >700 −169 826 327.5 280 −3H2O, 75 22 Specific gravity Melting point, °C Boiling point, °C 4050mm 1450 184.35 >4800 3000 Solubility in 100 parts Cold water s. i. 2860° 0.01620° 187.412° s. d. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. d. i. 0.00049 0.0005 i. 11.050° cc d. i. 19.70° 45.6415° s. v. s. v. s. 5.55 d. i. d. i. i. 0.45540° 0.0001120° i. 0.6730° 0.00000720° i. 1.616° 0.014 38.80° i. 0.006818° Hot water d. i. 576101° 0.0956660° i. i. i. i. i. i. i. s. a. v. s. 87% al.; i. abs. al. et., chl. s. al., KI, et. i. abs. al., et., chl. sl. s. aq. reg., aq. Cl2 s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. s. a. s. al., H2SO4, alk. s. HCl, H2SO4 i. aq. reg. i. dil. a. i. dil. a. Other reagents

Name Hypobromous acid Illinium Indium Iodic acid Iodine oxide, pentaIodoplatinic acid Iridium Iron, cast† pure steel white pig wrought carbide (cementite) carbonyl nitride silicide sulfide, di- (marcasite) sulfide, di- (pyrite) sulfide (pyrrhotite) Cf. also under ferric and ferrous Krypton Lanthanum Lead acetate acetate (sugar of lead) acetate acetate, basic acetate, basic acetate, basic arsenate, monobasic arsenate, dibasic (schultenite) arsenate, metaarsenate, pyroLead azide bromide carbonate (cerussite) carbonate, basic (hydrocerussite; white lead) chloride (cotunnite) chromate (crocoite) chromate, basic formate hydroxide nitrate oxide, suboxide, mono- (litharge) oxide, mono (massicotite) 2-16 HBrO Il In HIO8

Formula

I2 I2O5 H2PtI6·9H2O Ir Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe2C Fe(CO)5 Fe2N FeSi FeS2 FeS2 Fe7S8 Kr La Pb Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O† Pb(C2H3O2)2IOH2O Pb2(C2H3O2)3OH Pb(C2H3O2)2· Pb(OH)2·H2O Pb(C2H3O2)2· 2Pb(OH)2 PbH4(AsO4)2 PbHAsO4 Pb(AsO3)2 Pb2As2O7 PbN6 PbBr2 PbCO3 2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2† PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbCrO4·PbO Pb(HCO2)2 3PbO·H2O Pb(NO3)2 Pb2O PbO PbO

102.5760mm

i.

d. d.

−151.8 1800 1620

3.5760° cc i. 22150° 200100° s.

sl. s. al., bz. s. a. s. HNO3; i. c. HCl, H2SO4 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. s. gly.; sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. al.

18.2 sl. s. d. 0.05100° 4.75100° d. i. 3.34100° i. i. 18100° d. 138.8100° i.

s. al. s. HNO3 s. HNO3, NaOH s. HNO3 s. HCl, HNO3; i. sc. v. s. ac.; i. NH4OH s. a., KBr.; sl. s. NH3; i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, al. s. ac.; sl. s. aq. CO2 sl. s. dil. HCl, NH3, i. al. s. a., alk.; i. NH3, ac. s. a., alk. i. al. s. a., alk. 8.822° al. s. a., alk. s. alk., PbAc, NH4Cl, CaCl2

918

oxide, monooxide, red (minium) oxide, sesquioxide, di- (plattnerite) silicate sulfate (anglesite) sulfate, acid sulfate, basic (lanarkite) sulfide (galena) thiocyanate Lithium benzoate bromide bromide carbonate chloride citrate fluoride formate hydride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic salicylate sulfate sulfate sulfate, acid Lutecium Magnesium acetate acetate aluminate (spinel) ammonium chloride ammonium phosphate (struvite) ammonium sulfate (boussingaultite) benzoate carbonate (magnesite) carbonate (nesquehonite) carbonate, basic (hydromagnesite) Magnesium chloride (chloromagnesite) chloride (bischofite) hydroxide (brucite) nitride oxide (magnesia; periclase) perchlorate *See also a table of alloys. †Usual commercial form.

PbO Pb3O4 Pb2O3 PbO2 PbSiO3 PbSO4 Pb(HSO4)2·H2O PbSO4·PbO PbS Pb(CNS)2 Li LiC7H5O2 LiBr LiBr·2H2O Li2CO3 LiCl Li3C6H5O7·4H2O LiF LiHCO2·H2O LiH LiOH LiOH·H2O LiNO3 LiNO3·3H2O Li2O LiH2PO4 Li3PO4 Li3PO4·12H2O LiC7H5O3 Li2SO4 Li2SO4·H2O† LiHSO4 Lu Mg Mg(C2H3O2)2 Mg(C2H3O2)2·4H2O† MgO·Al2O3 MgCl2·NH4Cl·6H2O MgNH4PO4·6H2O MgSO4·(NH4)2SO4· 6H2O Mg(C7H5O2)2·3H2O MgCO3 MgCO3·3H2O 3MgCO3·Mg(OH)2·3H2O MgCl2 MgCl2·6H2O† Mg(OH)2 Mg3N2 MgO Mg(ClO4)2†

223.21 685.63 462.42 239.21 283.27 303.27 419.36 526.48 239.27 323.37 6.94 128.05 86.86 122.89 73.89 42.40 281.98 25.94 69.97 7.95 23.95 41.96 68.95 123.00 29.88 103.94 115.80 331.99 144.05 109.94 127.96 104.01 174.99 24.32 142.41 214.47 142.26 256.83 245.44 360.62 320.59 83.43 138.38 365.37 95.23 203.33 58.34 100.98 40.32 223.23

amor. red, amor. red-yel., amor. brn., tet., 2.229 col., mn., 1.961 wh., mn. or rhb., 1.8823 cr. col., mn. lead gray, cb., 3.912 col., mn. silv. met. cb. wh. leaflets wh., delq., cb., 1.784 wh. pr. col., mn., 1.567 wh., delq., cb., 1.662 wh. cr. wh., cb., 1.3915 col., rhb. wh., cb. wh. cr. col., mn. col., trig., 1.735 col. col., 1.644 col. wh., rhb. wh., trig. col. col., mn., 1.465 col., mn., 1.477 pr. silv. met., hex. wh. wh., mn. pr., 1.491 col. cb., 1.718–23 wh., rhb., delq. col., rhb., 1.496 col., mn. wh. pd. wh., trig. 1.700 col., rhb., 1.501 wh., rhb., 1.530 col., hex., 1.675 wh., delq., mn., 1.507 wh., trig., 1.5617 gn.-yel., amor. col., cb., 1.7364 wh., delq.

9.2 to 9.5 9.1 9.375 6.49 6.2 6.92 7.5 3.82 0.5320° 3.464 25° 4 2.110° 2.068 25° 4 2.29521.5° 1.46 0.820 2.54 1.83 2.38 2.461 2.53717.5° 1.645 2.22 2.06 2.12313° 1.7420° 1.42 1.454 3.6 1.456 1.715 1.72 3.037 1.852 2.16 2.32525° 1.56 2.4 3.65 2.6025° 2.013 25° 4 d. 500 d. 360 d. 290 766 1170 d. 977 1120 d. 190 186 547 44 618 614 d. 870 −H2O, 94 680 445 261 29.88 >100 837 100 d. 860 −H2O, 130 170.5 651 323 80 2135 −4H2O, 195 d. 100 >120 −3H2O, 110 d. 350 −H2O, 100 d. 712 118 d. d. d. 2800 d. 1412 d. 3600

i. i. i. i. i. 0.00280° 0.000118° 0.004418° 0.0000918° 0.0520° d. 3325° 1430° (2H2O) 24620° 1.540° 670° 61.215° 0.2718° 49.20° d. 12.70° 22.310° 53.40° v. s. forms LiOH 0.03418° v. sl. s. 12826° 35.340° 43.60° d. 1110 i. v. s. v. s. i. 16.7 0.02310° 16.86
0°

i. i. i. i. 0.005640° i. s. d. 40100° 266100° (1H2O) 0.72100° 127.5100° 66.7100° 0.13535° 346.6104° 17.5100° 26.880° 19470° ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 29.9100° 35100° sl. s. d. v. s. v. s. s. 0.019580° 130 s. d. 0.011 73100° 918100° d. v. s.
100°

s. alk., PbAc, NH4Cl, CaCl2 s. ac., h. HCl s. a., alk. s. ac., h. alk.; i. al. s. a. s. conc. a., NH4 salts; i. al. sl. s. H2SO4 sl. s. H2SO4 s. a.; i. alk. s. KCNS, HNO3 s. a., NH3 7.725°, 1078° al. s. al., act. s. al. s. dil. a.; i. al., act., NH3 2.4815° al.; s. et. sl. s. al., et. s. HF; i. act. sl. s. al., et. i. et. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. s. al., NH3

1336 1265 d. 1360 1670 925 d.

5

subl. <1000

s. a., NH4Cl; i. act. v. s. al. i. act., 80% al. i. 80% al. s. a., NH4 salts 5.2515° m. al. v. s. al. v. sl. s. dil. HCl; i. dil. HNO3 s. a.; i. al.

4.525° (anh.) 0.0106 0.151819° 0.04 52.80° 2810° 0.000918° i. 0.00062 99.625°

s. act. s. a., aq. CO2; i. act., NH3 s. a., aq. CO2 s. a., NH4 salts; i. al. 50 al. 50 al. s. NH4 salts, dil. a. s. a.; i. al. s. a., NH4 salts; i. al. 2425 al., 51.825° m. al.; 0.29 et.

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 56.32 222.60 276.65 277.88 402.73 274.48 171.70 120.38 246.49 54.93 173.02 245.08 114.94 125.84 197.91 196.76 88.95 175.88 287.04 70.93 157.86 86.93 150.99 169.01 187.02 205.04 223.05 241.07 259.09 277.10 398.04 98–99.5 318.70 360.44 693.84 271.52 284.65 234.63 216.61 921.35 613.33 296.67 729.89 259.65 280.53 461.23 pink, mn. or rhb. gn., delq. cr. wh. pl. wh., rhb. brn.-red wh., rhb., 1.859 cb. yel. or red, rhb., 2.5 yel., hex. yel. nd. wh., rhb. yel., tet. wh. sc. wh., tet. yel. pd. 2.092 3.24 11.5 3.270 6.053 5.44 4.42 11.14 7.93 6.47 6.44 7.307 pink, rhb. or mn., 1.518 pink, tri., 1.508 Color, crystalline form and refractive index wh. pd. col., mn., 1.604 wh., amor. delq., rhb., 1.475 mn., 1.4629 col., trig., 1.3439 col. col. col., rhb., 1.4554 gray-pink met. pa. pink, mn. rose, trig., 1.817 rose, delq., cb. rose red, delq., mn. 1.575 gn. wh., trig. brn., rhb., 2.24 rose red, mn. gray-gn., cb., 2.16 brn.-bk., cb. bk., rhb. red-wh. pa. pink, mn., 1.595 Specific gravity Melting point, °C expl. 275 1383 −3H2O, 100 265 d. 72 d. 1185 70 d. 1260 d. 650 58.0 d. d. 25.8 1650 −0, 1080 −0, >230 700 Stable 57 to 117 Stable 40 to 57 Stable 30 to 40 Stable 18 to 30 Stable 8 to 18 Stable −5 to +8 Stable −10 to −5; 19 d. d. 160 2300 (?) d. 237 277 expl. −H2O, 175 d. 100 d. 260 d. d. subl. 345 d. 130 1190 −H2O, 106; −4H2O, 200 Boiling point, °C Solubility in 100 parts Cold water i. i. i. 64.519° d. 19.260° 64.817.5° s. 26.90° 72.40° d. s. s. 0.006525° 63.40° 1518° s. 0.00220° i. 4260° i. i. i. 530° 98.4748° 85.2735° 74.22 −4H2O, 450
5°

Name Magnesium chloride (Cont.) peroxide phosphate, pyrophosphate, pyropotassium chloride (carnallite) potassium sulfate (picromerite) silicofluoride sodium chloride sulfate sulfate (epsom salt; epsomite) Manganese acetate acetate carbonate (rhodocrosite) chloride (scacchite) chloride chloride, perhydroxide (ous) (pyrochroite) hydroxide (ic) (manganite) nitrate oxide (ous) (manganosite) oxide (ic) oxide, di- (pyrolusite; polianite) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) (szmikite) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ous) sulfate (ic) Masurium Mercuric acetate bromide carbonate, basic chloride (corrosive sublimate) fulminate hydroxide oxide (montroydite) oxychloride (kleinite) silicofluoride, basic sulfate sulfate, basic (turpeth) Mercurous acetate bromide carbonate

Formula MgO2 Mg2P2O7 Mg2P2O7·3H2O MgCl2·KCl·6H2O MgSO4·K2SO4·6H2O MgSiF6·6H2O MgCl2·NaCl·H2O MgSO4 MgSO4·7H2O* Mn Mn(C2H3O2)2 Mn(C2H3O2)2·4H2O* MnCO3 MnCl2 MnCl2·4H2O* MnCl4 Mn(OH)2 Mn2O3·H2O Mn(NO3)2·6H2O MnO Mn2O3 MnO2* MnSO4 MnSO4·H2O MnSO4·2H2O MnSO4·3H2O MnSO4·4H2O* MnSO4·5H2O MnSO4·6H2O MnSO4·7H2O Mn2(SO4)3 Ma Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgBr2 HgCO3·2HgO HgCl2 Hg(CNO)2 Hg(OH)2 HgO HgCl2·3HgO HgSiF6·HgO·3H2O HgSO4 HgSO4·2HgO HgC2H3O2 HgBr Hg2CO3

Hot water i. i. sl. s. d. 81.775° s. s. 68.3100° 17840° s. 64.550° 123.8100° ∞ s. i. i. ∞ i. i. i. 7350° 79.77100° 106.855° 99.3157° 16950° 200
35°

Other reagents s. a. s. a.; i. alk. s. a.; i. al. d. al. d. HF s. al. s. al. s. dil. a. s. al., m. al. s. aq. CO2, dil. a.; l. NH3, al. s. al.; i. et., NH3 s. al.; i. et. s. al., et. s. a., NH4 salts; i. alk. s. h. H2SO4 v. s. al. s. a., NH4Cl s. a.; i. act. s. HCl; i. HNO3, act. s. al.; i. et.

2.59822° 2.56 1.60 19.4° 4 2.15 1.788 17.5° 4 2.66 1.68 7.220° 1.74 20° 4 1.589 3.125 2.977 25° 4 2.01 3.25818° 3.258 1.8221° 5.18 4.81 5.026 3.235 2.87 2.52615° 2.356
15°

1900

129.5

d. 850

2.107 2.103
15°

13616° 142
5°

i. al.

2040° −7H2O, 280 176 v. s. 2510° 0.520° i. 3.60° sl. s. i. 0.005225° i. d. d. 0.005 0.7513° 7 × 10−9 i.
0°

2479° 25114° d. 100100° 25100° 61.3100° i. 0.041100° d. 0.167100° d. i. d. s. HCl, dil. H2SO4; l. conc. H2SO4, HNO3 s. al. sl. d. 25.20° al.; v. sl. s. et. s. aq. CO2, NH4Cl 3325° 99% al.; 33 et. s. NH4OH, al. s. a. s. a.; i. al. s. HCl s. a. s. a.; i. al., act., NH8 s. a.; i. al. s. H2SO4, HNO3; i. al. s. a.; i. al., act. s. NH4Cl

322 304

2-18

chloride (calomel) iodide nitrate Mercurous oxide sulfate Mercury† Molybdenum chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetrachloride, pentaoxide, tri- (molybdite) sulfide, di- (molybdenite) sulfide, trisulfide, tetraMolybdic acid Molybdic acid Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel acetate ammonium chloride ammonium sulfate bromate bromide bromide bromide, ammonia bromoplatinate carbonate carbonate, basic carbonyl chloride chloride chloride, ammonia cyanide dimethylglyoxime formate hydroxide (ic) hydroxide (ous) nitrate nitrate, ammonia oxide, mono- (bunsenite) potassium cyanide sulfate *Usual commercial form. †See also Tables 2-28 and 2-280.

HgCl HgI HgNO3·H2O Hg2O Hg2SO4 Hg Mo MoCl2 MoCl3 MoCl4 MoCl5 MoO3 MoS2 MoS3 MoS4 H2MoO4 H2MoO4·H2O Nd Ne Np Ni
239

236.07 327.53 280.63 417.22 497.28 200.61 95.95 166.85 202.32 237.78 273.24 143.95 160.07 192.13 224.19 161.97 179.98 144.27 20.18 239 58.69 176.78 291.20 394.99 422.62 218.52 272.57 320.71 841.51 118.70 587.58 170.73 129.60 237.70 231.80 182.79 288.91 184.76 109.71 97.21 290.80 286.87 74.69 258.97 154.75

wh., tet., 1.9733 yel., tet. wh. mn. bk. wh., mn. silv. lq. or hex.(?) gray, cb. yel., amor. dark red pd. brn., delq. bk. cr. col., rhb. bk., hex., 4.7 red-brn. brn. pd. yel-wh., hex. yel., mn. yellowish col. gas silv. met., cb. gn. pr. gn., delq., mn. blue-gn., mn., 1.5007 gn., cb. yel., delq. gn., delq. vl. pd. trig. lt. gn., rhb. lt. gn. lq. yel., delq. gn., delq., mn., 1.57 gn. pl. scarlet red cr. gn. cr. bk. lt. gn. gn., mn. gn.-bk., cb., 2.37 red yel., mn. yel., cb.

7.150 7.70 4.7853.9° 9.8 7.56 13.54620° 10.2 3.714 25° 4 3.578 25° 4

302 290 d. 70 d. 100 d. −38.87 2620 10 d. d. volt.

383.7 subl. 140; 310d. expl.

0.00140° 2 × 10−8 v. s. i. 0.05516.5° i. i. i. i.

0.000743° v. sl. s. d. 0.0007 0.092100° i. i. i. d. d. d.

356.9 3700

d. 268 subl.

s. s. 0.107 i. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. 0.13318° d. 2.60° cc
238 18°

2.928 25° 4 4.50 4.80114°
19.5°

194 795 1185 d. d. d. 115 −H2O, 70 840 −248.67

3.12415° 6.920° lq. 1.204−245.9° 0.674 (A) 8.9020 1.798 1.645 1.923 2.575 4.64 28° 4 1.837 3.715

−2H2O, 200 −245.9

2.10679° i. s. i. sl. s. 2.1370° 1.145° cc i. v. s. 39.288° 156100° 316100° d. i. d. i. 87.6100° v. s. d. i. i. i. v. sl. s. ∞56.7° i. 76.7100°

s. aq. reg., Hg(NO3)2; sl. s. HNO3, HCl; i. al., etc. s. KI; i. al. s. HNO3; i. al., et. s. h. ac.; i. alk., dil. HCl, NH3 s. H2SO4, HNO3 s. HNO3; i. HCl s. h. conc. H2SO4; i. HCl, HF, NH3, dil. H2SO4, Hg s. HCl, H2SO4, NH4OH, al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; v. sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; sl. s. al., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. abs. al., et. s. a., NH4OH s. H2SO4, aq. reg. s. alk. sulfides s. alk. sulfides; i. NH3 s. NH4OH, H2SO4; i. NH s. a., NH4OH, NH4, salts s. lq. O2, al., act., bz. s. dil. HNO3; sl. s. H2SO4, HCl; i. NH3 i. al. v. sl. s. (NH4)2SO4 s. NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH s. al., et., NH4OH i. c. NH4OH s. a. s. a., NH4 salts s. aq. reg., HNO3, al., et. s. NH4OH, al.; i. NH3 v. s. al. s. NH4OH; i. al. s. KCN; i. dil. KCl s. abs. al., a.; i. ac., NH4OH s. a., NH4OH, NH4Cl s. a., NH4OH; i. alk. s. NH4OH; i. abs. al. i. al. s. a., NH4OH d. a. i. al., et., act.

Produced by Neutron bombardment of U 1452 2900 i. d. 16.6 15025° 2.53.5°

Ni(C2H3O2)2 NiCl2·NH4Cl·6H2O NiSO4·(NH4)2SO4· 6H2O Ni(BrO3)2·6H2O NiBr2 NiBr2·3H2O NiBr2·6NH3 NiPtBr6·6H2O NiCO3 2NiCO3·3Ni(OH)2· 4H2O Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 NiCl2·6H2O* NiCl2·6NH3 Ni(CN)2·4H2O NiC8H14O4N4 Ni(HCO2)2·2H2O Ni(OH)3 Ni(OH)2·d H2O Ni(NO3)2·6H2O Ni(NO3)2·4NH3·2H2O NiO Ni(CN)2·2KCN·H2O NiSO4

d. d. −3H2O, 200 d. d.

28 112.80° 1999° v. s. 0.009325° i. 43751mm 973 0.0189.8° 53.80° 180 s. i. i. s. i. v. sl. s. 243.00° v. s. i. s. 27.20°

1.3117° 3.544

−25 subl.

−4H2O, 200 subl. 250 2.154 4.36 2.05 7.45 1.87511° 3.68 d. d. d. 56.7

d.

136.7

Forms Ni2O3 at 400 −H2O, 100 −SO3, 840

2-19

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 262.85 280.86 63.02 81.03 117.06 127.08 28.02 44.02 30.01 (60.02) 76.02 46.01 (92.02) 108.02 109.92 65.47 81.47 190.2 261.11 296.57 332.03 32.00 48.00 106.70 266.53 177.61 213.65 158.74 214.41 211.68 100.46 118.48 136.50 191.93 227.96 119.94 196.99 194.14 97.02 2365.88 34.00 70.47 Color, crystalline form and refractive index gn. mn. or blue, tet., 1.5109 gn., rhb., 1.4893 col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col., rhb. col. gas or cb. cr. col. gas col. gas red-brn. gas or blue lq. or solid yel. lq., col. solid, red-brn. gas wh., rhb. brn. lq. red-yel. lq. or gas yel.-brn. gas blue, hex. gn., delq. brn., cb. red-yel. nd. col. gas or hex. solid col. gas silv. met., cb. brn. brn., cb. brn. pr. yel. met. red or yel., tet. unstable, col. lq fairly stable nd. stable lq., col. wh. cr. delq., mn. exists only in solution wh. cr. hyg. cr. cb. yel. cb. col. gas wh., cb. 11.06 2.5 1.768 22° 4 1.88 1.71 25° 4 Specific gravity 2.07 1.948 1.502 Melting point, °C tr. 53.3 98–100 −42 −38 −18.5 73 d. −209.86 Boiling point, °C −6H2O, 280 −6H2O, 103 86 Solubility in 100 parts Cold water 13150° 63.5 ∞ ∞ 263−20° d. 2.350° cc 130.520° cc 7.340° cc s. d. s. d. d. d i. s. d. sl. s. s. d. 4.890° cc 0.4940° cc i. i. s. s. i. s. s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. 2617° cc d. v. s. d. v. s. d. v. s. d. i.
100° 0°

Name Nickel (Cont.) sulfate sulfate (morenosite) Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitro acid sulfite Nitrogen Nitrogen oxide, mono- (ous) oxide, di- (ic) oxide, trioxide, tetra- (per- or di-) oxide, pentaoxybromide oxychloride Nitroxyl chloride Osmium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraOxygen Ozone Palladium bromide (ous) chloride chloride cyanide hydride Palladous dichlorodiammine Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Perchloric acid Periodic acid Periodic acid Permanganic acid Permolybdic acid Persulfuric acid Phosphamic acid Phosphatomolybdic acid Phosphine Phosphonium chloride 2-20

Formula NiSO4·6H2O* NiSO4·7H2O HNO3 HNO3·H2O HNO3·3H2O NO2HSO3 N2 N2O NO or (NO)2 N2O3 NO2 or (NO2)2 N2O5 NOBr NOCl NO2Cl Os OsCl2 OsCl3 OsCl4 O2 O3 Pd PdBr2 PdCl2 PdCl2·2H2O Pd(CN)2 Pd2H Pd(NH3)2Cl2 HClO4 HClO4·H2O HClO4·2H2O* 73.6% anh. HIO4 HIO4·2H2O HMnO4 HMoO4·2H2O H2S2O8 PONH2·(OH)2 H7P(Mo2O7)6·28H2O PH3 PH4Cl

Hot water 280100° 117.8 ∞ ∞ ∞
30°

Other reagents v. s. NH4OH, al. s. al. expl. with al. d. al. d. al. s. H2SO4 sl. s. al. s. H2SO4, al. 26.6 cc al.; 3.5 cc H2SO4; s. aq. FeSO4 s. a., et. s. HNO3, H2SO4, chl., CS2

1.026−252.5° 0.808−195.8° 12.50° (D) lq. 1.226−89° −102.3 1.530 (A) lq. 1.269−150.2° −161 1.0367 (A) 1.4472° −102 1.448 1.63
20°

−195.8 −90.7 −151 3.5 21.3 47 −2 −5.5 5 >5300

1.5520° cc 60.8224° cc 0.0100°

−9.3 30 −55.5 −64.5 <−30 2700 d. 560–600

18°

>1.0 1.417−12° 2.31 (A) lq. 1.3214° 22.4820°

Forms HNO3 s. fuming H2SO4 i. sl. s. aq. reg., HNO3; i. NH3 s. NaCl, al., et. s. a., alk., al.; sl. s. et. s. HCl, al. sl. s. al., s. fused Ag s. oil turp., oil cinn. s. aq. reg., h. H2SO4; i. NH3 s. HBr s. HCl, act., al. s. HCl, act., al. s. HCN, KCN, NH4OH; i. dil. a. s. a., NH4OH s. al. sl. s. al., et. d. al. i. al. s. HNO8 s. Cu2Cl2, al., et.

1.14−188° 1.426−252.5° 1.1053 (A) 1.71−183° 3.03−80° 1.658 (A) 12.020° 111550°

−218.4 −251 1555 500 d. d. d. −112 50 −17.8 d. 138 d. 110 <60 d. 78 −132.5 28
46atm

−183 −112 2200

2.630° cc 1.7100° cc 060° cc i. i. s. s. i.

1618mm d. 200 subl. 110

lq. 0.746 1.146 (A)

−90°

−25H2O, 140 −85 subl.

Phosphoric acid, hypoPhosphoric acid, metaPhosphoric acid, orthoPhosphoric acid, pyroPhosphorous acid, hypoPhosphorous acid, orthoPhosphorous acid, pyroPhosphorus, black Phosphorus, red Phosphorus, yellow chloride, trichloride, pentaoxide, pentaoxychloride Phosphotungstic acid Platinum chloride (ic) chloride (ous) chloride (ic) cyanide (ous) Plutonium Plutonium Potassium acetate acetate, acid aluminate amide arsenate (monobasic) auricyanide aurocyanide bicarbonate bisulfate bromate bromide carbonate carbonate carbonate chlorate chloride (sylvite) chloroplatinate chromate (tarapacaite) cyanate cyanide dichromate ferricyanide ferrocyanide formate hydride hydrosulfide hydroxide iodate iodide

H4P2O6 HPO3 H3PO4† H4P2O7 H3PO2 H3PO3 H4P2O6 P4 P4 P4 PCl3 PCl5 P2O5 POCl2 P2O5·2WO3·42H2O Pt PtCl4 PtCl2 PtCl4·8H2O Pt(CN)2 Pu Pu K KC2H3O2 KH(C2H3O2)2 K2(AlO2)2·3H2O KNH2 KH2AsO4 KAu(CN)4·1·5H2O KAu(CN)2 KHCO3 KHSO4 KBrO3 KBr K2CO3 K2CO3·2H2O 2K2CO3·3H3O KClO3 KCl K2PtCl6 K2CrO4 KCNO KCN K2Cr2O7 K3Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O KHCO2 KH KHS KOH KIO3 KI

161.99 79.99 98.00 177.99 66.00 82.00 145.99 123.92 123.92 123.92 137.35 208.27 141.96 153.35 3681.67 195.23 337.06 266.14 481.19 247.27 238 239 39.10 98.14 158.19 250.18 55.12 180.02 367.39 288.33 100.11 136.16 167.01 119.01 138.20 174.23 330.45 122.56 74.56 486.16 194.20 81.11 65.11 294.21 329.25 422.39 84.11 40.10 72.16 56.10 214.02 166.02

cr. vitreous, delq. col., rhb. wh. nd. syrupy col. nd. rhombohedral red, cb. yel., hex., 2.1168 col., fuming lq. delq., tet. wh., delq., amor. col., fuming lq. yel.-gn. cr. silv. met., cb. brn. brn. red, mn. yel.-brn. silv. met., cb. wh. pd. delq. nd. or pl. cr. yel.-grn. col., tet., 1.5674 pl. rhb. mn., 1.482 rhb., or mn., 1.480 trig. col., cb., 1.5594 wh., delq. pd., 1.531 rhb. mn. col., mn., 1.5167 col., cb., 1.4904 yel., cb., 1.825 yel., rhb., 1.7261 wh., tet. wh., cb., delq., 1.410 red, tri. red, mn. pr., 1.5689 yel., mn., 1.5772 col., rhb. cb., 1.453 wh., delq., rhb. wh., delq., rhb. col., mn. wh., cb., 1.6670

2.2–2.5 1.834
18.2°

55 subl. 42.35 61 26.5 74 38 59043atm 44.1; ign. 34 −111.8 148 under pressure subl. 250 2 1755 d. 370

d. 70 −a H2O, 213 d. d. 200 d. 130 ign. in air, 400 ign. in air, 725 280 75.95760mm subl. 160 107.2760mm 4300

s. s. 2340 80028°
26°

1.49318.8° 1.65121.2° 2.69 2.2020° 1.8220°; lq. 1.74544.5° 1.574 20.8° 4 solid 1.6; 3.60295° (A) 2.387 1.675 21.4520° lq. 191755° 5.8711° 2.43

∞ 307.30° d. i. i. 0.0003 d. d. Forms H3PO4 d. s. i. 14025° i. v. s. i. d. 2170° d. s. d. 18.876° s. 14.3 22.40° 36.30° 3.110° 53.50° 105.50° 1830° 129.40° 3.30° 27.60° 0.740° 58.00° s. s. 4.90° 334.4° 27.812.2° 33118° d. s. 970° 4.730° 127.50°

45062° Forms H3PO4 v. s. Forms H3PO4 ∞ 73040° i. i. sl. s.

i. lq. CO2 s. al. v. s. al., et.

i. CS2 s. alk.; i. CS2, NH3, et. 0.4 al.; 100010° CS2; 1.50°, 1081° bs.; s. NH3 s. et., chl., CS2 s. CS2, C6H5COCl s. H2SO4; i. NH3, act. d. al. s. al., et. s. aq. reg., fused alk. s. al., act.; sl. s. NH2; i. et. s. HCl, NH4OH; sl. s. NH3; i. al., et. s. al., et. i. alk. s. a., al., Hg 33 al.; i. et. s. ac. s. alk.; i al. d. al.; 3.625° NH3 i. al. s. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. i. satd. K2CO3, al. d. al. sl. s. al.; i. act. sl. s. al., et. i. al. 0.83 al.; s. alk. s. al., alk. i. al., et. i. al. v. sl. s. al. s. gly.; 0.919.5° al.; 1.3 h. al. i. al. s. act.; sl. s. al.; i. NH3 s. act.; i. NH3, al., et. sl. s. al.; i. et. i. et., bz., CS2 s. al. v. s. al., et.; i. NH3 s. KI; i. al., NH3 420° al.; s. NH3; sl. s. et.

v. s. i. v. s. i. v. s. i. Forms KOH 39690° d. v. s. v. s. 200100° 6060° 121.6100° 49.75100° 104100° 156100° 331100° 268100° 57100° 56.7100° 5.2100° 75.6100° d. 122.2108.8° 80100° 77.5100° 90.696.8° 65790° s. d. 178100° 32.2100° 208100°

d. 581 −4H2O, 100
238

Produced by deuteron bombardment on U Produced by neutron bombardment on U238 0.8620° 62.3 760 lq. 0.8342° 1.8 292 148 d. 200 2.867 2.17 2.35 3.2717.5° 2.7525° 2.29 2.043 2.13 2.32 1.988 3.499 2.73218° 2.048 1.5216° 2.69 1.84 1.85317° 1.91 0.80 2.0 2.044 3.89 3.13 338 288 d. 200 d. 100–200 210 370 d. 730 891 368 790 d. 250 975 634.5 398 d. −3HO2, 70 167.5 d. 455 380 560 723 subl. 400

d. 1380 d. d. 400 1500

d. d. 1320 1330

*One commercial form 70 to 72 per cent. †Common commercial form 85 per cent H3PO4 in aqueous solution. 2-21

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight 419.86 1034.94 197.12 222.31 101.10 85.10 184.23 128.12 137.13 94.19 138.55 158.03 270.31 136.09 174.18 212.27 118.08 508.34 384.39 204.22 431.54 154.25 352.45 174.25 254.31 200.33 194.28 120.16 235.27 188.18 97.17 190.31 588.95 140.92 226.05 385.88 222.0 186.31 102.91 209.28 281.35 85.48 101.70 101.70 150.43 45.10 144.98 162.99 631.68 631.68 Color, crystalline form and refractive index dark blue, delq., mn. cb. gn., rhb. mn., pl. col., rhb., 1.5038 pr. wh., mn. mn., 1.545 trimetric wh., cb. col., rhb., 1.4737 purple, rhb. wh., tri., 1.4669 col., delq., tet., 1.5095 wh., delq. wh., rhb. wh. pd. amor. delq. wh. cr. yel., rhb., 1.62 hyg. 1.521 rhb., 1.530 col., rhb., 1.4947 col. rhb., delq. wh., rhb. wh., mn. col., mn., 1.526 col., rhb. col., delq., mn., 1.660 col., cb. delq., mn. yel. wh., met. wh., mn. gas hex. gray-wh., cb. red dark red silv. wh. bk., porous gray, hex. hex. pr. nd. red pd., amor., 2.92 gray, trig., 3.00; red, hex. 12.5 lq. 1.47588.5; 1.5320° 8.6 12.220° 7.7 2.5? 2.950 15° 4 2.627 15° 4 4.2625° 4.80; 4.50 Specific gravity 3.498 5.18 2.1110.6° 1.915 2.13 2.0 2.32 20° 4 2.524 11° 4 2.703 2.338 2.56417° 2.25814.5° 2.26414.5° 2.33 1.63 2.4516° 2.417 2.662 2.277 Melting point, °C 45 d. 190 d. 150 tr. 129; 333 297 d. d. d. d. 400 d. <240 d. <100 256 d. 1340 tr. 450; 798 −2H2O, 100 −2H2O, 180 d. 976 d. 400 tr. 588 300 60 d. d. 190 172.3 d. 400 −H2O, 180 940 960 728 −71 3440 1955 d. 450 38.5 >1950 2450 >1300 1200 58 26 50 220 >2500 subl. 800 700 >2700 2400 260 205 688 688 i. i. v. s. d. i. i. 130030° v. s. i. i. i. i. Boiling point, °C d. 225 Solubility in 100 parts Cold water v. s. s. d. 250° 13.30° 2810° 28.70° 14.350° 2.20° Forms KOH 0.750° 2.830° 1.770° 14.80° 3325° 193.125° s. s. s. 10.225° sl. s. s. s. 7.350° s. s. 100 45.515° 12.517.5° 0.370° 1770° 96.10° d. 1140 subl. 900 −62 d. d. +H2 7020° 510° cc s. 8.560° cc Hot water Other reagents s. KI, al. 12094° 246100° 413100° 83.2100° 48.1100° 51.5100° v. s. 21.8100° 32.3575° 1040° 83.590° v. s. v. s. s. 83 v. s. 36 v. s. s. s. 24.1100° d. >100 91.575° 278100° 6.1100° 21720° 311.290° i. al. d. a. s. al. i. HF, HCl; s. H2SO4; HNO3 sl. s. aq. reg., a. v. sl. s. alk.; i. aq. reg., a. s. HCl, al.; i. et. s. a., al. sl. s. aq. reg., a. s. KOH sl. s. al.; i. et. 0.130° al.; i. et. v. s. NH3; sl. s. al.

Name Potassium (Cont.) iodide, triiodoplatinate manganate metabisulfite nitrate (saltpeter) nitrite oxalate oxalate, acid oxalate, acid oxide perchlorate permanganate persulfate phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophthalate, acid platinocyanide silicate silicate, tetrasulfate (arcanite) Potassium sulfate, pyrosulfide, monosulfite sulfite, acid tartrate tartrate, acid thiocyanate thiosulfate thiosulfate Praseodymium Radium bromide Radon (Niton) Rhenium Rhodium chloride chloride Rubidium Ruthenium Ruthenium Samarium Scandium Selenic acid Selenic acid Selenium Selenium

Formula KI3 K2PtI6 K2MnO4 K2S2O5 KNO3 KNO2 K2C2O4·H2O KHC2O4* KHC2O4·a H2O K2O KClO4 KMnO4 K2S2O3 KH2PO4 K2HPO4 K3PO4 KPO3 K4P4O12·2H2O K4P2O7·3H2O KHC8H4O4 K2Pt(CN)4·3H2O K2SiO3 K2Si4O9·H2O K2SO4 K2S2O7 K2S·5H2O K2SO3·2H2O KHSO3 K2C4H4O6·a H2O KHC4H4O6* KCNS K2S2O3 3K2S2O3·H2O Pr Ra RaBr2 Rn Re Rh RhCl3 RhCl3·4H2O Rb Ru Ru Sm (also Sa) Sc H2SeO4 H2SeO4·H2O Se8 Se8

d. 400 d. 350

s. al., et. 0.10520° m. al.; i. et. s. H2SO4; d. al. i. al. i. al. sl. s. al. i. al. s. a. i. al. s. al., et. i. al. i. al. i. al., act., CS2 s. al., gly.; i. et. sl. s. al.; i. NH3 i. abs. al. sl. s. al. s. a., alk.; i. al., ac. 20.822° act.; s. al.

1320 d. −3H2O, 300

−3H2O, 150 d. d. 500

1.98 1.956 1.886 2.23 6.520° 5? 5.79 lq. 5.5; 111 (D)

i. i. ∞60° i. i.

s. H2SO4; d. al.; i. NH3 s. CS2, H2SO4, CH2I2 s. CS2, H2SO4

2-22

Selenium Selenous acid Silicic acid, metaSilicic acid, orthoSilicon, crystalline Silicon, graphitic Silicon, amorphous carbide chloride, trichloride, tetrafluoride hydride (silane) oxide, di- (opal) oxide, di- (cristobalite) oxide, di- (lechatelierite) oxide, di- (quartz) oxide, di- (tridymite) Silver bromide (bromyrite) carbonate chloride (cerargyrite) cyanide nitrate (lunar caustic) Sodium acetate acetate aluminate amide Sodium ammonium phosphate antimonate, metaarsenate arsenate, acid (monobasic) arsenate, acid (dibasic) arsenate, acid (dibasic) arsenite, acid benzoate bicarbonate bifluoride bisulfate bisulfite borate, tetraborate, tetra borate, tetra- (borax) bromate bromide bromide carbonate (soda ash) carbonate carbonate carbonate (sal soda) *Usual commercial form.

Se8 H2SeO3 H2SiO3 H4SiO4 Si Si Si SiC Si2Cl6 SiCl4 SiF4 SiH4 SiO2·xH2O SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 Ag AgBr Ag2CO3 AgCl AgCN AgNO3 Na NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2·3H2O NaAlO2 NaNH2 NaNH4HPO4·4H2O 2NaSbO3·7H2O Na3AsO4·12H2O NaH2AsO4·H2O Na2HAsO4·7H2O* Na2HAsO4·12H2O Na2HAs03 NaC7H5O2 NaHCO3 NaHF2 NaHSO4 NaHSO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7·5H2O Na2B4O7·10H2O* NaBrO3 NaBr NaBr·2H2O Na2CO3 Na2CO3·H2O Na2CO3·7H2O Na2CO3·10H2O

631.68 128.98 78.08 96.09 28.06 28.06 28.06 40.07 268.86 169.89 104.06 32.09 60.06 60.06 60.06 60.06 107.88 187.80 275.77 143.34 133.90 169.89 22.997 82.04 136.09 81.97 39.02 209.09 511.63 424.09 181.94 312.02 402.10 169.91 144.11 84.01 62.00 120.06 104.06 201.27 291.35 381.43 150.91 102.91 138.95 106.00 124.02 232.12 286.16

steel gray hex. amor., 1.41 amor. gray, cb., 3.736 cr. brn., amor. blue-bk., trig., 2.654 lf. or lq. col., fuming lq., 1.412 gas col. gas iridescent, amor. col., cb. or tet., 1.487 hex., 1.5442 trig., rhb., 1.469 silv. met., cb. pa. yel., cb., 2.252 yel. pd. wh., cb., 2.071 wh., 1.685 col., rhb., 1.744 silv. met, cb. wh., mn., 1.464 wh., mn. amor. olive gn. col., mn. cb. hex., 1.4589 rhb., 1.5535 col., mn., 1.4658 mn., 1.4496 col. col. cr. wh., mn., 1.500 col. cr. col., tri. col., mn., 1.526 col., rhb., 1.461 wh., mn., 1.4694 col., cb. col., cb., 1.6412 col., mn. wh. pd., 1.535 wh., rhb., 1.506– 1.509 rhb. or trig. wh., mn., 1.425

4.825° 3.004 15° 4 2.1–2.3 1.57617° 2.420° 2.0–2.5 2 3.17 1.580° 1.50 3.57 (A) lq. 0.68−185° 2.2 2.32 2.20 2.65020° 2.26 10.520° 6.473 25° 4 6.077 5.56 3.95 4.352 19° 4 0.9720° 1.528 1.45 1.574 1.759 2.535 1.871 1.72 1.87 2.20 2.742 1.48 2.367 1.815 1.73 3.339 3.20517.5° 2.176 2.533 1.55 1.51 1.46
17.5°

217 d. 1420

688

2600 2600

i. 900° i. sl. s. i. i. i. i. d. d. v. s. d. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.0000220° 0.00320° 0.00008910° 0.00002220° 1220° d., forms NaOH 46.520° v. s. s. d. 16.7 0.03112.8° 26.717° s. 6115° 5.590.1° v. s. 62.525° 6.90° 3.720° 500° sl. s. 1.30° 2262° (anh.) 1.30.5 (anh). 27.5 9020° 79.50° (anh.) 7.10° s. s. 21.50°
0°

i. 40090° i. sl. s. i. i. i. i.

>2700 −1 −70 −95.7 −185 1600–1750 1710 tr. <1425 tr. 1670 960.5 434 218 d. 455 −(CN)2, 320 212 97.5 324 58 1650 210 79 d. 86.3 d. 100 125 28 −CO2, 270 d. >315 d. 741 75 381 755 50.7 851 −H2O, 100 d. 35.1

2600 subl. 2200 144760mm 57.6 −651810mm −112760mm subl. 1750 2230 2230 2230 2230 1950 d. 700 1550 444 d. 880 −3H2O, 120 400

i. CS2; s. H2SO4 v. s. al.; i. NH3 s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. alk.; i. NH4Cl s. HNO3 + HF, Ag; sl. s. Pb, Zn; i. HF s. HNO3 + HF, fused alk.; i. HF. s. HF, KOH s. fused alk.; i. a. d. alk. d. conc. H2SO4, al. s. HNO3, al., et. i. al., et.; d. KOH s. HF, h. alk., fused CaCl2 s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HF; i. alk. s. HNO3, h. H2SO4; i. alk. 0.5118° NH4OH; s. KCN, Na2S2O3 s. NH4OH, Na2S2O3; i. al. s. NH4OH, KCN; sl. s. HCl s. NH4OH, KCN, HNO3 s. gly.; v. sl. s. al. i. bz.; d. al. 2.118° al. 7.825° abs. al. i. al. d. al. i. al. sl. s. al., NH4 salts; i. ac. 1.67 al., 5015° gly. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. 2.325°, 8.378° al. i. al. d. al.; i. NH3 i. al., act. i. al. s. gly.; i. abs. al. i. al. sl. s. al. sl. s. al. i. al., et. s. gly.; i. al., et. i. al. 2-23

i. i. i. i. i. 0.00037100° 0.05100° 0.00217100° 952100° 170100° v. s. v. s. 100

−7H2O, 100 −12H2O, 100

v. s. 140.730° 76.9100° 16.460° s. 100100° s. 8.7940° 52.3100° (anh.) 20.380° (anh.) 90.9100° 121100° 118.380° (anh.) 48.5104° s. s. 23830°

d., −H2O

−10H2O, 200 1390 d.

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Formula weight Color, crystalline form and refractive index Specific gravity Melting point, °C Boiling point, °C Solubility in 100 parts Cold water Hot water Other reagents

Name Sodium ammonium phosphate (Cont.) carbonate, sesqui- (trona) chlorate chloride chromate chromate citrate cyanide dichromate ferricyanide ferrocyanide fluoride (villiaumite) formate hydride hydrosulfide hydrosulfide hydrosulfite hydroxide hydroxide hypochlorite iodide iodide lactate nitrate (soda niter) nitrite oxide perborate perchlorate perchlorate peroxide peroxide phosphate, monobasic phosphate, monobasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, dibasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, tribasic phosphate, metaphosphate, pyrophosphate, pyrophosphate (pyrodisodium) phosphate (pyrodisodium) potassium tartrate silicate, metaSodium silicate, metasilicate, orthosilicofluoride stannate sulfate (thenardite) sulfate 2-24

Formula

Na3H(CO3)2·2H2O NaClO3 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4·10H2O 2Na3C6H5O7·11H2O NaCN Na2Cr2O7·2H2O Na3Fe(CN)6·H2O Na4Fe(CN)6·10H2O NaF NaHCO2 NaH NaSH·2H2O NaSH·3H2O Na2S2O4·2H2O NaOH NaOH·3a H2O NaOCl NaI* NaI·2H2O NaC3H5O3 NaNO3 NaNO2 Na2O NaBO3·H2O NaClO4 NaClO4·H2O Na2O2* Na2O2·8H2O NaH2PO4·H2O* NaH2PO4·2H2O Na2HPO4·7H2O Na2HPO4·12H2O Na3PO4 Na3PO4·12H2O* Na4P4O12 Na4P2O7* Na4P2O7·10H2O Na2H2P2O7 Na2H2P2O7·6H2O NaKC4H4O6·4H2O Na2SiO3 Na2SiO3·9H2O Na4SiO4 Na2SiF6 Na2SnO3·3H2O Na2SO4 Na2SO4

226.05 106.45 58.45 162.00 342.16 714.36 49.02 298.05 298.97 484.11 42.00 68.01 24.005 92.10 110.11 210.15 40.00 103.06 74.45 149.92 185.95 112.07 85.01 69.01 61.99 99.83 122.45 140.47 77.99 222.12 138.01 156.03 268.09 358.17 163.97 380.16 407.91 265.95 446.11 221.97 330.07 282.23 122.05 284.20 184.05 188.05 266.74 142.05 142.05

wh., mn., 1.5073 wh., cb., or trig., 1.5151 col., cb., 1.5443 yel., rhb. yel., delq., mn. wh., rhb. wh., cb., 1.452 red, mn., 1.6994 red, delq. yel., mn. tet., 1.3258 wh., mn. silv. nd., 1.470 col., delq., nd. rhb. col. cr. wh., delq. mn. pa. yel., in soln. only col., cb., 1.7745 col., mn. col., amor. col., trig., 1.5874 pa. yel., rhb. wh., delq. wh. pd. rhb., 1.4617 hex. yel.-wh. pd. wh., hex. col., rhb., 1.4852 col., rhb., 1.4629 col., mn., 1.4424 col., mn., 1.4361 wh. wh., trig., 1.4458 col. wh. mn., 1.4525 col., mn., 1.510 col., mn., 1.4645 rhb., 1.493 col., rhb., 1.520 rhb. col., hex., 1.530 wh., hex., 1.312 hex. tablets col., rhb., 1.477 col., mn.

2.112 2.49015° 2.163 2.723 1.483 1.857 23.5° 4 2.52
18°

d. 248 800.4 392 19.9 −11H2O, 150 563.7 −2H2O, 84.6; 356 (anh.)

d. 1413 d. 1496 d. 400

130° 790° 35.7 320° v. s. 9125° 4810° 2380°
0°

42100° 230100° 39.8 126100° ∞ 250100° 8235° 50880°
100°

s. al. sl. s. al.; i. conc. HCl sl. s. al. i. al. s. NH3; sl. s. al. i. al. i. al. v. sl. s. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. i. bz., CS2, CCl4, NH3; s. molten metal s. al.; d. a. s. al.; d. a. i. al. v. s. al., et., gly.; i. act. v. s. al., act. v. s. NH3 s. al.; i. et. s. NH3; sl. s. gly., al. 0.320° et.; 0.3 abs. al.; 4.420° m. al.; v. s. NH3 d. al. s. gly., alk. s. al.; 51 m. al.; 52 act.; i. et. s. al. s. dil. a. i. al. i. al. i. CS2 s. a., alk. d. a. i. al., NH3 sl. s. al. i. Na or K salts, al. 2918°, a N NaOH i. al. i. al., act. i. al. d. HI; s. H2SO4

1.458 2.79 1.919 0.92 992 253 d. 800 d. 22 d. 318.4 15.5 d. 651 d. 308 271 subl. d. 40 482 d. d. 130 d. d. 30 −H2O, 100 60 d. 34.6 1340 73.4 616 d. 988 d. d. 220 70 to 80 1088 47 1018 d. d. 140 tr. 100 to mn. tr. 500 to hex. d. 1390 1300 d. 380 d. 320

18.90° 17.920° (anh.) 40° 440° d. s. s. 2220° 420° s. 260° 158.70° v. s. v. s. 730° 72.10° Forms NaOH sl. s. 1700° 20915° s. d. s. d. 710° 91.10° 18540° 4.30° 4.50° 28.315° s. 2.260° 5.40° 4.50° 6.90° 260° s. v. s. s. 0.440° 500° 50° 48.840°

67100° 6398.5° (anh.) 5100° 160100° s. s. d. 347100° v. s. 15856° 302100° v. s. v. s. 180100° 163.2100°

2.130 3.6670° 2.448 2.257 2.1680° 2.27

2.02 2.805 2.040 1.91 1.679 1.52 2.53717.5° 1.62 2.476 2.45 1.82 1.862 1.848 1.790

d. 200 −12H2O, 180 −11H2O, 100

−4H2O, 215 −6H2O, 100

2.679 2.698

d. 320100° 28450° d. d. 39083° 30840° 2000100° 76.730° 77100° ∞ s. 4596° 93100° 2140° 3640° 6626° s. d. v. s. s. 2.45100° 6750° 42100° 42.5100°

sulfate sulfate sulfate (Glauber’s salt) sulfide, monosulfide, tetrasulfide, pentasulfite sulfite tartrate thiocyanate thiosulfate thiosulfate (hypo) tungstate tungstate tungstate, parauranate vanadate vanadate, pyroStannic chloride oxide (cassiterite) sulfate Stannous bromide chloride chloride (tin salt) sulfate Strontium acetate carbonate (strontianite) chloride chloride hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrate oxide (strontia) peroxide peroxide sulfate (celestite) sulfate, acid Sulfamic acid Sulfur, amorphous Sulfur, monoclinic Sulfur, rhombic Sulfur bromide, monochloride, monochloride, dichloride, tetraoxide, dioxide, tri-(α) oxide, tri-(β) Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid *Usual commercial form.

Na2SO4 Na2SO4.7H2O Na2SO4.10H2O Na2S Na2S4 Na2S5 Na2SO3 Na2SO3.7H2O Na2C4H4O6.2H2O NaCNS Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3.5H2O* Na2WO4 Na2WO4.2H2O* Na6W7O24.16H2O Na2UO4 Na3VO4.16H2O Na4V2O7 SnCl4 SnO2 Sn(SO4)2.2H2O SnBr2 SnCl2 SnCl2.2H2O* SnSO4 Sr Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCO3 SrCl2 SrCl2.6H2O* Sr(OH)2 Sr(OH)2.8H2O* Sr(NO3)2* Sr(NO3)2.4H2O SrO SrO2 SrO2.8H2O SrSO4 Sr(HSO4)2 NH2SO3H S S8 S8 S2Br2 S2Cl2 SCl2 SCl4 SO2 SO3 (SO3)2 H2SO4* H2SO4.H2O

142.05 268.17 322.21 78.05 174.23 206.29 126.05 252.17 230.10 81.08 158.11 248.19 293.91 329.95 2097.68 348.06 472.20 305.89 260.53 150.70 346.85 278.53 189.61 225.65 214.76 87.63 205.72 147.64 158.54 266.64 121.65 265.77 211.65 283.71 103.63 119.63 263.76 183.69 281.77 97.09 32.06 256.48 256.48 223.95 135.03 102.97 173.89 64.06 80.06 160.12 98.08 116.09

col., hex. tet. col., mn., 1.396 pink or wh., amor. yel., cb. yel. hex. pr., 1.565 mn. rhb. delq., rhb., 1.625 mn. mn. pr., 1.5079 wh., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. yel. col. nd. hex. col., fuming lq. wh., tet., 1.9968 col., delq., hex. yel., rhb. wh., rhb. wh., tri. wh. cr. silv. met. wh. cr. wh., rhb., 1.664 wh., cb., 1.6499 wh., rhb., 1.5364 wh., delq. col., tet., 1.499 col., cb., 1.5878 wh., mn. col., cb., 1.870 wh. pd. wh. cr. col., rhb., 1.6237 col., granular wh., rhb. pa. yel. pd., 2.0–2.9 pa. yel., mn. pa. yel., rhb. red, fuming lq. red-yel. lq. dark red fuming lq. yel.-brn. lq. col. gas col. pr. col., silky, nd. col., viscous lq. pr. or lq.

884 1.464 1.856 2.633 15° 4 1.561 1.818 1.667 1.685 4.179 3.245 3.98714° 32.4 275 251.8 d. −7H2O, 150 287 d. 48.0 692 −2H2O, 100 −16H2O, 300 866 (anh.) 654 −30.2 1127 −10H2O, 100

d.

2.226 7.0

114.1

19.420° 44.90° 3615° 15.410° s. s. 13.90° 34.72° 296° 11010° 500° 74.70° 57.580° 880° 8 i. v. s. s. s. i. v. s.

45.360° 202.626° 41234° 57.390° s. s. 28.384° 67.818° 6643° 225100° 23180° 301.860° 97100° 123.5100° d. i. d. d. i. d. d. 269.815° ∞ 18100° Forms Sr(OH)2 36.497° 0.065100° 100.8100° 19840° 21.83100° 47.7100° 10089° 12420° d. d. 0.011432° 4070° i. i. i.

i. al. sl. s. al.; i. et. s. al. s. al. i. al., NH i. al. i. al. v. s. al. s. NH3; v. sl. s. al. sl. s. NH3; i. a., al. s. alk. carb., dil. a. i. al. i. al. s. abs. al., act., NH3; s. ∞ CS2 s. conc. H2SO4; i. alk.; NH4OH, NH3 s. dil. H2SO4, HCl; d. abs. al. s. C6H5N s. alk., abs. al., et. s. tart. a., alk., al. s. H2SO4 s. al., a. 0.2615° m. al. s. a., NH4 salts, aq. CO2 v. sl. s. act., abs. al.; i. NH3 s. NH4Cl s. NH4Cl; i. act. s. NH3; 0.012 abs. al. i. HNO3 sl. s. al.; i. et. s. al., NH4Cl; i. act. s. al.; i. NH4OH sl. s. a.; i. dil. H2SO4, al. 1470° H2SO4 sl. s. al., act.; i. et. sl. s. CS2 s. CS2, al. 240°, 18155° CS2 s. CS2, et., bz. d. al.

5.1217° 2.71 2.6 2.099 3.70 3.052 1.93317° 3.625 1.90 2.986 2.2 4.7
15.5°

215.5 246.8 37.7 −SO2, 360 800 149760atm 873 −4H2O, 61 375 −7H2O in dry air 570 2430 d. −8H2O, 100 1580 d. d. 205 d. 120 119.0 112.8 −46 −80 −78 −30 −75.5 16.83 50 10.49 8.62

620 623 d. 1150 d. −CO2, 1350 −6H2O, 100

s. 83.90° 118.70° 1919° d. 36.90° 0.001118° 43.50° 1040° 0.410° 0.900° 400° 62.20° Forms Sr(OH)2 0.00820° 0.01820° 0.01130° d. 200° i. i. i. d. d. d. d. 22.80° d. Forms H2SO4 ∞ ∞

d.

3.96 2.03 12° 4 2.046 1.96 2.07 2.635 1.687 1.621 15° 15 lq., 1.4340°; 2.264 (A) lq., 1.923; 2.75 (A) 1.9720° 1.834 18° 4 1.842 15° 4

444.6 444.6 444.6 540.18mm 138 59 d. > −20 −10.0 44.6 d. 340 290

4.550°

s. H2SO4; al., ac. s. H2SO4

∞ ∞

s. H2SO4 d. al. d. al.

2-25

TABLE 2-1

Physical Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded ) Formula weight 134.11 178.14 134.97 207.89 118.97 180.88 127.61 159.20 204.39 263.43 239.85 515.15 310.76 382.83 823.07 504.84 301.46 232.12 264.12 424.24 586.38 169.40 118.70 118.70 97.92 47.90 118.81 154.27 189.73 79.90 79.90 79.90 183.92 195.93 379.85 231.92 249.94 304.09 238.07 512.14 270.07 Color, crystalline form and refractive index col. lq. cr. col. lq. or.-yel. lq. col. lq. bk.-gray, cb. met., hex. blue-wh., tet. silky nd. wh., cb. yel., hex. hex. pl. nd. lf. col., rhb., 1.8671 trimorphous cb. wh., cb. mn. pr. silv. met., tet. gray, cb. wh. pd. dark gray, cb. bk., delq. vl., delq. col. lq. brn. or bk., tet., 2.534–2.564 brn. or bk., rhb., 2.586 col. if pure, tet., 2.615 gray-bk., cb. gray pd., cb. iron gray yel., rhb. yel., rhb. 2.24 yel. pd. wh. cr. cr. bk., rhb. 4.50
17.5°

Name Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid, pyroSulfuric oxychloride Sulfurous oxybromide oxychloride Tantalum Tellurium Terbium Thallium acetate chloride, monochloride, sesquichloride, trichloride, trisulfate (ic) sulfate (ous) sulfate, acid Thio, cf. sulfo or sulfur Thorium oxide, di- (thorianite) sulfate sulfate Thulium Tin Tin Tin salts, cf. stannic and stannous Titanic acid Titanium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, di- (anatase) oxide, di- (brookite) oxide, di- (rutile) Tungsten carbide carbide oxide, triTungstic acid (tungstite) Uranic acid Uranium carbide oxide, di- (uraninite) 2-26

Formula H2SO4·2H2O H2S2O7 SO2Cl2 SOBr2 SOCl2 Ta Te Tb Tl TlC2H3O2 TlCl Tl2Cl3 TlCl3 TlCl3·4H2O Tl2(SO4)3·7H2O Tl2SO4 TlHSO4 Th ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2·9H2O Tm Sn Sn H2TiO3 Ti TiCl2 TiCl3 TiCl4* TiO2 TiO2 TiO2 W WC W2C WO3 H2WO4 H2UO4 U U2C3 UO2

Specific gravity
0° 1.650 4 1.920° 1.667 20° 4 2.6818° 1.638 16.6

Melting point, °C −38.9 35 −54.1 −50 −104.5 2850 452 303.5 110 430 400–500 25 37 −6H2O, 200 632 115 d. 1845 >2800 −9H2O, 400 231.85 Stable −163 to +18

Boiling point, °C 167 d. 69.1760mm 6840mm 78.8 >4100 1390 1650 806 d. d. −4H2O, 100 d. d. >3000 4400

Solubility in 100 parts Cold water ∞ d. d. d. d. i. i. i. v. s. 0.210° 0.2615° v. s. 86.217° d. 2.700° i. i. 0.740° sl. s. i. i. i. i. Hot water ∞ Other reagents d. al. d. al. s. ac.; d. al. s. bz., CS2, CCl4; d. act. s. bz., chl. s. fused alk., HF; i. HCl, HNO3, H2SO4 s. H2SO4, HNO3, KCN, KOH, aq. reg.; i. CS2 s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. NH3 v. s. al. sl. s. HCl; i. al., NH4OH s. al., et. s. al., et. s. dil. H2SO4 v. sl. s. dil. H2SO4 i. 5.2250° sl. s. i. i. i. i. d. s. d. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. i. i. i. s. H2SO4, alk. s. h. conc. KOH; sl. s. NH3, HNO3, aq. reg. s. F2; i. a. s. h. HNO3; sl. s. HCl, H2SO4 s. alk.; i. a. s. HF, alk., NH3 s. a., alk. carb.; i. alk. s. a.; i. alk. d. a. s. HNO3, conc. H2SO4 s. HCl, H2SO; sl. s. HNO3; i. HF, alk. s. h. H2SO4; i. alk.

i. i. i. 1.8100° 1.9100° d. d. 18.45100°

(α) 6.24; (β) 6.00 11.85 3.68 7.00 5.9

6.77 11.2 9.69 4.22517° 2.77 7.31 5.750

2260 2260

s. HCl, H2SO4, dil. HNO3 h. aq KOH s. a., h. alk. solns. s. alk.; v. sl. s. dil. a.; i. al. s. a. i. CS2, et., chl. s. dil. HCl sl. s. alk.

lq., 1.726 3.84 4.17 4.26 19.3 15.7 16.0618° 7.16 5.5 5.92615° 18.485 13° 4 11.28 10.9
18°

1800 Unstable in air d. 440 −30

>3000

i. d. s. s. i. i.

136.4

1640 d. 3370 2777 2877 >2130 −a H2O, 100; 1473 −H2O, 250 to 300 1133 2400 2176

<3000 5900 6000 6000

i. i. i. i. i. i. i.

3500

i. d. i.

oxide (pitchblende) sulfate (ous) Uranyl acetate carbonate (rutherfordine) nitrate sulfate Vanadic acid, metaVanadic acid, pyroVanadium chloride, dichloride, trichloride, tetraoxide, dioxide, trioxide, tetraoxide, pentaoxychloride, monoVanadyl chloride chloride, dichloride, triWater† Water, heavy Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc acetate acetate bromide carbonate chloride cyanide hydroxide iodide nitrate oxide (zincite) oxide peroxide phosphide silicate sulfate (zincosite) sulfate sulfate sulfate (goslarite) sulfide (α) (wurzite) sulfide (β) (sphalerite) sulfide (blende) sulfite Zirconium oxide, di- (baddeleyite) oxide, di- (free from Hf)

U3O8 U(SO4)2·4H2O UO2(C2H3O2)2·2H2O UO2CO3 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O UO2SO4·3H2O HVO3 H4V2O7 V VCl2 VCl3 VCl4 V2O2 V2O3 V2O4 V2O5 VOCl (VO)2Cl VOCl2 VOCl3 H2O D2O Xe Yb Y Zn Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(C2H3O2)2·2H2O* ZnBr2 ZnCO3 ZnCl2 Zn(CN)2 Zn(OH)2 ZnI2 Zn(NO3)2·6H2O ZnO ZnO ZnO2 Zn3P2 ZnSiO3 ZnSO4 ZnSO4·H2O ZnSO4·6H2O ZnSO4·7H2O* ZnS ZnS ZnS ZnSO3·2a H2O Zr ZrO2 ZrO2

842.21 502.25 424.19 330.08 502.18 420.18 99.96 217.93 50.95 121.86 157.23 192.78 133.90 149.90 165.90 181.90 102.41 169.36 137.86 173.32 18.016 20.029 131.30 173.04 88.92 65.38 183.47 219.50 225.21 125.39 136.29 117.42 99.40 319.22 297.49 81.38 81.38 97.38 258.10 141.44 161.44 179.46 269.54 287.55 97.44 97.44 97.44 190.48 91.22 123.22 123.22

olive gn. gn., rhb. yel., rhb. tet. yel., rhb., 1.4967 yel. cr. yel. scales pa. yel., amor. lt. gray, cb. gn., hex., delq. pink, tabular, delq. red lq. lt. gray cr. bk. cr. blue cr. red-yel., rhb. brn. pd. yel. cr. gn., delq. yel. lq. col. lq., 1.3330020°; hex. solid, 1.309 col. lq., 1.3284420° col. gas

7.31 2.89 5.6 2.807 3.2816.5° 5.96 3.2318° 3.0018° 1.81630° 3.64 4.87 18° 4 4.399 3.357 18° 4 2.824 3.64 2.8813° 1.829 1.004° (lq.); 0.9150° (ice) 1.10720° lq., 3.06−109.1 2.7−140° 4.53 (A) 5.51 7.140 1.840 1.735 4.2194° 4.42 2.91 25° 4 3.053 4.666 14.2° 4 2.065 14° 4 5.606 5.47 1.571 4.55 13° 4 3.52 3.74 15° 4 3.28 15° 4 2.072 15° 4 1.96616.5° 4.087 4.102 25° 4 4.04 6.4 5.49 5.73
15°

d. −4H2O, 300 −2H2O, 110 60.2 d. 100 1710 d. −109 ign. 1970 1967 800 d. in air <−15 0 3.82 −140 127.19 100 101.42 −109.1 118

i. 2311° 9.217° 170.30° 18.913.2° i. i. i. s. s. s. d. i. sl. s. i. 0.820° i. i. d. s. d. ∞ 24.20° cc

i. 963° d. ∞60° 23025° i. d. d. i. s. i.

s. HNO3, H2SO4 s. dil. a. s. al., act. v. s. ac., al., et.; i. dil., alk. 4 al.; s. a. s. a., alk.; i. NH3 s. a., alk., NH4OH s. HNO3, H2SO4; i. aq., alk. s. al., et. s. abs. al., et. s. abs. al., et., chl., ac. s. a. s. HNO3, HF, alk. s. a., alk. s. a., alk.; i. abs. al. v. s. HNO3 s. HNO3 s. abs. al., dil. HNO3 s. al., et., ∞Br2 ∞ al.; sl. s. et. ∞ al.; sl. s. et.

3000 148.5755mm

d. 1750

∞ 7.350° cc

dark gray, hex. silv. met., hex. mn. wh., mn., 1.494 rhb. wh., trig., 1.818 wh., delq., 1.687, uniaxial col., rhb. col., rhb. cb. col., tet. wh., hex., 2.004 wh., amor. yel. steel gray, cb. hex. or rhb.; glass, 1.650 wh., rhb., 1.669 col. mn. rhb., 1.4801 wh., hex., 2.356 wh., cb.; glass (?) 2.18–2.25 wh., granular mn. cb., pd. ign. easily yel. or brn., mn., 2.19 wh., mn.

1490 419.4 242 237 394 −CO2, 300 283 d. 80 d. 125 446 36.4 >1800 >1800 expl. 212 >420 1437 d. 740 d. 238 −5H2O, 70 tr. 39 1850150atm tr. 1020 −2a H2O, 100 1700 2700

2500 907 subl. in vac. −2H2O, 100 650 732

sl. d. i. 3025° 4025° 3900° 0.00115° 43225° 0.000518° 0.0005218° 4300° 324.5 0.0004218° 0.0004218° 0.0022 i. i. 420° s. s. 115.20° 0.0006918° i. i. 0.16 i. i. i.

d. i. 44.6100° 66.6100° 670100° 615100° sl. s. 510100° ∞36.4°

624 −6H2O, 105

v. s. dil. a., h. KOH s. a., ac., alk. 2.825°, 16679° al. v. s. al. v. s. NH4OH, al., et. s. a., alk., NH4 salts; i. act., NH3 10012.5° al.; v. s. et.; i. NH3 s. KCN, NH3, alk.; i. al. s. a., alk., NH4OH s. a., al., NH3, aq. (NH4)2CO3 v. s. al. s. a., alk., NH4Cl; i. NH3 i. NH4OH; d. a. s. dil. a.

1100

−7H2O, 280 subl. 1185

61100° 89.5100° s. 653.6100° i. i. i. d. i. i. i.

sl. s. al.; s. gly. sl. s. al.; i. act.; NH3 sl. s. al.; i. act.; NH3 v. s. a.; i. ac. s. a. v. s. a.; i. ac. s. H2SO3, NH4OH; i. al. s. HF, aq. reg.; sl. s. a. s. H2SO4, HF s. H2SO4, HF

d. 200 >2900 4300

*Usual commercial form. †Cf. special tables on water and steam, Tables 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, 2-185, 2-186 and 2-351 through 2-357. NOTE: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32.

2-27

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds*
Abbreviations Used in the Table cr., crystalline d., decomposes d-, dextrorotatory dl-, dextro-laevorotatory et., ethyl ether expl., explodes gn., green h., hot hex., hexagonal i-, iso-, containing the group (CH3)2CHi., insoluble ign., ignites l-, laevorotatory lf., leaflets lq., liquid m-, meta mn., monoclinic n-, normal nd., needles o-, ortho or., orange p-, para pd., powder pet., petroleum ether pl., plates pr., prisms rhb., rhombic s., soluble s-, sec-, secondary silv., silvery sl., slightly subl., sublimes sym., symmetrical t-, tertiary tet., tetragonal tri., triclinic uns., unsymmetrical v., very v. s., very soluble v. sl. s., very slightly soluble wh., white yel., yellow (+), right rotation >, greater than <, less than ∞, infinitely

(A), density referred to air al., ethyl alcohol amor., amorphous aq., aqua, water brn., brown bz., benzene c., cubic cc., cubic centimeter chl., chloroform col., colorless

This table of the physical properties includes the organic compounds of most general interest. For the properties of other organic compounds, reference must be made to larger tables in Lange’s Handbook of Chemistry (Handbook Publishers), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.), Van Nostrand’s Chemical Annual, International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill), and similar works. The molecular weights are based on the 1941 atomic weight values. The densities are given for the temperature indicated and are usually referred to water at 4°C, e.g., 1.02895/4 a density of 1.028 at 95°C
Name Abietic acid Acenaphthene Acetal Acet-aldehyde -aldehyde, par-aldehyde ammonia -amide -anilide -phenetidide (o-) (m-) -toluidide (o-) (p-) Acetic acid anhydride nitrile Acetone Acetonyl urea Acetophenone benzoyl hydride Acetyl-chloride -phenylenediamine (-p) Acetylene dichloride (cis) (trans) Aconitic acid Acridine Acrolein ethylene aldehyde Acrylic acid nitrile Adipic acid amide nitrile Adrenaline (1-) (3,4,1) Alanine (α) (dl-) Aldol acetaldol Alizarin Allyl alcohol bromide chloride thiocyanate (i) thiourea Aluminum ethoxide Amino-anthraquinone (α) (β) -azobenzene -benzoic acid (m-) (p-) Synonym sylvic acid, abietinic acid naphthylene ethylene acetaldehyde diethylacetal ethanal paraldehyde ethanamide antifebrin o-ethoxyacetanilide acetyl-m-phenetidine N-tolylacetamide N-tolylacetamide ethanoic acid, vinegar acid acetyl oxide, acetic oxide methyl cyanide propanone, dimethyl ketone dimethyl hydantoin methyl-phenyl ketone ethanoyl chloride amino-acetanilide (p) ethyne; ethine 1,2-dichloroethene dioform equisetic acid; citridic acid acrylic aldehyde, propenal propenoic acid vinyl cyanide hexandioc acid, adipinic acid tetramethylene 1-suprarenine 2-hydroxybutyraldehyde Anthraquinoic acid propen-1-ol-3,propenyl alcohol 3-bromo-propene-1 3-chloro-propene-1 mustard oil thiosinamide Formula C20H30O2 C10H6(CH2)2 CH3CH(OC2H5)2 CH3CHO (C2H4O)3 CH3CHOHNH2 CH3CONH2 C6H5NHCOCH3 CH3CONHC6H4OC2H5 CH3CONHC6H4OC2H5 CH3C6H4NHCOCH3 CH3C6H4NHCOCH3 CH3CO2H (CH3CO)2O CH3CN CH3COCH3 <NHCONHCOC>(CH3)2 CH3COC6H5 CH3COCl C2H3ONHC6H4NH2 HC CH CHCl:CHCl CHCl:CHCl C3H3(CO2H)3 C6H4 < (CH)(N) > C6H4 CH2:CH CHO CH2:CH CO2H CH2:CH CN (CH2CH2CO2H)2 (CH2CH2CONH2)2 (CH2CH2CN)2 C6H3(OH)2(CHOHCH2NHCH3) CH3CH(NH2)CO2H CH3CH(OH)CH2CO2H C6H4(CO)2C6H2(OH)2 CH2:CH CH2OH CH2:CH CH2Br CH2:CH CH2Cl CH2:CH CH2NCS CH2:CH CH2NHCSNH2 Al(OCH2CH3)3 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H4(CO)2C6H3NH2 C6H5 N:N C6H4NH2 H2N C6H4CO2H H2N C6H4CO2H

referred to water at 4°C, the 4 being omitted when it is not clear whether the reference is to water at 4°C or at the temperature indicated by the upper figure. The melting and boiling points given have been selected from available data as probably the most accurate. The solubility is given in grams of the substance in 100 g. of the solvent. In the case of gases, the solubility is often expressed in some manner as “510 cc.” which indicates that, at 10°C, 5 cc. of the gas are soluble in 100 g. of the solvent.
Solubility in 100 parts Water i. i. 625 ∞ 1213 v. s. s. 0.56 i. sl. s. 0.8619 0.0922 ∞ 12 c. ∞ ∞ s. i. d. s. h. 100 cc.18 0.3520 0.6320 3315 sl. s. h. 40 ∞ s. 1.415 0.412 v. sl. s. 0.0320 2217 ∞ 0.03100 ∞ i. <0.1 0.2 30 d. i. i. sl. s. h. v. sl. s. 0.313 Alcohol v. s. s. h. ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. 2120 s. s. s. 1025 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. d. v. s. 600 cc.18 ∞ ∞ sl. s. s. s. ∞ v. s. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. i. s. s. s. h. 210 1110 Ether v. s. s. chl. ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. v. sl. s. 7 25 s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ v. sl. s. s. s. 0.615 v. sl. s. i. i. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. s. i. s. 1.86 8.26

Formula weight 302.44 154.20 118.17 44.05 132.16 61.08 59.07 135.16 179.21 179.21 149.19 149.19 60.05 102.09 41.05 58.08 128.13 120.14 78.50 150.18 26.04 96.95 96.95 174.11 179.21 56.06 72.06 53.06 146.14 144.17 108.14 183.20 89.09 88.10 240.20 58.08 120.99 76.53 99.15 116.18 164.15 223.22 223.22 197.23 137.13 137.13

Form and color lf. rhb./al. lq. col. lq. col. cr. col. cr. col. cr. rhb./al. lf./al. lf./al. rhb. rhb. or mn. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. tri./al. lf. col. lq. nd./aq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. cr./aq. rhb./aq. al. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. cr. pd. col. oil col. pd. nd./aq. col. lq. red rhb. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. pr. pd. red nd. red nd. yel. mn. nd./aq. mn. pr.

Specific gravity 1.06995/95 0.82122/4 0.78318/4 0.99420/4 1.159 1.214 1.16815 1.21215 1.04920/4 1.08220/4 0.78320/4 0.79220/4 1.03315/15 1.10520/4 (A) 0.906 1.29115/4 1.26515/4 0.84120/4 1.06216/4 0.81120 1.36025/4 0.95119/19 1.10320/4 0.85420/4 1.39820/4 0.93820/4 1.01320/4 1.21920/20 1.14220/0

Melting point, °C 182 95 −123.5 10.5–12 97 81(69.4) 113–4 79 96–7 110 153 16.7 −73 −41 −94.6 175 20.5 −112.0 162 −81.5891 −80.5 −50 192 d. 110–1 −87.7 12–13 −82 151–3 226–7 1 d. 207–11 295 d. 289–90 −129 −119.4 −136.4 −80 77–8 150–60 256 302 126–7 173–4 187–8

Boiling point, °C 278–9 102.2 20.2 124.4752 100–10 d. 222 305 >250 296 306–7 118.1 139.6 81.6–2.0 56.5 subl. 202.3749 51–2 −84760 60.3 48.4 346 52.5 141–2 78–9 26510 295 subl. >200 8320 430 96.6 70–1753 44.6 152 200–510 subl. subl. 225120

1.5114°

aminodracylic acid

2-28

Amino-diphenylamine (p-) -G-acid (2-)(6-,8-), Na2 salt -mono-potassium salt -sodium salt -J-acid (2-)(5-,7-) -mono-potassium salt -naphthol sulfonic (1-,2-,4-)(α-) (1-,8-,4-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -toluene sulfonic acid (1-,2-,3-) (1-,4-,2-) (1-,4-,3-) (1-,2-,5-) Amyl acetate (n-) (i-) (s-) (s-) (t-) alcohol (n-) fusel oil, (s-,n-) methyl-propyl carbinol, (prim.-,i-) isobutyl carbinol, (s-,i-) (t-) (d-) -amine (n-) (s-,n-) (i-) (t-)

2-aminophenol 3-aminophenol p-hydroxyaniline

common amyl acetate α-Me-Bu-acetate di Et-carbinol acetate pentanol-1 pentanol-2 2-methyl-butanol-4 2-methyl-butanol-3 2-methyl-butanol-2 active amyl alcohol

aniline (i-) benzoate (i-) bromide (n-) (i-) (t-) n-butyrate (n-) (i-) (t-) i-butyrate (i-) chloride (n-) (s-) (s-) (i-) (s-,i-) (t-) i-cyanide (i-) formate (n-) (i-) iodide (n-) (i-) (s-,n-) (t-) mercaptan (n-) (n-) (i-) phenol (t-)(p-) propionate (n-) (i-) (act.) salicylate (n-) Amyl i-valerate (i) (t-)

1-NH2-2-Me-butane 3-amino pentane 3-NH2-2-Me-butane 1-bromopentane 4-Br-2-Me-butane 2-Br-2-Me-butane

1-chloropentane 2-chloropentane 3-chloropentane 4-Cl-2-Me-butane 3-Cl-2-Me-butane 2-Cl-2-Me-butane 1-Cl-2-Me-butane iso-caproic iso-nitrile 1-iodopentane 4-I-2-Me-butane 2-iodopentane 2-I-2-Me-butane pentanthiol-1 pentanthiol-3 2-Me-butanthiol-4 pentaphen

H2N C6H4NH C6H5 C10H5(NH2)(SO3Na)2 C10H5(NH2)S2O6HK C10H5(NH2)S2O6HNa C10H5(NH2)(SO3H)2 C10H5(NH2)S2O6HK C10H5OHNH2SO3Ha H2O NH2(OH)C10H5SO3H H2N C6H4 OH H2N C6H4 OH H2N C6H4 OH C6H3(CH3)(NH2)SO3H C6H3(CH3)(NH2)SO3H H2O C6H3(CH3)(NH2)SO3H a H2O C6H3(CH3)(NH2)SO3H H2O CH3CO2CH2(CH2)3CH3 CH3CO2CH2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3CO2CH2CH(CH3)C2H5 CH3CO2CH(CH3)CH2C2H5 CH3CO2CH(C2H5)2 CH3CO2C(CH3)2C2H5 CH3(CH2)3CH2OH C2H5CH2CH(OH)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH (C2H5)2CHOH (CH3)2CHCH(OH)CH3 (CH3)2C(OH)C2H5 (CH3)3CCH2OH C2H5CH(CH3)CH2OH CH3(CH2)4NH2 (C3H7)(CH3)CHNH2 (CH3)2CH(CH2)2NH2 (C2H5)(CH3)2CNH2 C2H5CH(CH3)CH2NH2 (C2H5)2CHNH2 (CH3)2CHCH(CH3)NH2 C6H5NHC5H11 C6H5CO2C5H11 CH3(CH2)3CH2Br (CH3)2CH(CH2)2Br (CH3)2C(Br)C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2(CH2)4CH3 C2H5CH2CO2 C5H11 C3H7CO2C(CH3)2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCO2C5H11 CH3(CH2)3CH2Cl C2H5CH2CHClCH3 (C2H5)2CHCl (CH3)2CH(CH2)2Cl (CH3)CHCHClCH3 (CH3)2CClC2H5 (CH3)(C2H5)CHCH2Cl (CH3)2CH(CH2)2NC HCO2CH2(CH2)3CH3 HCO2CH2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3(CH2)3CH2I (CH3)2CHCH2CH2I C2H5CH2CHICH3 (CH3)2CIC2H5 C2H5CH(CH3)CH2I CH3(CH2)3CH2SH (C2H5)2CHSH (CH3)2CH(CH2)2SH C5H11 C6H4OH C2H5CO2(CH3)4CH3 C2H5CO2(CH2)2CH(CH3)2 C2H5CO2C5H11 HOC6H4CO2C5H11 C4H9CO2C5H11 C4H9CO2C5H11

184.23 347.28 341.39 325.29 303.30 341.39 248.25 239.24 109.12 109.12 109.12 187.21 205.23 196.22 205.23 130.18 130.18 130.18 130.18 130.18 130.18 88.15 88.15 88.15 88.15 88.15 88.15 88.15 88.15 87.16 87.16 87.16 87.16 87.16 87.16 87.16 163.25 192.25 151.05 151.05 151.05 158.23 158.23 158.23 158.23 106.60 106.60 106.60 106.60 106.60 106.60 106.60 97.16 116.16 116.16 198.06 198.06 198.06 198.06 198.06 104.21 104.21 104.21 164.24 144.21 144.21 144.21 208.25 172.26 172.26

nd./aq. al.

67

354

col. nd. pr. lf. nd. mn. nd. tri./aq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. cr. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq.

173 122–3 184–6 d. d. 0.87920/20 0.87615/4 0.88013 0.9220 0.87120/4 0.87419 0.817 20/20 0.81020/20 0.81315/4 0.815 25/4 0.81919 0.809 20/4 0.816 0.76619 0.749 20/4 0.75118/4 0.73125/4 0.75518 0.749 20/4 0.75718 0.92815/4 0.99214/14 1.21820/4 1.22017/15 1.21619/0 0.87115/4 0.86619/15 0.86515/0 0.8760/4 0.878 20/4 0.870 20/4 0.895 21 0.89320/4 0.8830 0.87120/4 0.88117.5 0.9020 0.882 20/4 1.51020/4 1.515 18/4 1.507 17/4 1.47119/15 1.524 20/4 0.857 20 0.83520/4 0.87615/4 0.870 20/4 0.866 20/4 1.06515 0.85820/15 0.86114/0 93 −73.1
20/4

subl. subl.

−H2O, 120 −70.8

−78.5 −117.2 −11.9 52–3 −55 −105

−95 −73.2

−99

−72.9 −73.5 −93.5 −86

148.4737 142757 141–2 133.5 133 124.5 749 137.9 119.5 132.0 115.6 113–4 102 113–4 128 103–4 91–2 95 77–8 95–6 90–1 83–4 254.5 261746 129.7 120745 108765 186.4 178.6 164 168.8 108.4 96.7 97.3 99.7 758 91753 85.7 98–9 137–9 132 123.5 157.0 147 765 144–5 127 765 148 126767 105 120 265–7 168.7 160.2 5816 265 194 173–4

sl. s. v. sl. s. 12.820 2.718 10.0 20 3.418 v. s. v. sl. s. 1.7 0 2.6 0 1.10 0.97 11 0.5 20 0.47 311 v. sl. s. 0.315 v. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. v. sl. s. 2.7 22 420 214 5.5 30 2.830 sl. s. sl. s. 3.630 s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i. i. i. 0.0216 i. 0.05 50 i. sl. s. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. 0.322 i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. i. 0.125 v. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. sl. s.

s.

s.

4.30 s. 40 i. i. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ s. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s.

v. s. sl. s. i. bz.

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s.

*By N. A. Lange, Ph.D., Handbook Publishers, Inc., Sandusky, Ohio. Abridged from table of Physical Constants of Organic Compounds in Lange’s “Handbook of Chemistry.” 2-29

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Synonym pentene-1 2-methyl-butene-3 2-methyl-butene-1 pentene-2 2-methyl-butene-2 p-propenyl anisole methylene aniline amino benzene, phenyl amine, cyanol aniline salt, aniline chloride MeO-benzalacetone 2-amino-anisole MeO-aniline(m) 4-amino anisole methyl phenyl ether paranaphthalene, anthracin green oil α-amino-anthracene β-amino-anthracene Formula C2H5CH2CH:CH2 (CH3)2CHCH:CH2 (C2H5)(CH3)C:CH2 C2H5CH:CHCH3 (CH3)2C:CHCH3 CH3CH:CH C6H4OCH3 (CH2NC6H5)3 C6H5NH2 C6H5NH2 HCl C6H5NH2 HNO3 (C6H5NH2)2 H2SO4 CH3OC6H4CH:CHCOCH3 CH3OC6H4CO2H CH3OC6H4CHO CH3OC6H4NH2 CH3OC6H4NH2 CH3OC6H4NH2 CH3OC6H5 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H4 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3NH2 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3NH2 C6H4:(NH)CO H2NC6H4CO2H C14H5O2(OH)3 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H4 C14H6O2(SO3Na)2 C14H6O2(SO3Na)2 C14H6O2(SO3Na)2 C14H6O2(SO3Na)2 C14H7O2SO3Na C14H7O2SO3Na C14H6O3(OH)2 C11H12ON2 C12H14O2 5H2O 4H2O 7H2O 4H2O Formula weight 70.13 70.13 70.13 70.13 70.13 148.20 315.40 93.12 129.59 156.14 284.32 176.22 152.14 136.14 123.15 123.15 123.15 108.13 178.22 193.24 193.24 119.12 137.13 256.20 208.20 502.38 484.37 538.41 484.37 310.25 310.25 240.20 188.22 222.23 150.13 150.13 312.52 217.04 132.12 180.15 148.15 267.36 290.30 242.27 182.22 198.22 164.12 146.18 106.12 121.13 197.23 78.11 142.17 158.17 157.18 176.62 184.23 398.40 344.35 210.22 122.12 226.22 103.12 Form and color lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lf./al. pr./al. col. oil cr. rhb. lf./al. lf./et. mn./aq. col. oil col. lq. oil pl./aq. col. lq. col. mn. yel./al. yel./al. col. oil col. rhb. or. nd./al. yel. rhb. yel. lf. yel. pr. col. cr. cr. yel. lf. silv. lf. yel. lf. mn./aq. col. nd. rhb. pr. col. lf. nd./aq. rhb. nd./aq. nd./aq. col./al. red or. pr. or. mn. yel. rhb. col./aq. pl. col. lq. col. pr. lf./al. col. lq. pr./aq. col. nd. mn./aq. cr. cr./aq. pr./aq. pr. mn. pr. rhb./et. col. lq. Specific gravity 0.644 20 0.63215 0.667 0/0 0.650 20/4 0.66319/4 0.99120/20 1.02220/4 1.222 4 1.356 4 1.377 4 1.385 4 1.123 20/4 1.09815/15 1.096 20/4 1.089 55/55 0.990 22/4 1.25 27/4 Melting point, °C −135 −139 −124 22.5 143 −6.2 198 d. 190 d. 73–4 184.2 2.5 5.2 <−12 57.2 −37.3 217–8 130 238 <−18 144–5 369 286 Boiling point, °C 30–1 20.5 771 31–2758 36.4 37–8 235.3 185 184.4 245 Solubility in 100 parts Water i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. i. 3.618 1815 s. 514 i. 0.0319 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. s. h. i. i. i. i. sl. s. h. 0.35 14 sl. s. h. i. v. s. sl. s. 3.920 30.5 20 0.5320 0.8425 i. 100 25 i 460 16.910 i. v. s. h. 3.128 137 0.1 c. i. i. i. i. i. s. h. i. 0.3 1.35 25 i. 0.07 22 v. s. h. v. s. 0.4316 i. 1 h. 0.09 25 v. sl. s. i. 0.217 i. 1100 Alcohol ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. sl. s. ∞ s. s. sl. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. 1.520 s. sl. s. s. 1110 v. s. h. 0.0518 i. v. sl. s. i. i. sl. s. 100 s. 0.59° s. h. v. s. h. i. c. s. s. 720 s. s. 4.220 11.415 sl. s. s. ∞ 1725 430 s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. 1 h. i. v. s. 4615 s. ∞ Ether ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ i. sl. s. i. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s.

Name Amylene (n-)(α-) (i-) (α-) (-n)(β-) (i-)(β-) Anethole (p-) Anhydroformald-aniline Aniline hydrochloride nitrate sulfate Anisal-acetone (p-) Anisic acid (p-) aldehyde (p-) Anisidine (o-) (m-) (p-) Anisole Anthracene Anthramine (α) (β) Anthranil Anthranilic acid (o-) Anthrapurpurin (1-,2-,7-) Anthraquinone disulfonate Na2 (1-,5-) (1-,8-) (2-,6-) (2-,7-) sulfonate Na (1-) (2-) Anthrarufin (1-,5-) Antipyrene Apiole Arabinose (α)(d- or l-) (dl-) Arachidic acid Arsanilic acid (p-) Asparagine (l-) Aspirin (o-) Atropic acid Auramine Aurine, coralline (4-,4′-) Azo-anisole (2-,2′-) benzene Azoxybenzene Barbituric acid Benzal acetone Benzaldehyde Benzamide Benzanilide Benzene sulfinic acid sulfonic acid sulfonic amide sulfonic chloride Benzidine (4-,4′-) disulfonic acid (2-,2′-) (3-,3′-) Benzil Benzoic acid anhydride nitrile

275–80 247–8 225 251 243 154–5 340–2 subl. d. >215 subl. 462 379–81

1.187

15/4

diphenyleneketone, dihydrodiketoanthracene ρ-anthraquinone disulfonate x-anthraquinone disulfonate

1.438 20/4

sl. s. s. 167 sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. s. sl. s. s. i. v. s. i. 520 s. 2.320 s. s. s. s. ∞ sl. s. sl. s. ∞ v. s. i. v. s. s. 2 i. v. s. 6615 s. ∞

1-ph-2,3-diMepyrazolone-5 1-allyl-2, 5-diMeO-3,4 methylenedioxybenzene eicosanoic acid

1.088113/4 1.0220/4 1.585 20/4

280 113(109) 30 159.5 164.5 77 232 227–35 135–6 106–7 136 310 d. 153 68 36 d. 245 41–2 −26 130 163 5.5 83–4 65–6 156 14.5 128–9 d. >175 95 121.7 42 −12.9

subl. 319174 294

α-phenyl acrylic acid 4,4′-dimethylaminobenzophenomide diMeO-azobenzene diphenyldiimide malonyl urea Me-cinnamyl ketone artificial almond oil benzol, phenyl hydride, cyclohexatriene benzene sulfonamide benzene sulfonyl chloride

CH2OH(CHOH)3CHO CH2OH(CHOH)3CHO CH3(CH2)18CO2H H2N C6H4.AsO3H2 HO2C C2H3(NH2) CONH2 CH3CO2 C6H4 OH C6H5C(:CH2) CO2H [(CH3)2NC6H4]2C:NH (HOC6H4)2C:C6H4:O (CH3O C6H4N:)2 C6H5N:N C6H5 (C6H5)2N2O CO:(NHCO)2:CH2 2H2O C6H5CH:CHCOCH3 C6H5CHO C6H5CONH2 C6H5CONHC6H5 C6H6 C6H5SO2H C6H5SO3H C6H5SO2NH2 C6H5SO2Cl NH2 C6H4 C6H4 NH2 ( C6H3(NH2)SO3H)2 3H2O ( C6H3(NH2)SO3H)2 C6H5CO COC6H5 C6H5CO2H (C6H5CO)2O C6H5CN

328 d. 235 267 d.

1.543

15/4

1.20320/4 1.248 20/20 1.035 20/20 1.046 20/4 1.341 1.314 0.879 20/4

297 d. 260–2 179 290 117–910 80.1 d. > 100 d. 251.5 400740 348 d. 249.2 360 190.7

1.38415/15

dibenzoyl phenyl cyanide

1.2315 1.26615/4 1.19915/4 1.00125/6

2-30

Benzoin (dl-) Benzophenone Benzotrichloride Benzoyl-benzoic acid (o-) -chloride -peroxide Benzyl acetate alcohol amine aniline benzoate butyrate chloride ether formate propionate Berberonic acid (2-,4-,5-) Biuret Borneol (dl-) (d- or l-) (iso-) Bornyl acetate (d-) Bromo-aniline (p-) -benzene -camphor (3-)(d-) -diphenyl (p-) -naphthalene (α-) (β-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -styrene (ω)(1) (2) -toluene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoform Butadiene (1-,2-) (1-,3-) Butadienyl acetylene Butane (i-) Butyl acetate (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) alcohol (n-) (s-) (i-) (tert-) amine (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) p-aminophenol (N)(n) (N)(i-) aniline (n-) (i-) arsonic acid (n-) benzoate (n-) (i-) bromide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) butyrate (n-)(n-) (n-)(i-) (i-)(i-) caproate carbamate (i-) cellosolve (n-)

diphenyl ketone phenyl chloroform

phenyl carbinol ω-amino toluene phenyl-benzylamine ω-chlorotoluene dibenzyl ether

allophanamide

phenyl bromide α-bromocamphor α-naphthyl bromide β-naphthyl bromide

o-tolyl bromide tribromo-methane methyl-allene erythrene diethyl trimethyl-methane

butanol-1 butanol-2 2-methyl-propanol-1 2-methyl-propanol-2

1-bromo-butane 2-bromo-butane 1-Br-2-Me-propane 2-Br-2-Me-propane

2-BuO-ethanol-1

C6H5CO CHOHC6H5 C6H5COC6H5 C6H5CCl3 C6H5COC6H4CO2H H2O C6H5COCl (C6H5CO)2O2 CH3CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2OH C6H5CH2NH2 C6H5CH2NHC6H5 C6H5CO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2C6H5 C6H5CH2Cl (C6H5CH2)2O HCO2CH2C6H5 C2H5CO2CH2C6H5 C5H2N(CO2H)3 2H2O NH(CONH2)2 C10H17OH C10H17OH C10H17OH CH3CO2C10H17 BrC6H4NH2 C6H5Br BrC10H15O BrC6H4 C6H5 C10H7Br C10H7Br BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH BrC6H4OH C6H5CH:CHBr C6H5CH:CHBr CH3 C6H4Br CH3 C6H4Br CH3 C6H4Br CHBr3 CH3CH:C:CH2 CH2:CHCH:CH2 CH2:(CH)2:CH C CH CH3CH2CH2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH3 CH3CO2(CH2)2C2H5 CH3CO2CH(CH3)C2H5 CH3CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3CO2C(CH3)3 C2H5CH2CH2OH C2H5CH(OH)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2OH (CH3)3COH C2H5CH2CH2NH2 C2H5CH(NH2)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2NH2 (CH3)3CNH2 C4H9NH C6H4 OH C4H9NH C6H4 OH C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9NHC6H5 C4H9AsO(OH)2 C6H5CO2C4H9 C6H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2Br C2H5CH(Br)CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Br (CH3)3CBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 CH3(CH2)4CO2C4H9 NH2CO2CH2CH(CH3)2 C4H9OCH2CH2OH

212.24 182.21 195.48 244.24 140.57 242.22 150.17 108.13 107.15 183.24 212.24 178.22 126.58 198.25 136.14 164.20 247.16 103.08 154.24 154.24 154.24 196.28 172.03 157.02 231.14 233.11 207.07 207.07 173.02 173.02 173.02 183.05 183.05 171.04 171.04 171.04 252.77 54.09 54.09 78.11 58.12 58.12 116.16 116.16 116.16 116.16 74.12 74.12 74.12 74.12 73.14 73.14 73.14 73.14 165.23 165.23 149.23 149.23 182.04 178.22 178.22 137.03 137.03 137.03 137.03 144.21 144.21 144.21 172.26 117.15 118.17

mn. col. rhb. col. lq. tri./aq. col. lq. rhb./et. col. lq. col. lq. lq. mn. pr. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. tri. nd./al. col. cr. col. cr. col. cr. rhb./pet. rhb. col. lq. cr. cr./al. col. oil lf./al. col. lq. cr. tet. cr. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr./al. col. lq. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. gas col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. oil col. lf. col. oil col. oil lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lf. col. lq.

1.08354 1.38014 1.21220/4 1.05717 1.04320/4 0.98220/4 1.065 25/25 1.1220/4 1.01616/18 1.100 20/20 1.03616 1.08123 1.03616/17 1.011 1.01120/4 0.99115 1.820 1.495 20/4 1.449 20/4 1.48220/4 1.605 0 1.55380 1.588 80 1.42220/4 1.427 20/4 1.42220/4 1.410 20/4 1.390 20/4 2.890 20/4 0.62120/4 0.773 20/4 0.600 0.600 0.882 20 0.865 25/4 0.87120/4 0.866 20/4 0.810 20/4 0.808 20/4 0.80517.5 0.779 26 0.739 25/4 0.724 20/4 0.73220/20 0.69818/4
20/4

133–7 48.5 −4.75 93(128) −0.5 108 d. −51.5 −15.3 37–8 21 238–40 −39 3.6 243 192–3 d. 210.5 208–9 212 29 63–4 −30.6 77–8 90–1 5–6 59 5.6 32–3 63.5 7 −7.5 −28 −39.8 28.5 8–9 −108.9 −135 −145 −76.3 −98.9 −79.9 −114.7 −108 25.5 −50 −104 −85 −67.5 71 79 158–9 −22 −112.4 −112 −118.5 −16.2 −80.7 65

344768 305.4 220.7 197.2 expl. 213.5 204.7 184.5 306750 323–4 i. 179.4 295–8 202–3747 220–2 subl. 212–3 226–7 156.2 274 310 281.1 281–2 194–5 236–7 238 221 10826 181.8 183.7 184–5 150.5 18–9 −4.41 83–6 −0.6 −10 125 740 112744 118 95–6760 117 99.5 107–8 82.9 77.8 66772 68–9 45.2 235720 231–2 249–50 241.5 101.6 91.3 91.5 73.3 165.7736 156.9 148–9 204.3 206–7 171.2

v. sl. s. i. i. sl. s. d. i. i. 417 ∞ i. i. v. s. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. 1.30 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. c. i. i. i. i. i. s. 1.415 i. i. i. i. i. 0.1 c. i. i. i. i. i. 0.7 i. 0.625 i. 915 12.520 1015 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i. i. i. 0.0115 s. i. i. 0.0616 i. 0.0618 i. i. i. i. i. i. ∞

s. h. 6.515 s. d. h. s. h. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ s. h. s. sl. s. h. s. v. s. s. v. s. s. 2026 s. s. 620 s. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞

sl. s. 1513 s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. ∞ i. v. s. s. v. s. ∞ v. s. 34 25 ∞ v. s. ∞ s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞25 s. ∞25 ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

0.940 20/4 1.005 25/25 0.997 25/25 1.277 20/4 1.25125/4 1.258 25/4 1.21120/4 0.87220/20 0.86318/4 0.875 0/4 0.8820/0 0.95676/4 0.90320/4

v. s. v. s. i. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞

2-31

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Synonym 1-chloro-butane 2-chloro-butane 1-Cl2-2-Me-propane 2-Cl2-2-Me-propane Formula C2H5CH2CH2Cl C2H5 CHCl CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2Cl (CH3)3CCl (CH3)3C C6H3:(CH3)2 HCO2CH2CH2C2H5 HCO2CH(CH3)C2H5 HCO2CH2CH(CH3)2 OC4H3CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2I C2H5CHICH3 (CH3)2CHCH2I (CH3)3CI CH3CH(OH)CO2C4H3 C2H5CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHCH2SH (CH3)3CSH CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 CH2:C(CH3)CO2C4H9 (CH3)3C C6H4 OH C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 C2H5CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 CH3(CH2)16CO2C4H9 C2H5CH2CH2 N:CS (CH3)2CHCH2 N:CS C4H9 N:CS (CH3)3C N:CS CH3(CH2)3CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C4H9 C4H9CO2C4H9 C2H5CH:CH2 CH3CH:CHCH3 CH3CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCHO C2H5CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCO2H C2H5CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCONH2 (C2H5CH2CO)2O [(CH3)2CHCO]2O C3H7CONHC6H5 (HO)2C6H3C2H2CO2H C8H10O2N4 H2O C10H16 C10H16 C10H16O C8H14(CO2H)2 C10H12O4 CH3(CH2)8CO2H CH3(CH2)4CO2H (CH3)2CH(CH2)2 CO2H CH3(CH2)6CO2H (C6H4)2NH C2H5O(CH2)2O(CH2)2OH CS2 CO OC:C:CO CBr4 CCl4 CF4 COS C22H20O13 CH3C6H3(OH)CH(CH3)2 Formula weight 92.57 92.57 92.57 92.57 162.26 102.13 102.13 102.13 168.19 184.03 184.03 184.03 184.03 146.18 90.18 90.18 90.18 142.19 142.19 150.21 130.18 130.18 130.18 340.57 340.57 115.19 115.19 115.19 115.19 158.23 158.23 158.23 158.23 56.10 56.10 72.10 72.10 88.10 88.10 87.12 87.12 158.19 158.19 163.21 180.15 212.21 136.23 136.23 152.23 200.23 196.20 172.26 116.16 116.16 144.21 167.20 134.17 76.13 28.01 68.03 331.67 153.84 88.01 60.07 492.40 150.21 Form and color col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. nd./aq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. wax lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. rhb. mn. pl. col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. yel./aq. nd./al. cr. cr. trig. mn. cr. col. nd. oily lq. col. oil col. lf. lf. col. lq. col. lq. col. gas gas col. mn. col. lq. gas col. gas red pd. col. lq. Specific gravity 0.887 20 0.87120/4 0.88415 0.84715 0.9110 0.88220/4 0.885 20/4 1.056 20/4 1.617 20/4 1.595 20 1.606 20/4 1.370 19/15 0.968 0.837 25/4 0.836 20/4 0.889 15.6 0.889 15.6 0.908 112/4 0.88315 0.866 20/4 0.888 0/4 0.855 25/25 0.95611 0.96414/4 0.943 20/4 0.91910 0.87015/4 0.862 25/4 0.848 20/4 0.8740/4 0.69 0.817 20/4 0.79420/4 0.96420/4 0.949 20/4 1.032 1.013 0.968 20/20 0.950 25/4 1.134 1.2319 0.82278 0.845 50/4 0.999 9/9 1.186 0.889 87 0.922 20/4 0.925 20/4 0.910 20/4 0.990 20/20 1.263 20/4 0.81−195/4 1.1140 3.42 1.595 20/4 1.24−87 0.977 20/4 Melting point, °C −123.1 −131 −131.2 −26.5 Boiling point, °C 77.9763 67.8767 68.9 51–2 200–2147 106.9 97 98.2 118–2025 129.9 118–9 120 99 75–66 97–8 88 65–7 155 155 236–8 146 132.5 136.8 220–525 165724 162 159–63 140770 186 168.8 163–4752 168.7 −5758 3746 75.7 64757 163.5757 154.5 216 216–20 199.5 181.5734 18915 d. subl. 160 159.6 209.1759 268–70 202761 207.7 237.5 354.8 201.9 46.3 −192 7761 189.5 76.8 −128 −50.2760 238 Solubility in 100 parts Water 0.0718 i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. sl. s. 1.122 i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. sl. s. i. i. i. 0.3 25 i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. 4 1120 ∞ 20 20 16.315 v. s. d. d. i. s. h. 2 i. i. 0.1 0.612 0.003 0.003 1.120 v. sl. s. 0.0715 i. ∞ 0.20 3.50 cc. d. 0.0230 0.0820 sl. s. 8014 cc. s. v. sl. s. Alcohol ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. Ether ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s.

Name chloride (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) dimethylbenzene (t-)(1-,3-,5-) formate (n-) (s-) (i-) furoate (n-) iodide (n-) (s-) (i-) (t-) lactate (n-) mercaptan (n-) (i-) (t-) methacrylate (n-) (i-) phenol (p-)(t-) propionate (n-) (s-) (i-) stearate (n-) (i-) iso-thiocyanate (n-) (i-) (s-)(d-) (t-) valerate (n-)(n-) (i-)(n-) (i-)(s-) (i-)(i-) Butylene (α-) (β-) Butyraldehyde (n-) (i-) Butyric acid (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) anhydride (n-) (i-) anilide (n-) Caffeic acid (3-,4-) Caffeine Camphene (dl-) (d- or l-) Camphor (d-) Camphoric acid (d-) Cantharidine Capric acid Caproic acid (n-) (i-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbitol Carbon disulfide monoxide suboxide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carbonyl sulfide Carminic acid Carvacrol (1-,2-,4-)

−95.3 −103.5 −104 −90.7 −34 −116 <−79

1-iodo-butane 2-iodo-butane 1-iodo-2-Me-propane 2-iodo-2-Me-propane butanthiol-1 2-Me-propanthiol-1

99 −89.55 −71.4 27.5 25

s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. d d s. s. 2 s. s. 12012 s. s. s. s. s. 0.9214 v. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ s. s. ∞

s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. sl. s. ∞ ∞ s. sl. s. 0.3 s. s. v. s. s. s. s. s. sl. s. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ s. v. sl. s. ∞

butyl mustard oil iso-Bu mustard oil

10.5 −93

butene-1 butene-2 2-Me-propanol butanoic acid 2-Me-propanoic acid n-butyramide iso-butyramide n-butyranilide

decanoic acid hexanoic acid 2-Me-pentanoic-5 acid octanoic acid diphenylenelimine, dibenzopyrrole diethylene glycol mono-Et ether

−130 −127 −99 −65.9 −4.7 −47 115–6 129–30 −75 −53.5 92 195–213 237 50 42.7 178–9 187 212 31.5 −1.5 −35 16 244.8 −108.6 −207 −107 90.1(48) −22.6 −138.2 d. 136 0.5

tetrabromomethane tetrachloromethane tetrafluoromethane

2-32

Carvacrylamine (2-,1-,4-) Carvone (d-) Cellosolve acetate Cellulose Cetyl acetate alcohol Chloral hydrate Chloranil Chloretone Chloro-acetanilide (p-) -acetic acid -acetone -acetophenone (ω-) -acetyl chloride -aniline (o-) (m-) (p-) -anthraquinone (1-) (2-) -benzaldehyde (o-) (m-) (p-) -benzene -benzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) -buta-1,3-diene (2-) (1-) -buta-1,2-diene (4-) -dimethylhydantoin -dinitrobenzene (α)(1-,2-)(4-) (α)(1-,3-)(4-) -diphenyl (o-) (m-) (p-) -hydroquinone -naphthalene (α-) (β-) -nitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) -nitrotoluene (2-,4-) (2-,6-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -propionic acid (α)(dl-) -toluene (o-) (m-) (p-) Chloroform Chlorophyll (α-) Chloropicrin Cholesterol Chrysene Chrysoidine (2-,4-) Chrysophanic acid Cinchomeronic acid (3-,4-) Cineole, eucalyptole Cinnamic acid (cis-) (trans-) aldehyde Cinnamyl alcohol cinnamate Citraconic acid (cis-) Citral (α) Citric acid Citronellal (d-) Citronellol (d-) Coniine (d-)(2-)

H2NC6H3(CH3)C3H7 C10H14O C2H5O(CH2)2OH CH3CO2CH2CH2OC2H5 (C6H10O5)x CH3CO2(CH2)15CH3 CH3(CH2)14CH2OH CCl3 CHO CCl3 CH(OH)2 OC:(CCl CCl)2:CO Cl3C C(OH)(CH3)2 CH3CO2NHC6H4Cl ClCH2CO2H CH3COCH2Cl C6H5COCH2Cl ClCH2COCl ClC6H4NH2 ClC6H4NH2 ClC6H4NH2 C6H4(CO)2C6H3Cl C6H4(CO)2C6H3Cl ClC6H4CHO ClC6H4CHO ClC6H4CHO C6H5Cl ClC6H4CO2H ClC6H4CO2H ClC6H4CO2H CH2:CCl CH:CH2 CH2:CH CH:CHCl CH2:C:CH CH2Cl C(CH3)2N(Cl)CON(Cl)CO ClC6H3(NO2)2 ClC6H3(NO2)2 C6H5 C6H4Cl C6H5 C6H4Cl C6H5 C6H4Cl ClC6H3(OH)2 C10H7Cl C10H7Cl ClC6H4NO2 ClC6H4NO2 ClC6H4NO2 CH3C6H3(NO2)(Cl) CH3C6H3(NO2)(Cl) ClC6H4OH ClC6H4OH ClC6H4OH CH3 CHCl CO2H CH3 C6H4Cl CH3 C6H4Cl CH3 C6H4Cl CHCl3 C55H72O5N4Mg Cl3CNO2 C27H45OH H2O C18H12 C6H5 N:N C6H3(NH2)2 C14H5(OH)2(CH3)O2 C5H3N(CO2H)2 C10H18O C6H5CH:CHCO2H C6H5CH:CHCO2H C6H5CH:CHCHO C6H5CH:CHCH2OH C8H7CO2C9H9 CH3C(CO2H):CHCO2H C9H15CHO C3H4(OH)(CO2H)3 C9H17 CHO C10H20O C3H7 C5H10N

149.23 150.21 90.12 132.16 162.14 284.47 242.43 147.40 165.42 245.89 177.47 169.61 94.50 92.53 154.59 112.95 127.57 127.57 127.57 242.65 242.65 140.57 140.57 140.57 112.56 156.57 156.57 156.57 88.54 88.54 88.54 197.03 202.56 202.56 188.65 188.65 188.65 144.56 162.61 162.61 157.56 157.56 157.56 171.56 171.56 128.56 128.56 128.56 108.53 126.58 126.58 126.58 119.39 893.48 164.39 404.65 228.28 212.25 254.23 167.12 154.24 148.15 148.15 132.15 134.17 264.31 130.10 152.23 192.12 154.24 156.26 127.22

oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. amor. nd. lf. col. lq. mn. pr. yel./bz. col. cr. rhb. col. cr. col. lq. rhb. col. lq. lq. lq. rhb. yel. nd. nd./al. nd. pr. pr. col. lq. mn./aq. pr. tri. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr./et. rhb./et. cr. cr. lf. mn. col. lq. lf./al. mn. nd. yel./al. mn. pr. cr. cr. col. lq. nd. nd. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. rhb./al. col. rhb. yel. cr. yel./al. cr./HCl col. oil mn. pr. mn. pr. lq. nd. nd. or pr. nd. col. oil cr. col. oil col. oil col. lq.

0.99420 0.96120/4 0.93120/4 0.975 20/4 1.3–1.4 0.858 20 0.818 50/4 1.505 25/4 1.619 50/4 1.385 22 1.58 20/20 1.16216 1.32415 1.498 20/20 1.21320/4 1.216 20/4 1.42719 1.298 1.25015 1.196 61 1.107 20/4 1.544 25/4 1.496 25/4 1.54124 0.958 20/20 0.965 20/20 0.99120/20 1.5 20/20 1.697 22

−16 −70 22–3 49–50 −57 51.7 290 97 175–6 61.2 −44.5 58–9 0 −10.4 70–1 162 208–9 11 17–8 47.8 −45.2 141–2 158 242–3

241 230766 135.1 156.3 i. 20015 189.515 97.6768 d. 98 subl. 167 189.5 121 245–7 105 210.5 230767 230–1 subl. 208748 213–4 213748 132.1 subl. 59.4 69 88 315 d. 315 d. 267–8 284–5 282 263 sl. d. 259.3 264751 245.5753 235.6 242761 240718 238 175–6 214 217 186 159.5 161.6 162.2 61.2 i. 112.3766 subl. 448 subl. subl. d. 176–7 12519 300 252 sl. d. 257.5 229 d. 204–8 224–5 166–7

1.194 20/4 1.26616 1.305 80/4 1.34350/4 1.298 91 1.256 80 1.24118/15 1.268 25 1.306 20/4 1.306 9 1.082 20/4 1.07220/4 1.070 20/4 1.489 20 1.65123/4 1.067

0.927 20 1.2844 1.245 1.110 20/20 1.040 35/35 1.08516.5 1.617 0.89017/4 1.54220/4 0.85517.5 0.84820/4 0.84717

130 39(36) 53(43) 34 89 77.5 106 −20 56–7 32.5 44.4(24) 83–4 38.2 37.5 7(0) 32–3 41–3 <−20 −34 −47.8 7.5 −63.5 d. −64 149–51 253–4 117.5 195 258–9 d. 1.5 68 133 −7.5 33 44 92–3 153 −2

v. sl. s. i. ∞ 22 i. i. i. v. s. 47417 i. 0.8 c. sl. s. v. s. ∞ 0.11 d. i. i. s. h. i. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. s. h. 0.049 20 0.20825 0.04125 0.00825 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. d. 0.2125 i. i. i. i. i. v. s. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 2.8520 2.6020 2.7120 ∞ i. i. i. 0.8220 s. 0.1718 0.2620 i. sl. s. h. i. c. v. sl. s. 1.915 0.0418 v. sl. s. sl. s. i. 36025 i. 207.725 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 1.1

s. ∞ ∞ ∞ i. v. sl. s. c. s. ∞ v. s. i. c. 111 s. s. ∞ v. s. d. s. sl. s. h. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. h. s. h.

s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s. i. c. s. v. s. s. ∞ v. s. s. s. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. s.

v. s. s. v. s. s. h. v. s. h. v. s. h. s. s. v. s. ∞ s. s. s. ∞ s. 1.117 0.116 s. s. h. sl. s. ∞ 2420 s. v. s. 4 c. s. ∞ 7615 ∞ ∞ v. s.

v. s. ∞ v. s. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. 18 v. sl. s. s. sl. s. i. ∞ v. s. ∞ v. s. 33 s. ∞ 215 ∞ ∞ v. s.

2-33

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Name Formula HOC6H4CH:CHCO2H HOC6H4CH:CHCO2H C9H6O2 C8H6O C4H9N3O2 H2O C4H7N3O CH3O C6H3(CH3)OH CH3(NH2)C6H3 OCH3 CH3C6H4OH CH3C6H4OH CH3C6H4OH C6H5CO2C6H4CH3 C6H5CO2C6H4CH3 C6H5CO2C6H4CH3 CH3CH:CHCO2H CH3CH:CHCO2H CH3CH:CHCHO C6H5CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CH C6H4CO2H (CH3)2CH C6H4NH2 H2N CN HOCN or HNCO CH2(CN)CO2H (CN)2 BrCN ClCN C3H3O3N3 2H2O CH2 < (CH2)2 > CH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2CH2)2 > CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHOH CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CO ( CH2 CH2CH:)2 CH3CO2C6H11 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHNH2 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHBr CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCl CH2 < (CH:CH)2 > CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > < (CH2CH2)2 > CO < CH2CH2CH2 > CH3 C6H3CH(CH3)2 CH3 C6H4CH(CH3)2 CH3 C6H4CH(CH3)2 [ SCH2CH(NH2)CO2H]2 C6H6(OH)6 C10H18 C10H18 CH3(CH2)8CH3 CH3(CH2)8CH2OH (C6H10O5)x (CH3)2C(OH) CH2COCH3 H2NC6H4COC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4NHC6H4NH2 H2NC6H4CH2C6H4NH2 (H2NC6H4NH)2CO [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2NH (C2H5CH2CH2CH2)2O [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]2O [(CH3)2CHCH2CH2]2CO C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 C6H4(CO2C5H11)2 (HOCH CO2C5H11)2 [NH2(OCH3)C6H3 ]2 C6H5N:N NHC6H5 C7H7N:N NHC7H7 CH2:N2 Formula weight 164.15 164.15 146.14 118.13 149.15 113.12 138.16 137.18 108.13 108.13 108.13 212.24 212.24 212.24 86.09 86.09 70.09 120.19 164.20 135.20 42.04 43.03 85.06 52.04 105.93 61.48 165.11 56.10 98.18 84.16 100.16 98.14 82.14 142.19 99.17 163.06 118.61 66.10 70.13 84.11 42.08 134.21 134.21 134.21 240.29 180.16 138.24 138.24 142.28 158.28 162.14 116.16 212.24 199.25 198.26 242.28 157.29 158.28 158.28 170.29 306.39 306.39 290.35 244.28 197.23 225.28 42.04 Form and color nd./aq. cr./aq. rhb./et. oil mn./aq. mn. pr. nd./pet. cr. lq. pr. lq. cr. cr. col. mn. nd. col. lq. col. lq. tri. lq. col. nd. gas col. lq. col. gas nd. gas mn./aq. col. gas oil col. lq. col. nd. col. oil lq. oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. oil col. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. pl. mn./aq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. oil amor. lq. yel. nd. lf./aq. nd./aq. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. yel. oil col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lf. yel. lf. or. cr. gas Specific gravity Melting point, °C 207–8 206–7 d. 70 <−18 295 260 d. 5.5 93–4 30.8 10.9 35–6 55 71.5 72 15.5 −69 −96.9 116–7 <−20 44–5 −80 65–6 −34.4 52 −6.5 >360 −50 −12 6.5 23.9 −45 −103.7 Boiling point, °C subl. 290–1 173–4 221–2 235 190.8 202.8 202 308 314 316 189 170–1 d. 102.2 152.5 subl. 225761 14019 −640 1080.2 −21 61.3750 12.5–13 d. 11–12726 118–20 80–1 160–1 155–6 83.3 174750 134 165714 142 41–2 49–50 129–30 −34749 177 175–6 176–7 31915 193.3 185.3 174.0 232.9 167.9 d. 249–5315 188–90 190 173.4 228 204–611 22540 19516 expl. −23
765

Solubility in 100 parts Water sl. s. c. s. h. 0.3 c. i. 1.418 8.716 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 2.5 0.5 1.8 i. i. i. 8.315 ∞25 18 i. 0.0225 i. v. s. sl. s. s. 45020 cc. s. 250020 cc. 0.2717 i. i. i. 3.620 s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. 0.0119 212 i. i. i. i. s. ∞ sl. s. h. sl. s. sl. s. c. v. sl. s. sl. s. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.05 d. Alcohol s. v. s. h. v. s. 0.0117 116 ∞ s. ∞30 ∞ ∞36 Ether v. sl. s. v. s. s. s. i. ∞ s. ∞30 ∞ ∞36

Coumaric acid (o-) (p-) Coumarin Coumarone Creatine Creatinine Creosol (3-,1-,4-) Cresidine (1-,2-,4-) Cresol (o-) (m-) (p-) Cresyl benzoate (o-) (m-) (p-) Crotonic acid (α-) acid (β-)(cis-) aldehyde (α) Cumene Cumic acid (p-) Cumidine (p-) Cyanamide Cyanic acid Cyanoacetic acid Cyanogen bromide chloride Cyanuric acid Cyclo-butane -heptane -hexane -hexanol -hexanone -hexene -hexyl acetate amine bromide chloride -pentadiene (1-,3-) -pentane -pentanone -propane Cymene (o-) (m-) (p-) Cystine (l-) Dambose Decahydronaphthalene (cis-) (trans-) Decane (n-) Decyl alcohol Dextrin Diacetone alcohol Diamino-benzophenone (4-,4′-) -diphenylamine (4-,4′-) -diphenylmethane (4-,4′-) -diphenylurea (4-,4′-) Diamyl-amine (i-) ether (n-) (i-) Diamyl ketone (i-) phthalate (n-) (i-) tartrate (i-) Dianisidine (o-)(4-,3-)2 Diazo-aminobenzene -aminotoluene (2-,2′-) -methane

0.93520/4 1.07815/15 1.092
20/20

1.04820/4 1.03420/4 1.03520/4

0.96479.7 1.03115/4 0.85320/20 0.86220/4 1.1624 0.953 1.07348/4 1.1400 0.86617 2.01520/4 1.2220 1.7680/4 0.7030/4 0.81020/4 0.77920/4 0.96220/4 0.94719/4 0.81020/4 0.9850/4 0.86520/0 1.32420/20 0.97718/4 0.80519/4 0.74520/4 0.94820 0.720−79 0.87520/4 0.86220 0.85720/4 1.752 0.89518/4 0.87220/4 0.7302 0.83020/4 1.038 0.93125

s. ∞ ∞ s. v. s. s. 230020 cc. s. v. s. 0.122 v. s. ∞ s. s. v. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ s. s. s. s. i. i. s. s. ∞ s. i. ∞ s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. s. h.

∞ ∞ s. v. s. s. s. 50020 cc. s. 500020 cc.

∞ s. s. v. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. s. i. s. s. ∞ i. ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. v. s. s.

−43.9 −85 −93.3 −58.2 −126.6 <−25 −73.5 d. 258–61 253 −51 −32 −29.7 7 −47 237–9 158 93–4 subl. 310 −44 −69 14.6

0.76721/4 0.77420/4 0.77720/4 0.82125/4 1.03 1.06315/4

131.5 96–8 51 −145

2-34

Dibenzothiazyl-disulfide (2-,2′-) Dibensoyl methane Dibensyl-amine -aniline ketone phthalate (o-) succinate Dibromo-benzene (o-) (m-) (p-) -diphenyl (4-,4′-) Dibutyl-adipate (n-) (i-) -amine (n-) (i-) -p-aminophenol (s-) -aniline (n-) carbonate (n-) (i-) (s-) ether (n-) (i-) (s-) ketone (n-) (i-) malate (l-)(n-) oxalate (n-) phthalate (n-) tartrate (d-)(n-) (d-)(i-) Dichloro-acetic acid -acetone (αα-) -aniline (2-,5-) -anthraquinone (1-,3-) (1-,4-) (1-,5-) (1-,6-) (1-,8-) (2-,3-) (2-,6-) (2-,7-) -benzene (o-) (m-) (p-) -butane (n-)(1-,4-) -diphenyl (4-,4′-) -ethane (1-,2-) -naphthalene (β-)(1-,4-) (γ-)(1-,5-) -nitrobenzene (2-,5-) -pentane (1-,5-) -phenol (2-,4-) Dichloramine T (p-) Dicyandiamide Diethanolamine Diethyl adipate -amine -aminophenol (m-) -aniline sulfonic acid (m-) carbonate diethyl malonate Diethyl dimethyl malonate glutarate ketone malonate -malonic acid -naphthylamine (α-) (β-) oxalate phthalate (o-) sulfate sulfide

(C6H4NSC)2S2 (C6H5CO)2CH2 (C6H5CH2)2NH C6H5N(CH2C6H5)2 (C6H5CH2)2CO C6H4(CO2CH2C6H5)2 ( CH2CO2CH2C6H5)2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 BrC6H4 C6H4Br ( CH2CH2CO2C4H9)2 ( CH2CH2CO2C4H9)2 (C2H5CH2CH2)2NH [(CH3)2CHCH2]2NH (C4H9)2N C6H4OH C6H5N(C4H9)2 CO(OC4H9)2 CO(OC4H9)2 CO(OC4H9)2 (C2H5CH2CH2)2O [(CH3)2CHCH2]2O [C2H5(CH3)CH]2O (C2H5CH2CH2)2CO [(CH3)2CHCH2]2CO C2H4O(CO2C4H9)2 ( CO2C4H9)2 C6H4(CO2C4H9)2 (CHOHCO2C4H9)2 (CHOHCO2C4H9)2 Cl2CH CO2H Cl2CHCOCH3 Cl2C6H3NH2 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H2Cl2 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H2Cl2 C6H3Cl:(CO)2:C6H3Cl C6H3Cl:(CO)2:C6H3Cl C6H3Cl:(CO)2:C6H3Cl C6H4:(CO)2:C6H2Cl2 C6H3Cl:(CO)2:C6H3Cl C6H3Cl:(CO)2:C6H3Cl C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 ClCH2(CH2)2CH2Cl ClC6H4 C6H4Cl ClCH2 CH2Cl C10H6Cl2 C10H6Cl2 Cl2C6H3NO2 ClCH2(CH2)3CH2Cl Cl2C6H3OH CH3C6H4SO2NCl2 H2N C(:NH) NH CN HN(CH2CH2OH)2 ( CH2CH2CO2C2H5)2 (C2H5)2NH (C2H5)2N C6H4 OH (C2H5)2NC6H5 (C2H5)2NC6H4SO3H OC(OC2H5)2 (C2H5)2C(CO2C2H5)2 (CH3)2C(CO2C2H5)2 CH2(CH2CO2C2H5)2 (C2H5)2CO CH2(CO2C2H5)2 (C2H5)2C(CO2H)2 C10H7N(C2H5)2 C10H7N(C2H5)2 ( CO2C2H5)2 C6H4(CO2C2H5)2 O2S(OC2H5)2 (C2H5)2S

232.46 224.25 197.27 273.36 210.26 346.36 298.32 235.92 235.92 235.92 312.02 258.35 258.35 129.24 129.24 221.33 205.33 174.23 174.23 174.23 130.22 130.22 130.22 142.23 142.23 246.30 202.24 278.34 262.30 262.30 128.95 126.98 162.02 277.10 277.10 277.10 277.10 277.10 277.10 277.10 277.10 147.01 147.01 147.01 127.02 223.10 98.97 197.06 197.06 192.01 141.04 163.01 240.11 84.08 105.14 202.24 73.14 165.23 149.23 229.29 118.13 216.27 188.22 188.22 86.13 160.17 160.17 199.28 199.28 146.14 222.23 154.18 90.18

cr. rhb./al. col. oil pr./al. cr. pr./al. lf./al. col. lq. col. lq. pl./al. mn. pr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. oil lq. col. lq. col. lq. pr. cr. lq. lq. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. yel. nd. col. lq. col. lq. col. mn. lq. pr. col. lq. nd./al. lf./al. tri./al. col. lq. nd. cr. mn. pl. pr. col. lq. col. lq. rhb. oil cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. syrup col. lq. col. lq. pr./aq. col. oil col. oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq.

1.50 1.028 25/25

1.956 20/4 1.952 20/4 2.26118 1.897 0.965 20/4 0.950 25 0.768 20/20 0.74125/4 0.924 20/4 0.91915 0.769 20/20 0.76215 0.756 21 0.82718/4 0.805 21/4 1.038 20/4 0.986 20/4 1.045 21 1.09815 1.03175/4 1.560 25/25 1.23415

180 78 −26 70–1 34–5 42–3 45–6 1.8 −6.9 87–8 164–5 −38 −20 −70

−98 −5.9 −29.6 22–2.5 73–4 9.7(−4) 50 208–9 187.5 251 203–4 202–3 268–70 282 210–11 −17.6 −24.8 53 −38.7 148 −35.3 67–8 107 54.6 45 83 207–8 28 −21 −38.9 78 −34.4 270 d. −43 −24 −42 −49.8 125 −40.6 −25 −99.5

d. 219–2118 268–71250 >300 330.6 27412 23814 221–2 219755 218.6758 355–60 18314 278–80 159761 139–40 17010 262.8 207740 190 178–80 142.4 122.5 121 187.7 168.1 170–118 245.5 340 200–318 323–5 194.4 120 251

i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. ∞ v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. <0.05 i. i. i. <0.06 v. sl. s. i. 0.04 25 i. v. sl. s. ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.90 i. i. i. i. 0.45 20 sl. s. 2.318 ∞ 0.4380 v. s. s. 1.412 s. i. i. i. 0.88 20 4.7 20 2.08 20 65 16 i. i. v. sl. s. i. i. 0.3120

4.420 s. v. s. h. s. s. s. s. 1.6 v. sl. s. h. ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. s. i. v. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. ∞ s. v. s. v. sl. s. ∞ v. sl. s. s. v. s. h. s. v. s. 1.318 ∞ s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞

s. s. s. s. s. s. s. 7125 ∞ ∞ s. ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. sl. s.

1.305 20/4 1.288 20/4 1.458 21 1.442 0/4 1.256 20/20 1.300 76/4 1.669 22 1.094 25/4 1.383 60/25 1.4014 1.09720/4 1.00920/4 0.712 15/15 0.934 20/4 0.975 0.985 20/4 0.994 25/25 1.025 21 0.816 19/4 1.055 20/4 1.005 1.026 1.079 20/4 1.121 25/25 1.172 25/4 0.837 20/4
20/4

179 172766 174764 161–3 315–9 83.7 286–7 740 subl. 266 180–1 209–10 d. 270 748 239–41761 55.5759 276–80 216 126 230 196.7 237 101.7 198.9 d. 170–80 285–90 318 186 298–9 210 92–3 754
759

∞ s. v. s. 425 ∞ s. s. v. s. 0.0118 v. sl. s. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

2-35

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Name Formula (CHOH CO2C2H5)2 CH3 C6H4 N(C2H5)2 CH3 C6H4 N(C2H5)2 CH3 C6H4 N(C2H5)2 O(CH2CH2ONO2)2 F2CCl2 [(HO)2C3H5]2O (HO C10H6 )2 (HO C10H6 )2 (HO C6H4 )2 CH2(OCH2CH2OH)2 C10H6(OH)2 C10H6(OH)2 (CH3O)2C6H4 HN(C6H4OCH3)2 (CH2)4(CO2C2H4OCH3)2 [(CH2)2CO2CH3]2 (CH3)2NH C6H5N:N C6H4N(CH3)2 (CH3)2NCH2CH2OH (CH3)2NC6H4OH (CH3)2NC6H5 (CH3)2NC6H4SO3H (CH3)2NC6H4SO3H H2O OC(OCH3)2 CH3OCH3 HCON(CH3)2 (:CHCO2CH3)2 (CH2)3(CO2CH3)2 (CH3 C:NOH)2 C10H6(CH3)2 C10H6(CH3)2 C10H7N(CH3)2 C10H7N(CH3)2 ( CO2CH3)2 C6H4(CO2CH3)2 (CH3O)2SO2 (CH3)2S (CHOH CO2CH3)2 (CH3)2COH C C CH:CH2 C10H7 C10H7 (C10H7)2CH2 (C10H7)2CH2 CH3OC6H3(NO2)2 C6H4(NO2)2 C6H4(NO2)2 C6H4(NO2)2 (NO2)2C6H3SO3H 3H2O (NO2)2C6H3CO2H (NO2)2C6H3CO2H (NO2C6H4)2CO (NO2C6H4)2 (NO2C6H4)2 C10H6(NO2)2 C10H6(NO2)2 (NO2)2C6H3OH (NO2)C6H3OH (NO2)C6H3OH (NO2)2C6H2(OH)CO2H H2O (NO2C6H4CH:)2 (NO2)2C6H3CH3 (NO2)2C6H3CH3 (NO2)2C6H3CH3 O < (CH2 CH2)2 > O C13H10 Formula weight 206.19 163.25 163.25 163.25 196.12 120.92 166.17 286.31 286.31 186.20 136.15 160.16 160.16 138.16 229.26 262.30 174.19 45.08 225.28 89.14 137.18 121.18 201.24 219.25 90.08 46.07 73.09 144.12 160.17 116.12 156.22 156.22 171.23 171.23 118.09 194.18 126.13 62.13 178.14 110.15 254.31 268.34 268.34 198.13 168.11 168.11 168.11 302.22 212.12 212.12 272.21 244.20 244.20 218.16 218.16 184.11 184.11 184.11 246.13 270.24 182.13 182.13 182.13 88.10 136.23 Form and color lq. lq. lq. lq. lq. gas lq. pl./al. nd./al. rhb./al. lq. pr./aq. nd. lf. cr. lq. col. lq. col. lq. yel./al. col. lq. nd. yel. lq. cr. pr. col. lq. gas lq. col. tri. lq. col. cr. lq. lf./al. col. oil col. cr. col. mn. col. lq. col. oil oil cr. lq. lf./al. pr./al. nd./al. col. mn. col. mn. col. rhb. col. mn. pr. cr./aq. mn. pr. col. nd. nd./al. mn. nd. rhb. yel. mn. yel. rhb. yel. rhb. pl./aq. yel. lf. nd. nd. mn. pr. col. lq. col. lq. Specific gravity 1.204 20/4 0.924 15.5 1.377 25/4 1.486 −30 Melting point, °C 17 Boiling point, °C 280 208–9755 231–2 228–9 −29.2 220–3010 subl. subl. 264 d. 212.6 145–502 11518 7.4 d. 135756 265–8 193 89–90 −23.7 152.8 192 13050 264–6 265767 274.5711 304–5 163.3 280734 188.3 37.3 280 150 240–412 >360 319774 300–2 299777 subl. Solubility in 100 parts Water sl. s. i. i. i. i. 5.7 cc.26 s. h. i. i. sl. s. ∞ sl. s. sl. s. h. v. sl. s. i. 5 i. v. s. i. ∞ sl. s. h. i. s. s. h. i. 3700 cc.18 ∞ i. 0.06 i. i. i. i. 6 0.43 v. sl. s. i. s. 620 i. i. i. sl. s. h. 0.01 c. 0.399 0.18100 s. 1.8525 s h. i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. 0.5 c. s. h. s. c. i. 0.0322 i. sl. s. ∞ i.
20

Alcohol ∞ s. s. s. s. s. v. s. s. v. s.

Ether ∞ s. s. s. i. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s.

tartrate (d-) -toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) Diethyleneglycol dinitrate Difluorodichloromethane Diglycerol Dihydroxy-dinaphthyl (α-) (-2,-2′,-1,-1′) -diphenyl (4-,4′-) -ethyl formal (β-) -naphthalene (1-,5-) (1-,8-) Dimethoxy-benzene (p-) -diphenylamine (4-,4′-) -ethyl adipate Dimethyl adipate -amine -aminoasobenzene (p-) -aminoethanol -aminophenol (m-) -aniline sulfonic acid (m-) (p-) carbonate ether -formamide fumarate glutarate glyoxime -naphthalene (1-,4-) (2-,3-) -naphthylamine (α-) (β-) oxalate phthalate (o-) sulfate sulfide tartrate (d-) -vinyl-ethenyl carbinol Dinaphthyl (αα-) -methane (αα′-) (β,β′-) Dinitro-anisole (1-)(2-,4-) -benzene (o-) (m-) (p-) sulfonic acid (2-,4-)(1-) -benzoic acid (2-,4-) (3-,5-) -benzophenone (4-,4′-) -diphenyl (4-,4′-) (2-,4′-) -naphthalene (1-,5-) (1-,8-) Dinitro-phenol (2-,3-) (2-,4-) (2-,6-) -salicylic acid (3-,5-) -stilbene (4-,4′-) -toluene (2-,4-) (3-,4-) (3-,5-) Dioxane Dipentene

−11.3 −155 300 218 270–2 −5.3 258–60 140 56 103 10–1 −96 116–7 85 2.5 d. 266 257 0.5 −138.5 −58.3 102 −37 240–6 <−18 104 46 54 −26.8 −83.2 61.5 160 109 92 94–5 117–8 89.8 173–4 106–8 179–80 204–5 189 233 93.5 216 170–2 144–5 114–5 63–4 173 d. 210–6 70 60–1 92–3 9.5–10.5

1.25 1.154 25 1.053
55/55

1.075 15.6 1.063 20/4 0.680 0/4 0.887 20/4 0.956 20/4 1.070 20/4 0.94525 1.08915.6 1.016 20/4 1.042 20 1.03970/70 1.14854 1.18925/25 1.3520/4 0.84621/4 1.32820/4 0.887 20/4

s. s. s. s. v. sl. s. ∞ s. sl. s. v. s. sl. s. s. s. s. ∞ s. 20015 s. h. 0.8 c. s. 1.520 1.921 320 0.1821 s. s. v. s. 1.520 v. s. h. 0.2 c. v. s. h. 420 s. h. v. s. v. sl. s. 1.215 s. h. s.

s. s. s. s. v. sl. s. ∞ s. sl. s. v. s. s. s. s. ∞ s. s. v. s.

1.341 20 1.5918 1.575 20/4 1.625 18

v. sl. s. sl. s.

1.445 1.474 1.681 20 1.683 24

subl. d. subl.

1.321 71 1.259 111 1.277 111 1.033 20/4 0.865 18

300 subl. 101.1 178

v. s. v. s. h. s. v. s. v. sl. s. 916 s. s.

2-36

Diphenyl -amine carbonate -chloroarsine -ethane ether guanidine -methane phenylenediamine (p-) succinate sulfide sulfone urea (uns.) Diphenylene oxide Dipropyl adipate (n-) -amine (n-) (i-) aniline (n-) carbonate (n-) ether (n-) (i-) ketone (n-) (i-) oxalate (n-) (i-) Disalicylal ethylenediamine Ditolyl guanidine (o-) Divinyl acetylene Docosane (n-) Dodecane (n-) Dulcitol Durene (1-,2-,4-,5-) Elaidic acid Eosine Ephedrine (l-) Epichlorhydrin (α-) Epidichlorohydrin (α-) Erythritol (dl-) tetranitrate Ethane Ethanol-amine formamide Ether Ethyl abietate acetate acetoacetate alcohol -amine hydrochloride aniline sulfonic acid (m-) anisate (p-) anthranilate (o-) benzene benzoate -benzyl-aniline bromide butyrate (n-) (i-) caprate (n-) Ethyl caproate (n-) caprylate (n-) chloride chloroacetate chlorocarbonate cinnamate (trans-) cyanoacetate formate furoate (α) heptoate hypochlorite iodide lactate

C6H5 C6H5 C6H5NHC6H5 O(COC6H5)2 (C6H5)2AsCl (C6H5CH2 )2 C6H5OC6H5 (C6H5NH)2C:NH (C6H5)2CH2 (C6H5NH)2C6H4 ( CH2CO2C6H5)2 (C6H5)2S (C6H5)2SO2 (C6H5)2NCONH2 < (C6H4)2O ( CH2CH2CO2C3H7)2 (C2H5CH2)2NH [(CH3)2CH]2NH C6H5N(C3H7)2 O(COCH2C2H5)2 (C2H5CH2)2O [(CH3)2CH]2O (C2H5CH2)2CO [(CH3)2CH]2CO (CO2CH2C2H5)2 [CO2CH(CH3)2]2 [HOC6H4CH:NCH2 ]2 (C7H7NH)2C:NH (H2C:CH C )2 CH3(CH2)20CH3 CH3(CH2)10CH3 CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH (CH3)4C6H2 C8H17CH:CH(CH2)7CO2H C20H8O5Br4 C6H5CHOHCH(CH3)NHCH3 C2H3O CH2Cl CH2:CCl CH2Cl CH2OH(CHOH)2CH2OH C4H6(ONO2)4 CH3CH3 HOCH2CH2NH2 HCONHCH2CH2OH (CH3CH2)2O C19H29CO2C2H5 CH3CO2C2H5 CH3COCH2CO2C2H5 CH3CH2OH C2H5NH2 C2H5NH2 HCl C6H5NHC2H5 C2H5NHC6H4SO3H CH3OC6H4CO2C2H5 NH2C6H4CO2C2H5 C6H5 C2H5 C6H5CO2C2H5 C6H5N(C2H5)CH2C6H5 C2H5Br C2H5CH2CO2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)8CO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)4CO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)6CO2C2H5 CH3CH2Cl ClCH2CO2C2H5 ClCO2CH2CH3 C6H5CH:CHCO2H CH2(CN)CO2C2H5 HCO2CH2CH3 OC4H3CO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)5CO2C2H5 ClOCH2CH3 CH3CH2I CH3CH(OH)CO2C2H5

154.20 169.22 214.21 264.57 182.25 170.20 211.26 168.23 260.32 270.27 186.26 218.26 212.24 168.18 230.30 101.19 101.19 177.28 146.18 102.17 102.17 114.18 114.18 174.19 174.19 268.30 239.31 78.11 310.59 170.33 182.17 134.21 282.45 647.93 165.23 92.53 110.98 122.12 302.12 30.07 61.08 89.09 74.12 330.49 88.10 130.14 46.07 45.08 81.55 121.18 201.24 180.20 165.19 106.16 150.17 211.29 108.98 116.16 116.16 200.31 144.21 172.26 64.52 122.55 108.53 176.21 113.11 74.08 140.13 158.23 80.52 155.98 118.13

col. mn. col. mn. nd./al. rhb. col. pr. col. rhb. mn./al. col. pr. cr. lf./al. col. lq. nd./aq. rhb. lf./al. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. yel. oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. cr. lq. cr. lq. mn. mn. lf./al. col. cr. cr./et. lq. col. lq. tet. pr. lf./al. col. gas col. oil lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. mn. lq. nd./aq. lq. cr. col. lq. col. lq. yel. oil col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lf. col. lq. yel. lq. col. lq. oil

0.992 73/4 1.160 20/20 1.272 14 1.583 40 0.978 50/50 1.073 20 1.001 26/4 1.119 15/15 1.248 25/4 1.276 0.979 20/4 0.739 20/4 0.722 22 0.910 20 0.968 22 0.744 21/0 0.725 21/0 0.822 20/4 0.806 20/4 1.038 0/0 1.34 1.1020/4 0.776 20/4 0.778 44/4 0.751 20/4 1.466 15 0.838 81/4 0.851 79/4 1.183 25/25 1.204 25 1.451 20/4 0.546 1.022 20 1.169 25 0.708 25/4 1.020 20/20 0.901 20/4 1.025 20/4 0.789 20/4 0.689 15/15 1.216 0.963 20/4 1.103 25/25 1.117 20/4 0.867 20/4 1.052 15/15 1.034 18.5 1.431 20/4 0.879 20/4 0.871 20/4 0.859 28 0.873 20/20 0.878 17 0.917 6/6 1.159 20/4 1.138 20/4 1.049 20/4 1.062 20/4 0.923 20/4 1.117 21/4 0.872 20/20 1.013 −6/4 1.933 20/4 1.030 25/4
−88

69–70 52.9 80 43–4 52–3 27 147–8 26–7 152 122–3 <−40 128–9 189 86–7 −20.3 −39.6 −61 −122 −60 −32.6 −51.7 125–6 178–9 44.5 −9.6 189 79–80 51–2 40 −25.6 126 61 −172 10.5 <−40 −116.3 −82.4 −45 −112 −80.6 108–9 −63.5 d. 294 7–8 13 −94.4 −34.6 −117.8 −93.3 −88.2 −20 −67.5 −45 −139 −26 −80.6 12 −22.5 −79 34 −66.1 expl. −105

254.9 302 302–6 d. 327 284 259 d. > 170 265 330 296–7 379 287–8 143–510 110–1 83.5743 245.4 168.2 91 69 144.2 123.7 213.5 190 85 224.515 214.5 290–53 193–5 288100 255 117756 94 329–31 expl. −88.6 171757 d. 34.6 2004 77.1 180755 78.4 16.6 204 269–70 266–8 136.2 211–2 28510 38.4 120–1 110–1 244.6758 165–6736 207–8753 13 144 94–5 271 208753 54760 195766 187–8 36752 72.4 155

i. 0.0325 i. 0.2 d. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. sl. s. h. v. sl. s. i. i. s. s. i. v. sl. s. sl. s. 0.2 0.43 v. sl. s. d. h. 0.0328 v. sl. s. i. i. i. 3.215 i. i. i. 5 <5 i. 60 i. c. 4.7 cc.20 ∞ ∞ 7.520 i. 8.515 1317 ∞ ∞ 24017 i. 2.1515 i. v. sl. s. 0.0115 0.0820 i. 1.060 0.6825 sl. s. 0.00220 i. i. 0.450 i. d. i. 225 1118 i. 0.02920 0.420 ∞

1020 5619.5 v. s. 20 s. s. 920 v. s. s. h. s. h. s. s. h. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

6.620 s. s. s. v. s. ∞ sl. s. v. s. s. ∞ s. v. s. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s. h. 4 h. v. s. v. sl. s. s. v. s. s. 500 ∞ ∞ sl. s. c. s. 150 cc. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ 18 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

s. v. s. v. s. i. s. v. s. s. ∞ ∞ i. s. 1

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i. ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

2-37

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Name Formula CH3(CH2)10CO2C2H5 CH3CH2SH CH2:C(CH3)CO2C2H5 C10H7NHC2H5 C10H7OC2H5 C2H5ONO2 C2H5ONO C17H33CO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)14CO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)7CO2C2H5 CH3CH2CO2C2H5 HOC6H4CO2C2H5 CH3(CH2)16CO2C2H5 CH3 C6H4CO2C2H5 CH3 C6H4CO2C2H5 CH3 C6H4SO3C2H5 CH3 C6H4NHC2H5 CH3 C6H4NHC2H5 C2H5NH CO NH2 CH3(CH2)3CO2C2H5 (CH3)2CH(CH2)2CO2C2H5 CH2(OC2H5)2 H2C:CH2 BrCH2 CH2Br BrCH2 CH2OH ClCH2 CH2Br ClCH2 CH2OH H2NCH2 CH2NH2 < (CH2)2 > O CH3CH(O2CCH3)2 C3H5 C6H3(OH)OCH3 C3H5 C6H3(OCH3)OH C10H17OH C10H17OH C10H17OH Fe[SSCN(CH3)2]3 (C6H4)2 > CH2 C20H12O5 FCHCl2 Cl3CF HCHO (CH2O)3 (CH2O)x xH2O HCONH2 HCONHC6H5 HCO2H CH2OH(CHOH)3COCH2OH C20H19N3HCl C:NOH HO2CCH:CHCO2H C4H3O CHO C4H4O CH3CO2CH2C4H3O C4H3O CH2OH C3H7CO2CH2 C4H3O C2H5CO2CH2 C4H3O C4H3O CO2H HOC10H5(SO3K)2 HOC10H5(SO3Na)2 C5H11O5 CHO (HO)3C6H2CO2H H2O C10H5(NH2)(OH)SO3H C9H15CH2OH C5H11O5 CHO C6H12O6 H2O CHO(CHOH)4CO2H [ CHNH2(CH2)2 ](CO2H)2 Formula weight 228.36 62.13 114.14 171.23 172.22 91.07 75.07 310.50 284.47 186.29 102.13 166.17 312.52 164.20 164.20 200.25 135.20 135.20 88.11 130.18 130.18 104.15 28.05 187.88 124.98 143.43 80.52 60.10 44.05 146.14 164.20 164.20 154.24 154.24 154.24 416.47 166.21 332.30 102.93 137.38 30.03 90.08 (30.03) 45.04 121.13 46.03 180.16 337.84 43.03 116.07 96.08 68.07 140.13 98.10 168.19 154.16 112.08 380.46 348.26 180.16 188.13 239.24 154.24 180.16 198.17 194.14 147.13 Form and color oil lq. col. lq. oil cr. col. lq. lq. oil col. nd. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. cr. lq. lq. pr./al. lq. lq. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. oil oil col. cr. col. pr. col. cr. cr. cr./al. yel. red gas col. lq. gas wh. amor. lq. mn. col. lq. nd./aq. red col. pr. lq. col. lq. col. oil oil col. lq. col. lq. mn. pr. cr. cr. pr. mn./aq. cr. col. lq. rhb. cr. cr. cr./aq. Specific gravity 0.868 13/4 0.839 20/4 0.913 15.6 1.060 20/4 1.061 20/20 1.100 25/4 0.900 15.5 0.867 25 0.858 25/4 0.866 17.5 0.891 20/4 1.136 15/4 0.848 36.3 1.032 25/25 1.030 20/20 1.166 48/4 0.948 25/4 0.942 25/4 1.213 18 0.877 20 0.867 20/4 0.824 25/4 0.57−102/4 2.180 20/4 1.772 20/4 1.689 19 1.213 20/4 0.900 20/20 0.887 7/4 1.061 12 1.070 15/15 1.091 15/15 0.935 40 0.964 20/4 0.961 1.203 0/4 1.4260 1.494 17.2 0.815 −20 1.1765 1.139 20/4 1.147 15/15 1.220 20/4 1.669 17.5 1.22 1.635 20/4 1.159 20/4 0.937 20/4 1.118 20/4 1.129 25/4 1.053 20/4 1.109 20/4 Melting point, °C −10.7 −121 5.5 −102 <−15 24–5 −44.5 −72.6 1.3 33.4(31) <−10 33–4 <−15 92 −91.2 −99.3 −66.5 −169 10 −16.6 −69 8.5 −111.3 18.85 10.3 −10 35 45–7 61–2 d. 100–30 115–6 d. > 290 −127 −92 64 150–60 2 47 8.6 95–105 d. >200 286–7 −38.7 Boiling point, °C 269 36–7 118 303723 276.4 87–8 17 216–815 19110 227–8757 99.1 233–4 20110 227 231750 221.3 215–6 217 145.5 135 89 −103.9 131.5 150.3 106.7 128.8 117.2 13.5747 168740 253.5 267.5 201 201–2 201–2 ign. >150 293–5 14.5 24.9 −21 114.5759 subl. 193 216120 100.8 Solubility in 100 parts Water i. 1.5 i. i. i. 1.355 v. sl. s. i. i. i. 2.420 i. i. i. i. i. i. i. v. s. 0.2425 0.1720 918 26 cc.0 0.4380 sl. s. 0.6980 ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. h. i. i. v. s. 2125 20–3018 ∞ sl. s. ∞ v. s. 0.3 0.717 9.113 i. i. ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 3.615 825 3420 10.30 113 i. 8217.5 15415 v. s. 1.5 20 Alcohol s. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. 80 ∞ ∞ ∞ 360 cc. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. h. s. h. s. ∞ v. s. s. i. ∞ v. s. ∞ 818 s. 5.830 ∞ s. s. s. s. s. s. 0.640 2815 ∞ sl. s. v. sl. s. Ether ∞ s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. i. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ ∞ 0.3 v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ v. s. s. i. v. sl. s. s. i. 0.725 ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ s.

laurate mercaptan methacrylate naphthylamine (α-) naphthyl ether (α-) nitrate nitrite oleate palmitate pelargonate propionate salicylate (o-) stearate toluate (o-) (m-) toluene sulfonate (p-) toluidine (o-) (p-) urea valerate (n-) (i-) Ethylal Ethylene bromide bromohydrin chlorobromide chlorohydrin diamine oxide Ethylidene diacetate Eugenol (1-,4-,3-) (i-)(1-,3-,4-) Fenchyl alcohol (dl-) (d-)(α-) (i-)(l-) Ferric dimethyl-dithiocarbamate Fluorene Fluorescein Fluoro-dichloromethane -trichloromethane Formaldehyde (m-) (p-) Formamide Formanilide Formic acid Fructose Fuchsin Fulminic acid Fumaric acid (trans-) Furfural Furfuran Furfuryl acetate alcohol butyrate propionate Furoic acid G-acid, K salt (2-)(6-,8-) Na salt (2-)(6-,8-) Galactose (d-)(α-) Gallic acid (3-,4-,5-) Gamma acid (2-,8-,6-) Geraniol Glucose (d-)(α-) (d-)(β-) Glucuronic acid Glutam(in)ic acid (dl-)

133–4 165.5 d. 220 <−15 146 150 154 199 d.

290 161.7760 31–2756 175–7 169.5752 212–3 195–6 230–2

1.694 4/4 0.883 1.544 25 1.562 18/4 1.460
15

2.515 ∞ i. v. sl. s.

230 d.

2-38

Glutaric acid Glycerol acetate (mono-) (di-) nitrate (mono-) (α-) (β-) dinitrate (1-,3-) Glyceryl triacetate tribenzoate tributyrate tricaprate tricaproate tricaprylate trilaurate trimyristate trinitrate trinitrite trioleate tripalmitate tristearate Glycide Glycine, Glycocoll Glycol diacetate dibenzoate dibutyrate dicaprylate diformate dilaurate dinitrate dinitrite dipalmitate dipropionate ether formal formate (mono-) Glycolic acid Guaiacol (o-) Guanidine H-acid, Na salt (1-,8-,3-,6-) Heptacosane (n-) Heptane (n-) (i-)

Heptoic acid aldehyde Heptyl acetate (n-) alcohol (n-) mercaptan Hexachloro-benzene -ethane Hexacosane (n-) Hexadecane (n-) Hexaethylbenzene Hexamethylbenzene Hexamethylene-diamine -diisocyanate -glycol tetramine Hexane (n-) (i-) (neo-)

CH2(CH2CO2H)2 CH2OH CHOH CH2OH C5H10O4 (CH3CO2)2C3H5OH CH2OH CHOH CH2NO3 CH2OH CHNO3 CH2OH CHOH(CH2ONO2)2 (CH3CO2)3C3H5 (C6H5CO2)3C3H5 (C2H5CH2CO2)3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)8CO2]3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)4CO2]3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)6CO2]3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)10CO2]3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)12CO2]3C3H5 CH2NO3 CHNO3 CH2NO3 CH2NO2 CHNO2 CH2NO2 (C17H33CO2)3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)14CO2]3C3H5 [CH3(CH2)16CO2]3C3H5 C2H3O CH2OH NH2CH2 CO2H CH2OH CH2OH (CH3CO2CH2 )2 (C6H5CO2CH2 )2 (C3H7CO2CH2 )2 (C7H15CO2CH2 )2 (HCO2CH2 )2 (C11H23CO2CH2 )2 (O2NO CH2 )2 (ONO CH2 )2 (C15H31CO2CH2 )2 (C2H5CO2CH2 )2 (HO CH2CH2)2O < O CH2CH2OCH2 > HCO2CH2CH2OH HOCH2CO2H CH3O C6H4OH NH:C(NH2)2 C10H8O7NS2Na 1a H2O CH3(CH2)25CH3 CH3(CH2)5CH3 (CH3)2CH(CH2)3CH3 C3H7 CH(CH3) C2H5 (CH3)3C CH2 C2H5 [(CH3)2CH]2CH2 (CH3)2C(C2H5)2 (C2H5)3CH (CH3)3C CH(CH3)2 CH3(CH2)5CO2H CH3(CH2)5CHO CH3CO2CH2(CH2)5CH3 CH3(CH2)5CH2OH [(CH3)2CH]2CHOH (C2H5 CH2 CH2)2CHOH CH3CH(SH) C5H11 C6Cl6 CCl3 CCl3 CH3(CH2)24CH3 CH3(CH2)14CH3 C6(C2H5)6 C6(CH3)6 NH2(CH2)6NH2 OCN(CH2)6NCO HO(CH2)6OH (CH2)6N4 CH3(CH2)4CH3 (CH3)2CH(CH2)2CH3 (CH3)3C C2H5 (CH3)2CH CH(CH3)2 (C2H5)2CHCH3

132.11 92.09 134.13 176.17 137.09 137.09 182.09 218.20 404.40 302.36 554.83 386.51 470.67 638.98 723.14 227.09 179.09 885.40 807.29 891.45 74.08 75.07 62.07 146.14 270.27 202.24 314.45 118.09 426.66 152.07 120.07 538.87 174.19 106.12 74.08 90.08 76.05 124.13 59.07 368.31 380.72 100.20 100.20 100.20 100.20 100.20 100.20 100.20 100.20 130.18 114.18 158.24 116.20 116.20 116.20 132.26 284.80 236.76 366.69 226.43 246.42 162.26 116.20 168.19 118.17 140.19 86.17 86.17 86.17 86.17 86.17

col. cr. col. lq. col. oil col. lq. col. pr. lf. oil col. lq. nd. col. lq. col. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. nd. lf. yel. oil yel. lq. col. oil col. nd. col. pr. col. lq. mn. col. lq. col. lq. rhb./et. col. lq. lq. lq. amor. yel. lq. lq. nd. lq. lq. lq. lq. nd./aq. pr. col. cr. cr. col. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. mn. rhb. cr. lf. pr./al. pl./al. lf. lq. nd./aq. col. rhb. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. lq.

1.429 15 1.260 50/4 1.20 20/4 1.178 15/15 1.4015 1.4015 1.4715 1.16117/4 1.228 12 1.032 20/4 0.921 40/4 0.987 20/4 0.954 20/4 0.894 60/4 0.885 60/6 1.601 15 1.291 10/16 0.915 15 0.866 80/4 0.862 80/4 1.114 16/16 1.161 1.113 19/4 1.109 14/4 1.024 0

97.5 17.9 40 58–9 54 <−30 −78 75–6 <−75 31(25) −25 8.3(−21) 45–6 56.5 13.3(2) −4 65.1 70.8(55) 232–6 d. −15.6 −31 73–4 22

20020 290 158165 175–640 155–60 155–60 146–815 258–9 d. 305–9

63.920 ∞ v. s. s. 7015 7.1715 i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.1820 d. i. i. i. ∞ 23 c. ∞ 14.322 i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. 0.9225 i. i. sl. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1.715 v. s. 0.1720 i. 0.00515 i. i. i. i. i. i. i. 0.2515 0.0220 i. 0.18 25 v. sl. s. i. i. i. 0.00522 i. i. i. i. v. s. d. s. 8112 0.01415 i. i. i. i.

16015 150 sl. d. 24018 310–200.1 166 sl. d. 197.4 190.5 >360 240 174 18820 expl. 114 96–8 2600.1 211–2 244.8 75–6 180 d. 205 27015 98.4760 90.0 91.8 79.1 80.8 86.0 93.5 80.8 221–2 155 191.5 759 175 756 140 156 174–5 765 309742 186777 26215 287.5 298.3 265 204–5 143–420 250 69 60.2 49.7 58.0760 63.2

v. s. ∞ v. s. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ s. h. s. s. h. s. s. sl. s. c. s. 5020 d. sl. s. 0.00421 s. h. ∞ 0.1 c. ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. s. s. d. s. ∞ ∞ 9025 v. s. s. sl. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. v. sl. s. h. v. s. v. sl. s. ∞ 0.7525 0.20 s. d. s. 3 5033

v. s. i. sl. s. sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. v. s. ∞ s. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. s. h. ∞ i. 1.0 ∞ s. v. s. v. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ i. v. s. v. s.

1.482 21/2 1.216 0 1.045 25 1.118 20/20 1.060 20/4 1.199 15/4 1.140 15/15 0.780 60/4 0.684 20/4 0.679 20/4 0.687 20/4 0.674 20/4 0.675 20/4 0.693 20/4 0.698 20/4 0.690 20/4 0.918 20 0.850 20/ 0.874 16/16 0.824 20/4 0.829 20/4 0.820 20/4 0.835 20 2.044 24 2.091 20/4 0.779 57/4 0.774 20/4 0.831 130/4 1.0428 0.659 0.654 20/4 0.649 20/20 0.662 20/4 0.664 20/4
20/4

52–4 −20 <−15 71–2 −10.5 79(63) 28.3 50 59.5 −90.6 −118.2 −119.4 −125 −119.4 −135.0 −118.7 −25 −10 −42 34.6 −37 228–31 186–7 56.6 18.5 130 166 42 42 subl. −94 −153.7 −98.2 −129.8 −118

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ s. s. h. v. s. ∞ 825 v. s. sl. s. h. v. sl. s. ∞ s. s. s. s.

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Name Formula CH3CO2(CH2)5CH3 CH3(CH2)4CH2OH (CH3)2CH C(CH3)2OH (CH3)2COH CH2C2H5 HCO2CH2(CH2)4CH3 CH3(CH2)5C6H3(OH)2 C6H5CONHCH2CO2H C6H9O2N3 HO2C C6H4 CH2CO2H HOCH2CH2CO2H HCN C6H4(OH)2 HO C6H4 CHO HO C6H4 CONHC6H5 C9H6N OH C9H6N OH [C6H4(CO)(NH)C:]2 C16H12O2N2 C8H7N C8H6NOH C6H5I IC6H4OH HCI3 C10H16:CHCOCH3 C10H16:CHCOCH3 C14H22O C6H4 < (CO)(N) > COH CH2:CH C(CH3):CH2 H2C:CO C10H4(NH2)S3O9HNa2 CH3CH(OH)CO2H C6H10O5 C6H8C4 C12H22O11 H2O CH3(CH2)10CO2H [CH3(CH2)10]2CO CH3(CH2)10CH2OH Pb(CH2CH3)4 Pb(CH3)4 C42H48O9PN C9H6N CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CH(NH2)CO2H CH3CO(CH2)2CO2H C10H16 C10H17OH CH3CO2C10H17 C17H31CO2H HO2C CH:CH CO2H < ( CHCO)2 > O HO2CCH2CH(OH)CO2H HO2CCH2CH(OH)CO2H H2C(CO2H)2 C12H22O11 H2O C6H5CH(OH)CO2H CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH CH2OH(CHOH)4CHO CH3(CH2)15CO2H C6(CO2H)6 C10H19OH < C6H4N:C(SH)S > < CH2N:C(SH)SCH2 > Hg(CN)2 Hg(ONC)2 a H2O (CH3)2C:CHCOCH3 C6H3(CH3)3 H2NC6H4SO3H CH4 Formula weight 144.21 102.17 102.17 102.17 130.18 194.26 179.17 155.16 180.15 90.08 27.03 110.11 122.12 213.23 145.15 145.15 262.26 264.27 117.14 133.14 204.02 220.02 393.78 192.29 192.29 206.32 147.13 68.11 42.04 427.34 90.08 162.14 144.12 360.31 200.31 338.60 186.33 323.45 267.35 778.08 143.18 131.17 116.11 136.23 154.24 196.28 280.44 116.07 98.06 134.09 134.09 104.06 360.31 152.14 182.17 180.16 270.44 342.17 156.26 167.24 119.20 252.65 293.65 98.14 120.19 173.18 16.04 Form and color col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. nd. rhb. lf./aq. cr./aq. syrup lq. cr. nd./aq. pr./al. pr./al. pr. cr. gray lf./aq. yel. pr. col. lq. nd./aq. yel. hex. col. oil col. oil col. oil yel. red col. lq. col. gas cr. hyg. yel. oil tri./al. col. rhb. col. nd. pl. lf. col. lq. col. lq. wax lq. cr. lf. lq. col. oil col. lq. yel. oil mn. cr. col. cr. col. cr. col. tri. col. nd. rhb./aq. col. rhb. rhb. col. pl. nd./al. col. cr. nd. cr. cr. cr./aq. lq. col. lq. col. nd. gas Specific gravity 0.890 0/0 0.820 20/20 0.821 20/0 0.809 20/4 0.898 0 1.371 20/4 Melting point, °C −51.6 −14 −107 68–70 187–8 d. 287 175–80 −12 170.3 116–7 135 199–200 75–6 390–2 52 85 −28.5 93–4 119 Boiling point, °C 169.2 157.2 120–1 123762 153.6 1797 d. d. 25–6 285730 subl. d. subl. 266.6752 subl. 253–4 110 188.6 d. subl. 136.117 14018 14416 subl. 34 −56 12214 d. 250 255757 d. 225100 255–9 152291 110760 261–3 subl. 245–6 177 198–200 220762 d. 229–3016 135 d. 202 150 d. 140 d. d. 290–53 227100 d. 212 d. Solubility in 100 parts Water i. 0.620 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 0.05 0.420 s. s. h. ∞ 615 1.3831 v. sl. s. h. s. h. v. sl. s. c. i. i. s. h. s. 0.03420 sl. s. 0.0125 sl. s. sl. s. v. sl. s. s. h. i. d. 7.220 ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 1710 i. i. i. i. i. i. sl. s. 2.218 v. s. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. 7925 16.380 14426 v. s. 13816 10825 1620 1314 24817 i. v. s. 0.04 c. i. 1.660 12.515 0.0712 320 i. 215 0.420 cc. Alcohol v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. h. v. sl. s. v. s. ∞ v. s. s. v. s. s. i. s. s. h. s. s. v. s. 1.517 ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. h. ∞ d. ∞ s. v. sl. s. c. i. s. i. c. s. sl. s. ∞ s. h. ∞ v. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ 7030 v. s. v. s. 4225 v. sl. s. c. s. 0.0114 v. sl. s. 3228 v. s. v. s. s. s. ∞ s. v. sl. s. 4720 cc. Ether v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. 0.2518 i. sl. s. ∞ v. s. s. v. s. sl. s. i. s. s. s. ∞ v. s. 13.625 ∞ ∞ v. s. sl. s. ∞ s. ∞ s. i. s. s. ∞ ∞ s. h. ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 825 v. s. 8.415 815 i. s. i. i. v. s. v. s. sl. s.

Hexyl acetate (n-) alcohol (n-) formate (n-) resorcinol (2-,4-) Hippuric acid Histidine (l-) Homophthalic acid (o-) Hydracrylic acid Hydro-cyanic acid -quinone (p-) Hydroxy-benzaldehyde (p-) -benzanilide (o-) -quinoline (2-)(α-) (8-)(o-) Indigo White Indole Indoxyl Iodo-benzene -phenol (p-) Iodoform Ionone (α-) (β-) Irone (β-) Isatin Isoprene Ketene Koch acid (1-)(3-,6-,8-) Lactic acid (dl-) anhydride Lactide (dl-) Lactose Lauric acid Laurone Lauryl alcohol Lead tetraethyl tetramethyl Lecithin (protagon) Lepidine (py-4) Leucine (l-) Levulinic acid Limonene (d- or l-) Linalool (d- or l-) Linalyl acetate Linoleic acid Maleic acid anhydride Malic acid (dl-) (d- or l-) Malonic acid Maltose Mandelic acid (dl-) Mannitol (d-) Mannose (d-) Margaric acid Mellitic acid Menthol (l-)(α-) Mercapto-benzothiazole (2-) -thiazoline (2-) Mercuric cyanide fulminate Mesityl oxide Mesitylene (1-,3-,5-) Metanilic acid (m-) Methane

0.697 18 1.332 15 1.129 130

1.35

1.824 25/4 1.857 112 4.008 17 0.930 20 0.944 20 0.939 20 0.681 20/4 1.249 15/4 0.862 1.525 20 0.869 50/4 0.809 69/4 0.831 24/4 1.659 18/4 1.995 20/4 1.086 20 1.29318 1.140 20/20 0.842 20/4 0.868 20 0.895 20 0.903 18/4 1.609 1.5 1.601 20/4 1.595 20/4 1.631 15 1.540 17 1.300 20/4 1.489 20/4 1.539 20/4 0.853 60 0.890 1.4220/4 1.50 4.003 22 4.4 0.858 20/4 0.865 20/4
15/15 10/4

200–1 −120 −151 16.8 124.5 202 48(44) 69–70 24 −136 −27.5 150–200 d. 9–10 295 33.5 −96.9 −9.5 130.5 57–60 128–9 99–100 130–5 d. d. 118.1 166 132 60–1 286–8 42–3 179 106 d. 320 expl. −59 −45(−52) d. −182.6

130750 164.8 −161.4

0.415 −164

∞ ∞ v. sl. s. 10410 cc.

2-40

Methoxy-methoxyethanol Methyl acetate acrylic acid (α-) alcohol -amine -amine hydrochloride aniline anthracene (α-) (β-) anthranilate (o-) anthraquinone (2-) benzoate benzylaniline bromide butyrate (n-) (i-) caprate caproate (n-) caprylate cellosolve chloride chloroacetate chloroformate cinnamate cyclohexane ethyl carbonate ethyl ketone ethyl oxalate formate furoate glucamine glycolate heptoate hypochlorite iodide lactate laurate mercaptan methacrylate myristate naphthalene (α-) (β-) nitrate nitrite nonyl ketone (n-) oleate orange palmitate phosphine propionate propyl ketone (n-) salicylate (o-) stearate toluate (o-) (m-) (p-) Methyl toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) valerate (n-) (i-) vinyl ketone Methylal Methylene-bis-(phenyl-4-isocyanate) bromide chloride dianiline iodide Michler’s hydrol (p-,p′-) ketone Morphine Mucic acid

CH3(OCH2)2CH2OH CH3CO2CH3 CH2:C(CH3)CO2H CH3OH CH3NH2 CH3NH2 HCl C6H5NHCH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 C6H4:(CH)2:C6H3CH3 NH2C6H4CO2CH3 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H3CH3 C6H5CO2CH3 C6H5N(CH3)CH2C6H5 CH3Br CH3(CH2)2CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCO2CH3 CH3(CH2)8CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)6CO2CH3 CH3OCH2CH2OH CH3Cl ClCH2CO2CH3 ClCO2CH3 C6H5CH:CHCO2CH3 CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > CHCH3 CH3O CO OC2H5 CH3.CO C2H5 CH3OCO CO2C2H5 HCO2CH3 C4H3O CO2CH3 CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2NHCH3 HOCH2CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)5CO2CH3 ClOCH3 CH3I CH3CH(OH)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)10CO2CH3 CH3SH CH2:C(CH3)CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)12CO2CH3 C10H7CH3 C10H7CH3 CH3ONO2 CH3ONO CH3(CH2)8COCH3 C17H33CO2CH3 (CH3)2NC6H4N2C6H4SO3Na CH3(CH2)14CO2CH3 CH3PH2 CH3CH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH2CH2CH3 HO C6H4CO2CH3 CH3(CH2)16CO2CH3 CH3 C6H4CO2CH3 CH3 C6H4CO2CH3 CH3 C6H4CO2CH3 CH3 C6H4NHCH3 CH3 C6H4NHCH3 CH3 C6H4NHCH3 CH3(CH2)3CO2CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2CH3 CH3COCH:CH2 HCH(OCH3)2 (OCN C6H4)2CH2 CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 (C6H5NH)2CH2 CH2I2 [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CHOH [(CH3)2NC6H4]2CO C17H19O3N H2O ( CHOHCHOHCO2H)2

106.12 74.08 86.09 32.04 31.06 67.52 107.15 192.25 192.25 151.16 222.23 136.14 197.27 94.95 102.13 102.13 186.29 130.18 158.23 76.09 50.49 108.53 94.50 162.18 98.18 104.10 72.10 132.11 60.05 126.11 195.21 90.08 144.21 66.49 141.95 104.10 214.34 48.10 100.11 242.39 142.19 142.19 77.04 61.04 170.29 296.48 327.33 270.44 48.03 88.10 86.13 152.14 298.49 150.17 150.17 150.17 121.18 121.18 121.18 116.16 116.16 70.09 76.09 250.25 173.86 84.94 198.26 267.87 270.36 268.35 303.35 210.14

lq. col. lq. pr. col. lq. col. gas pl./al. lq. lf./al. col. lf. col. lq. col. nd. col. lq. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. gas col. lq. lq. lq. gas lq. cr./al. oil mn. lq. gas col. oil oil red pd. col. cr. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. cr. col. lq. col. lq. cr. lq. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. gn. lf./al. pr./al. pd.

1.038 25 0.924 20/4 1.015 20/4 0.792 20/4 0.699 −11 1.23 0.989 20/4 1.047 99.4 1.181 0/4 1.168 19/4 1.087 25/25 1.732 0/0 0.898 20/4 0.891 20/4 0.904 0/0 0.887 18 0.965 20/4 0.952 0 1.236 20/4 1.236 15 1.042 36/0 0.769 20/4 1.002 27 0.805 20/4 1.156 0/0 0.974 20/4 1.179 21/4 1.168 0.881 15/4 2.279 1.090 19
20/4 18

<−70 −98.7 15–16 −97–8 −92.5 226–8 −57 86 207 24 176–7 −12.5 9.2 −93 <−95 −84.7 −18 −40 −97.7 −32.7 33.4 −126.3 −14.5 −85.9 −99.8

167.5 57.1 161–3 64.7 −6.7 758 23015 195.5 135.5 15 subl. 198–9 305–6 4.5 758 102.3 92.6 223–4 149.5 192–4 124–5 −24 130740 71–2 263 101 109.2 79.6 173.7 32 181.3 151.2 172–3 12726 42.4 144.8 14818 5.8752 100.3 295715 244.6 241–2 65 −12 228 190–110 19615 −14759 79.7 102 222.2 21515 213 215 217 206–7 206–7 211761 127.3 116.7764 81 42–3 210–213 98.5756 40–1 208–9 d. 180 d. >360 d.

∞ 3322 s. h. ∞ v. s. v. s. 0.0125 i. i. sl. s. i. 0.0230 i. v. sl. s. 1.7 v. sl. s. i. i. i. ∞ 28016 cc. v. sl. s. d. i. i. i. 3510 i. 3020 i. i. 1.815 ∞ i. s. i. i. i. i. sl. s. i. i. 0.2 c. i. i. 0.520 v. sl. s. 0.0730 i. i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. >85 33 d. 1.170 220 i. 1.420 i. i. 0.0220 0.3314

∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. 23 h. s. v. sl. s. s. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞

∞ ∞ ∞ i. ∞ v. sl. s. s. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. ∞

−64.4 5 −121 −48 18–9 −19 35–6 expl. 13.5 30–1

∞ s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. s. ∞ s. sl. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ d. ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s. h. sl. s. sl. s. i.

∞ s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s. v. sl. s. s. i.

0.896 0 0.950 15.6 1.025 14/4 0.994 40/4 1.203 25 0.991 15 0.828 20/20 0.879 18

0.915 0.812 15/15 1.182 25/25 1.073 15 1.066 15 0.973 15 0.935 55/4 0.895 15/4 0.881 20/4 0.836 20/4 0.866 15/4 1.222 30 2.495 20/4 1.336 20/4 3.325 20/4 1.317

20/4

−87.5 −77.8 −8.3 38–9 <−50 33–4

−91 −104.8 −52.8 −96.7 65 5.7 96–7 174 254 d. 206–14

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Name Formula (ClCH2 CH2)2S C31H63OH(?) CH3(CH2)12CO2H CH3(CH2)12CH2OH C10H8 C10H6(SO3H)2 C10H6(SO3H)2 C10H7SO3H 2H2O C10H7SO2H H2O C10H7O2NS C10H5O8NS3Na2 2H2O C10H4O8NS3Na3 8a H2O C10H7CO2H C10H7CO2H C10H7OH C10H7OH HO C10H6SO3H HO C10H6SO3H CH3CO2C10H7 CH3CO2C10H7 C10H7NH2 C10H7NH2 C10H7NH2 HCl C10H7NH2 HCl NH2 C10H6 SO3H NH2 C10H6 SO3H H2O NH2 C10H6 SO3H H2O NH2 C10H6 SO3H H2O NH2 C10H6 SO3H NH2 C10H6 .SO3H H2O NH2 C10H6 SO3H H2O C10H7N:CO C10H14N2 C5H4NCO2H C5H4NCO2H CH3CONHC6H4NO2 CH3COC6H4NO2 NO2 C6H3(OCH3)NH2 NO2 C6H3(OCH3)NH2 NO2 C6H3(OCH3)NH2 NO2 C6H3(NH2)OH NO2 C6H4NH2 NO2 C6H4NH2 NO2 C6H4NH2 CH3OC6H4NO2 CH3OC6H4NO2 C6H4:(CO)2:C6H3NO2 NO2 C14H6O2 SO3H NO2 C6H4 CHCl2 NO2 C6H4CHO C6H5NO2 NH2C6H4C6H3(NH2)NO2 NO2 C6H4 CO2H NO2 C6H4 CO2H NO2 C6H4 CO2H NO2 C6H4 CH2OH NO2 C6H4CH2Br CH3 C6H3(NO2)Cl CH3 C6H3(NO2)OH CH3 C6H3(NO2)CH(CH3)2 NO2 C6N4NHCH3 NO2 C6H4NHCH3 NO2 C6H4NHCH3 C6H5 C6H4NO2 C6H5 C6H4NO2 C6H5 NH C6H4NO2 H2NC(NH)NHNO2 Formula weight 159.08 452.82 228.36 214.38 128.16 288.28 288.28 244.26 226.24 205.22 445.35 584.45 172.17 172.17 144.16 144.16 224.22 224.22 186.20 186.20 143.18 143.18 179.65 179.65 223.24 241.26 241.26 241.26 223.24 241.26 241.26 169.17 162.23 123.11 123.11 180.16 165.14 168.15 168.15 168.15 154.12 138.12 138.12 138.12 153.13 153.13 253.20 333.26 206.03 151.12 123.11 229.23 167.12 167.12 167.12 153.13 216.04 171.58 153.13 179.21 166.18 166.18 166.18 199.20 199.20 214.22 104.07 Form and color oil cr. col. lf. cr. pl./al. lf. cr. cr. cr. nd. cr. lf. nd. mn. mn. mn. pl./aq. lf. nd./al. nd./al. rhb. lf./aq. nd. lf. nd. cr. cr. cr. cr. cr. cr. col. lq. oil nd./al. nd./aq. rhb. nd. red nd. yel. nd. red or. pr. yel. rhb. yel. rhb. yel. mn. col. cr. pr./al. nd. yel. cr. mn. nd./aq. yel. lq. red nd. tri./aq. mn. yel. mn. cr. nd./al. cr. yel. oil yel. oil red mn. yel. nd. rhb. nd./al. or. cr. nd./aq. Specific gravity 1.275 20/4 0.777 95 0.853 70/4 0.824 38/4 1.145 20/4 Melting point, °C 13–4 88 57–8 38 80.2 d. d. 125 90 125 177–8 160–1 184 96 122–3 >250 125 46–9 69–70 50 111–2 d. Boiling point, °C 217 250.5100 16715 217.9 Solubility in 100 parts Water 0.0725 i. i. <0.02 0.00325 10220 16420 v. s. 7730 s. h. v. s. v. s. v. sl. s. h. 0.00725 sl. s. h. 0.07425 v. s. h. v. s. sl. s. h. i. 0.17 c. v. s. h. 3.820 v. s. 0.2100 sl. s. 0.4625 0.42100 0.08 0.38100 0.28100 d. s. s. h. s. h. s. h. i. i. sl. s. sl. s. c. s. h. 0.1120 0.0819 0.1730 0.0630 i. s. i. 1.95112 0.1920 sl. s. h. 0.6520 0.24165 0.0215 i. i. v. sl. s. i. v. sl. s. i. i. i. i. 9100 Alcohol s. v. sl. s. v. s. sl. s. 9.520 s. s. v. s. sl. s. sl. s. s. h. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. i. Ether s. v. s. v. s. s. v. s. i. i. sl. s. s. s. s. v. s. v. s. i. s. s. v. s. s. s. i.

Mustard gas Myricyl alcohol Myristic acid Myristyl alcohol Naphthalene disulfonic acid (1-,5-) (1-,6-) sulfonic acid (α-) (β-) Naphthasultam (1-,8-) disulfonate Na (1-,8-) (2-,4-) Naphthoic acid (α-) (β-) Naphthol (α-) (β-) sulfonic acid (α-)(1-,2-) (β-)(2-,6-) Naphthyl acetate (α-) (β-) amine (α-) (β-) amine hydrochloride (α-) (β-) amine sulfonic acid (1-,4-) (1-,5-) (1-,7-) (1-,8-) (2-,5-) (2-,6-) (2-,7-) isocyanate (α-) Nicotine Nicotinic acid (3-) (i-)(4-) Nitro-acetanilide (p-) -acetophenone (m-) -aminoanisole (4-,1-,2-) (5-,1-,2-) (3-,1-,4-) -aminophenol (4-,2-,1-) -aniline (o-) (m-) (p-) -anisole (o-) (p-) -anthraquinone (α-) -anthraquinone sulfonic acid (1-,5-) -benzal chloride (m-) -benzaldehyde (m-) Nitro-benzene -benzidine (2-) -benzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) -benzyl alcohol (m-) -benzyl bromide (p-) -chlorotoluene (1-,2-,6-) -cresol (1-,3-,4-) -cymene (1-,2-,4-) -dimethylaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) -diphenyl (o-) (p-) -diphenylamine (o-) -guanidine

1.077 100/4 1.224 4 1.217 4

300 >300 278–80 285–6

1.123 25/25 1.061 98/4

300.8 306.1 subl.

1.18 1.009 20/4

1.207 156 1.211 156 1.442 15 1.43 1.437 14 1.254 20/4 1.233 20

<−80 235.2 317 215–6 80–1 118 139–40 123 142–3 71.5 114 146–7 9.4 54 230 65 58 5.7 143 147.5 140–1 240–2 27 99–100 37.5 32 60–1 163–4 37 113–4 75–6 246–7

269–70 246730 subl. d. 202

s. ∞ s. h. sl. s. h. s. s. s. s. v. s. v. s. 7.120 5.820 ∞ v. s. sl. s. i. v. s. h. v. s. h. v. s. 2811 3112 0.910 219 v. s. v. s. s. s. h. s. sl. s. c. sl. s.

s. ∞ v. sl. s. v. sl. s. s.

284.1 306.4 331.7 272–3 274 2707 16423 210.9

1.205

18/4

s. v. s. v. s. 7.920 6.120 ∞ v. s. v. sl. s. i. v. s. v. s. ∞ 2211 2510 2.218 v. s. v. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s. v. sl. s.

1.575 4/4 1.494 4/4 1.550 22/4

subl. 175–803 238 12522 15215 151–380 280–5 320 340

1.240 1.067 20/4 1.179 20/4 1.313 17 1.44

89/4

2-42

-naphthalene (α-) (β-) -phenol (o-) (m-) (p-) -phenol sulfonic acid (1-,4-,2-) (1-,2-,4-) -phthalic acid (3-) (4-) -toluene (o-) (m-) (p-) -toluene sulfonic acid (1-,4-,2-) -toluidine (4-,1-,2-) (3-,1-,4-) Nitron Nitroso-dimethylaniline (p-) -naphthol (β-)(1-) Nonadecane (n-) Nonane (n-) Octadecane (n-) Octane (n-) (iso-) Octyl acetate (n-) (sec-) alcohol (n-) (sec-) Octylene (n-) Oleic acid Orcinol (1-,3-,5-) Oxalic acid Palmitic acid Pelargonic acid Penta-chloroethane -decane (n-) -erythritol Pentandiol Pentane (n-) (i-) (neo-) Phenacetin Phenanthrene Phenetidine (o-) (p-) Phenetole Phenol -phthalein -sulfonic acid (o-) Phenyl acetaldehyde acetic acid -acetylene aniline (o-) (p-) Phenyl-ethyl alcohol -glycine -hydrazine -hydrazine sulfonic acid (p-) isocyanate -methylpyrazolone (3-)(N-) -mustard oil naphthalene (α-) (β-) naphthylamine (α-) (β-) phenol (o-) (p-) propyl alcohol (γ-) quinoline (2-)(α-) (8-)(0-) salicylate, salol stearate urethane

C10H7NO2 C10H7NO2 NO2 C6H4 OH NO2 C6H4 OH NO2 C6H4 OH HO C6H3(NO2)SO3H 3H2O HO C6H3(NO2)SO3H 3H2O NO2 C6H3(CO2H)2 NO2 C6H3(CO2H)2 CH3 C6H4NO2 CH3 C6H4NO2 CH3 C6H4NO2 CH3 C6H3(NO2)SO3H 2H2O NO2 C6H3(CH3)NH2 NO2 C6H3(CH3)NH2 C20H16N4 ON C6H4N(CH3)2 ON C10H6OH CH3(CH2)17CH3 CH3(CH2)7CH3 CH3(CH2)16CH3 CH3(CH2)6CH3 (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2 CH3CO2CH2(CH2)6CH3 CH3CO2CH(CH3)C6H13 CH3(CH2)6CH2OH CH3(CH2)5CH(OH)CH3 CH3(CH2)5CH:CH2 C8H17CH:CH(CH2)7CO2H (HO)2C6H3 CH3 HO2C CO2H 2H2O CH3(CH2)14CO2H CH3(CH2)7CO2H CHCl2 CCl3 CH3(CH2)13CH3 C(CH2OH)4 HOCH2(CH2)3CH2OH CH3(CH2)3CH3 (CH3)2CHCH2CH3 (CH3)2C(CH3)2 C2H5OC6H4NHCOCH3 < (C6H4CH)2 > C2H5O C6H4 NH2 C2H5O C6H4 NH2 C2H5O C6H5 C6H5OH C20H14O4 HO C6H4SO3H e H2O C6H5CH2CHO C6H5CH2CO2H C6H5C:CH C6H5 C6H4 NH2 C6H5 C6H4 NH2 C6H5CH2CH2OH C6H5NHCH2CO2H C6H5NH NH2 H2NNHC6H4SO3H C6H5N:CO C4H5ON2 C6H5 C6H5N:CS C10H7 C6H5 C10H7 C6H5 C10H7NHC6H5 C10H7NHC6H5 C6H5 C6H4OH C6H5 C6H4OH C6H5(CH2)3OH C6H5 C9H6N C6H5 C9H6N HO C6H4CO2C6H5 CH3(CH2)16CO2C6H5 C6H5NHCO2C2H5

173.16 173.16 139.11 139.11 139.11 273.22 273.22 211.13 211.13 137.13 137.13 137.13 253.23 152.15 152.15 312.36 150.18 173.16 268.51 128.25 254.48 114.22 114.22 172.26 172.26 130.22 130.22 112.21 282.45 124.13 126.07 256.42 158.23 202.31 212.41 136.15 104.15 72.15 72.15 72.15 179.21 178.22 137.18 137.18 122.16 94.11 318.31 187.68 120.14 136.14 102.13 169.22 169.22 122.16 151.16 108.14 188.20 119.12 174.20 135.18 204.26 204.26 219.27 219.27 170.20 170.20 136.19 205.25 205.25 214.21 360.56 165.19

yel./al. col./al. yel. mn. col. mn. yel. pr. nd. nd./aq. yel./aq. yel. cr. yel. lq. lq. rhb. pl./aq. yel. mn. red mn. yel. lf. gn. tri. brn. pr. cr. col. lq. cr. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. nd. pr./bz. col. mn. col. pl. col. oil col. lq. col. lq. cr. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. mn. pl./al. oil lq. col. lq. col. nd. col. rhb. cr. lq. lf. col. lq. cr. lf. col. oil cr. yel. oil cr./al. lq. pr./aq. col. lq. waxy lf./al. pr./al. rhb. nd. nd. oil nd. lq. rhb./al. cr. pl./al.

1.223 62 1.295 1.485 20 1.479 20
45

1.163 20/4 1.160 18/4 1.139 55/55 1.365 15 1.312 17

0.777 32/4 0.718 20/4 0.775 28/4 0.703 20/4 0.692 20/4 0.885 0/4 0.863 14/4 0.827 20/4 0.822 20/4 0.721 18/4 0.854 78/4 1.290 4 1.653 19/4 0.849 70/4 0.906 20/4 1.671 25/4 0.770 20/4 0.994 20/4 0.630 18/4 0.621 19 0.613 20/4 1.179 25 1.061 15 0.967 20/4 1.071 25/4 1.299 25/4 1.025 20 1.081 80/4 0.930 20/4 1.023 18/4 1.097 23/4 1.096 20/4 1.138 15/15 1.17 1.18 1.008 20/4 1.250 20/4 1.106
30/4

59–60 79 44–5 96–7 113–4 d. 110 51.5 222 164–5 −4.1 15–16 51.9 130 105–7 116–7 189–90 d. 86–7 109.5 32 −53.7 28 −56.5 −107.4 −38.5 −16 −38.6 14 107–8 101.5 63–4 12.5 −22 10 262 −129.7 −160.0 −20 134–5 99–100 <−21 3–4 −30.2 42–3 261–2 50 d. 76–7 −43 45–6 50–2 127 19.6 286 128 −21 45 102.5 62 107–8 56–7 164–5 <−18 86 42–3 52 52–3

304 16515 214.5 19470 subl.

222.3 230–1 237.7

330 150.5759 317 125.7 99.3760 210 195 194–5 179–80 126 285–6100 287–90 subl. 271.5100 253–4 162 270.5 27630 239.4 36.3 27.95 9.5 d. 340 228–9 254–5 172 181.4 193–4 265.5 142–3 299760 302 219–21750 243.5 166769 19117 219–20 336–7 345–6 335258 399.5 275 305–8 235–7 363 283187 172–312 26715 237–8

i. i. 1.08100 1.3520 1.625 v. s. v. s. 2.0525 v. s. 0.0780 0.0580 0.0480 47.728 v. sl. s. sl. s. h. i. i. 0.120 i. i. i. 0.00216 i. i. i. 0.05425 0.09625 i. i. v. s. s. i. v. sl. s. 0.0520 i. 5.615 ∞ 0.03616 i. i. 0.720 i. i. i. i. 8.215 0.220 v. s. v. sl. s. 1.6620 i. v. sl. s. s. h. 1.620 s. sl. s. h. 0.612 d. 120 i. i. i. 0.0860 0.460 i. i. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. 0.01525 i. i. c.

s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. h. v. s. ∞ ∞ 8.615 v. s. s. s. s. h. s. 2.418 sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. sl. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. 920 s. ∞ v. s. v. sl. s. ∞ ∞ s. 40 h. 10 h. s. s. ∞ ∞ 1025 v. s. ∞ v. s. ∞ s. s. s. s. ∞ sl. s. d. v. s. h. s. v. s. sl. s. s. v. s. h. s. s. ∞ s. h. s. v. s. s.

s. v. s. v. s. s. v. s. sl. s. sl. s. s. ∞ ∞ 80.815 v. s. s. v. sl. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. 1.3 s. s. ∞ v. s. i. ∞ ∞ s. 1.625 v. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ 5.9 c. ∞ v. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ sl. s. ∞ v. s. v. sl. s. s. v. s. sl. s. s. v. s. h. s. s. ∞ s. s. s. s.

2-43

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Continued )
Name Formula C6H4(NH2)2 C6H4(NH2)2 C6H4(NH2)2 C6H3(OH)3 2H2O [(CH3)2C:CH]2CO OCCl2 C6H4(CO2H)2 C6H4(CO2H)2 C6H4 < (CO)2 > O C6H4(CN)2 C6H4(CH2)(CO) > O C6H4 < (CO)2 > NH C5H4N CH3 C5H4N CH3 C5H4N CH3 HO C6H2(NH2)(NO2)2 HO C6H2(NO2)3 ClC6H2(NO2)3 [(CH3)2C OH]2 CH3COC(CH3)3 C10H16 C10H17Cl C10H16O CH2 < (CH2CH2)2 > NH HO2C CH < (CH2CH2)2 > NH (CH2)5CS2H HN(CH2)5 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CO2H CH3CH2CHO (CH3CH2CO)2O CH2CO2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2OH (CH3)2CHOH CH3CH2CH2NH2 (CH3)2CHNH2 C6H5NHCH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH2CH2CH3 C6H5CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Br (CH3)2CHBr C2H5CH2CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CH2CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CHCO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2Cl (CH3)2CHCl HCO2CH2CH2CH3 HCO2CH(CH3)2 C4H3O CO2C3H7 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH2C2H5 CH3CH(OH)CO2CH(CH3)2 CH3CH2CH2SH (CH3)2CHSH C2H5CO2CH2C2H5 C2H5CO2CH(CH3)2 (CH3)2CH CNS CH3(CH2)3CO2CH2C2H5 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 (CH3)2CHCH2CO2C3H7 CH3CH:CH2 CH3CHBrCH2Br CH3CHClCH2OH CH3CHClCH2Cl CH3CH(OH)CH2OH CH3(CHCH2)O (HO)2C6H3CO2H H2O Formula weight 108.14 108.14 108.14 162.14 138.20 98.92 166.13 166.13 148.11 128.13 134.13 147.13 93.12 93.12 93.12 199.12 229.11 247.56 118.17 100.16 136.23 172.69 152.23 85.15 129.16 232.41 44.09 74.08 58.08 130.14 102.13 102.13 60.09 60.09 59.11 59.11 135.20 164.20 164.20 123.00 123.00 130.18 130.18 130.18 130.18 78.54 78.54 88.10 88.10 154.16 132.16 132.16 76.15 76.15 116.16 116.16 101.16 144.21 144.21 144.21 42.08 201.91 94.54 112.99 6.09 58.08 172.13 Form and color lf./aq. rhb. mn. rhb. yel. pr. gas mn./aq. nd./aq. rhb. cr. nd./aq. cr./et. col. lq. col. lq. lq. red nd. yel. rhb. yel. mn. col. nd. col. lq. col. lq. lf. lq. lq. cr. cr. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. col. lq. gas col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil col. lq. nd./aq. Specific gravity 1.139 15/15 0.885 20/4 1.392 19/4 1.593 20/4 1.527
4

Melting point, °C 103–4 62.8 140 117 28 −104 208 330 130.8 141 73(65) 238 −70 169 121.8 83 43(38) −52.5 −55 131–2 −9 264 175 −187.1 −22 −81 −45 −92.5 −73.4 −127 −85.8 −83 −101 −51.6 −109.9 −89 −95.2

Boiling point, °C 256–8 284–7 267 subl. 197.2743 8.2756 d. subl. 284.5 290 subl. 128.8 143.5 143.1 expl. d. 171–2789 106.2 154–6 207–8 183–4 106 −42.2 141.1 49.5740 168.8780 101.6 88.4 97.8 82.5 49–50761 33–4 222 231 218.5 70.8 60 142.7 134–5 128 120.8 46.4 36.5 81.3 68-71751 211 122-3150 167.5 67-8 58-60 122-3 109-11750 152-3754 67.5 155.9 142756 −48749 141.6 133-4 96.8 188-9 35

Solubility in 100 parts Water 73381 35.125 669107 1.1325 0.150 v. sl. s. 0.7025 0.2100 v. sl. s. sl. s. c. v. sl. s. 0.0425 v. s. ∞ ∞ 0.1422 1.2320 0.01815 sl. s. c. 2.515 v. sl. s. i. ∞ s. 628 6.518 cc. ∞ 2020 d. 1.616 320 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ i. i. i. 0.2520 0.3220 0.1717 v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 0.2720 0.3120 12.222 2.122 v. sl. s. s. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 0.5625 0.625 i. i. i. 44.6 cc. 0.2520 s. 0.2720 ∞ 3320 1.8214 Alcohol v. s. v. s. s. v. s. s. 1218 s. s. s. 5 ∞ ∞ ∞ s. 620 4.817 v. s. s. s. 33 s. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ d. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ Ether v. s. s. s. v. s. s. 0.6815 sl. s. s. h. ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. 113 717 v. s. s. ∞ s. s.

Phenylene-diamine (o-) (m-) (p-) Phloroglucinol (1-,3-,5-) Phorone Phosgene Phthalic acid (o-) (m-)(iso-) anhydride (o-) nitrile (o-) Phthalide Phthalimide (o-) Picoline (α-) (β-) (γ-) Picramic acid (1-,2-,4-,6-) Picric acid (2-,4-,6-) Picryl chloride (2-,4-,6-) Pinacol Pinacoline Pinene (α-)(dl-) hydrochloride Pinol (dl-) Piperidine carboxylic acid (α-)(dl-) Piperidinium pentamethylene dithiocarbamate Propane Propionic acid aldehyde anhydride Propyl acetate (n-) (i-) alcohol (n-) (i-) amine (n-) (i-) aniline (n-) benzoate (n-) (i-) bromide (n-) (i-) n-butyrate (n-) i-butyrate (n-) n-butyrate (i-) i-butyrate (i-) chloride (n-) (i-) Propyl formate (n-) (i-) furoate (n-) lactate (n-) (i-) mercaptan (n-) (i-) propionate (n-) (i-) thiocyanate (i-) n-valerate (n-) i-valerate (n-) i-valerate (i-) Propylene bromide chlorohydrin chloride glycol oxide Protocatechuic acid (3-,4-)

1.164 99/4 0.950 15/4 0.961 15/4 0.957 15/4 1.763 20/4 1.797 20 0.967 15 0.800 16 0.878 20/4 0.953 20/20 0.860 20/4 1.13 0.585 −45/4 0.992 20/4 0.807 20/4 1.012 20/4 0.886 20/4 0.874 20/20 0.804 20/4 0.78920/4 0.718 20/20 0.694 15/4 0.949 18 1.021 25/25 1.010 25/25 1.353 20/4 1.310 20/4 0.879 15 0.884 0/4 0.865 18 0.869 0/4 0.890 20/4 0.859 20 0.901 20/4 0.873 20/4 1.075 26/4 0.836 25/4 0.809 25/4 0.883 20/4 0.893 0 0.963 20 0.874 15 0.863 20/4 0.854 17 0.609 −47/4 1.933 20/4 1.103 20 1.159 20/20 1.040 19.4 0.831 20/20 1.542 4/4

v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞

−122.8 −117 −92.9

−112 −130.7 −76 −70.7 −185 −55.5 <−70 199 d.

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 1200 cc. s. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s.

∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s. s. v. s. 8 ∞ s.

2-44

Pulegol (iso-)(d-) Pulegone Pyrazole Pyrazoline Pyrazolone Pyrene Pyridazine Pyridine Pyrocatechol (o-) Pyrogallol (1-,2-,3-) Pyrone Pyrrole Pyrrolidine Pyrroline Pyruvic acid Quercitrin Quinaldine (py-2) Quinoline (iso-) -diol (1-,3-) Quinone (p-) R-acid Ca salt (2-)(3-,6-) K salt Na salt Raffinose Resorcinol (m-) Retene Rhamnose (β-) Ricinoleic acid Rosaniline Rosolic acid Saccharin Safrole (1-,3-,4-) (iso-)(1-,3-,4-) Salicylic acid (o-) aldehyde (o-) Saligenin Schaeffer’s salt, Ca K Na Semicarbazide hydrochloride Skatole (3-) Sodium methylate Sorbitol Sorbose (d- or l-) Starch Stearic acid amide Styrene Suberic acid Succinic acid Sucrose Sulfanilic acid (p-) Sylvestrene (d-) Tartaric acid (meso-) (racemic) (d- or l-) Tartronic acid Terephthalic acid (p-) Terpin hydrate (cis-) Terpineol (α-)(d- or l-) (dl-) Terpinyl acetate (α-)(dl-) Tetrabromo-ethane (sym) (uns) Tetrachloro-ethane (sym) (uns) -ethylene Tetracosane (n-) Tetradecane (n-) Tetraethyl-thiuram disulfide

C10H17OH C10H16O NH N:CH CH:CH NH N:CH CH2CH2 NH CO CH2CH:N C16H10 N2 < (CHCH)2 > CH < (CHCH)2 > N C6H4(OH)2 C6H3(OH)3 CO < (CHCH)2 > O < (CH:CH)2 > NH < (CH2 CH2)2 > NH < (CH CH2)2 > NH CH3COCO2H C21H20O11 2H2O CH3 C9H6N C9H7N C9H7N C6H4CH:C(OH)N:C(OH) CO < (CHCH)2 > CO HOC10H5(SO3)2Ca HOC10H5(SO3K)2 HOC10H5(SO3Na)2 C18H32O16 5H2O C6H4(OH)2 C18H18 CH3(CHOH)4CHO H2O C17H32(OH)CO2H C20H21ON3 C20H16O3 C6H4(CO)(SO2) > NH CH2:CHCH2 C6H3:O2CH2 CH3 CH:CH C6H3:O2CH2 HO C6H4 CO2H HO C6H4 CHO HO C6H4 CH2OH (HOC10H6SO3)2Ca 5H2O HOC10H6SO3K HOC10H6SO3Na NH2 CO NH NH2 NH2 CO NH NH3Cl CH3 C8H6N CH3ONa [CH2OH(CHOH)2]2 C6H12O6 (C6H10O5)x CH3(CH2)16CO2H CH3(CH2)16CONH2 C6H5CH:CH2 HO2C(CH2)6CO2H HO2C(CH2)2CO2H C12H22O11 H2N C6H4 SO3H C10H16 (CHOHCO2H)2 (CHOHCO2H)2 H2O (CHOHCO2H)2 CH(OH)(CO2H)2 a H2O C6H4(CO2H)2 C10H20O2 H2O C10H18O C10H18O CH3CO2 C10H17 Br2CH CHBr2 Br3C CH2Br Cl2CH CHCl2 Cl3C CH2Cl Cl2C:CCl2 CH3(CH2)22CH3 CH3(CH2)12CH3 [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2

154.24 152.23 68.08 70.09 84.08 202.24 80.09 79.10 110.11 126.11 96.08 67.09 71.12 69.10 88.06 484.40 143.18 129.15 129.15 161.15 108.09 342.35 380.46 348.26 594.52 110.11 234.32 182.17 298.45 319.39 304.33 183.18 162.18 162.18 138.12 122.12 124.13 576.59 262.31 246.21 75.07 111.54 131.17 54.03 182.17 180.16 162.14 284.47 283.48 104.14 174.19 118.09 342.30 173.18 136.23 150.09 168.10 150.09 129.07 166.13 190.28 154.24 154.24 196.28 345.70 345.70 167.86 167.86 165.85 338.64 198.38 296.52

col. lq. col. lq. nd./et. lq. nd. yel. pr. lq. col. lq. nd./aq. nd. cr. lq. lq. lq. col. lq. yel. nd. lq. lq. pl. cr. yel. mn. cr. cr. cr. cr./aq. col. rhb. lf./al. col. mn. lq. col. nd. red lf. mn. col. mn. col. lq. mn. col. oil rhb./aq. cr. cr. cr. pr./al. pr. lf. pd. cr. rhb. amor. mn. col. cr. col. lq. nd./aq. col. mn. col. mn. col. cr. lq. cr. tri. mn. pr./aq. cr. rhb. col. cr. col. cr. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. cr. col. lq. cr.

0.911 20/4 0.932 20/20 70 1.277 0/4 1.107 20/4 0.982 20/4 1.344 4 1.453 4 1.190 40.3 0.948 20/4 0.852 22.5 0.910 20/4 1.267 20/4 1.059 20/4 1.095 20 1.099 21/4 1.318 20/4 165 149-50 −8 −42 104-5 133-4 32.5

13.6 182-5 −1 −15 24.6 237 115.7

86-9 10 224754 186-8 144 subl. d. >360 208 115-6 240-5 309 215-7 131 87-8 90-1 165 244-5750 237.1747 240.5763 subl.

1.465 0 1.272 15 1.1316 1.47120/4 0.954 16

1.100 20/4 1.122 20/4 1.443 20/4 1.153 25/4 1.161 25

119 110.7 98-9 126 4-5 186 d. 308-10 d. 225-8 11.2 6-7 159 -7 86-7

d. 130 276.5 390-4 226-810 subl. 233-4 252-3 21120 196.5 subl.

1.654 15 1.5021 0.847 69.3 0.903 20/4 1.266 25/4 1.572 25/4 1.588 15 0.863 20/4 1.737 1.697 20/4 1.760 20/4 1.510 0.935 15 0.935 20/20 0.966 20/4 2.964 20/4 2.875 20/4 1.600 20/4 1.588 20/4 1.624 15/4 0.779 51/4 0.765 20/4 1.17

96 173 d. 95 d. 300 110-2 165 d. 70-1 108-9 −31 140-4 189-90 170-86 d. d. > 280 159-60 205-6 168-70 d. 155-8 subl. 117 38-40 35 < −50 −1.0 0 −36 −19 51.1 5.5 70

265-6

755

291110 25112 145-6 279100 235 d. 176-7 d. subl. d. 219-21 218-9752 220 d. 15154 10413 146.3 129-30 120.8 324 252.5

v. sl. s. i. s. ∞ s. i. ∞ ∞ 45.120 40 13 v. sl. s. i. ∞ v. s. ∞ 0.04 20 v. sl. s. 6 sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. h. 30.6 25 29.5 25 25.2 25 14.3 20 14712 i. 60.8 21 i. v. sl. s. 0.1225 0.4 25 i. i. 0.223 1.7 86 6.615 4.7620 3.4625 6.2925 v. s. v. s. 0.05 c. d. v. s. 5517 i. 0.0325 i. v. sl. s. 0.1416 6.820 1790 0.810 12015 20.620 13920 v. s. 0.001 c. 0.415 i. i. i. i. 0.29 i. 0.0220 i. i.
20

∞ s. ∞ v. s. 3 h. s. ∞ v. s. s. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. ∞ s.

∞ s. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. s. s. s. v. s. s. v. s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ sl. s. s. ∞ s. s.

0.120 v. s. 69 h. ∞ sl. s. v. s. h. 3.1 c. s. ∞ 4915 ∞ v. s.

v. s. v. s. h. i. ∞ i. sl. s. 1.05 c. ∞ ∞ 5115 ∞ v. s.

v. s. sl. s. s. v. s. h. sl. s. i. 220 s. h. ∞ s. 9.915 0.9 v. sl. s. 20 2515 v. s. sl. s. h. 1015 v. s. v. s. 20 ∞ s. ∞ ∞ ∞ v. s.

i. i. s.

i. 6g s. h: ∞ 0.815 1.215 i. v. sl. s. 0.09 0.415 i. i. 115 v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ s. v. s.

2-45

TABLE 2-2

Physical Properties of Organic Compounds (Concluded )
Name Formula F2C:CF2 CH2(CH2)2CH2 O C4H7O CH2OH CH2(CH2)3CH2 O C6H4CH2(CH2)2CH2 [(CH3)2NCS]2S2 (NO2)3C6H2 N(CH3)NO2 C7H8O2N4 CH3 CO SH (NH2 C6H4)2S (C6H5 NH)2CS C10H7 SH C6H5 SH HS C6H4 CO2H NH2 CS NH2 < (CH:CH)2 > S (CH3)(C3H7)C6H3OH [CH3(NH2)C6H3]2 C6H5 CH3 CH3 C6H4SO3H 2H2O CH3 C6H4SO3H H2O CH3 C6H4SO2NH2 CH3 C6H4 SO2Cl CH3 C6H4 CO2H CH3 C6H4 CO2H CH3 C6H4 CO2H CH3 C6H4 NH2 CH3 C6H4 NH2 CH3 C6H4 NH2 CH3 C6H4 NH3Cl CH3(NH2)C6H3SO3H CH3 C6H3(NH2)2 CH3 C6H3(NCO)2 C12H22O11 2H2O [CH3(CH2)3CH2]3N [(CH3)2CH(CH2)2]3N [CH3(CH2)2CH2]3N [CH3(CH2)3O]3P Cl3C CO2H C6H3Cl3 Cl3C CH3 Cl2C:CHCl Cl3C6H2OH CH3(CH2)21CH3 OP(OC6H4CH3)3 CH3(CH2)11CH3 (HOCH2CH2)3N (CH3CH2)3N (C2H5)3C6H3 (C2H5)3C6H3 B(OCH2CH3)3 HOC3H4(CO2C2H5)3 ( CH2OCH2CH2OH)2 CF3Cl F2C:CFCl Cl2CF CClF2 CH2(OCH3)CH2C(OCH3)2CH3 (CH3)3N BrCH2CH2CH2Br ClCH2CH2CH2Cl HOCH2CH2CH2OH C6H3(NO2)3 (NO2)3C6H2CO2H (NO2)3C6(CH3)2C4H9 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3 C10H5(NO2)3 Formula weight 100.02 72.10 102.13 86.13 132.20 240.41 287.15 180.17 76.11 216.29 228.30 160.22 110.17 154.18 76.12 84.13 150.21 212.28 92.13 208.23 190.21 171.21 190.64 136.14 136.14 136.14 107.15 107.15 107.15 143.62 187.21 122.17 174.15 378.33 227.42 227.42 185.34 250.32 163.40 181.46 133.42 131.40 197.46 324.61 368.36 184.35 149.19 101.19 162.26 162.26 146.00 276.28 150.17 104.47 116.48 187.39 148.20 59.11 201.91 112.99 76.09 213.11 257.12 297.26 263.16 263.16 263.16 Form and color gas col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. cr. yel. mn. rhb. yel. lq. nd./aq. rhb./al. cr./al. col. lq. yel. nd. rhb./al. col. lq. cr. lf. col. lq. cr. mn. mn. tri. cr./aq. pr./aq. cr./aq. col. lq. col. lq. cr. mn. pr. cr. rhb. lq. rhb./al. lq. col. lq. col. lq. lq. cr. nd. lq. col. lq. nd. lf. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. oil lq. lq. lq. oil col. lq. gas gas lq. lq. gas lq. lq. oil col. rhb. rhb./aq. nd./al. rhb. cr./al. yel. cr. Specific gravity 1.58−78 0.88821/4 1.05020/4 0.88120/4 0.97318/4 1.29 1.5719 1.07410 1.324 1.07423/4 1.40520/4 1.07015/4 0.97225/25 0.866
20/4

Melting point, °C −142.5 −65 −31 155-6 130.5 330 < −17 108 154 81 164 180-2 −30 51.5 128-9 −95 d. 104-5 137 69 104-5 110-1 179-80 −16.3 −31.5 44-5 218-20 99 97

Boiling point, °C −76.3 65-6 177-8743 88 206764 expl. 93 d. 286-8 168-9 subl. d. 84 232752 110.8 128.80 146-70 134.510 259751 263 274-5 199.7 203.3 200.3 242 283-5 134.520 240-5 235 216.5761 122-312 195.5754 208.5764 74.1 87.2 246 23415 234 277-9150 89.4 215 217-8755 120 294 290 −80 −27.9 47.6 63-525 3.5 167.5 123-5 214 d.

Solubility in 100 parts Water 0.0130 s. ∞ s. i. i. i. 0.0615 s. sl. s. h. i. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. sl. s. h. 9.213 i. 0.0919 v. sl. s. 0.0516 v. s. v. s. 0.29 i. 2.17100 1.6100 1.3100 1.525 sl. s. 0.7421 s. 0.9711 s. h. d. s. h. i. i. i. i. 12025 i. i. 0.125 0.0925 i. i. i. ∞ ∞ > 190 i. i. d. i. ∞ d. i. d. 4119 0.1730 0.2725 ∞ 0.0315 2.0524 i. i. 0.02100 i. Alcohol s. ∞ s. s. h. 0.06 c. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. s. s. v. s. s. s. s. s. 7.45 s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. sl. s. s. d. sl. s. h. s. s. sl. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ s. s. ∞ ∞ ∞ s. s. s. ∞ 1.918 sl. s. s. 0.0523 0.1119 Ether s. ∞ s. s. 0.03 h. ∞ s. v. s. v. s. ∞ sl. s. v. s. s. ∞

Tetrafluoro-ethylene Tetrahydro-furan -furfuryl alcohol -pyran Tetralin Tetramethyl-thiuram disulfide Tetryl (2-,4-,6-) Theobromine Thio-acetic acid -aniline (4-, 4′-) -carbanilide -naphthol (β-) -phenol -salicylic acid (o-) -urea Thiophene Thymol (5-,2-,1-) Tolidine (0-)(3-,3′-,4-,4′-) Toluene sulfonic acid (o-) (p-) sulfonic amide (p-) sulfonic chloride (p-) Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (o-) (m-) (p-) hydrochloride (o-) sulfonic acid (1-,2-,3-) Toluylenediamine (1-,2-,4-) Tolylene diisocyanate (1-,2-,4-) Trehalose Triamylamine (n-) (i-) Tributyl-amine (n-) phosphite Trichloro-acetic acid -benzene (s-)(1-,3-,5-) -ethane (1-,1-,1-) -ethylene -phenol Tricosane (n-) Tricresyl phosphate (o-) Tridecane (n-) Triethanol amine Triethyl-amine -benzene (1-,3-,5-) (1-,2-,4-) borate citrate Triethylene glycol Trifluoro-chloromethane chloroethylene -trichloroethane Trimethoxybutane (1-,3-,3-) Trimethylamine Trimethylene bromide chloride glycol Trinitro-benzene (1-,3-,5-) -benzoic acid (2-,4-,6-) -tert-butylxylene -naphthalene (α-)(1-,3-,5-) (β-)(1-,3-,8-) (γ-)(1-,4-,5-)

1.062115/4 1.054112/4 0.99920/4 0.98920/4 1.04620/4

s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. s. i. ∞ s. ∞ ∞ v. s. v. s. sl. s. ∞ s. s. ∞ v. sl. s. ∞ s. s. s. 1.518 s. 0.1315 0.419

1.2328 0.78620/4 0.77820/20 0.92520/4 1.61746/15 1.32526/4 1.46620/20 1.49075/4 0.77948/4 0.75720/4 1.12620/20 0.72920/20 0.86120/4 0.88217/4 0.86420/20 1.13720/4 1.12520/20 1.726−130 1.57620/4 0.932 0.662 −5 1.987 15/4 1.201 15 1.060 20/4 1.688 20/4

58 63.5 −73 68-9 47.7 −6.2 20-1 −114.8

−5 −182 −157.5 −35 −124 −34.4 121 210-20 d. 110 122-3 218-9 148-9

2-46

-phenol (2-,3-,6-) -toluene (β-)(2-,3-,4-) (γ-)(2-,4-,5-) (α-)(2-,4-,6-) Trional Triphenyl-arsine carbinol guanidine (α-) methane methyl phosphate Tripropylamine (n-) Undecane (n-) Urea nitrate Uric acid Valeric acid (n-) (i-) aldehyde (n-) (i-) amide (n-) (i-) Vanillic acid (3-,4-,1-) alcohol (3-,4-,1-) hyl-thiuram disulfide Vanillin (3-,4-,1-) Veratrole (o-) Vinyl acetate (poly-) acetic acid acetylene alcohol (poly-) chloride propionate Xylene (o-) (m-) (p-) sulfonic acid (1-,4-,2-) Xylidine (1:2)(3-) (1:2)(4-) (1:3)(2-) (1:3)(4-) (1:3)(5-) (1:4)(2-) Xylose (l-)(+) Xylylene dichloride (p-) Zinc diethyl dimethyl dimethyl-dithiocarbamate
NOTE:

(NO2)3C6H2OH CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H2(NO2)3 CH3C6H3(NO2)3 C2H5(CH3)C(SO2C2H5)3 (C6H5)3As (C6H5)3COH C6H5N:C(NHC6H5)2 (C6H5)3CH (C6H5)3C . . . OP(OC6H5)3 (CH3CH2CH2)3N CH3(CH2)3CH3 H2N CO NH2 CO(NH2)2 HNO3 C5H4O3N4 C2H5CH2CH2CO2H (CH3)2CHCH2CO2H C2H5CH2CH2CHO (CH3)2CHCH2CHO C2H5CH2CH2CONH2 (CH3)2CHCH2CONH2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CO2H CH3O(OH)C6H3CH2OH [(C2H5)2NCS]2S2 CH3O(OH)C6H3CHO C6H4(OCH3)2 CH3CO2CH:CH2 (CH3CO2CH:CH2)x CH2:CH CH2CO2H CH2:CH C:CH CH2:CHOH (CH2:CHOH)x CH2:CHCl C2H5CO2CH:CH2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 C6H4(CH3)2 (CH3)2C6H3SO3H 2H2O (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 (CH3)2C6H3NH2 CH2OH(CHOH)3CHO C6H4(CH2Cl)2 Zn(CH2CH3)2 Zn(CH3)2 Zn[S2CN(CH3)2]2

229.11 227.13 227.13 227.13 242.34 306.21 260.32 287.35 244.32 243.31 326.28 143.27 156.30 60.06 123.07 168.11 102.13 102.13 86.13 86.13 101.15 101.15 168.14 154.16 296.52 152.14 138.16 86.09 (86.09) 86.09 52.07 44.06 (44.06) 62.50 100.11 106.16 106.16 106.16 222.25 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 121.18 150.13 175.06 123.50 95.45 305.79

nd. cr. yel. pl. cr./al. pl./al. pl. cr. rhb./al. cr. col. cr. pr./al. col. lq. col. lq. col. pr. col. mn. cr. col. lq. col. lq. lq. col. lq. mn. pl. mn. nd./aq. mn./aq. cr. mn. cr. col. lq. col. lq. gas gas lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lq. col. lf. lq. pr. lq. lq. oil oil nd. mn. col. lq. col. lq.

1.620 20/4 1.620 20/4 1.654 1.199 85/4 1.306 1.188 20/4 1.13 1.014 99/4 1.206 58/4 0.757 20/4 0.741 20/4 1.335 20/4 1.893 20 0.939 20/4 0.931 20/20 0.819 11 0.803 17 1.023 0.965 20/4 1.17 1.056 1.091 15/15 0.932 20/4 1.1920 1.013 15/15 0.705 1.5 1.320 0.908 25/25 0.881 20/4 0.867 17/4 0.861 20/4 0.991 15 1.076 17.5 0.980 15 0.978 20/4 0.972 20/4 0.979 21/4 1.535 0 1.417 0 1.182 18 1.386 11 2.0040/4

117-8 112 104 80.8 76 59-60 162.5 144-5 93.4 145-7 49-50 −93.5 −25.6 132.7 152 d. d. −34.5 −37.6 −92 −51 106 135-7 207 115 70 81-2 22.5 < −60 100-25 −39 d. >200 −160 −25 −47.4 13.2 86 < −15 49-50

expl. expl. expl. d. >360 >360 d. 359754 d. 24511 156.5 194.5 d. 187 176 103.4 92.5 232 subl. d. 285 207.1 72-3 163 5.5 −12 93-5 144 139.3 138.5 1490.1 223 224-6 216-7 213-4 221-2 215789 240-5 d. 118 46

s. h. i. i. 0.0120 0.315 i. i. i. i. i. i. v. sl. s. i. 10017 v. s. h. 0.06 h. 3.316 4.220 v. sl. s. sl. s. v. s. s. 0.1214 v. s. h. i. 114 v. sl. s. 220 i. s. 0.670.6 s. sl. s. v. sl. s. i. i. i. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. v. sl. s. 11720 i. d. d. i.

v. s. sl. s. c. s. h. 1.522 50 s. v. s. 40 v. s. h. sl. s. h. 15525 ∞ ∞ 2020 s. i. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. ∞ ∞

v. s. s. v. s. 533 6.615 v. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. ∞ ∞ sl. s. i. ∞ ∞ s. s. v. s. s. v. s. v. s. v. s. s. ∞ ∞

s. s. s. s. s.

v. s. ∞ ∞ v. s. s.

15.5 153-4 100.5 −28 −40 248-50

v. sl. s. s. d. d.

i. v. sl. s.

°F = 9⁄5 °C + 32.

2-47

2-48

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Additional compilations of vapor-pressure data include Boublik, Fried, and Hala, The Vapor Pressures of Pure Substances, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1984. See also Hirata, Ohe, and Nagahama, Computer Aided Data Book of Vapor-Liquid Equilibria, Kodansha/Elsevier, Tokyo, 1975; Weishaupt, Landolt-Börnstein New Series Group IV, vol. 3; Thermodynamic Equilibria of Boiling Mixtures, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975; Wichterle, Linek, and Hala, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data Bibliography, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1973; suppl. 1, 1976; suppl. 2, 1982.

TABLE 2-3 t, °C −14 −13 −12 −11 −10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −0 0.0 1.361 1.490 1.632 1.785 1.950 2.131 2.326 2.537 2.765 3.013 3.280 3.568 3.880 4.217 4.579

Vapor Pressure of Water Ice from -15 to 0°C* mmHg 0.1 1.348 1.477 1.617 1.769 1.934 2.112 2.306 2.515 2.742 2.987 3.252 3.539 3.848 4.182 4.542 0.2 1.336 1.464 1.602 1.753 1.916 2.093 2.285 2.493 2.718 2.962 3.225 3.509 3.816 4.147 4.504 0.3 1.324 1.450 1.588 1.737 1.899 2.075 2.266 2.472 2.695 2.937 3.198 3.480 3.785 4.113 4.467 0.4 1.312 1.437 1.574 1.722 1.883 2.057 2.246 2.450 2.672 2.912 3.171 3.451 3.753 4.079 4.431 0.5 1.300 1.424 1.559 1.707 1.866 2.039 2.226 2.429 2.649 2.887 3.144 3.422 3.722 4.045 4.395 0.6 1.288 1.411 1.546 1.691 1.849 2.021 2.207 2.408 2.626 2.862 3.117 3.393 3.691 4.012 4.359 0.7 1.276 1.399 1.532 1.676 1.833 2.003 2.187 2.387 2.603 2.838 3.091 3.364 3.660 3.979 4.323 0.8 1.264 1.386 1.518 1.661 1.817 1.985 2.168 2.367 2.581 2.813 3.065 3.336 3.630 3.946 4.287 0.9 1.253 1.373 1.504 1.646 1.800 1.968 2.149 2.346 2.559 2.790 3.039 3.308 3.599 3.913 4.252

TABLE 2-4 t, °C −15 −14 −13 −12 −11 −10 −9 −8 −7 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −0 0.0 1.436 1.560 1.691 1.834 1.987 2.149 2.326 2.514 2.715 2.931 3.163 3.410 3.673 3.956 4.258

Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from -16 to 0°C* mmHg 0.1 1.425 1.547 1.678 1.819 1.971 2.134 2.307 2.495 2.695 2.909 3.139 3.384 3.647 3.927 4.227 0.2 1.414 1.534 1.665 1.804 1.955 2.116 2.289 2.475 2.674 2.887 3.115 3.359 3.620 3.898 4.196 0.3 1.402 1.522 1.651 1.790 1.939 2.099 2.271 2.456 2.654 2.866 3.092 3.334 3.593 3.871 4.165 0.4 1.390 1.511 1.637 1.776 1.924 2.084 2.254 2.437 2.633 2.843 3.069 3.309 3.567 3.841 4.135 0.5 1.379 1.497 1.624 1.761 1.909 2.067 2.236 2.418 2.613 2.822 3.046 3.284 3.540 3.813 4.105 0.6 1.368 1.485 1.611 1.748 1.893 2.050 2.219 2.399 2.593 2.800 3.022 3.259 3.514 3.785 4.075 0.7 1.356 1.472 1.599 1.734 1.878 2.034 2.201 2.380 2.572 2.778 3.000 3.235 3.487 3.757 4.045 0.8 1.345 1.460 1.585 1.720 1.863 2.018 2.184 2.362 2.553 2.757 2.976 3.211 3.461 3.730 4.016 0.9 1.334 1.449 1.572 1.705 1.848 2.001 2.167 2.343 2.533 2.736 2.955 3.187 3.436 3.702 3.986

*For data at 0(0.2)−30(2)−98°C see p. 2324, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.

4.579 4.546 4.513 4.480 4.448 4.416 4.385 4.353 4.320 4.289

*Computed from the above table with the aid of the thermodynamic equation pw −1.1489t = − 1.330 × 10−5t2 + 9.084 × 10−8t3 log10 273.1 + t pi

TABLE 2-5 t, °C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 t, °C 50 60 70 80 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101

Vapor Pressure of Liquid Water from 0 to 100°C* mmHg 0.0 4.579 4.926 5.294 5.685 6.101 6.543 7.013 7.513 8.045 8.609 9.209 9.844 10.518 11.231 11.987 12.788 13.634 14.530 15.477 16.477 17.535 18.650 19.827 21.068 22.377 23.756 25.209 26.739 28.349 30.043 31.824 33.695 35.663 37.729 39.898 42.175 44.563 47.067 49.692 52.442 55.324 58.34 61.50 64.80 68.26 71.88 75.65 79.60 83.71 88.02 0 0.1 4.613 4.962 5.332 5.725 6.144 6.589 7.062 7.565 8.100 8.668 9.271 9.910 10.588 11.305 12.065 12.870 13.721 14.622 15.575 16.581 17.644 18.765 19.948 21.196 22.512 23.897 25.359 26.897 28.514 30.217 32.007 33.888 35.865 37.942 40.121 42.409 44.808 47.324 49.961 52.725 55.61 58.65 61.82 65.14 68.61 72.25 76.04 80.00 84.13 88.46 1 97.20 156.43 243.9 369.7 527.76 548.11 569.12 590.80 613.17 636.24 660.03 684.55 709.83 735.88 762.72 790.37 0.2 4.647 4.998 5.370 5.766 6.187 6.635 7.111 7.617 8.155 8.727 9.333 9.976 10.658 11.379 12.144 12.953 13.809 14.715 15.673 16.685 17.753 18.880 20.070 21.324 22.648 24.039 25.509 27.055 28.680 30.392 32.191 34.082 36.068 38.155 40.344 42.644 45.054 47.582 50.231 53.009 55.91 58.96 62.14 65.48 68.97 72.62 76.43 80.41 84.56 88.90 2 102.09 163.77 254.6 384.9 529.77 550.18 571.26 593.00 615.44 638.59 662.45 687.04 712.40 738.53 765.45 793.18 0.3 4.681 5.034 5.408 5.807 6.230 6.681 7.160 7.669 8.211 8.786 9.395 10.042 10.728 11.453 12.223 13.037 13.898 14.809 15.772 16.789 17.863 18.996 20.193 21.453 22.785 24.182 25.660 27.214 28.847 30.568 32.376 34.276 36.272 38.369 40.569 42.880 45.301 47.841 50.502 53.294 56.21 59.27 62.47 65.82 69.33 72.99 76.82 80.82 84.99 89.34 3 107.20 171.38 265.7 400.6 531.78 552.26 573.40 595.21 617.72 640.94 664.88 689.54 714.98 741.18 768.19 796.00 0.4 4.715 5.070 5.447 5.848 6.274 6.728 7.209 7.722 8.267 8.845 9.458 10.109 10.799 11.528 12.302 13.121 13.987 14.903 15.871 16.894 17.974 19.113 20.316 21.583 22.922 24.326 25.812 27.374 29.015 30.745 32.561 34.471 36.477 33.584 40.796 43.117 45.549 48.102 50.774 53.580 56.51 59.58 62.80 66.16 69.69 73.36 77.21 81.23 85.42 89.79 4 112.51 179.31 277.2 416.8 533.80 554.35 575.55 597.43 620.01 643.30 667.31 692.05 717.56 743.85 770.93 796.82 0.5 4.750 5.107 5.486 5.889 6.318 6.775 7.259 7.775 8.323 8.905 9.521 10.176 10.870 11.604 12.382 13.205 14.076 14.997 15.971 16.999 18.085 19.231 20.440 21.714 23.060 24.471 25.964 27.535 29.184 30.923 32.747 34.667 36.683 38.801 41.023 43.355 45.799 48.364 51.048 53.867 56.81 59.90 63.13 66.51 70.05 73.74 77.60 81.64 85.85 90.24 5 118.04 187.54 289.1 433.6 535.82 556.44 577.71 599.66 622.31 645.67 669.75 694.57 720.15 746.52 773.68 801.66 0.6 4.785 5.144 5.525 5.931 6.363 6.822 7.309 7.828 8.380 8.965 9.585 10.244 10.941 11.680 12.462 13.290 14.166 15.092 16.071 17.105 18.197 19.349 20.565 21.845 23.198 24.617 26.117 27.696 29.354 31.102 32.934 34.864 36.891 39.018 41.251 43.595 46.050 48.627 51.323 54.156 57.11 60.22 63.46 66.86 70.41 74.12 78.00 82.05 86.28 90.69 6 123.80 196.09 301.4 450.9 537.86 558.53 579.87 601.89 624.61 648.05 672.20 697.10 722.75 749.20 776.44 804.50 0.7 4.820 5.181 5.565 5.973 6.408 6.869 7.360 7.882 8.437 9.025 9.649 10.312 11.013 11.756 12.543 13.375 14.256 15.188 16.171 17.212 18.309 19.468 20.690 21.977 23.337 24.764 26.271 27.858 29.525 31.281 33.122 35.062 37.099 39.237 41.480 43.836 46.302 48.891 51.600 54.446 57.41 60.54 63.79 67.21 70.77 74.50 78.40 82.46 86.71 91.14 7 129.82 204.96 314.1 468.7 539.90 560.64 582.04 604.13 626.92 650.43 674.66 699.63 725.36 751.89 779.22 807.35 0.8 4.855 5.219 5.605 6.015 6.453 6.917 7.411 7.936 8.494 9.086 9.714 10.380 11.085 11.833 12.624 13.461 14.347 15.284 16.272 17.319 18.422 19.587 20.815 22.110 23.476 24.912 26.426 28.021 29.697 31.461 33.312 35.261 37.308 39.457 41.710 44.078 46.556 49.157 51.879 54.737 57.72 60.86 64.12 67.56 71.14 74.88 78.80 82.87 87.14 91.59 8 136.08 214.17 327.3 487.1 541.95 562.75 584.22 606.38 629.24 652.82 677.12 702.17 727.98 754.58 782.00 810.21 0.9 4.890 5.256 5.645 6.058 6.498 6.965 7.462 7.990 8.551 9.147 9.779 10.449 11.158 11.910 12.706 13.547 14.438 15.380 16.374 17.427 18.536 19.707 20.941 22.243 23.616 25.060 26.582 28.185 29.870 31.642 33.503 35.462 37.518 39.677 41.942 44.320 46.811 49.424 52.160 55.030 58.03 61.18 64.46 67.91 71.51 75.26 79.20 83.29 87.58 92.05 9 142.60 223.73 341.0 506.1 544.00 564.87 586.41 608.64 631.57 655.22 679.69 704.71 730.61 757.29 784.78 813.06

92.51 149.38 233.7 355.1 525.76 546.05 566.99 588.60 610.90 633.90 657.62 682.07 707.27 733.24 760.00 787.57

*From the Physikalisch-technische Reichsanstalt, Holborn, Scheel, and Henning, Wärmetabellen, Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, Brunswick, 1909. By permission. For data at 50(0.2)101.8°C, see Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., p. 2326, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. For a tabulation of temperature for pressures 700(1)779 mm Hg, see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, p. 117, Reinhold, New York, 1957. For a tabulation of pressure for 105(5)200(10)370°C, see Atack, p. 134, and for 100(1)374°C, see Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2328–2330, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.

2-49

TABLE 2-6 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids Name Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3−Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene1 Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4 CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 693027 764352 928494 628717 629050 689974 C1 39.205 51.857 59.078 66.343 78.741 104.65 87.829 96.084 109.35 112.73 131 137.47 137.45 140.47 135.57 156.06 156.95 157.68 182.54 203.66 100.18 72.35 77.235 77.36 78.282 83.105 87.868 74.242 57.263 68.49 102.62 70.589 120.15 85.3 92.68 97.57 144.45 78.808 102.5 97.33 82.605 39.714 73.522 79.656 172.06 119.42 66.592 69.459 82.805 137.29 133.2 123.71 47.091 66.447 82.353 55.682 C2 −1324.4 −2598.7 −3492.6 −4363.2 −5420.3 −6995.5 −6996.4 −7900.2 −9030.4 −9749.6 −11143 −11976 −12549 −13231 −13478 −15015 −15557 −16093 −17897 −19441 −4841.9 −5010.9 −5695.9 −5791.7 −6347 −6903.7 −6831.7 −2707.2 −3382.4 −4350.2 −5260.3 −4530.4 −6192.4 −6171.7 −7055.2 −7836 −9676.2 −8367.9 −5021.8 −5631.8 −5606.6 −3769.9 −4564.3 −5239.6 −5318.5 −5364.5 −4999.8 −5250 −5683.8 −7447.1 −7492.9 −7639 −5104 −6395.6 −7240.6 −4439.3 C3 −3.4366 −5.1283 −6.0669 −7.046 −8.8253 −12.702 −9.8802 −11.003 −12.882 −13.245 −15.855 −16.698 −16.543 −16.859 −16.022 −18.941 −18.966 −18.954 −22.498 −25.525 −13.541 −7.883 −8.5109 −8.4912 −8.502 −9.1858 −9.9783 −9.8462 −5.7707 −7.4124 −13.764 −7.7229 −16.597 −9.702 −10.679 −11.272 −19.446 −7.9553 −13.88 −12.589 −9.4236 −2.6407 −8.1958 −9.4314 −27.223 −16.81 −6.8387 −7.1125 −9.4301 −19.01 −18.405 −16.451 −3.6371 −6.3848 −9.1843 −5.0136 C4 3.1019E−05 1.4913E−05 1.0919E−05 9.4509E−06 9.6171E−06 1.2381E−05 7.2099E−06 7.1802E−06 7.8544E−06 7.1266E−06 8.1871E−06 8.0906E−06 7.1275E−06 6.5877E−06 5.6136E−06 6.8172E−06 6.4559E−06 5.9272E−06 7.4008E−06 8.8382E−06 2.0063E−02 8.9795E−06 8.0163E−06 7.7939E−06 6.4169E−06 6.4703E−06 7.7729E−06 2.2457E−02 1.0431E−05 1.0503E−05 1.9183E−02 1.0928E−05 2.1922E−02 8.9604E−06 8.4459E−06 7.7267E−06 1.8031E−02 8.7442E−18 2.0296E−02 1.5395E−02 1.0512E−05 6.9379E−18 1.1580E−05 9.5850E−03 5.4619E−02 2.5523E−02 6.6793E−06 7.9289E−17 1.0767E−05 2.1415E−02 2.2062Ε−02 1.6495Ε−02 5.1621Ε−04 1.1250E−17 5.8038E−03 1.9650E−17 C5 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 6 1 1 2 6 2 1 1 1 2 6 2 1 1 1 1 6 1 6 Tmin, K 90.69 90.35 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51 247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58 113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 160 172.22 165.78 104 87.89 87.8 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27 171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 164.25 127.27 192.4 170.45 240.91 183.45 167.45 163.83 141.25 183.65 170.05 192.22 193.55 173.15 Ps at Tmin 1.1687E+04 1.1273E+00 1.6788E−04 6.7441E−01 6.8642E−02 9.0169E−01 1.8269E−01 2.1083E+00 4.3058E−01 1.3930E+00 4.0836E−01 6.1534E−01 2.5096E−01 2.5268E−01 1.2884E−01 9.2265E−02 4.6534E−02 3.3909E−02 1.5909E−02 9.2574E−03 1.4051E−02 1.1569E−04 1.5081E−02 9.2204E−06 1.2631E−02 1.6820E−02 1.6187E−02 1.2361E+02 9.3867E−04 7.1809E−07 2.4051E−01 7.4729E+01 3.5210E−06 2.5272E−04 1.2810E−03 2.7570E−03 8.5514E−03 1.7308E−02 6.2213E−01 1.9687E−02 1.9447E−02 4.4720E−01 6.9110E+01 2.4768E−03 1.2603E+05 3.7264E+02 6.1212E+03 4.3551E+01 2.3990E+00 2.0462E−01 3.9157Ε−04 5.4026Ε−01 2.1950Ε−01 6.7026E−01 1.0092E−01 6.6899E+01 Tmax, K 190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7 639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768 408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96 282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29 566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484 308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519 516.2 549 544 559 585 454 Ps at Tmax 4.5897E+06 4.8522E+06 4.2135E+06 3.7699E+06 3.3642E+06 3.0449E+06 2.7192E+06 2.4673E+06 2.3054E+06 2.0908E+06 1.9493E+06 1.8223E+06 1.6786E+06 1.5693E+06 1.4743E+06 1.4106E+06 1.3438E+06 1.2555E+06 1.2078E+06 1.1746E+06 3.6199E+06 3.3709E+06 3.1255E+06 3.0192E+06 2.8823E+06 2.8116E+06 2.5630E+06 5.0296E+06 4.6346E+06 4.0391E+06 4.2388E+06 4.0811E+06 3.5557E+06 3.1397E+06 2.8225E+06 2.5735E+06 2.3308E+06 2.2092E+06 3.9760E+06 3.4544E+06 3.3769E+06 4.3613E+06 4.3041E+06 3.8509E+06 6.1467E+06 5.6206E+06 4.8699E+06 4.1986E+06 4.1701E+06 4.0198E+06 3.6352Ε+06 3.5301Ε+06 3.5397Ε+06 3.1343E+06 2.8202E+06 4.8874E+06

2-50

57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112

Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether

C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O

287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556 108952 95487 108394 106445 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848

51.434 79.673 88.622 116.51 92.611 81.184 80.208 49.88 52.732 88.184 83.918 80.877 90.356 84.782 85.475 88.09 136.83 60.658 143.62 48.603 107.71 62.447 76.811 105.93 88.044 81.768 74.475 88.134 93.173 152.54 76.964 172.31 168.96 410.44 107.02 117.31 160.08 135.01 79.276 212.8 95.444 210.88 95.403 118.53 44.704 205.79 50.83 55.096 102.04 58.165 55.875 136.9 143.11 57.723 128.06 59.969

−4770.6 −6086.6 −7011 −7103.3 −7077.8 −6927 −7203.2 −4649.7 −5286.9 −6624.9 −6517.7 −6902.4 −7948.7 −7598.3 −7595.8 −7688.3 −9544.8 −7260.4 −9687.7 −6545.2 −9402.7 −8109 −9878.5 −8685.9 −13367 −6876 −7164.3 −8498.6 −9185.9 −11111 −7623.8 −11590 −12659 −20262 −10237 −11239 −14095 −12238 −10105 −15420 −10113 −13928 −10581 −11957 −3525.6 −9834.5 −4781.7 −4793.2 −6954.9 −5362.1 −5131.6 −6954.3 −8353.7 −5236.9 −9307.7 −8585.5

−4.3515 −8.7933 −10.038 −15.49 −10.684 −8.8498 −8.6023 −4.1191 −4.4509 −10.059 −9.3453 −8.7761 −10.081 −9.2612 −9.378 −9.7708 −18.190 −5.3772 −19.305 −3.6412 −12.545 −5.5571 −7.4384 −12.42 −8.6482 −8.7078 −7.327 −9.0766 −9.7464 −19.025 −7.4924 −22.118 −21.366 −62.366 −11.695 −13.149 −19.211 −15.702 −7.521 −28.109 −10.09 −29.483 −10.004 −13.293 −3.4444 −28.739 −4.1773 −4.8689 −12.278 −5.2568 −4.9604 −19.254 −18.751 −5.2136 −16.693 −5.1538

1.9605E−17 7.4046E−06 7.4481E−06 1.6959E−02 8.1239E−06 5.4580E−06 4.5901E−06 1.9564E−17 1.0883E−17 8.2566E−06 7.1182E−06 5.8034E−06 5.9756E−06 5.5445E−06 5.6875E−06 5.8844E−06 1.6590E−02 4.5816E−18 1.7703E−02 1.9307E−18 6.6661E−06 2.0800E−18 2.0436E−18 7.5583E−06 8.7874E−19 7.1926E−06 3.1340E−06 8.3303E−18 4.7796E−18 1.0426E−05 5.9436E−18 1.3709E−05 1.1591E−05 6.3353E−02 6.8003E−18 9.3676E−18 1.7043E−17 1.0349E−17 7.3408E−19 2.1564E−05 6.7603E−18 2.5182E−02 4.3032E−18 8.6988E−18 5.4574E−17 3.5317E−05 9.4076E−18 2.9518E−17 1.2131E−05 2.0194E−17 1.9123E−17 2.4508E−02 2.0620E−05 2.2998E−17 1.4919E−02 1.9983E−18

6 2 2 1 2 2 2 6 6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 6 1 6 2 6 6 2 6 2 2 6 6 2 6 2 2 1 6 6 6 6 6 2 6 1 6 6 6 2 6 6 2 6 6 1 2 6 1 6

179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66 161.84 138.13 146.62 169.67 278.68 178.18 247.98 225.3 286.41 178.15 324.18 229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 353.43 342.2 242.54 360 175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.97 195.56 203 155.95 228.55 239.15 296.6 260.15 213.15 314.06 304.19 285.39 307.93 131.65 160 133.97 127.93 157.48 150 164.55 156.85 145.65 140 235.65 300.03

9.4420E+00 6.7059E−05 3.7061E−06 5.3802E+03 1.5256E−04 6.0584E+01 3.5747E−04 1.6884E−02 3.9787E−03 1.0377E−01 4.7620E+03 4.2348E−02 2.1968E+01 3.2099E+00 5.8144E+02 4.0140E−03 2.0014E+03 7.9735E−01 3.8034E−04 1.1889E+00 9.9261E−03 9.9229E+02 9.3752E+01 1.0613E+01 1.0112E+00 1.1147E−01 4.8459E−04 3.0828E−07 5.7220E−04 1.1323E−06 3.6606E−02 5.9356E+03 3.1816E−04 3.7992E−04 2.1036E−08 3.7401E−02 1.6990E−02 7.9382E+01 2.4834E−01 9.2894E−05 1.8798E+02 6.5326E+01 5.8624E+00 3.4466E+01 3.0496E+00 5.3423E−01 4.8875E−03 2.4971E−03 1.9430E−02 1.9801E−02 5.3566E−01 3.9545E−01 7.3931E−04 4.3092E−03 2.4466E+00 7.0874E+00

511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4 562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32 649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85 512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21 586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626 694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65 400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7 500.23 489 645.6 766.8

4.5028E+06 3.7808E+06 3.3970E+06 4.0958E+06 3.4828E+06 2.9387E+06 3.0411E+06 4.8062E+06 4.1303E+06 4.3922E+06 4.8819E+06 4.1012E+06 3.7424E+06 3.5286E+06 3.4984E+06 3.5968E+06 3.2001E+06 3.2533E+06 3.1837E+06 3.1119E+06 2.7957E+06 3.9941E+06 3.8615E+06 3.8234E+06 3.5297E+06 8.1402E+06 6.1171E+06 5.1214E+06 4.3392E+06 4.2014E+06 4.7908E+06 3.9910E+06 3.8657E+06 3.8749E+06 3.9013E+06 3.4557E+06 3.1810E+06 4.2456E+06 7.7100E+06 6.0413E+06 6.0585E+06 5.0583E+06 4.5221E+06 5.1507E+06 5.2735E+06 4.4658E+06 3.7721E+06 3.8892E+06 3.3089E+06 3.4130E+06 3.4106E+06 3.6412E+06 3.3729E+06 3.4145E+06 4.2731E+06 3.0971E+06 2-51

TABLE 2-6 Cmpd. no. 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 2-52

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Continued ) Name Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline Formula CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N CAS no. 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 C1 101.51 193.69 80.581 99.33 149.58 81.507 107.17 250.25 337.71 201.64 69.006 72.698 84.635 308.74 65.841 153.23 64.641 44.286 206.77 96.919 95.118 62.688 50.323 53.27 54.552 93.815 110.38 88.513 100.95 77.184 61.267 70.717 71.87 73.833 66.824 105.64 57.661 104.08 115.16 71.34 82.976 53.024 57.406 75.206 71.738 134.68 81.56 49.314 56.55 58.398 54 136.66 462.84 66.287 C2 −4917.2 −8036.7 −5896.1 −7083.6 −8890 −7776.8 −9070.3 −16162 −18506 −15133 −5599.6 −6143.6 −7078.4 −13693 −7042 −10055 −6457.4 −5415.1 −12537 −8014.2 −8300.4 −8088.8 −5378.2 −6304.5 −7149.4 −9942.2 −10540 −11829 −8873.2 −5606.1 −5618.6 −6439.7 −6885.7 −5817 −6227.6 −8007 −6346.5 −7535.9 −8433.9 −7285.8 −9226.1 −7676.8 −5702.8 −5082.8 −5302 −6055.8 −5596.9 −4949 −5681.9 −5312.7 −6018.5 −7201.5 −18227 −8207.1 C3 −13.765 −29.502 −8.9301 −11.733 −20.697 −8.4516 −12.503 −33.927 −50.224 −26.264 −7.0985 −7.5779 −9.3 −47.557 −6.1376 −19.848 −6.218 −3.0913 −27.894 −11.093 −10.796 −5.5434 −4.203 −4.2985 −4.2769 −9.8019 −12.262 −8.6826 −11.451 −8.392 −5.6473 −6.9845 −7.0944 −7.809 −6.41 −12.477 −5.032 −12.348 −13.934 −6.9459 −8.4427 −4.1593 −5.0307 −8.0919 −7.3324 −19.415 −9.0779 −3.9256 −4.9815 −5.2876 −4.4981 −18.934 −73.734 −6.0132 C4 2.2031E−02 4.3678E−02 8.2236E−06 1.0027E−05 2.2101E−02 1.5143E−17 7.4446E−06 2.2349E−05 4.7345E−02 1.4625E−05 6.2237E−06 5.6476E−06 6.2702E−06 5.7002E−02 7.2196E−18 1.6426E−05 3.4543E−06 1.8580E−18 2.2462E−05 7.3452E−06 6.5037E−06 2.0774E−18 3.4697E−06 8.8865E−18 1.1843E−18 9.3124E−18 1.4310E−17 2.3248E−19 6.1316E−06 7.8468E−06 2.1080E−17 2.0129E−17 1.4903E−17 6.3200E−06 1.7914E−17 9.0000E−06 8.2534E−18 9.6020E−06 1.0346E−05 9.9895E−18 5.9115E−18 1.6850E−18 1.1042E−17 8.1130E−06 6.4200E−17 2.8619E−02 8.7920E−06 9.1978E−18 1.2363E−17 1.9913E−06 9.9684E−18 2.2255E−02 9.2794E−02 2.8414E−18 C5 1 1 2 2 1 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 6 2 2 6 2 2 2 6 2 6 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 2 6 2 2 6 6 6 6 2 6 1 2 6 6 2 6 1 1 6 Tmin, K 181.15 150.15 170 176.75 182 217.15 229.8 246 255.15 267.15 178.45 186.48 196.29 181.15 217.35 189.15 167.15 234.18 200 204.81 242 292.81 281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 227.15 395.45 200.15 174.15 175.15 185.65 187.35 193.55 189.6 199.25 175.15 180.25 178.15 199.65 260.75 238.45 180.35 179.69 180.96 156.08 192.15 223.35 158.45 188.36 210.15 177.95 176.85 267.13 Ps at Tmin 8.8700E+02 3.2320E−01 1.3133E+00 3.1699E−01 5.2282E−02 1.2473E+00 1.1177E+00 4.1640E−01 3.4172E−01 4.8648E−01 2.7851E+00 1.3904E+00 7.5235E−01 2.2648E−02 1.5111E+00 3.3536E−02 3.2662E−03 7.3422E+01 6.0339E−02 3.9036E−01 6.9667E+00 3.5899E+01 2.4024E+03 1.2769E+03 1.3142E+01 6.7754E+00 7.8244E−02 7.9550E+02 2.1999E−02 6.8808E+00 1.0170E+00 6.3409E−01 1.3435E−01 1.8119E+01 1.4318E+00 7.7988E−01 1.0390E−02 2.1101E−01 1.7113E−02 1.4347E−01 1.8653E+00 1.4385E−01 7.0586E−01 1.7671E+02 7.5575E+01 9.9206E+00 1.5183E+02 3.7411E+02 1.0646E−02 1.3004E+01 3.6942E+00 7.7251E+00 4.4724E−03 7.1322E+00 Tmax, K 408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2 508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5 588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606 487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546 571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13 430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6 535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 Ps at Tmax 6.5935E+06 5.5652E+06 4.9189E+06 4.3232E+06 3.9685E+06 3.4607E+06 3.1829E+06 2.9704E+06 2.7430E+06 2.5989E+06 4.7091E+06 4.1201E+06 3.7062E+06 3.8413E+06 3.3120E+06 3.2659E+06 3.3213E+06 3.6993E+06 3.3424E+06 3.0606E+06 4.0126E+06 3.8451E+06 5.8074E+06 5.7390E+06 4.6080E+06 4.0705E+06 3.6834E+06 4.4691E+06 3.9702E+06 5.9829E+06 4.6948E+06 4.0278E+06 3.4797E+06 4.7080E+06 3.8502E+06 3.3365E+06 2.9352E+06 4.0310E+06 3.3657E+06 3.1097E+06 3.5896E+06 3.2190E+06 3.9298E+06 7.4139E+06 5.2583E+06 4.1020E+06 5.5937E+06 3.6744E+06 3.0373E+06 4.7381E+06 3.1113E+06 4.5404E+06 3.1987E+06 5.3514E+06

167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218

N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air3 Hydrogen Helium-44 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide

C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O

100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972

70.843 51.352 91.944 74.738 89.171 82.154 100.3 82.762 125.81 79.128 58.302 82.699 66.32 55.463 54.15 65.551 62.165 65.382 61.736 60.649 83.485 79.07 60.867 59.123 64.697 146.43 78.441 72.586 56.639 70.159 62.217 79.24 46.854 83.495 65.955 91.432 51.915 54.144 63.749 21.662 12.69 11.533 29.755 42.127 42.393 71.334 108.26 51.245 58.282 90.483 76.858 96.512

−8517.5 −7160 −5293.4 −5417 −6860.3 −7211.3 −10763 −7955.5 −12376 −9523.9 −5385.6 −6703.5 −6714.9 −7430.8 −4337.7 −5027.4 −5624 −6262.4 −5909.2 −5785.9 −5711.7 −6114.1 −5969.6 −3043.7 −4048.1 −7792.3 −6128.1 −4698.6 −3576.5 −4786.7 −5113.3 −5718.8 −4445.5 −6661.4 −6015.6 −5141.7 −5439 −6244.4 −7130.2 −692.39 −94.896 −8.99 −271.06 −1093.1 −1103.3 −3855 −6592 −1200.2 −1084.1 −4669.7 −7245.2 −4045

−6.7007 −4.0127 −11.682 −8.0636 −10.104 −8.8646 −10.946 −8.8038 −14.589 −7.7355 −5.4954 −9.1506 −6.3087 −4.548 −4.8127 −6.6853 −5.8595 −6.2585 −5.7554 −5.6113 −9.4999 −8.631 −5.5979 −6.1845 −6.8066 −20.614 −8.5766 −7.9966 −5.5801 −7.5387 −5.9761 −8.789 −3.6533 −9.2386 −6.5509 −10.981 −4.2896 −4.5343 −5.879 −0.39208 1.1125 0.6724 −2.6081 −4.1425 −4.1203 −8.5171 −14.16 −6.4361 −8.3144 −11.607 −8.22 −12.277

5.6411E−18 8.1481E−07 1.4902E−02 7.4700E−06 7.4769E−06 5.2528E−06 3.8503E−06 4.2431E−06 5.0824E−06 3.1616E−18 5.3634E−06 7.5424E−06 1.3516E−17 1.7501E−18 4.5000E−17 6.3208E−06 2.0597E−17 1.4943E−17 1.5119E−17 1.5877E−17 9.8449E−06 6.5333E−06 1.4530E−17 1.6637E−05 1.0371E−05 2.4578E−02 6.8465E−06 1.1553E−05 9.8969E−06 9.3370E−06 4.7174E−17 8.4486E−06 1.3260E−17 6.7652E−06 4.3172E−06 1.4318E−05 8.7527E−18 4.7030E−18 5.2136E−18 4.7574E−03 3.2915E−04 2.7430E−01 5.2700E−04 5.7254E−05 5.7815E−05 1.2378E−02 1.6043E−02 2.8405E−02 4.4127E−02 1.7194E−02 6.1557E−03 2.8860E−05

6 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 6 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 6 6 6 2 2 6 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 6 2 6 2 2 2 6 6 6 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

216.15 275.6 160.65 187.55 234.94 231.51 275.6 212.72 353.33 301.15 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.4 150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 169.2 131.35 175.43 207.15 250.33 179.47 129.95 134.8 154.55 150.35 155.97 200 172.71 119.36 230.94 227.95 242.43 59.15 13.95 1.76 24.56 83.78 53.48 172.12 265.85 54.36 63.15 195.41 274.69 182.3

1.0207E−02 1.7940E+01 7.7879E+00 5.0026E+01 1.8538E+02 2.0535E+01 1.0350E+00 1.9532E−01 3.3637E+02 2.8618E+01 1.8694E+02 1.6936E−01 6.1777E−04 5.1063E+00 3.1479E+00 1.1384E−03 6.5102E−02 2.3532E−03 4.7502E−06 3.3990E−05 7.9009E+00 2.2456E−01 4.3401E−02 4.3287E+02 8.7091E+02 5.2512E+01 1.1225E+03 1.9544E+02 8.3714E+00 1.1658E−01 3.7155E−01 6.9630E−02 9.0844E−01 4.5248E+00 8.2532E−02 1.9178E−02 1.5142E+02 8.4456E+00 7.8364E+00 5.6421E+03 7.2116E+03 1.4625E+03 4.3800E+04 6.8721E+04 2.5272E+02 1.3660E+03 5.8534E+03 1.4754E+02 1.2508E+04 6.1111E+03 4.0847E+02 8.6908E+04

701.55 687.15 469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95 771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35 469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15 317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8 503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15 132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15 309.57

5.1935E+06 3.6262E+06 7.2553E+06 5.5497E+06 5.7145E+06 5.6356E+06 7.7514E+06 4.3653E+06 6.5688E+06 4.9973E+06 4.8517E+06 4.1906E+06 3.7870E+06 4.2075E+06 7.2309E+06 5.4918E+06 4.6272E+06 3.9730E+06 4.0603E+06 4.0598E+06 5.5324E+06 4.2610E+06 3.9629E+06 5.8754E+06 6.6905E+06 5.5543E+06 4.5436E+06 7.9972E+06 5.0060E+06 5.4578E+06 6.2903E+06 4.5812E+06 4.5097E+06 4.2394E+06 4.2319E+06 5.7495E+06 4.5437E+06 4.5293E+06 4.5196E+06 3.7934E+06 1.3154E+06 2.2845E+05 2.6652E+06 4.8963E+06 5.1674E+06 7.7930E+06 1.0276E+07 5.0206E+06 3.3906E+06 1.1301E+07 1.4731E+07 7.2782E+06

2-53

TABLE 2-6 Cmpd. no. 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Vapor Pressure of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Concluded ) Name Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide2 Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water Formula NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O CAS no. 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185 C1 72.974 88.589 45.698 140.54 67.114 59.544 104.27 29.315 36.75 85.584 47.365 180.99 73.649 C2 −2650 −5059.9 −1076.6 −4735 −4820.4 −4143.8 −3731.2 −2424.5 −3927.1 −3839.9 −4084.5 −12060 −7258.2 C3 −8.261 −10.483 −4.8814 −21.268 −7.5303 −6.1764 −15.047 −1.1354 −2.1245 −11.199 −3.6469 −22.839 −7.3037 C4 9.7000E−15 1.5403E−05 7.5673E−05 4.0909E−02 9.1695E−03 1.4161E−05 3.1340E−02 2.3806E−18 3.8948E−17 1.8848E−02 1.7990E−17 7.2350E−17 4.1653E−06 C5 6 2 2 1 1 2 1 6 6 1 6 6 2 Tmin, K 109.5 245.25 68.15 216.58 161.11 189.79 158.97 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 289.95 273.16 Ps at Tmin 2.1956E+04 7.3385E+04 1.5430E+04 5.1867E+05 1.4944E+00 3.3683E+02 1.3522E+04 2.9501E+04 1.8687E+04 2.2873E+04 1.6743E+03 2.0934E+04 6.1056E+02 Tmax, K 180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13 Ps at Tmax 6.5156E+06 5.9438E+06 3.4940E+06 7.3896E+06 8.0408E+06 6.4872E+06 8.3564E+06 8.4627E+06 5.3527E+06 8.9988E+06 7.8596E+06 8.1919E+06 2.1940E+07

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are in K; vapor pressures are in Pa. Pa × 9.869233E−06 = atm; Pa × 1.450377E−04 = psia; vapor pressure = exp [C1 + (C2/T) + C3 × ln (T) + C4 × T C5 ]. 1 Decomposes violently on heating. Forms explosive peroxides with air or oxygen. Polymerizes under pressure and heat. 2 Coefficients are hypothetical above the decomposition temperature. 3 At the bubble point. 4 Exhibits superfluid properties below 2.2 K.

2-54

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-6a Alphabetical Index to Substances in Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, and 2-221 Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetylene Air Ammonia Aniline Anisole Argon Benzene Benzoic acid Benzonitrile Biphenyl Bromine Bromobenzene Bromoethane Bromomethane 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene n-Butyl acetate n-Butyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Butyraldehyde n-Butyric acid n-Butyronitrile Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroethane Chloroform Chloromethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Cumene Cyanogen Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone Cyclohexene Cyclopentane Cyclopentene p-Cymene 1-Decanal n-Decane 1-Decene 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Diethylamine Diethyl ether Diethyl sulfide Diisopropylamine Diisopropyl ketone Dimethylacetylene Dimethylamine N,N-Dimethylaniline 2,3-Dimethylbutane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Dimethyl ether Ethanal Ethanoic acid 2-Propanone Methyl cyanide Methyl phenyl ketone Synonym Cmpd. no. 114 175 136 141 123 177 134 45 206 216 166 111 210 67 140 180 79 213 205 197 194 42 43 4 85 86 30 31 32 152 184 186 116 138 179 222 223 221 193 212 204 196 192 191 198 199 98 99 100 75 220 60 94 133 66 57 64 77 122 10 38 200 201 160 108 189 165 132 47 157 168 23 62 101 Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C8H8O C2H2 NH3 C6H7N C7H8O Ar C6H6 C7H6O2 C7H5N C12H10 Br2 C6H5Br C2H5Br CH3Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C6H12O2 C4H10S C4H10S C4H8O C4H8O2 C4H7N CO2 CS2 CO CCl4 Cl2 C6H5Cl C2H5Cl CHCl3 CH3Cl C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C9H12 C2N2 C6H12 C6H12O C6H10O C6H10 C5H10 C5H8 C10H14 C10H20O C10H22 C10H20 C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C4H11N C4H10O C4H10S C6H15N C7H14O C4H6 C2H7N C8H11N C6H14 C8H16 C2H6O Name 1-Hexene 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Isobutyl mercaptan Isobutyric acid Isooctane Isoprene Isopropylamine Mesitylene Methane Methanol N-Methylacetamide Methyl acetate Methylacetylene Methylamine N-Methylaniline Methyl benzoate 2-Methylbutane 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Methyl butyl ether 3-Methyl-1-butyne Methyl butyrate Methylcyclohexane Methylcyclopentane 1-Methylcyclopentene Methyl ethyl ether Methyl ethyl ketone Methyl ethyl sulfide Methyl formate Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl isobutyl ketone Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl isopropyl ketone Methyl mercaptan 2-Methylpentane 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 2-Methylpropane 2-Methyl-2-propanol 2-Methylpropene Methyl propionate Methyl propyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Naphthalene Neon Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrous oxide n-Nonadecane 1-Nonanal n-Nonane 1-Nonene n-Octadecane 1-Octanal n-Octane 1-Octene 1-Octyne Oxygen n-Pentadecane 1-Pentanal n-Pentane 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-propanethiol 2-Methylpropanoic acid 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene Methyl alcohol Synonym Cmpd. no. 34 51 52 53 217 207 226 225 227 224 228 185 139 27 44 164 76 1 82 176 143 46 156 167 153 22 90 91 40 41 105 48 145 61 58 65 102 124 188 142 106 128 104 126 181 24 129 21 88 39 144 103 107 78 209 219 215 218 19 121 9 37 18 120 8 36 55 214 15 117 5 89

2-55

Formula C6H12 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 N2H4 H2 HBr HCl HCN HF H2S C4H10S C4H8O2 C8H18 C5H8 C3H9N C9H12 CH4 CH4O C3H7NO C3H6O2 C3H4 CH5N C7H9N C8H8O2 C5H12 C5H12O C5H12O C5H10 C5H10 C5H12O C5H8 C5H10O2 C7H14 C6H12 C6H10 C3H8O C4H8O C3H8S C2H4O2 C5H12O C6H12O C4H10O C5H10O CH4S C6H14 C6H12O C4H10 C4H10O C4H8 C4H8O2 C4H10O C5H12O C10H8 Ne NO N2 N2O C19H40 C9H18O C9H20 C9H18 C18H38 C8H16O C8H18 C8H16 C8H14 O2 C15H32 C5H10O C5H12 C5H12O

Methyl phenyl ether

Phenyl cyanide 1,1′-Biphenyl Ethyl bromide Methyl bromide

sec-Butyl alcohol Z-2-Butene E-2-Butene 1-Butanethiol 2-Butanethiol Butanal Propyl cyanide

Isopentane Isoamyl alcohol Amylene

Tetrachloromethane Ethyl chloride Trichloromethane Methyl chloride Propyl chloride Isopropyl chloride 2-Methylphenol 3-Methylphenol 4-Methylphenol Isopropylbenzene Cyclohexyl alcohol Cyclohexyl ketone

2-Butanone 2-Thiabutane

Methanethiol Isohexane Methyl sec-butyl ketone Isobutane tert-Butyl alcohol Isobutene

p-Isopropyltoluene

n-Nonaldehyde

Ethyl ether Ethyl sulfide 2,4-Dimethyl-3-pentanone 2-Butyne N,N-Dimethylbenzamine Diisopropyl Methyl ether

n-Octaldehyde

Valeraldehyde n-Amyl alcohol

2-56

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-6a Alphabetical Index to Substances in Tables 2-6, 2-30, 2-164, 2-193, 2-196, 2-198, and 2-221 (Concluded ) Name N,N-Dimethylformamide 2,3-Dimethylpentane Dimethyl sulfide Diphenyl ether n-Dodecane n-Eicosane Ethane Ethanol Ethyl acetate Ethylamine Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate Ethyl butyrate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethylene Ethylene glycol Ethylene oxide Ethyl formate Ethyl isopropyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ketone Ethyl mercaptan Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Fluorine Fluorobenzene Fluoroethane Fluoromethane Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid Furan Helium-4 n-Heptadecane 1-Heptanal n-Heptane 1-Heptanol 1-Heptene 1-Heptyne n-Hexadecane 1-Hexanal n-Hexane 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanone Synonym Cmpd. no. 174 25 187 112 12 20 2 83 147 159 72 154 149 63 59 28 95 169 146 110 131 182 148 109 211 203 195 190 113 173 135 170 208 17 119 7 93 35 54 16 118 6 92 127 Formula C3H7NO C7H16 C2H6S C12H10O C12H26 C20H42 C2H6 C2H6O C4H8O2 C2H7N C8H10 C9H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H16 C7H14 C2H4 C2H6O2 C2H4O C3H6O2 C5H12O C6H12O C2H6S C5H10O2 C5H12O F2 C6H5F C2H5F CH3F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H4O He C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H16O C7H14 C7H12 C16H34 C6H12O C6H14 C6H14O C6H12O Name 2-Pentanone 3-Pentanone 1-Pentene 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne Phenol 1-Propanal n-Propane 1-Propanol 2-Propanol n-Propionic acid n-Propionitrile n-Propyl acetate n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine n-Propylbenzene Propylene 1,2-Propylene glycol n-Propyl formate n-Propyl mercaptan Pyridine Styrene Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide m-Terphenyl n-Tetradecane Thiophene Toluene n-Tridecane Triethylamine Trimethylamine 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane n-Undecane Vinyl acetate Vinylacetylene Vinyl chloride Water o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene 1,2-Dimethylbenzene 1,3-Dimethylbenzene 1,4-Dimethylbenzene Synonym Methyl n-propyl ketone Diethyl ketone Cmpd. no. 125 130 33 49 50 97 115 3 84 87 137 178 151 162 163 73 29 96 150 183 172 80 229 230 81 14 171 68 13 161 158 74 26 11 155 56 202 231 69 70 71 Formula C5H10O C5H10O C5H10 C5H8 C5H8 C6H6O C3H6O C3H8 C3H8O C3H8O C3H6O2 C3H5N C5H10O2 C3H9N C6H15N C9H12 C3H6 C3H8O2 C4H8O2 C3H8S C5H5N C8H8 SO2 SO3 C18H14 C14H30 C4H4S C7H8 C13H28 C6H15N C3H9N C9H12 C8H18 C11H24 C4H6O2 C4H4 C2H3Cl H2O C8H10 C8H10 C8H10

Methyl sulfide

Propionaldehyde n-Propyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol Ethyl cyanide

Ethyl alcohol Phenylethane

1,2-Ethanediol 1,2-Epoxyethane

1,2-Propanediol Propanethiol

Ethanethiol

Ethyl fluoride Methyl fluoride Methanal Methanoic acid

n-Heptaldehyde n-Heptyl alcohol

Caproaldehyde n-Hexyl alcohol Methyl n-butyl ketone

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-7 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Compound 1 Name Aluminum borohydride bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide Ammonia heavy Ammonium bromide carbamate chloride cyanide hydrogen sulfide iodide Antimony tribromide trichloride pentachloride triiodide trioxide Argon Arsenic Arsenic tribromide trichloride trifluoride pentafluoride trioxide Arsine Barium Beryllium borohydride bromide chloride iodide Bismuth tribromide trichloride Diborane hydrobromide Borine carbonyl triamine Boron hydrides dihydrodecaborane dihydrodiborane dihydropentaborane tetrahydropentaborane tetrahydrotetraborane Boron tribromide trichloride trifluoride Bromine pentafluoride Cadmium chloride fluoride iodide oxide Calcium Carbon (graphite) dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide oxysulfide selenosulfide subsulfide tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Cesium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Formula Al Al(BH4)3 AlBr3 Al2Cl6 AlF3 AlI3 Al2O3 NH3 ND3 NH4Br N2H6CO2 NH4Cl NH4CN NH4HS NH4I Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbI3 Sb4O6 A As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsF5 As2O3 AsH3 Ba Be(BH4)2 BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 B2H5Br BH3CO B3N3H6 B10H14 B2H6 B5H9 B5H11 B4H10 BBr3 BCl3 BF3 Br2 BrF5 Cd CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO Ca C CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CSeS C3S2 CBr4 CCl4 CF4 Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI 1284 81.3 100.0 1238 178.0 2148 −109.1 198.3 −26.1 160.4 −50.6 −51.1 210.9 886 93.9 49.2 22.7 163.6 574 −218.2 372 41.8 −11.4 −117.9 212.5 −142.6 +1.0 289 291 283 1021 −93.3 −139.2 −63.0 60.0 −159.7 −50.2 −90.9 −41.4 −91.5 −154.6 −48.7 −69.3 394 1112 416 1000 3586 −134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4 −47.3 14.0 −50.0 −184.6 279 748 744 712 738 1421 −52.2 103.8 116.4 1298 207.7 2306 −97.5 234.5 −10.4 193.8 −35.7 −36.0 247.0 984 126.0 71.4 48.6 203.8 626 −213.9 416 70.6 +11.7 −108.0 242.6 −130.8 984 19.8 325 328 322 1099 261 242 −75.3 −127.3 −45.0 80.8 −149.5 −40.4 −29.9 −73.1 −20.4 −75.2 −145.4 −32.8 −51.0 455 618 1231 481 1100 926 3828 −124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8 −26.5 41.2 −30.0 −174.1 341 838 837 798 828 1487 −42.9 118.0 123.8 1324 225.8 2385 −91.9 252.0 −2.9 209.8 −28.6 −28.7 263.5 1033 142.7 85.2 61.8 223.5 666 −210.9 437 85.2 +23.5 −103.1 259.7 −124.7 1049 28.1 342 346 341 1136 282 264 −66.3 −121.1 −35.3 90.2 −144.3 −30.7 −19.9 −64.3 −10.1 −66.9 −141.3 −25.0 −41.9 484 656 1286 512 1149 983 3946 −119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3 −16.0 54.9 −19.6 −169.3 375 887 884 844 873 1555 −32.5 134.0 131.8 1350 244.2 2465 −85.8 270.6 +5.3 226.1 −20.9 −20.8 282.8 1084 158.3 100.6 75.8 244.8 729 −207.9 459 101.3 36.0 −98.0 279.2 −117.7 1120 36.8 361 365 361 1177 305 287 −56.4 −114.1 −25.0 100.0 −138.5 −20.0 −9.2 −54.8 +1.5 −57.9 −136.4 −16.8 −32.0 516 695 1344 546 1200 1046 4069 −114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0 −4.4 69.3 −8.2 −164.3 409 938 934 893 923 5 10 20 Pressure, mm Hg 40 1635 −20.9 150.6 139.9 1378 265.0 2549 −79.2 290.0 14.0 245.0 −12.6 −12.3 302.8 1141 177.4 117.8 91.0 267.8 812 −204.9 483 118.7 50.0 −2.5 −92.4 299.2 −110.2 1195 46.2 379 384 382 1217 327 311 −45.4 −106.6 −13.2 117.4 −131.6 −8.0 +2.7 −44.3 14.0 −47.8 −131.0 −8.0 −21.0 553 736 1400 584 1257 1111 4196 −108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 +8.6 85.6 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 449 993 989 947 976 60 1684 −13.4 161.7 145.4 1398 277.8 2599 −74.3 −74.0 303.8 19.6 256.2 −7.4 −7.0 316.0 1176 188.1 128.3 101.0 282.5 873 −202.9 498 130.0 58.7 +4.2 −88.5 310.3 −104.8 1240 51.7 390 395 394 1240 340 324 −38.2 −101.9 −5.8 127.8 −127.2 −0.4 10.2 −37.4 22.1 −41.2 −127.6 −0.6 −14.0 578 762 1436 608 1295 1152 4273 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 17.0 96.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 474 1026 1023 980 1009 100 1749 −3.9 176.1 152.0 1422 294.5 2665 −68.4 −67.4 320.0 26.7 271.5 −0.5 0.0 331.8 1223 203.5 143.3 114.1 303.5 957 −200.5 518 145.2 70.9 13.2 −84.3 332.5 −98.0 1301 58.6 405 411 411 1271 360 343 −29.0 −95.3 +4.0 142.3 −120.9 +9.6 20.1 −28.1 33.5 −32.4 −123.0 +9.3 −4.5 611 797 1486 640 1341 1207 4373 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 28.3 109.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 509 1072 1069 1025 1055 200 1844 +11.2 199.8 161.8 1457 322.0 2766 −57.0 −57.0 345.3 37.2 293.2 +9.6 +10.5 355.8 1288 225.7 165.9 333.8 1085 −195.6 548 167.7 89.2 26.7 −75.5 370.0 −87.2 1403 69.0 427 435 435 1319 392 372 −15.4 −85.5 18.5 163.8 −111.2 24.6 34.8 −14.0 50.3 −18.9 −115.9 24.3 +9.9 658 847 1561 688 1409 1288 4516 −93.0 +10.4 −201.3 −49.8 −75.0 45.7 130.8 139.7 38.3 −143.6 561 1140 1139 1092 1124 400 1947 28.1 227.0 171.6 1496 354.0 2874 −45.4 −45.4 370.8 48.0 316.5 20.5 21.8 381.0 1364 250.2 192.2 368.5 1242 −190.6 579 193.6 109.7 41.4 −64.0 412.2 −75.2 1518 79.7 451 461 461 1370 425 405 0.0 −74.8 34.3 −99.6 40.8 51.2 +0.8 70.0 −3.6 −108.3 41.0 25.7 711 908 1651 742 1484 1388 4660 −85.7 28.0 −196.3 −35.6 −62.7 65.2 163.5 57.8 −135.5 624 1221 1217 1170 1200 760 2056 45.9 256.3 180.2 1537 385.5 2977 −33.6 −33.4 396.0 58.3 337.8 31.7 33.3 404.9 1440 275.0 219.0 401.0 1425 −185.6 610 220.0 130.4 56.3 −52.8 457.2 −62.1 1638 90.0 474 487 487 1420 461 441 +16.3 −64.0 50.6 −86.5 58.1 67.0 16.1 91.7 +12.7 −100.7 58.2 40.4 765 967 1751 796 1559 1487 4827 −78.2 46.5 −191.3 −21.9 −49.9 85.6 189.5 76.7 −127.7 690 1300 1300 1251 1280 Temperature, °C

2-57

Melting point, °C 660 −64. 97. 192.4 1040 2050 −77.7 −74.0 520 36 630.5 96.6 73.4 2.8 167 656 −189.2 814 −18 −5.9 −79.8 312.8 −116.3 850 123 490 405 488 271 218 230 −104.2 −137.0 −58.2 99.6 −169 −47.0 −119.9 −45 −107 −126.8 −7.3 −61.4 320.9 568 520 385 851 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 −75.2 +0.4 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 28.5 636 646 683 621

*Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947).

2-58

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Compound 1 Name Formula Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 HSO3Cl Cr Cr(CO)6 CrO2Cl2 CoCl2 Co(CO)3NO CbF5 Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 Cu2I2 C2N2 CNBr CNCl CNF DCN F2 F2O GeBr4 GeCl4 GeH4 GeHCl3 Ge(CH3)4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 Au He H2 HBr HCl HCN H2F2 HI H2O H2S HSSH H2Se H2Te I2 IF7 Fe Fe(CO)5 Fe2Cl6 FeCl2 Kr Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbO PbS Li LiBr LiCl LiF LiI Mg MgCl2 Mn MnCl2 Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 Mo MoF6 MoO3 −118.0 −98.5 −45.3 32.0 1616 36.0 −18.4 −106.7 −143.4 −80.4 −81.6 −23.8 53.5 1768 58.0 +3.2 −101.6 −139.0 −71.8 −73.1 −59.0 −13.2 64.0 1845 68.3 13.8 86.3 1879 718 702 656 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 −118.5 −46.7 −214.1 −182.3 56.8 −15.0 −145.3 −13.0 −45.2 −60.1 −0.9 2154 −271.3 −261.3 −121.8 −135.6 −47.7 −65.8 −102.3 11.2 −116.3 −15.2 −97.9 −75.4 73.2 −63.0 2039 +4.6 235.5 700 −187.2 1162 610 648 904 571 1085 975 881 888 932 1211 841 743 930 1505 778 184.0 179.8 180.2 204.5 3535 −40.8 814 −93.3 −134.3 −62.3 −64.3 −51.2 −2.1 75.3 1928 79.5 25.7 −1.3 103.0 1970 777 766 716 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 −112.8 −38.8 −211.0 −177.8 71.8 −4.1 −139.2 −3.0 −35.0 −49.9 +11.8 2256 −271.1 −260.4 −115.4 −130.0 −39.7 −56.0 −94.5 22.1 −109.7 −5.1 −91.8 −67.8 84.7 −54.5 2128 16.7 246.0 737 −182.9 1234 646 684 950 605 1134 1005 940 939 987 1270 883 789 988 1583 825 204.6 194.3 195.8 220.0 3690 −32.0 851 5 10 20 Pressure, mm Hg 40 −84.5 −128.8 −51.3 −54.3 −42.8 +10.3 87.6 2013 91.2 38.5 770 +11.0 121.5 2067 844 838 786 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 −106.4 −30.1 −207.7 −173.0 88.1 +8.0 −131.6 +8.8 −23.4 −38.2 26.3 2363 −270.7 −259.6 −108.3 −123.8 −30.9 −45.0 −85.6 34.0 −102.3 +6.0 −84.7 −59.1 97.5 −45.3 2224 30.3 256.8 779 −178.4 1309 686 725 1003 644 1189 1048 1003 994 1045 1333 927 838 1050 1666 879 228.8 211.5 212.5 238.2 3859 −22.1 892 60 −79.0 −125.3 −44.1 −48.0 −37.2 +18.2 95.2 2067 98.3 46.7 801 18.5 133.2 2127 887 886 836 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 −102.3 −24.7 −205.6 −170.0 98.8 16.2 −126.7 16.2 −16.2 −30.7 35.5 2431 −270.6 −258.9 −103.8 −119.6 −25.1 −37.9 −79.8 41.5 −97.9 12.8 −80.2 −53.7 105.4 −39.4 2283 39.1 263.7 805 −175.7 1358 711 750 1036 668 1222 1074 1042 1028 1081 1372 955 868 1088 1720 913 242.0 221.0 222.2 249.0 3964 −16.2 917 100 −71.7 −120.8 −34.7 −39.4 −29.4 29.1 105.3 2139 108.0 58.0 843 29.0 148.5 2207 951 960 907 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 −97.0 −17.5 −202.7 −165.8 113.2 27.5 −120.3 26.5 −6.3 −20.3 47.9 2521 −270.3 −257.9 −97.7 −114.0 −17.8 −28.2 −72.1 51.6 −91.6 22.0 −74.2 −45.7 116.5 −31.9 2360 50.3 272.5 842 −171.8 1421 745 784 1080 701 1265 1108 1097 1076 1129 1425 993 909 1142 1792 960 261.7 237.8 237.0 261.8 4109 −8.0 955 200 −60.2 −114.4 −20.7 −26.5 −17.8 44.6 120.0 2243 121.8 75.2 904 44.4 172.2 2325 1052 1077 1018 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 −89.2 −5.4 −198.3 −159.0 135.4 44.4 −111.2 41.6 +8.8 −4.7 67.0 2657 −269.8 −256.3 −88.1 −105.2 −5.3 −13.2 −60.3 66.5 −82.3 35.3 −65.2 −32.4 137.3 −20.7 2475 68.0 285.0 897 −165.9 1519 796 833 1144 750 1330 1160 1178 1147 1203 1503 1049 967 1223 1900 1028 290.7 262.7 256.5 291.0 4322 +4.1 1014 400 −47.3 −107.0 −4.9 −12.5 −4.0 62.2 136.1 2361 137.2 95.2 974 62.0 198.0 2465 1189 1249 1158 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 −80.5 +10.0 −193.2 −151.9 161.6 63.8 −100.2 58.3 26.0 +13.3 88.6 2807 −269.3 −254.5 −78.0 −95.3 +10.2 +2.5 −48.3 83.0 −71.8 49.6 −53.6 −17.2 159.8 −8.3 2605 86.1 298.0 961 −159.0 1630 856 893 1219 807 1402 1221 1273 1226 1290 1591 1110 1034 1316 2029 1108 323.0 290.0 275.5 324.2 4553 17.2 1082 760 −33.8 −100.5 +11.5 +2.2 +11.1 78.8 151.0 2482 151.0 117.1 1050 80.0 225.0 2595 1355 1490 1336 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 −72.6 26.2 −187.9 −144.6 189.0 84.0 −88.9 75.0 44.0 31.5 110.8 2966 −268.6 −252.5 −66.5 −84.8 25.9 19.7 −35.1 100.0 −60.4 64.0 −41.1 −2.0 183.0 +4.0 2735 105.0 319.0 1026 −152.0 1744 914 954 1293 872 1472 1281 1372 1310 1382 1681 1171 1107 1418 2151 1190 357.0 319.0 304.0 354.0 4804 36.0 1151 Temperature, °C Melting point, °C −100.7 −145 −83 −116 −59 −91 −80 1615 735 −11 75.5 1083 504 422 605 −34.4 58 −6.5 −12 −223 −223.9 26.1 −49.5 −165 −71.1 −88 −109 −105.6 1063 −259.1 −87.0 −114.3 −13.2 −83.7 −50.9 0.0 −85.5 −89.7 −64 −49.0 112.9 5.5 1535 −21 304 −156.7 327.5 373 501 855 402 890 1114 186 547 614 870 446 651 712 1260 650 −38.9 237 277 259 2622 17 795

TABLE 2-7

Chlorine fluoride trifluoride monoxide dioxide heptoxide Chlorosulfonic acid Chromium carbonyl oxychloride Cobalt chloride nitrosyl tricarbonyl Columbium fluoride Copper Cuprous bromide chloride iodide Cyanogen bromide chloride fluoride Deuterium cyanide Fluorine oxide Germanium bromide chloride hydride Trichlorogermane Tetramethylgermane Digermane Trigermane Gold Helium para-Hydrogen Hydrogen bromide chloride cyanide fluoride iodide oxide (water) sulfide disulfide selenide telluride Iodine heptafluoride Iron pentacarbonyl Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Krypton Lead bromide chloride fluoride iodide oxide sulfide Lithium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Magnesium chloride Manganese chloride Mercury Mercuric bromide chloride iodide Molybdenum hexafluoride oxide

1628 572 546 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 −134.4 −68.9 −223.0 −196.1 −45.0 −163.0 −41.3 −73.2 −88.7 −36.9 1869 −271.7 −263.3 −138.8 −150.8 −71.0 −123.3 −17.3 −134.3 −43.2 −115.3 −96.4 38.7 −87.0 1787 194.0 −199.3 973 513 547 479 943 852 723 748 783 1047 723 621 778 1292 126.2 136.5 136.2 157.5 3102 −65.5 734

1795 666 645 610 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 −123.8 −54.0 −216.9 −186.6 43.3 −24.9 −151.0 −22.3 −54.6 −69.8 −12.8 2059 −271.5 −261.9 −127.4 −140.7 −55.3 −74.7 −109.6 +1.2 −122.4 −24.4 −103.4 −82.4 62.2 −70.7 1957 −6.5 221.8 −191.3 1099 578 615 861 540 1039 928 838 840 880 1156 802 702 877 1434 736 164.8 165.3 166.0 189.2 3393 −49.0 785

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-7 Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Compound 1 Name Neon Nickel carbonyl chloride Nitrogen Nitric oxide Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen pentoxide Nitrous oxide Nitrosyl chloride fluoride Osmium tetroxide (yellow) (white) Oxygen Ozone Phosgene Phosphorus (yellow) (violet) tribromide trichloride pentachloride Phosphine Phosphonium bromide chloride iodide Phosphorus trioxide pentoxide oxychloride thiobromide thiochloride Platinum Potassium bromide chloride fluoride hydroxide iodide Radon Rhenium heptoxide Rubidium bromide chloride fluoride iodide Selenium dioxide hexafluoride oxychloride tetrachloride Silicon dioxide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Trichlorofluorosilane Iodosilane Diiodosilane Disiloxan Trisilane Trisilazane Tetrasilane Octachlorotrisilane Hexachlorodisiloxane Hexachlorodisilane Tribromosilane Trichlorosilane Trifluorosilane Dibromosilane Difluorosilane Monobromosilane Monochlorosilane Monofluorosilane Tribromofluorosilane Dichlorodifluorosilane Trifluorobromosilane Formula Ne Ni Ni(CO)4 NiCl2 N2 NO NO2 N2O5 N2O NOCl NOF OsO4 OsO4 O2 O3 COCl2 P P PBr3 PCl3 PCl5 PH3 PH4Br PH4Cl PH4I P4O6 P4O10 POCl3 PSBr3 PSCl3 Pt K KBr KCl KF KOH KI Rn Re2O7 Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI Se SeO2 SeF6 SeOCl2 SeCl4 Si SiO2 SiCl4 SiF4 SiFCl3 SiH3I SiH2I2 (SiH3)2O Si3H8 (SiH3)3N Si4H10 Si3Cl3 (SiCl3)2O Si2Cl6 SiHBr3 SiHCl3 SiHF3 SiH2Br2 SiH2F2 SiH3Br SiH3Cl SiH3F SiFBr3 SiF2Cl2 SiF3Br −257.3 1810 671 −226.1 −184.5 −55.6 −36.8 −143.4 −132.0 3.2 −5.6 −219.1 −180.4 −92.9 76.6 237 7.8 −51.6 55.5 −43.7 −91.0 −25.2 384 50.0 −18.3 2730 341 795 821 885 719 745 −144.2 212.5 297 781 792 921 748 356 157.0 −118.6 34.8 74.0 1724 −63.4 −144.0 −92.6 −112.5 −68.9 −68.7 −27.7 46.3 −5.0 +4.0 −30.5 −80.7 −152.0 −60.9 −146.7 −117.8 −153.0 −46.1 −124.7 −255.5 1979 731 −221.3 −180.6 −42.7 −23.0 −133.4 −120.3 22.0 +15.6 −213.4 −168.6 −77.0 111.2 271 34.4 −31.5 74.0 −28.5 −79.6 −9.0 39.7 424 72.4 +4.6 3007 408 892 919 988 814 840 −132.4 237.5 358 876 887 982 839 413 187.7 −105.2 59.8 96.3 1835 −44.1 −134.8 −76.4 −53.0 3.8 −95.8 −49.7 −49.9 −6.2 74.7 17.8 27.4 −8.0 −62.6 −142.7 −40.0 −136.0 −85.7 −104.3 −145.5 −25.4 −110.5 −254.6 2057 759 −219.1 −178.2 −36.7 −16.7 −128.7 −114.3 31.3 26.0 −210.6 −163.2 −69.3 128.0 287 47.8 −21.3 83.2 −21.2 −74.0 −1.1 53.0 442 2.0 83.6 16.1 3146 443 940 968 1039 863 887 −126.3 248.0 389 923 937 1016 884 442 202.5 −98.9 71.9 107.4 1888 1732 −34.4 −130.4 −68.3 −47.7 18.0 −88.2 −40.0 −40.4 +4.3 89.3 29.4 38.8 +3.4 −53.4 −138.2 −29.4 −130.4 −77.3 −97.7 −141.2 −15.1 −102.9 −253.7 2143 789 −216.8 −175.3 −30.4 −10.0 −124.0 −107.8 41.0 37.4 −207.5 −157.2 −60.3 146.2 306 62.4 −10.2 92.5 −13.3 −68.0 +7.3 67.8 462 13.6 95.5 29.0 3302 483 994 1020 1096 918 938 −119.2 261.0 422 975 990 1052 935 473 217.5 −92.3 84.2 118.1 1942 1798 −24.0 −125.9 −59.0 −33.4 34.1 −79.8 −29.0 −30.0 15.8 104.2 41.5 51.5 16.0 −43.8 −132.9 −18.0 −124.3 −68.3 −90.1 −136.3 −3.7 −94.5 5 10 20 Pressure, mm Hg 40 −252.6 2234 −23.0 821 −214.0 −171.7 −23.9 −2.9 −118.3 −60.2 −100.3 51.7 50.5 −204.1 −150.7 −50.3 166.7 323 79.0 +2.3 102.5 −129.4 −5.0 −61.5 16.1 84.0 481 27.3 108.0 42.7 3469 524 1050 1078 1156 976 995 −111.3 272.0 459 1031 1047 1096 991 506 234.1 −84.7 98.0 130.1 2000 1867 −12.1 −120.8 −48.8 −21.8 52.6 −70.4 −16.9 −18.5 28.4 121.5 55.2 65.3 30.0 −32.9 −127.3 −5.2 −117.6 −57.8 −81.8 −130.8 +9.2 −85.0 60 −251.9 2289 −15.9 840 −212.3 −168.9 −19.9 +1.8 −114.9 −54.2 −95.7 59.4 59.4 −201.9 −146.7 −44.0 179.8 334 89.8 10.2 108.3 −125.0 +0.3 −57.3 21.9 94.2 493 35.8 116.0 51.8 3574 550 1087 1115 1193 1013 1030 −106.2 280.0 482 1066 1084 1123 1026 527 244.6 −80.0 106.5 137.8 2036 1911 −4.8 −117.5 −42.2 −14.3 64.0 −64.2 −9.0 −11.0 36.6 132.0 63.8 73.9 39.2 −25.8 −123.7 +3.2 −113.3 −51.1 −76.0 −127.2 17.4 −78.6 100 −251.0 2364 −6.0 866 −209.7 −166.0 −14.7 7.4 −110.3 −46.3 −88.8 71.5 71.5 −198.8 −141.0 −35.6 197.3 349 103.6 21.0 117.0 −118.8 7.4 −52.0 29.3 108.3 510 47.4 126.3 63.8 3714 586 1137 1164 1245 1064 1080 −99.0 289.0 514 1114 1133 1168 1072 554 258.0 −73.9 118.0 147.5 2083 1969 +5.4 −113.3 −33.2 −4.4 79.4 −55.9 +1.6 −1.1 47.4 146.0 75.4 85.4 51.6 −16.4 −118.7 14.1 −107.3 −42.3 −68.5 −122.4 28.6 −70.3 200 −249.7 2473 +8.8 904 −205.6 −162.3 −5.0 15.6 −103.6 −34.0 −79.2 89.5 89.5 −194.0 −132.6 −22.3 222.7 370 125.2 37.6 131.3 −109.4 17.6 −44.0 39.9 129.0 532 65.0 141.8 82.0 3923 643 1212 1239 1323 1142 1152 −87.7 307.0 563 1186 1207 1239 1141 594 277.0 −64.8 134.6 161.0 2151 2053 21.0 −170.2 −19.3 +10.7 101.8 −43.5 17.8 +14.0 63.6 166.2 92.5 102.2 70.2 −1.8 −111.3 31.6 −98.3 −28.6 −57.0 −115.2 45.7 −58.0 −69.8 400 −248.1 2603 25.8 945 −200.9 −156.8 +8.0 24.4 −96.2 −20.3 −68.2 109.3 109.3 −188.8 −122.5 −7.6 251.0 391 149.7 56.9 147.2 −98.3 28.0 −35.4 51.6 150.3 556 84.3 157.8 102.3 4169 708 1297 1322 1411 1233 1238 −75.0 336.0 620 1267 1294 1322 1223 637 297.7 −55.2 151.7 176.4 2220 2141 38.4 −100.7 −4.0 27.9 125.5 −29.3 35.5 31.0 81.7 189.5 113.6 120.6 90.2 +14.5 −102.8 50.7 −87.6 −13.3 −44.5 −106.8 64.6 −45.0 −55.9 760 −246.0 2732 42.5 987 −195.8 −151.7 21.0 32.4 −85.5 −6.4 −56.0 130.0 130.0 −183.1 −111.1 +8.3 280.0 417 175.3 74.2 162.0 −87.5 38.3 −27.0 62.3 173.1 591 105.1 175.0 124.0 4407 774 1383 1407 1502 1327 1324 −61.8 362.4 679 1352 1381 1408 1304 680 317.0 −45.8 168.0 191.5 2287 2227 56.8 −94.8 +12.2 45.4 149.5 −15.4 53.1 48.7 100.0 211.4 135.6 139.0 111.8 31.8 −95.0 70.5 −77.8 +2.4 −30.4 −98.0 83.8 −31.8 −41.7 Temperature, °C

2-59

Melting point, °C −248.7 1452 −25 1001 −210.0 −161 −9.3 30 −90.9 −64.5 −134 56 42 −218.7 −251 −104 44.1 590 −40 −111.8 −132.5 −28.5 22.5 569 2 38 −36.2 1755 62.3 730 790 880 380 723 −71 296 38.5 682 715 760 642 217 340 −34.7 8.5 1420 1710 −68.8 −90 −120.8 −57.0 −1.0 −144.2 −117.2 −105.7 −93.6 −33.2 −1.2 −73.5 −126.6 −131.4 −70.2 −93.9 −82.5 −139.7 −70.5

2-60

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Concluded ) Compound 1 Name Formula SiF3Cl Si2F6 SiFCl2Br SiFClBr2 SiH4 Si2H6 Ag AgCl AgI Na NaBr NaCl NaCN NaF NaOH NaI Sr SrO S S2Cl2 SF6 SO2Cl2 SO2 SO3 SO3 SO3 Te TeCl4 TeF6 Tl TlBr TlCl TlI SOBr2 SOCl2 Sn SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 SnI4 SnH4 Sn(CH3)4 Sn(CH3)3·C2H5 Sn(CH3)3·C3H7 TiCl4 W WF6 UF6 VOCl3 Xe Zn ZnCl2 ZnF2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4 −144.0 −81.0 −86.5 −65.2 −179.3 −114.8 1357 912 820 439 806 865 817 1077 739 767 2068 183.8 −7.4 −132.7 −95.5 −39.0 −34.0 −15.3 520 −111.3 825 440 −6.7 −52.9 1492 316 −22.7 −140.0 −51.3 −30.0 −12.0 −13.9 3990 −71.4 −38.8 −23.2 −168.5 487 428 970 −22.4 207 190 264 −133.0 −68.8 −68.4 −45.5 −168.6 −99.3 1500 1019 927 511 903 967 928 1186 843 857 847 2198 223.0 +15.7 −120.6 −35.1 −83.0 −23.7 −19.2 −2.0 605 −98.8 931 490 487 502 +18.4 −32.4 1634 58.3 366 −1.0 156.0 −125.8 −31.0 −7.6 +10.7 +9.4 4337 −56.5 −22.0 +0.2 −158.2 558 481 1055 0.0 237 217 297 −127.0 −63.1 −59.0 −35.6 −163.0 −91.4 1575 1074 983 549 952 1017 983 1240 897 903 898 2262 243.8 27.5 −114.7 −24.8 −76.8 −16.5 −12.3 +4.3 650 233 −92.4 983 522 517 531 31.0 −21.9 1703 72.7 391 +10.0 175.8 −118.5 −20.6 +3.8 21.8 21.3 4507 −49.2 −13.8 12.2 −152.8 593 508 1086 +11.7 250 230 311 −120.5 −57.0 −48.8 −24.5 −156.9 −82.7 1658 1134 1045 589 1005 1072 1046 1300 953 952 953 2333 264.7 40.0 −108.4 −13.4 −69.7 −9.1 −4.9 11.1 697 253 −86.0 1040 559 550 567 44.1 −10.5 1777 88.1 420 22.0 196.2 −111.2 −9.3 16.1 34.0 34.2 4690 −41.5 −5.2 26.6 −147.1 632 536 1129 24.2 266 243 329 5 10 20 Pressure, mm Hg 40 −112.8 −50.6 −37.0 −12.0 −150.3 −72.8 1743 1200 1111 633 1063 1131 1115 1363 1017 1005 1018 2410 288.3 54.1 −101.5 −1.0 −60.5 −1.0 +3.2 17.9 753 273 −78.4 1103 598 589 607 58.8 +2.2 1855 105.5 450 35.2 218.8 −102.3 +3.5 30.0 48.5 48.4 4886 −33.0 +4.4 40.0 −141.2 673 566 1175 38.0 281 259 344 60 −108.2 −46.7 −29.0 −4.7 −146.3 −66.4 1795 1242 1152 662 1099 1169 1156 1403 1057 1039 1057 305.5 63.2 −96.8 +7.2 −54.6 +4.0 8.0 21.4 789 287 −73.8 1143 621 612 631 68.3 10.4 1903 116.2 467 43.5 234.2 −96.6 11.7 38.4 57.5 58.0 5007 −27.5 10.4 49.8 −137.7 700 584 1207 47.2 289 268 355 100 −101.7 −41.7 −19.5 +6.3 −140.5 −57.5 1865 1297 1210 701 1148 1220 1214 1455 1111 1083 1111 327.2 75.3 −90.9 17.8 −46.9 10.5 14.3 28.0 838 304 −67.9 1196 653 645 663 80.6 21.4 1968 131.0 493 54.7 254.2 −89.2 22.8 50.0 69.8 71.0 5168 −20.3 18.2 62.5 −132.8 736 610 1254 59.1 301 279 369 200 −91.7 −34.2 −3.2 23.0 −131.6 −44.6 1971 1379 1297 758 1220 1296 1302 1531 1192 1150 1192 359.7 93.5 −82.3 33.7 −35.4 20.5 23.7 35.8 910 330 −57.3 1274 703 694 712 99.0 37.9 2063 152.8 533 72.0 283.5 −78.0 39.8 67.3 88.0 90.5 5403 −10.0 30.0 82.0 −125.4 788 648 1329 77.0 318 295 389 400 −81.0 −26.4 +15.4 43.0 −122.0 −29.0 2090 1467 1400 823 1304 1379 1401 1617 1286 1225 1285 399.6 115.4 −72.6 51.3 −23.0 32.6 32.6 44.0 997 360 −48.2 1364 759 748 763 119.2 56.5 2169 177.7 577 92.1 315.5 −65.2 58.5 87.6 109.6 112.7 5666 +1.2 42.7 103.5 −117.1 844 689 1417 97.3 337 312 409 760 −70.0 −18.9 35.4 59.5 −111.5 −14.3 2212 1564 1506 892 1392 1465 1497 1704 1378 1304 1384 444.6 138.0 −63.5 69.2 −10.0 44.8 44.8 51.6 1087 392 −38.6 1457 819 807 823 139.5 75.4 2270 204.7 623 113.0 348.0 −52.3 78.0 108.8 131.7 136.0 5927 17.3 55.7 127.2 −108.0 907 732 1497 118.0 357 331 431 Temperature, °C Melting point, °C −142 −18.6 −112.3 −99.3 −185 −132.6 960.5 455 552 97.5 755 800 564 992 318 651 800 2430 112.8 −80 −50.2 −54.1 −73.2 16.8 32.3 62.1 452 224 −37.8 3035 460 430 440 −52.2 −104.5 231.9 31.0 246.8 −30.2 144.5 −149.9

TABLE 2-7

Trifluorochlorosilane Hexafluorodisilane Dichlorofluorobromosilane Dibromochlorofluorosilane Silane Disilane Silver chloride iodide Sodium bromide chloride cyanide fluoride hydroxide iodide Strontium Strontium oxide Sulfur monochloride hexafluoride Sulfuryl chloride Sulfur dioxide trioxide (α) trioxide (β) trioxide (γ) Tellurium chloride fluoride Thallium Thallous bromide chloride iodide Thionyl bromide Thionyl chloride Tin Stannic bromide Stannous chloride Stannic chloride iodide hydride Tin tetramethyl trimethyl-ethyl trimethyl-propyl Titanium chloride Tungsten Tungsten hexafluoride Uranium hexafluoride Vanadyl trichloride Xenon Zinc chloride fluoride diethyl Zirconium bromide chloride iodide

−30 3370 −0.5 69.2 −111.6 419.4 365 872 −28 450 437 499

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Acenaphthalene Acetal Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetanilide Acetic acid anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl chloride Acetylene Acridine Acrolein (2-propenal) Acrylic acid Adipic acid Allene (propadiene) Allyl alcohol (propen-1-ol-3) chloride (3-chloropropene) isopropyl ether isothiocyanate n-propyl ether 4-Allylveratrole iso-Amyl acetate n-Amyl alcohol iso-Amyl alcohol sec-Amyl alcohol (2-pentanol) tert-Amyl alcohol sec-Amylbenzene iso-Amyl benzoate bromide (1-bromo-3-methylbutane) n-butyrate formate iodide (1-iodo-3-methylbutane) isobutyrate Amyl isopropionate iso-Amyl isovalerate n-Amyl levulinate iso-Amyl levulinate nitrate 4-tert-Amylphenol Anethole Angelonitrile Aniline 2-Anilinoethanol Anisaldehyde o-Anisidine (2-methoxyaniline) Anthracene Anthraquinone Azelaic acid Azelaldehyde Azobenzene Benzal chloride (α,α-Dichlorotoluene) Benzaldehyde Benzanthrone Benzene Benzenesulfonylchloride Benzil Benzoic acid anhydride Benzoin Benzonitrile Benzophenone Benzotrichloride (α,α,α-Trichlorotoluene) Benzotrifluoride (α,α,α-Trifluorotoluene) Benzoyl bromide chloride nitrile Benzyl acetate alcohol Formula C12H10 C6H14O2 C2H4O C2H5NO C8H9NO C2H4O2 C4H6O3 C3H6O C2H3N C8H8O C2H3OCl C2H2 C13H9N C3H4O C3H4O2 C6H10O4 C3H4 C3H6O C3H5Cl C6H12O C4H5NS C6H12O C11H14O2 C7H14O2 C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C11H16 C12H16O2 C5H11Br C9H18O2 C6H12O2 C5H11I C9H18O2 C8H16O2 C10H20O2 C10H18O3 C10H18O3 C5H11NO3 C11H16O C10H12O C5H7N C6H7N C8H11NO C8H8O2 C7H9NO C14H10 C14H8O2 C9H16O4 C9H18O C12H10N2 C7H6Cl2 C7H6O C17H10O C6H6 C6H5ClO2S C14H10O2 C7H6O2 C14H10O3 C14H12O2 C7H5N C13H10O C7H5Cl3 C7H5F3 C7H5BrO C7H5ClO C8H5NO C9H10O2 C7H8O −23.0 −81.5 65.0 114.0 −17.2 1.7 −59.4 −47.0 37.1 −50.0 −142.9 129.4 −64.5 +3.5 159.5 −120.6 −20.0 −70.0 −43.7 −2.0 −39.0 85.0 0.0 +13.6 +10.0 +1.5 −12.9 29.0 72.0 −20.4 21.2 −17.5 −2.5 14.8 +8.5 27.0 81.3 75.6 +5.2 62.6 −8.0 34.8 104.0 73.2 61.0 145.0 190.0 178.3 33.3 103.5 35.4 26.2 225.0 −36.7 65.9 128.4 96.0 143.8 135.6 28.2 108.2 45.8 −32.0 47.0 32.1 44.5 45.0 58.0 114.8 −2.3 −65.1 92.0 146.6 +6.3 24.8 −40.5 −26.6 64.0 −35.0 −133.0 165.8 −46.0 27.3 191.0 −108.0 +0.2 −52.0 −23.1 +25.3 −18.2 113.9 +23.7 34.7 30.9 22.1 +7.2 55.8 104.5 +2.1 47.1 +5.4 +21.9 40.1 33.7 54.4 110.0 104.0 28.8 109.8 91.6 +15.0 57.9 134.3 102.6 88.0 173.5 219.4 210.4 58.4 135.7 64.0 50.1 274.5 −19.6 96.5 165.2 119.5 180.0 170.2 55.3 141.7 73.7 −10.3 75.4 59.1 71.7 73.4 80.8 131.2 +8.0 −56.8 105.0 162.0 17.5 36.0 −31.1 −16.3 78.0 −27.6 −128.2 184.0 −36.7 39.0 205.5 −101.0 10.5 −42.9 −12.9 38.3 −7.9 127.0 35.2 44.9 40.8 32.2 17.2 69.2 121.6 13.6 59.9 17.1 34.1 52.8 46.3 68.6 124.0 118.8 40.3 125.5 106.0 28.0 69.4 149.6 117.8 101.7 187.2 234.2 225.5 71.6 151.5 78.7 62.0 297.2 −11.5 112.0 183.0 132.1 198.0 188.1 69.2 157.6 87.6 −0.4 89.8 73.0 85.5 87.6 92.6 148.7 19.6 −47.8 120.0 180.0 29.9 48.3 −20.8 −5.0 92.4 −19.6 −122.8 203.5 −26.3 52.0 222.0 −93.4 21.7 −32.8 −1.8 52.1 +3.7 142.8 47.8 55.8 51.7 42.6 27.9 83.8 139.7 26.1 74.0 30.0 47.6 66.6 60.0 83.8 139.7 134.4 53.5 142.3 121.8 41.0 82.0 165.7 133.5 116.1 201.9 248.3 242.4 85.0 168.3 94.3 75.0 322.5 −2.6 129.0 202.8 146.7 218.0 207.0 83.4 175.8 102.7 12.2 105.4 87.6 100.2 102.3 105.8 1 5 10 20 40 168.2 31.9 −37.8 135.8 199.6 43.0 62.1 −9.4 +7.7 109.4 −10.4 −116.7 224.2 −15.0 66.2 240.5 −85.2 33.4 −21.2 +10.9 67.4 16.4 158.3 62.1 68.0 63.4 54.1 38.8 100.0 158.3 39.8 90.0 44.0 62.3 81.8 75.5 100.6 155.8 151.7 67.6 160.3 139.3 55.8 96.7 183.7 150.5 132.0 217.5 264.3 260.0 100.2 187.9 112.1 90.1 350.0 +7.6 147.7 224.5 162.6 239.8 227.6 99.6 195.7 119.8 25.7 122.6 103.8 116.6 119.6 119.8 60 181.2 39.8 −31.4 145.8 211.8 51.7 70.8 −2.0 15.9 119.8 −4.5 −112.8 238.7 −7.5 75.0 251.0 −78.8 40.3 −14.1 18.7 76.2 25.0 169.6 71.0 75.5 71.0 61.5 46.0 110.4 171.4 48.7 99.8 53.3 71.9 91.7 85.2 110.3 165.2 162.6 76.3 172.6 149.8 65.2 106.0 194.0 161.7 142.1 231.8 273.3 271.8 110.0 199.8 123.4 99.6 368.8 15.4 158.2 238.2 172.8 252.7 241.7 109.8 208.2 130.0 34.0 133.4 114.7 127.0 129.8 129.3 100 197.5 50.1 −22.6 158.0 227.2 63.0 82.2 +7.7 27.0 133.6 +3.2 −107.9 256.0 +2.5 86.1 265.0 −72.5 50.0 −4.5 29.0 89.5 35.8 183.7 83.2 85.8 80.7 70.7 55.3 124.1 186.8 60.4 113.1 65.4 84.4 104.4 97.6 125.1 180.5 177.0 88.6 189.0 164.2 77.5 119.9 209.5 176.7 155.2 250.0 285.0 286.5 123.0 216.0 138.3 112.5 390.0 26.1 174.5 255.8 186.2 270.4 258.0 123.5 224.4 144.3 45.3 147.7 128.0 141.0 144.0 141.7 200 222.1 66.3 −10.0 178.3 250.5 80.0 100.0 22.7 43.7 154.2 16.1 −100.3 284.0 17.5 103.3 287.8 −61.3 64.5 10.4 44.3 108.0 52.6 204.0 101.3 102.0 95.8 85.7 69.7 145.2 210.2 78.7 133.2 83.2 103.8 124.2 117.3 146.1 203.1 198.1 106.7 213.0 186.1 96.3 140.1 230.6 199.0 175.3 279.0 314.6 309.6 142.1 240.0 160.7 131.7 426.5 42.2 198.0 283.5 205.8 299.1 284.4 144.1 249.8 165.6 62.5 169.2 149.5 161.3 165.5 160.0 400 250.0 84.0 +4.9 200.0 277.0 99.0 119.8 39.5 62.5 178.0 32.0 −92.0 314.3 34.5 122.0 312.5 −48.5 80.2 27.5 61.7 129.8 71.4 226.2 121.5 119.8 113.7 102.3 85.7 168.0 235.8 99.4 155.3 102.7 125.8 146.0 138.4 169.5 227.4 222.7 126.5 239.5 210.5 117.7 161.9 254.5 223.0 197.3 310.2 346.2 332.8 163.4 266.1 187.0 154.1 60.6 224.0 314.3 227.0 328.8 313.5 166.7 276.8 189.2 82.0 193.7 172.8 185.0 189.0 183.0 760 277.5 102.2 20.2 222.0 303.8 118.1 139.6 56.5 81.8 202.4 50.8 −84.0 346.0 52.5 141.0 337.5 −35.0 96.6 44.6 79.5 150.7 90.5 248.0 142.0 137.8 130.6 119.7 101.7 193.0 262.0 120.4 178.6 123.3 148.2 168.8 160.2 194.0 253.2 247.9 147.5 266.0 235.3 140.0 184.4 279.6 248.0 218.5 342.0 379.9 356.5 185.0 293.0 214.0 179.0 80.1 251.5 347.0 249.2 360.0 343.0 190.6 305.4 213.5 102.2 218.5 197.2 208.0 213.5 204.7 Temperature, °C

2-61

Melting point, °C 95 −123.5 81 113.5 16.7 −73 −94.6 −41 20.5 −112.0 −81.5 110.5 −87.7 14 152 −136 −129 −136.4 −80

−117.2 −11.9

93 22.5 −6.2 2.5 5.2 217.5 286 106.5 68 −16.1 −26 174 +5.5 14.5 95 121.7 42 132 −12.9 48.5 −21.2 −29.3 0 −0.5 33.5 −51.5 −15.3

*Compiled from the extended tables published by D. R. Stull in Ind. Eng. Chem., 39, 517 (1947). For information on fuels see Hibbard, N.A.C.A. Research Mem. E56I21, 1956. For methane see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960.

2-62

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C7H9N C7H7Br C7H7Cl C16H14O2 C7H8Cl2Si C9H12O C13H12O C8H7NS C12H10 C15H14O2 C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C14H24O2 C13H22O2 C22H42O2 C2H3BrO2 C7H7BrO C6H5Br C12H9Br C4H9BrO C4H7BrO C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C4H7Br C6H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C2H4BrCl C6H3BrCl2O C8H9Br C8H9Br C4H8BrClO C8H15Br C2H3Br CHBr3 C10H7Br C12H9BrO C5H4BrN C7H7Br C7H7Br C7H7Br C6H2BrCl3O C8H9Br C4H6 C4H6 C4H10 C4H10 C4H10O2 C4H10O3 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H5N C6H12O2 C7H12O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H10O C4H11N C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H14O2 C4H9Br C8H16O2 C5H11NO2 C8H18O3 C4H9Cl C4H9Cl 29.0 32.2 22.0 173.8 45.3 26.0 95.4 79.5 70.6 135.3 46.9 74.0 47.0 70.0 64.6 209.6 54.7 48.8 +2.9 98.0 23.7 +6.2 −44.0 −38.4 −47.3 −39.0 −45.0 32.0 −36.0 −28.8 84.0 30.4 48.0 36.5 38.7 −95.4 84.2 100.0 16.8 24.4 14.8 10.3 112.4 37.5 −89.0 −102.8 −101.5 −109.2 22.2 102.0 −104.8 −96.4 −99.4 −19.6 −21.2 −0.5 −1.2 −9.0 −12.2 −20.4 −50.0 22.7 14.1 18.6 13.0 64.0 −33.0 +4.6 70.0 −49.0 −53.8 54.8 59.6 47.8 206.3 70.2 52.0 127.7 107.8 101.8 169.9 75.7 103.4 74.8 99.8 93.7 241.7 81.6 77.8 27.8 133.7 45.4 30.0 −23.2 −17.0 −27.0 −17.9 −24.1 59.5 −18.0 −7.0 115.6 42.5 76.2 63.2 66.6 −77.8 22.0 117.5 135.4 42.0 49.7 50.8 47.5 146.2 65.0 −72.7 −87.6 −85.7 −94.1 67.5 132.0 −89.4 −81.1 −84.0 +2.9 +1.4 +23.5 +20.0 +11.6 +7.2 −3.0 −31.0 48.8 40.5 44.2 39.0 93.6 −11.2 30.0 83.7 95.7 −28.9 −34.3 67.7 73.4 60.8 221.5 83.2 65.0 144.0 121.8 117.0 187.2 90.2 118.0 89.3 114.0 108.0 256.0 94.1 91.9 40.0 150.6 55.8 41.8 −12.8 −6.4 −16.8 −7.2 −13.8 72.7 −9.4 +4.1 130.8 74.0 90.5 76.3 80.5 −68.8 34.0 133.6 152.3 55.2 62.3 64.0 61.1 163.2 78.8 −64.2 −79.7 −77.8 −86.4 85.3 146.0 −81.6 −73.4 −76.3 14.1 12.8 35.5 30.2 21.7 16.9 +5.5 −21.0 62.0 53.7 57.0 51.7 108.6 −0.3 42.2 96.4 107.8 −18.6 −24.5 81.8 88.3 75.0 239.3 96.7 79.6 160.7 137.0 134.2 205.8 106.0 133.8 104.0 130.0 123.7 272.9 108.2 107.8 53.8 169.8 67.2 54.2 −1.4 +5.4 −5.3 +4.6 −2.4 87.8 0.0 16.0 147.7 90.2 105.8 90.8 95.8 −58.8 48.0 150.2 171.8 69.1 76.0 78.1 75.2 181.8 94.0 −54.9 −71.0 −68.9 −77.9 100.0 161.0 −73.0 −64.6 −67.5 26.6 25.5 48.6 41.5 32.4 27.3 14.3 −10.3 76.3 67.8 70.6 65.6 124.2 +11.6 56.1 110.1 120.5 −7.4 −13.8 1 5 10 20 40 97.3 104.8 90.7 255.8 111.8 95.4 180.1 153.0 152.5 226.3 123.7 150.7 121.2 147.2 140.4 290.0 124.0 125.0 68.6 190.8 79.5 68.2 +11.5 18.4 +7.2 17.7 +10.5 103.8 +10.4 29.7 165.8 108.5 123.2 106.6 113.0 −48.1 63.6 170.2 193.8 84.1 91.0 93.9 91.8 200.5 110.6 −44.3 −61.3 −59.1 −68.4 117.4 178.0 −63.4 −54.7 −57.6 40.0 39.2 63.4 53.4 44.1 38.1 24.5 +1.3 92.4 83.3 86.2 80.8 141.8 24.8 71.7 125.3 135.5 +5.0 −1.9 60 107.3 115.6 100.5 267.0 121.3 105.5 192.6 163.8 165.2 239.7 135.7 161.8 131.7 157.6 151.2 301.5 133.8 136.0 78.1 204.5 87.0 77.3 19.8 27.2 15.4 26.2 18.7 114.8 17.0 38.0 177.6 121.0 133.8 116.4 123.7 −41.2 73.4 183.5 207.0 94.1 100.0 104.1 102.3 213.0 121.6 −37.5 −55.1 −52.8 −62.4 127.5 188.0 −57.2 −48.4 −51.3 48.8 48.0 72.6 60.3 51.7 45.2 31.0 8.8 102.6 93.3 96.0 90.6 152.0 33.4 81.3 134.6 146.0 13.0 +5.9 100 120.0 129.8 114.2 281.5 133.5 118.9 209.2 177.7 180.7 255.0 149.8 176.4 145.8 172.2 165.7 316.2 146.3 150.1 90.8 221.8 97.6 89.2 30.8 38.1 26.3 37.5 29.9 128.0 28.0 49.5 193.2 135.5 148.2 129.8 138.0 −31.9 85.9 198.8 224.5 107.8 112.0 117.8 116.4 229.3 135.7 −28.3 −46.8 −44.2 −54.1 141.2 202.5 −48.9 −39.8 −42.7 60.2 59.7 85.1 70.1 61.5 54.1 39.8 18.8 116.2 107.0 109.5 103.8 166.4 44.7 94.0 147.2 159.8 24.0 16.0 200 140.0 150.8 134.0 303.8 152.0 139.6 233.2 198.0 204.2 280.4 172.0 198.0 166.4 194.2 187.5 336.8 165.8 172.7 110.1 248.2 112.1 107.0 47.8 55.7 42.8 54.5 46.5 149.5 44.7 66.8 216.5 156.5 169.8 150.0 160.0 −17.2 106.1 224.2 251.0 127.7 133.6 138.0 137.4 253.0 156.4 −14.2 −33.9 −31.2 −41.5 161.0 222.0 −36.2 −26.8 −29.7 78.0 77.6 104.0 84.3 75.9 67.9 52.7 32.0 136.9 127.2 128.8 123.7 188.2 62.0 113.9 165.7 181.2 40.0 32.0 400 161.3 175.2 155.8 326.7 173.0 161.5 259.8 220.4 229.4 309.8 197.5 222.2 190.2 218.2 211.2 359.6 186.7 197.5 132.3 277.7 128.3 126.3 66.8 75.0 61.9 74.0 66.0 172.6 63.4 86.0 242.0 182.0 194.0 172.3 186.2 −1.1 127.9 252.0 280.2 150.0 157.3 160.0 160.2 278.0 181.0 +1.8 −19.3 −16.3 −27.1 183.8 243.5 −21.7 −12.0 −14.8 98.0 97.5 125.2 100.8 91.4 83.9 68.0 50.7 159.2 149.6 150.3 145.8 212.8 81.7 135.7 186.0 205.0 58.8 50.0 760 184.5 198.5 179.4 350.0 194.3 185.0 287.0 243.0 254.9 340.0 223.0 247.0 214.0 243.0 235.0 382.5 208.0 223.0 156.2 310.0 145.0 147.0 86.2 94.7 81.0 93.9 85.5 196.9 82.7 106.7 268.0 206.0 219.0 195.8 213.0 +15.8 150.5 281.1 311.0 173.4 181.8 183.7 184.5 305.8 206.7 18.5 −4.5 −0.5 −11.7 206.5 264.0 −6.3 +3.7 +0.9 119.0 118.0 147.4 117.5 108.0 99.5 82.9 68.6 183.1 172.8 173.5 168.5 237.0 101.6 156.9 206.5 231.2 77.8 68.9 Temperature, °C Melting point, °C −4 −39 39

TABLE 2-8

Benzylamine Benzyl bromide (α-bromotoluene) chloride (α-chlorotoluene) cinnamate Benzyldichlorosilane Benzyl ethyl ether phenyl ether isothiocyanate Biphenyl 1-Biphenyloxy-2,3-epoxypropane d-Bornyl acetate Bornyl n-butyrate formate isobutyrate propionate Brassidic acid Bromoacetic acid 4-Bromoanisole Bromobenzene 4-Bromobiphenyl 1-Bromo-2-butanol 1-Bromo-2-butanone cis-1-Bromo-1-butene trans-1-Bromo-1-butene 2-Bromo-1-butene cis-2-Bromo-2-butene trans-2-Bromo-2-butene 1,4-Bromochlorobenzene 1-Bromo-1-chloroethane 1-Bromo-2-chloroethane 2-Bromo-4,6-dichlorophenol 1-Bromo-4-ethyl benzene (2-Bromoethyl)-benzene 2-Bromoethyl 2-chloroethyl ether (2-Bromoethyl)-cyclohexane 1-Bromoethylene Bromoform (tribromomethane) 1-Bromonaphthalene 2-Bromo-4-phenylphenol 3-Bromopyridine 2-Bromotoluene 3-Bromotoluene 4-Bromotoluene 3-Bromo-2,4,6-trichlorophenol 2-Bromo-1,4-xylene 1,2-Butadiene (methyl allene) 1,3-Butadiene n-Butane iso-Butane (2-methylpropane) 1,3-Butanediol 1,2,3-Butanetriol 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 3-Butenenitrile iso-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate alcohol iso-Butyl alcohol sec-Butyl alcohol tert-Butyl alcohol iso-Butyl amine n-Butylbenzene iso-Butylbenzene sec-Butylbenzene tert-Butylbenzene iso-Butyl benzoate n-Butyl bromide (1-bromobutane) iso-Butyl n-butyrate carbamate Butyl carbitol (diethylene glycol butyl ether) n-Butyl chloride (1-chlorobutane) iso-Butyl chloride

69.5 29

61.5 49.5 12.5 −30.7 90.5

−100.3 −133.4 −111.2 −114.6 16.6 −16.6 68 −45.0

−138 8.5 5.5 95 −28 39.8 28.5 +9.5 −108.9 −135 −145 77 −130 −138.9 −105.4 −98.9 −64.6 −79.9 −108 −114.7 25.3 −85.0 −88.0 −51.5 −75.5 −58 −112.4 65 −123.1 −131.2

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name sec-Butyl chloride (2-Chlorobutane) tert-Butyl chloride sec-Butyl chloroacetate 2-tert-Butyl-4-cresol 4-tert-Butyl-2-cresol iso-Butyl dichloroacetate 2,3-Butylene glycol (2,3-butanediol) 2-Butyl-2-ethylbutane-1,3-diol 2-tert-Butyl-4-ethylphenol n-Butyl formate iso-Butyl formate sec-Butyl formate sec-Butyl glycolate iso-Butyl iodide (1-iodo-2-methylpropane) isobutyrate isovalerate levulinate naphthylketone (1-isovaleronaphthone) 2-sec-Butylphenol 2-tert-Butylphenol 4-iso-Butylphenol 4-sec-Butylphenol 4-tert-Butylphenol 2-(4-tert-Butylphenoxy)ethyl acetate 4-tert-Butylphenyl dichlorophosphate tert-Butyl phenyl ketone (pivalophenone) iso-Butyl propionate 4-tert-Butyl-2,5-xylenol 4-tert-Butyl-2,6-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-2,4-xylenol 6-tert-Butyl-3,4-xylenol Butyric acid iso-Butyric acid Butyronitrile iso-Valerophenone Camphene Campholenic acid d-Camphor Camphylamine Capraldehyde Capric acid n-Caproic acid iso-Caproic acid iso-Caprolactone Capronitrile Capryl alcohol (2-octanol) Caprylaldehyde Caprylic acid (octanoic acid) Caprylonitrile Carbazole Carbon dioxide disulfide monoxide oxyselenide (carbonyl selenide) oxysulfide (carbonyl sulfide) tetrabromide tetrachloride tetrafluoride Carvacrol Carvone Chavibetol Chloral (trichloroacetaldehyde) hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate) Chloranil Chloroacetic acid anhydride 2-Chloroaniline 3-Chloroaniline 4-Chloroaniline Chlorobenzene 2-Chlorobenzotrichloride (2-α,α,α-tetrachlorotoluene) Formula C4H9Cl C4H9Cl C6H11ClO2 C11H16O C11H16O C6H10Cl2O2 C4H10O2 C10H22O2 C12H15O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O3 C4H9I C8H16O2 C9H18O2 C9H16O3 C15H16O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C10H14O C14H20O3 C10H13Cl2 O2P C11H14O C7H14O2 C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C12H18O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C4H7N C11H14O C10H16 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H19N C10H20O C10H20O2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C6H10O2 C6H11N C8H18O C8H16O C8H16O2 C8H15N C12H9N CO2 CS2 CO COSe COS CBr4 CCl4 CF4 C10H14O C10H14O C10H12O2 C2HCl3O C2H3Cl3O2 C6Cl4O2 C2H3ClO2 C4H4Cl2O3 C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H6ClN C6H5Cl C7H4Cl4 −60.2 17.0 70.0 74.3 28.6 44.0 94.1 76.3 −26.4 −32.7 −34.4 28.3 −17.0 +4.1 16.0 65.0 136.0 57.4 56.6 72.1 71.4 70.0 118.0 96.0 57.8 −2.3 88.2 74.0 70.3 83.9 25.5 14.7 −20.0 58.3 97.6 41.5 45.3 51.9 125.0 71.4 66.2 38.3 9.2 32.8 73.4 92.3 43.0 −134.3 −73.8 −222.0 −117.1 −132.4 −50.0 −184.6 70.0 57.4 83.6 −37.8 −9.8 70.7 43.0 67.2 46.3 63.5 59.3 −13.0 69.0 −39.8 41.8 98.0 103.7 54.3 68.4 122.6 106.2 −4.7 −11.4 −13.3 53.6 +5.8 28.0 41.2 92.1 167.9 86.0 84.2 100.9 100.5 99.2 150.0 129.6 85.7 +20.9 119.8 103.9 100.2 113.6 49.8 39.3 +2.1 87.0 125.7 68.6 74.0 78.8 142.0 89.5 83.0 66.4 34.6 57.6 92.0 114.1 67.6 −124.4 −54.3 −217.2 −102.3 −119.8 −30.0 −174.1 98.4 86.1 113.3 −16.0 +10.0 89.3 68.3 94.1 72.3 89.8 87.9 +10.6 101.8 −29.2 54.6 112.0 118.0 67.5 80.3 136.8 121.0 +6.1 −0.8 −3.1 66.0 17.0 39.9 53.8 105.9 184.0 100.8 98.1 115.5 114.8 114.0 165.8 146.0 99.0 32.3 135.0 119.0 115.0 127.0 61.5 51.2 13.4 101.4 47.2 139.8 82.3 83.7 92.0 152.2 99.5 94.0 80.3 47.5 70.0 101.2 124.0 80.4 −119.5 −44.7 −215.0 −95.0 −113.3 −19.6 −169.3 113.2 100.4 127.0 −5.0 19.5 97.8 81.0 108.0 84.8 102.0 102.1 22.2 117.9 −17.7 68.2 127.2 134.0 81.4 93.4 151.2 137.0 18.0 +11.0 +8.4 79.8 29.8 52.4 67.7 120.2 201.6 116.1 113.0 130.3 130.3 129.5 183.3 164.0 114.3 44.8 151.0 135.0 131.0 143.0 74.0 64.0 25.7 116.8 60.4 153.9 97.5 97.6 106.3 165.0 111.8 107.0 95.7 61.7 83.3 110.2 136.4 94.6 −114.4 −34.3 −212.8 −86.3 −106.0 −8.2 −164.3 127.9 116.1 143.2 +7.2 29.2 106.4 94.2 122.4 99.2 116.7 117.8 35.3 135.8 1 5 10 20 40 −5.0 −19.0 83.6 143.9 150.8 96.7 107.8 167.8 154.0 31.6 24.1 21.3 94.2 42.8 67.2 82.7 136.2 219.7 133.4 129.2 147.2 147.8 146.0 201.5 184.3 130.4 58.5 169.8 152.2 148.5 159.7 88.0 77.8 38.4 133.8 75.7 170.0 114.0 112.5 122.2 179.9 125.0 120.4 112.3 76.9 98.0 120.0 150.6 110.6 −108.6 −22.5 −210.0 −76.4 −98.3 96.3 +4.3 −158.8 145.2 133.0 159.8 20.2 39.7 116.1 109.2 138.2 115.6 133.6 135.0 49.7 155.0 60 +3.4 −11.4 93.0 153.7 161.7 106.6 116.3 178.0 165.4 39.8 32.4 29.6 104.0 51.8 75.9 92.4 147.0 231.5 143.9 140.0 157.0 157.9 156.0 212.8 197.2 140.8 67.6 180.3 163.6 158.2 170.0 96.5 86.3 47.3 144.6 85.0 180.0 124.0 122.0 132.0 189.8 133.3 129.6 123.2 86.8 107.4 126.0 160.0 121.2 248.2 −104.8 −15.3 −208.1 −70.2 −93.0 106.3 12.3 −155.4 155.3 143.8 170.7 29.1 46.2 122.0 118.3 148.0 125.7 144.1 145.8 58.3 167.8 100 14.2 −1.0 105.5 167.0 176.2 119.8 127.8 191.9 179.0 51.0 43.4 40.2 116.4 63.5 88.0 105.2 160.2 246.7 157.3 153.5 171.2 172.4 170.2 228.0 214.3 154.0 79.5 195.0 176.0 172.0 184.0 108.0 98.0 59.0 158.0 97.9 193.7 138.0 134.6 145.3 200.0 144.0 141.4 137.2 99.8 119.8 133.9 172.2 134.8 265.0 −100.2 −5.1 −205.7 −61.7 −85.9 119.7 23.0 −150.7 169.7 157.3 185.5 40.2 55.0 129.5 130.7 159.8 139.5 158.0 159.9 70.7 185.0 200 31.5 +14.6 124.1 187.8 197.8 139.2 145.6 212.0 200.3 67.9 60.0 56.8 135.5 81.0 106.3 124.8 181.8 269.7 179.7 173.8 192.1 194.3 191.5 250.3 240.0 400 50.0 32.6 146.0 210.0 221.8 160.0 164.0 233.5 223.8 86.2 79.0 75.2 155.6 100.3 126.3 146.4 205.5 294.0 203.8 196.3 214.7 217.6 214.0 277.6 268.2 760 68.0 51.0 167.8 232.6 247.0 183.0 182.0 255.0 247.8 106.0 98.2 93.6 177.5 120.4 147.5 168.7 229.9 320.0 228.0 219.5 237.0 242.1 238.0 304.4 299.0 Temperature, °C

2-63

Melting point, °C −131.3 −26.5

22.5

−95.3 −90.7 −80.7

99

175.0 197.7 220.0 97.0 116.4 136.8 217.5 241.3 265.3 196.0 217.8 239.8 192.3 214.2 236.5 204.5 226.7 249.5 125.5 144.5 163.5 115.8 134.5 154.5 76.7 96.8 117.5 180.1 204.2 228.0 117.5 138.7 160.5 212.7 234.0 256.0 157.9 182.0 209.2 153.0 173.8 195.0 164.8 186.3 208.5 217.1 240.3 268.4 160.8 181.0 202.0 158.3 181.0 207.7 157.8 182.1 207.0 119.7 141.0 163.7 138.0 157.5 178.5 145.4 156.5 168.5 190.3 213.9 237.5 155.2 179.5 204.5 292.5 323.0 354.8 −93.0 −85.7 −78.2 +10.4 28.0 46.5 −201.3 −196.3 −191.3 −49.8 −35.6 −21.9 −75.0 −62.7 −49.9 139.7 163.5 189.5 38.3 57.8 76.7 −143.6 −135.5 −127.7 191.2 213.8 237.0 179.6 203.5 227.5 206.8 229.8 254.0 57.8 77.5 97.7 68.0 82.1 96.2 140.3 149.0 177.8 160.0 179.5 182.3 89.4 208.0 151.3 169.0 197.0 183.7 203.5 206.6 110.0 233.0 162.6 189.5 217.0 208.8 228.5 230.5 132.2 262.1

−71

−74 −47 50 178.5 31.5 −1.5 −35 −38.6 16 244.8 −57.5 −110.8 −205.0 −138.8 90.1 −22.6 −183.7 +0.5 −57 51.7 290 61.2 46 0 −10.4 70.5 −45.2 28.7

2-64

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C7H4ClF3 C12H9Cl C12H9Cl C4H5ClO2 CHClF2 C8H11ClSi C8H9ClO C4H9ClO2 C6H12Cl2O2 C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C8H9Cl C4H6Cl2O2 C5H10Cl2O C5H10Cl2O C10H13ClO CHCl3 C10H7Cl C8H9ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C6H5ClO C12H9ClO C12H9ClO CCl3NO2 C3H5Cl C5H4ClN C8H7Cl C8H7Cl C14H29Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C7H7Cl C6H15ClSi C2ClF3 CClF3 C3H9ClSi C9H8O2 C9H10O C9H8O C5H4O3 C10H16O C10H18O C10H18O2 C10H20O C12H22O2 C9H6O2 C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 C4H5N C4H5N C9H12 C9H13N C10H12O C10H14O C7H11NO2 C2N2 CBrN CClN CIN C4H8 C4H6 C6H12 C8H16O C6H12O C6H10O C12H14N2O5 C5H10 C3H6 C10H14 0.0 89.3 96.4 70.0 −122.8 29.8 45.8 53.0 56.2 17.2 18.6 19.2 46.0 24.7 29.8 62.3 −58.0 80.6 84.0 12.1 44.2 49.8 118.0 119.8 −25.5 −81.3 13.3 25.3 28.0 98.5 +5.4 +4.8 +5.5 −4.9 −116.0 −149.5 −62.8 127.5 72.6 76.1 47.1 61.7 44.0 99.5 66.4 74.7 106.0 38.2 52.0 53.0 33.5 −29.0 −19.5 +2.9 60.0 58.0 74.2 42.0 −95.8 −35.7 −76.7 25.2 −92.0 −99.1 −45.3 50.4 21.0 +1.4 132.8 −68.0 −116.8 17.3 24.7 109.8 129.8 95.6 −110.2 56.7 72.8 78.3 83.7 43.0 45.2 46.4 72.1 50.1 56.5 91.4 −39.1 104.8 114.3 38.2 72.0 78.2 152.2 153.7 −3.3 −63.4 38.8 51.3 54.5 131.8 30.6 30.3 31.0 +19.8 −102.5 −139.2 −43.6 157.8 102.5 105.8 74.8 90.0 71.4 127.3 93.6 100.2 137.8 64.0 76.0 76.5 57.4 −7.1 +3.5 26.8 88.2 87.3 103.7 68.7 −83.2 −18.3 −61.4 47.2 −76.0 −83.4 −25.4 77.2 44.0 26.4 161.8 −49.6 −104.2 43.9 37.1 134.7 146.0 108.0 −103.7 70.0 86.5 90.7 97.6 56.1 58.1 60.0 86.0 63.0 70.0 106.0 −29.7 118.6 129.0 51.2 86.1 92.2 169.7 170.7 +7.8 −54.1 51.7 65.2 67.5 148.2 43.2 43.2 43.8 32.0 −95.9 −134.1 −34.0 173.0 117.8 120.0 88.9 103.9 84.8 141.4 107.0 113.0 153.4 76.7 87.8 88.6 69.0 80.0 +4.0 15.0 38.3 102.2 102.0 118.0 82.0 −76.8 −10.0 −53.8 57.7 −67.9 −75.4 −15.9 90.0 56.0 38.7 175.9 −40.4 −97.5 57.0 50.6 151.2 164.0 121.2 −96.5 84.7 101.5 104.1 112.2 70.3 73.0 75.5 100.0 77.2 84.8 121.8 −19.0 134.4 145.0 65.9 101.7 108.1 186.7 189.8 20.0 −44.0 65.8 80.0 82.0 166.2 56.9 57.4 57.8 45.5 −88.2 −128.5 −23.2 189.5 133.7 135.7 103.8 119.4 99.8 155.6 121.5 126.0 170.0 90.5 101.4 102.3 82.0 93.0 16.4 27.8 51.5 117.8 117.9 133.8 96.2 −70.1 −1.0 −46.1 68.6 −58.7 −66.6 −5.0 104.0 68.8 52.5 191.2 −30.1 −90.3 71.1 1 5 10 20 40 60 100 200 400 760 Temperature, °C 65.9 169.9 183.8 135.6 −88.6 101.2 117.8 118.4 127.8 86.2 89.2 91.8 116.0 92.4 101.5 139.6 −7.1 153.2 162.0 82.0 118.0 125.0 207.4 208.2 33.8 −32.7 81.7 96.5 98.0 187.0 72.0 73.0 73.5 60.2 −79.7 −121.9 −11.4 207.1 151.0 152.2 120.3 135.9 116.1 171.9 137.2 140.5 189.0 105.8 116.0 117.7 96.0 107.8 30.0 41.8 66.1 134.2 135.2 150.3 111.8 −62.7 +8.6 −37.5 80.3 −48.4 −56.4 +6.7 119.8 83.0 67.8 206.7 −18.6 −82.3 87.0 75.4 182.1 196.0 144.4 −83.4 111.5 127.8 127.5 138.0 96.4 99.6 102.0 126.2 102.2 111.8 150.0 +0.5 165.6 173.5 92.0 129.4 136.1 219.6 220.0 42.3 −25.1 91.6 107.2 108.5 199.8 81.8 83.2 83.3 69.5 −74.1 −117.3 −4.0 217.8 162.0 163.7 131.3 146.3 126.2 182.1 147.2 149.7 200.5 115.5 125.8 127.0 104.5 116.7 38.5 50.9 75.4 145.0 146.0 161.7 121.5 −57.9 14.7 −32.1 88.0 −41.8 −50.0 14.7 129.8 91.8 77.5 216.0 −11.3 −77.0 97.2 88.3 197.0 212.5 155.9 −76.4 124.7 141.8 139.5 150.7 110.0 113.6 116.0 140.0 115.8 125.6 164.8 10.4 180.4 188.1 106.0 143.0 150.0 237.0 237.1 53.8 −15.1 104.6 121.2 122.0 215.5 94.7 96.3 96.6 82.3 −66.7 −111.7 +6.0 232.4 177.8 177.7 145.4 160.0 140.1 195.4 159.8 161.0 216.5 127.4 138.0 140.0 116.3 128.0 50.1 62.8 88.1 158.0 160.0 176.2 133.8 −51.8 22.6 −24.9 97.6 −32.8 −41.2 25.5 142.7 103.7 90.4 229.0 −1.3 −70.0 110.8 108.3 219.6 237.8 173.8 −65.8 145.5 162.0 157.2 169.8 130.2 133.8 137.0 159.8 135.7 146.3 186.3 25.9 204.2 210.0 126.4 164.8 172.0 261.3 261.6 71.8 +1.3 125.0 142.2 143.5 240.3 115.0 116.6 117.1 101.6 −55.0 −102.5 21.9 253.3 199.8 199.3 165.8 181.8 160.0 214.5 179.8 178.8 240.0 146.7 157.3 157.3 133.9 146.0 68.0 81.1 107.3 180.0 182.8 197.9 152.2 −42.6 33.8 −14.1 111.5 −18.9 −27.8 42.0 161.7 121.7 110.3 248.7 +13.8 −59.1 131.4 130.0 243.8 264.5 193.2 −53.6 168.6 185.5 176.5 190.5 152.2 156.7 159.8 182.2 156.5 169.8 210.8 42.7 230.8 234.5 149.8 188.7 196.0 289.4 289.5 91.8 18.0 147.7 165.7 166.0 267.5 137.1 139.7 139.8 123.6 −41.7 −92.7 39.4 276.7 224.6 222.4 189.8 205.0 183.8 236.6 201.0 197.8 264.7 168.4 179.0 179.4 152.2 165.5 88.0 101.5 129.2 203.2 206.7 221.7 173.4 −33.0 46.0 −2.3 126.1 −3.4 −12.2 60.8 183.5 141.4 132.5 269.8 31.0 −46.9 153.5 152.2 267.5 292.9 212.0 −40.8 193.5 208.0 196.0 212.6 177.6 181.1 184.3 205.0 180.0 194.1 235.0 61.3 259.3 259.3 174.5 214.0 220.0 317.5 317.0 111.9 37.0 170.2 190.0 191.0 296.0 159.3 162.3 162.3 146.3 −27.9 −81.2 57.9 300.0 250.0 246.0 213.5 228.0 206.5 257.0 221.5 217.0 291.0 190.8 202.8 201.8 171.9 185.0 108.0 122.8 152.4 227.0 232.0 246.6 195.2 −21.0 61.5 +13.1 141.1 +12.9 +2.4 80.7 205.4 161.0 155.6 291.5 49.3 −33.5 177.2 Melting point, °C −6.0 34 75.5 −160

TABLE 2-8

2-Chlorobenzotrifluoride (2-chloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene) 2-Chlorobiphenyl 4-Chlorobiphenyl α-Chlorocrotonic acid Chlorodifluoromethane Chlorodimethylphenylsilane 1-Chloro-2-ethoxybenzene 2-(2-Chloroethoxy) ethanol bis-2-Chloroethyl acetacetal 1-Chloro-2-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-3-ethylbenzene 1-Chloro-4-ethylbenzene 2-Chloroethyl chloroacetate 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloroisopropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl 2-chloropropyl ether 2-Chloroethyl α-methylbenzyl ether Chloroform (trichloromethane) 1-Chloronaphthalene 4-Chlorophenethyl alcohol 2-Chlorophenol 3-Chlorophenol 4-Chlorophenol 2-Chloro-3-phenylphenol 2-Chloro-6-phenylphenol Chloropicrin (trichloronitromethane) 1-Chloropropene 2-Chloropyridine 3-Chlorostyrene 4-Chlorostyrene 1-Chlorotetradecane 2-Chlorotoluene 3-Chlorotoluene 4-Chlorotoluene Chlorotriethylsilane 1-Chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethylene Chlorotrifluoromethane Chlorotrimethylsilane trans-Cinnamic acid Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamylaldehyde Citraconic anhydride cis-α-Citral d-Citronellal Citronellic acid Citronellol Citronellyl acetate Coumarin o-Cresol (2-cresol; 2-methylphenol) m-Cresol (3-cresol; 3-methylphenol) p-Cresol (4-cresol; 4-methylphenol) cis-Crotonic acid trans-Crotonic acid cis-Crotononitrile trans-Crotononitrile Cumene 4-Cumidene Cuminal Cuminyl alcohol 2-Cyano-2-n-butyl acetate Cyanogen bromide chloride iodide Cyclobutane Cyclobutene Cyclohexane Cyclohexaneethanol Cyclohexanol Cyclohexanone 2-Cyclohexyl-4,6-dinitrophenol Cyclopentane Cyclopropane Cymene

−80.2 −53.3 −62.6

−63.5 −20 7 32.5 42 +6 −64 −99.0 −15.0 +0.9 +7.3 −157.5 133 33 −7.5

70 30.8 10.9 35.5 15.5 72 −96.0

−34.4 58 −6.5 −50 +6.6 23.9 −45.0 −93.7 −126.6 −68.2

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name cis-Decalin trans-Decalin Decane Decan-2-one 1-Decene Decyl alcohol Decyltrimethylsilane Dehydroacetic acid Desoxybenzoin Diacetamide Diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne) Diallyldichlorosilane Diallyl sulfide Diisoamyl ether oxalate sulfide Dibenzylamine Dibenzyl ketone (1,3-diphenyl2-propanone) 1,4-Dibromobenzene 1,2-Dibromobutane dl-2,3-Dibromobutane meso-2,3-Dibromobutane 1,2-Dibromodecane Di(2-bromoethyl) ether α,β-Dibromomaleic anhydride 1,2-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dibromo-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dibromopentane 1,2-Dibromopropane 1,3-Dibromopropane 2,3-Dibromopropene 2,3-Dibromo-1-propanol Diisobutylamine 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-2-cresol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-cresol 2,6-Ditert-butyl-4-ethylphenol 4,6-Ditert-butyl-3-ethylphenol Diisobutyl oxalate 2,4-Ditert-butylphenol Dibutyl phthalate sulfide Diisobutyl d-tartrate Dicarvacryl-mono-(6-chloro-2-xenyl) phosphate Dicarvacryl-2-tolyl phosphate Dichloroacetic acid 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 1,3-Dichlorobenzene 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 1,2-Dichlorobutane 2,3-Dichlorobutane 1,2-Dichloro-1,2-difluoroethylene Dichlorodifluoromethane Dichlorodiphenyl silane Dichlorodiisopropyl ether Di(2-chloroethoxy) methane Dichloroethoxymethylsilane 1,2-Dichloro-3-ethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-4-ethylbenzene 1,4-Dichloro-2-ethylbenzene cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene trans-1,2-Dichloro ethylene Di(2-chloroethyl) ether Dichlorofluoromethane 1,5-Dichlorohexamethyltrisiloxane Dichloromethylphenylsilane 1,1-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,2-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 1,3-Dichloro-2-methylpropane 2,4-Dichlorophenol 2,6-Dichlorophenol Formula C10H18 C10H18 C10H22 C10H20O C10H20 C10H22O C13H30Si C8H8O4 C14H12O C4H7NO2 C4H2 C6H10Cl2Si C6H10S C10H22O C12H22O4 C10H22S C14H15N C15H14O 22.5 −0.8 16.5 44.2 14.7 69.5 67.4 91.7 123.3 70.0 −82.5 +9.5 −9.5 18.6 85.4 43.0 118.3 125.5 50.1 +30.6 42.3 71.9 40.3 97.3 96.4 122.0 156.2 95.0 −68.0 34.8 +14.4 44.3 116.0 73.0 149.8 159.8 79.3 33.2 30.0 26.6 123.6 75.3 78.0 −3.0 40.0 45.4 +17.3 35.4 +17.9 84.5 +18.4 116.2 117.3 135.2 121.4 142.6 91.2 115.4 182.1 51.8 151.8 234.5 209.3 69.8 46.0 39.0 −0.3 −3.0 −65.6 −104.6 142.4 55.2 80.4 −12.1 75.0 77.2 68.0 −39.2 −47.2 49.3 −75.5 52.0 63.5 −8.4 −4.2 +20.6 80.0 87.6 64.2 47.2 55.7 85.8 53.7 111.3 111.0 137.3 173.5 108.0 −61.2 47.4 26.6 57.0 131.4 87.6 165.6 177.6 87.7 46.1 41.6 39.3 137.3 88.5 92.0 +10.5 53.0 58.0 29.4 48.0 30.0 98.2 30.6 131.0 132.4 150.0 137.0 157.4 105.3 130.0 198.2 66.4 169.0 249.3 221.8 82.6 59.1 52.0 54.8 +11.5 +8.5 −57.3 −97.8 158.0 68.2 94.0 −1.3 90.0 92.3 83.2 −29.9 −38.0 62.0 −67.5 65.1 77.4 +2.6 +6.7 32.0 92.8 101.0 79.8 65.3 69.8 100.7 67.8 125.8 126.5 153.0 192.0 122.6 −53.8 61.3 39.7 70.7 147.7 102.7 182.2 195.7 103.6 60.0 56.4 53.2 151.0 103.6 106.7 25.7 67.5 72.0 42.3 62.1 43.2 113.5 43.7 147.0 149.0 167.0 154.0 174.0 120.3 146.0 216.2 80.5 188.0 264.5 237.0 96.3 73.4 66.2 69.2 24.5 21.2 −48.3 −90.1 176.0 82.2 109.5 +11.3 105.9 109.6 99.8 −19.4 −28.0 76.0 −58.6 79.0 92.4 14.6 18.7 44.8 107.7 115.5 1 5 10 20 40 97.2 85.7 85.5 117.1 83.3 142.1 144.0 171.0 212.0 138.2 −45.9 76.4 54.2 86.3 165.7 120.0 200.2 216.6 120.8 76.0 72.0 68.0 167.4 119.8 123.5 42.3 83.5 87.4 57.2 77.8 57.8 129.8 57.8 164.1 167.4 185.3 172.1 192.3 137.5 164.3 235.8 96.0 208.5 280.5 251.5 111.8 89.4 82.0 84.8 37.7 35.0 −38.2 −81.6 195.5 97.3 125.5 24.4 123.8 127.5 118.0 −7.9 −17.0 91.5 −48.8 94.8 109.5 28.2 32.0 58.6 123.4 131.6 60 108.0 98.4 95.5 127.8 93.5 152.0 154.3 181.5 224.5 148.0 −41.0 86.3 63.7 96.0 177.0 130.6 212.2 229.4 131.6 86.0 82.0 78.0 177.5 130.0 133.8 53.7 93.7 97.4 66.4 87.8 67.0 140.0 67.0 175.2 179.0 196.1 183.9 204.4 147.8 175.8 247.8 105.8 221.6 290.7 260.3 121.5 99.5 92.2 95.2 47.8 43.9 −31.8 −76.1 207.5 106.9 135.8 32.6 135.0 139.0 129.0 −0.5 −10.0 101.5 −42.6 105.0 120.0 37.0 40.2 67.5 133.5 141.8 100 123.2 114.6 108.6 142.0 106.5 165.8 169.5 197.5 241.3 160.6 −34.0 99.7 75.8 109.6 192.2 145.3 227.3 246.6 146.5 99.8 95.3 91.7 190.2 144.0 147.7 68.8 107.4 110.1 78.7 101.3 79.5 153.0 79.2 190.0 194.0 211.0 198.0 218.0 161.8 190.0 263.7 118.6 239.5 304.9 272.5 134.0 112.9 105.0 108.4 60.2 56.0 −23.0 −68.6 223.8 119.7 149.6 44.1 149.8 153.3 144.0 +9.5 −0.2 114.5 −33.9 118.2 134.2 48.2 51.7 78.8 146.0 154.6 200 145.4 136.2 128.4 163.2 126.7 186.2 191.0 219.5 265.2 180.8 −20.9 119.4 94.8 129.0 215.0 166.4 249.8 272.3 168.5 120.2 115.7 111.8 209.6 165.0 168.0 92.1 117.8 130.2 97.8 121.7 98.0 173.8 97.6 212.8 217.5 233.0 220.0 241.7 183.5 212.5 287.0 138.0 264.7 323.8 290.0 152.3 133.4 125.9 128.3 79.7 74.0 −10.0 −57.0 248.0 139.0 170.0 61.0 172.0 176.0 166.2 24.6 +14.3 134.0 −20.9 138.3 155.5 65.8 68.9 96.1 165.2 175.5 400 169.9 160.1 150.6 186.7 149.2 208.8 215.5 244.5 293.0 202.0 −6.1 142.0 116.1 150.3 240.0 191.0 274.3 301.7 192.5 143.5 138.0 134.2 229.8 188.0 192.0 119.8 150.6 151.8 118.5 144.1 119.5 196.0 118.0 237.6 243.4 257.1 244.0 264.6 205.8 237.0 313.5 159.0 294.0 342.0 309.8 173.7 155.8 149.0 150.2 100.8 94.2 +5.0 −43.9 275.5 159.8 192.0 80.3 197.0 201.7 191.5 41.0 30.8 155.4 −6.2 160.2 180.2 85.4 87.8 115.4 187.5 197.7 760 194.6 186.7 174.1 211.0 172.0 231.0 240.0 269.0 321.0 223.0 +9.7 165.3 138.6 173.4 265.0 216.0 300.0 330.5 218.6 166.3 160.5 157.3 250.4 212.5 215.0 149.0 174.6 175.0 141.6 167.5 141.2 219.0 139.5 262.5 269.3 282.0 268.6 290.0 229.5 260.8 340.0 182.0 324.0 361.0 330.0 194.4 179.0 173.0 173.9 123.5 116.0 20.9 −29.8 304.0 182.7 215.0 100.6 222.1 226.6 216.3 59.0 47.8 178.5 +8.9 184.0 205.5 106.0 108.0 135.0 210.0 220.0 Temperature, °C

2-65

Melting point, °C −43.3 −30.7 −29.7 +3.5 +7 60 78.5 −34.9 −83

−26 34.5 87.5 −64.5 −34.5

C6H4Br2 61.0 C4H8Br2 7.5 C4H8Br2 +5.0 C4H8Br2 +1.5 C10H20Br2 95.7 C4H8Br2O 47.7 C4H2Br2O3 50.0 C4H8Br2 −28.8 C4H8Br2 14.0 C5H10Br2 19.8 C3H6Br2 −7.0 C3H6Br2 +9.7 C3H4Br2 −6.0 C3H6Br2O 57.0 C8H19N −5.1 C15H24O 85.8 C15H24O 86.2 C15H24O 103.7 C16H26O 89.1 C16H26O 111.5 C10H18O4 63.2 C14H22O 84.5 C16H22O4 148.2 C8H18S +21.7 C12H22O6 117.8 C32H34ClO4P 204.2 C27H33O4P 180.2 C2H2Cl2O2 44.0 C6H4Cl2 20.0 C6H4Cl2 12.1 C6H4Cl2 C4H8Cl2 −23.6 C4H8Cl2 −25.2 C2Cl2F2 −82.0 CCl2F2 −118.5 C12H10Cl2Si 109.6 C6H12Cl2O 29.6 C5H10Cl2O2 53.0 C8H8Cl2OSi −33.8 C8H8Cl2 46.0 C8H8Cl2 47.0 C8H8Cl2 38.5 C2H2Cl2 −58.4 C2H2Cl2 −65.4 C4H8Cl2O 23.5 CHCl2F −91.3 C6H18Cl2 26.0 O2Si3 C7H8Cl2Si 35.7 C4H8Cl2 −31.0 C4H8Cl2 −25.8 C4H8Cl2 −3.0 C6H4Cl2O 53.0 C6H4Cl2O 59.5

−70.3 −55.5 −34.4 −70

−79.7 73.5

9.7 −17.6 −24.2 53.0 −80.4 −112

−40.8 −76.4 −61.2 −80.5 −50.0 −135 −53.0

45.0

2-66

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C8H5Cl2N C6H5AsCl2 C3H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C8H6Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C14H20Cl2 C2Cl2F4 C7H8Cl2Si C7H3Cl2F3 C10H8 C6H16O2Si C16H20O2Si C10H18O4 C4H11N C10H15N C10H16As NO3 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C5H10O3 C9H14O4 C8H10O6 C4H10O3 C8H12Cl2O5 C6H14O3 C6H14O3 C4H10O C9H16O4 C8H12O4 C9H16O4 C20H43N C9H14O4 C5H10O C8H14O5 C8H12O4 C7H12O4 C9H14O4 C6H10O4 C12H14O4 C14H26O4 C12H16 C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C4H10O4S C4H10S C4H10O3S C8H14O6 C8H14O6 C11H16 C4H10Zn C10H16O C10H22O C14H8O4 C4H6 C2H7N C8H11N C8H12AsNO3 C16H18O C6H14 C6H14 C7H10O4 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 C8H16 56.0 61.8 −38.5 61.0 53.5 55.5 47.8 57.2 53.5 105.6 91.7 −95.4 46.2 11.0 −19.1 111.5 74.0 49.7 38.0 22.3 20.7 20.7 −10.1 59.8 70.0 91.8 148.3 13.0 45.3 −74.3 50.8 53.2 65.6 139.8 51.3 −12.7 80.7 57.3 40.0 62.8 47.4 108.8 125.3 49.7 54.6 39.8 47.0 −39.6 10.0 102.0 100.0 34.0 −22.4 46.6 68.0 196.7 −73.0 −87.7 29.5 15.0 96.7 −69.3 −63.6 50.8 −24.4 −15.9 −21.1 −19.4 −22.7 −20.0 −24.3 84.0 100.0 −17.0 90.1 82.2 83.9 75.7 86.0 82.2 138.7 126.1 −80.0 71.7 38.3 34.1 +2.4 142.8 106.6 78.0 62.6 48.7 46.8 47.1 +12.3 88.3 98.0 120.0 180.0 37.6 72.0 −56.9 77.8 81.2 94.7 175.8 80.2 +7.5 110.4 85.6 67.5 91.0 71.8 140.7 156.2 78.4 83.0 66.7 74.0 −18.6 34.2 133.0 131.7 61.5 0.0 75.5 91.7 239.8 −57.9 −72.2 56.3 39.6 128.3 −50.7 −44.5 78.2 −1.4 +7.3 +1.7 +3.4 0.0 +3.2 −1.7 98.1 116.0 −6.1 104.6 97.4 98.2 90.0 100.4 97.4 155.0 143.8 −72.3 84.2 52.2 47.6 13.3 157.6 123.0 −33.0 91.9 74.8 62.0 59.9 60.3 23.8 103.0 112.0 133.8 195.8 50.0 85.8 −48.1 91.6 95.3 109.7 194.0 95.2 17.2 125.3 100.0 81.3 105.3 83.8 156.0 172.1 92.6 96.6 80.0 87.7 −8.0 46.4 148.0 147.2 75.3 +11.7 90.0 103.0 259.8 −50.5 −64.6 70.0 51.8 144.0 −41.5 −34.9 91.8 +10.3 18.4 13.0 14.9 +11.2 14.5 +10.1 113.8 133.1 +6.0 120.5 111.8 114.0 105.5 116.2 111.8 172.5 162.0 −63.5 97.8 67.3 62.0 25.3 174.3 138.3 −22.6 107.2 88.0 76.4 74.5 74.7 36.0 118.2 126.8 148.0 212.0 63.0 100.3 −38.5 106.0 110.2 125.4 213.5 111.0 27.9 141.2 115.3 95.9 120.3 96.8 173.6 189.8 108.5 111.7 94.7 102.1 +3.5 59.7 164.2 163.8 90.2 24.2 106.0 115.0 282.0 −42.5 −56.0 84.8 65.0 160.3 −31.1 −24.1 106.5 23.0 31.1 25.6 27.4 23.6 27.1 22.6 1 5 10 20 40 130.0 151.0 19.4 137.8 129.2 131.0 122.4 133.7 129.2 192.2 183.2 −53.7 113.2 84.0 77.9 38.0 193.2 154.6 −11.3 123.6 102.6 92.5 90.4 91.1 49.5 135.7 143.8 164.3 229.0 77.5 116.7 27.7 122.4 126.7 142.8 235.0 128.2 39.4 157.8 131.8 113.3 137.3 110.6 192.1 207.5 125.8 127.8 111.0 118.0 16.1 74.2 182.3 181.7 107.0 38.0 123.7 127.6 307.4 −33.9 −46.7 101.6 79.7 179.6 −19.5 −12.4 122.6 37.3 45.3 39.7 41.4 37.5 41.1 36.5 60 141.0 163.2 28.0 149.0 140.0 142.0 133.3 144.6 140.0 204.8 195.8 −47.5 122.6 95.0 88.0 46.3 205.0 165.8 −4.0 133.8 111.8 102.6 100.7 101.3 57.9 146.2 153.7 174.0 239.5 86.8 126.8 −21.8 132.4 137.7 153.2 248.5 139.9 46.7 169.0 142.4 123.0 147.9 119.7 204.1 218.4 136.8 138.2 121.4 128.6 24.2 83.8 194.0 193.2 117.7 47.2 134.7 136.7 323.3 −27.8 −40.7 111.9 88.6 191.5 −12.1 −4.9 132.7 45.7 54.4 48.7 50.4 46.4 50.1 45.4 100 154.5 178.9 39.4 163.5 153.8 155.8 147.6 158.2 153.8 220.7 212.0 −39.1 135.5 109.2 101.7 57.6 220.0 179.0 +6.0 147.3 123.8 116.2 114.4 115.3 69.7 160.0 167.7 187.5 252.0 99.5 140.3 −11.5 146.0 151.1 167.8 265.5 154.3 56.2 183.9 156.0 136.2 161.6 130.8 219.5 234.4 151.0 151.1 134.8 142.5 35.0 96.3 208.5 208.0 131.7 59.1 149.7 145.9 344.5 −18.8 −32.6 125.8 101.0 206.8 −2.0 +5.4 145.8 57.9 66.8 61.0 62.5 58.5 62.3 57.6 200 176.2 202.8 57.0 185.7 176.0 178.0 169.0 181.5 176.0 245.6 238.5 −26.3 153.5 129.0 121.8 74.2 243.8 198.2 21.0 168.2 141.9 136.7 134.8 136.1 86.5 182.3 188.0 207.0 271.5 118.0 159.0 +2.2 166.0 172.2 189.5 292.8 177.5 70.6 205.3 177.8 155.5 183.2 147.9 243.0 255.8 173.2 171.7 155.1 162.5 51.3 115.8 230.4 230.0 152.4 77.0 171.8 160.2 377.8 −5.0 −20.4 146.5 119.8 229.7 +13.4 21.1 165.8 76.2 85.6 79.6 81.0 76.9 80.8 76.0 400 199.5 228.8 76.0 210.0 200.0 202.5 193.5 205.7 200.0 272.8 265.8 −12.0 175.2 150.5 144.2 93.2 259.7 219.1 38.0 192.4 161.0 159.0 156.9 159.0 105.8 206.5 210.8 226.5 291.8 138.5 180.3 17.9 188.7 195.8 212.8 324.6 203.1 86.3 229.5 201.7 176.8 205.8 166.2 267.5 280.3 198.0 193.8 177.7 185.5 69.7 137.0 254.8 254.3 176.5 97.3 197.0 176.8 413.0 +10.6 −7.1 169.2 140.3 254.8 31.0 39.0 188.0 97.2 107.0 100.9 102.1 97.8 101.9 97.0 760 223.5 256.5 96.8 235.0 225.0 227.0 217.0 230.0 225.0 302.0 296.5 +3.5 196.3 172.8 166.6 113.5 296.0 240.0 55.5 215.5 181.0 183.5 181.1 183.8 125.8 230.3 233.5 244.8 313.0 159.8 201.9 34.6 211.5 218.5 237.0 355.0 227.9 102.7 253.4 225.0 198.9 229.0 185.7 294.0 305.5 223.0 216.5 201.3 209.5 88.0 159.0 280.0 280.0 200.7 118.0 223.0 193.5 450.0 27.2 +7.4 193.1 160.5 281.0 49.7 58.0 210.5 119.5 129.7 123.4 124.4 120.1 124.3 119.3 Temperature, °C Melting point, °C

TABLE 2-8

α,α-Dichlorophenylacetonitrile Dichlorophenylarsine 1,2-Dichloropropane 2,3-Dichlorostyrene 2,4-Dichlorostyrene 2,5-Dichlorostyrene 2,6-Dichlorostyrene 3,4-Dichlorostyrene 3,5-Dichlorostyrene 1,2-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,4-Dichlorotetraethylbenzene 1,2-Dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane Dichloro-4-tolylsilane 3,4-Dichloro-α,α,α-trifluorotoluene Dicyclopentadiene Diethoxydimethylsilane Diethoxydiphenylsilane Diethyl adipate Diethylamine N-Diethylaniline Diethyl arsanilate 1,2-Diethylbenzene 1,3-Diethylbenzene 1,4-Diethylbenzene Diethyl carbonate cis-Diethyl citraconate Diethyl dioxosuccinate Diethylene glycol Diethyleneglycol-bis-chloroacetate Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether Di(2-methoxyethyl) ether glycol ethyl ether Diethyl ether ethylmalonate fumarate glutarate Diethylhexadecylamine Diethyl itaconate ketone (3-pentanone) malate maleate malonate mesaconate oxalate phthalate sebacate 2,5-Diethylstyrene Diethyl succinate isosuccinate sulfate sulfide sulfite d-Diethyl tartrate dl-Diethyl tartrate 3,5-Diethyltoluene Diethylzinc 1-Dihydrocarvone Dihydrocitronellol 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone Dimethylacetylene (2-butyne) Dimethylamine N,N-Dimethylaniline Dimethyl arsanilate Di(α-methylbenzyl) ether 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane Dimethyl citraconate 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,3-Dimethylcyclohexane cis-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane trans-1,4-Dimethylcyclohexane

−94 −12.1 32.9 −21 −38.9 −34.4 −31.4 −83.9 −43.2 −43

−116.3 +0.6

−42 −49.8 −40.6 1.3 −20.8 −25.0 −99.5 17 −28 194 −32.5 −96 +2.5 −99.8 −128.2 −34 −50.0 −88.0 −92.0 −76.2 −87.4 −36.9

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Dimethyl ether 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,3-Dimethylhexane 2,4-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 3,4-Dimethylhexane Dimethyl itaconate 1-Dimethyl malate Dimethyl maleate malonate trans-Dimethyl mesaconate 2,7-Dimethyloctane Dimethyl oxalate 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3-Dimethylphenol (2,3-xylenol) 2,4-Dimethylphenol (2,4-xylenol) 2,5-Dimethylphenol (2,5-xylenol) 3,4-Dimethylphenol (3,4-xylenol) 3,5-Dimethylphenol (3,5-xylenol) Dimethylphenylsilane Dimethyl phthalate 3,5-Dimethyl-1,2-pyrone 4,6-Dimethylresorcinol Dimethyl sebacate 2,4-Dimethylstyrene 2,5-Dimethylstyrene α,α-Dimethylsuccinic anhydride Dimethyl sulfide d-Dimethyl tartrate dl-Dimethyl tartrate N,N-Dimethyl-2-toluidine N,N-Dimethyl-4-toluidine Di(nitrosomethyl) amine Diosphenol 1,4-Dioxane Dipentene Diphenylamine Diphenyl carbinol (benzhydrol) chlorophosphate disulfide 1,2-Diphenylethane (dibenzyl) Diphenyl ether 1,1-Diphenylethylene trans-Diphenylethylene 1,1-Diphenylhydrazine Diphenylmethane Diphenyl sulfide Diphenyl-2-tolyl thiophosphate 1,2-Dipropoxyethane 1,2-Diisopropylbenzene 1,3-Diisopropylbenzene Dipropylene glycol Dipropyleneglycol monobutyl ether isopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ether Diisopropyl ether Di-n-propyl ketone (4-heptanone) Di-n-propyl oxalate Diisopropyl oxalate Di-n-propyl succinate Di-n-propyl d-tartrate Diisopropyl d-tartrate Divinyl acetylene (1,5-hexadiene-3-yne) 1,3-Divinylbenzene Docosane n-Dodecane 1-Dodecene n-Dodecyl alcohol Dodecylamine Dodecyltrimethylsilane Elaidic acid Formula C2H6O C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C7H10O4 C6H10O5 C6H8O4 C5H8O4 C7H10O4 C10H22 C4H6O4 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H12Si C10H10O4 C7H8O2 C8H10O2 C12H22O4 C10H12 C10H12 C6H8O3 C2H6S C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C9H13N C9H13N C2H5N3O2 C10H16O2 C4H8O2 C10H16 C12H11N C13H12O C12H10ClPO3 C12H10S2 C14H14 C12H10O C14H12 C14H12 C12H12N2 C13H12 C12H10S C18H17O3PS C8H18O2 C12H18 C12H18 C6H14O3 C10H22O3 C9H20O3 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C8H14O4 C8H14O4 C10H18O4 C10H18O6 C10H18O6 C6H6 C10H10 C22H46 C12H26 C12H24 C12H26O C12H27N C15H34Si C18H34O2 −115.7 −29.7 −23.0 −26.9 −26.7 −25.8 −22.1 69.3 75.4 45.7 35.0 46.8 +6.3 20.0 −49.0 −42.0 −48.0 −45.9 56.0 51.8 51.8 66.2 62.0 +5.3 100.3 78.6 49.0 104.0 34.2 29.0 61.4 −75.6 102.1 100.4 28.8 50.1 +3.2 66.7 −35.8 14.0 108.3 110.0 121.5 131.6 86.8 66.1 87.4 113.2 126.0 76.0 96.1 159.7 −38.8 40.0 34.7 73.8 64.7 46.0 −43.3 −57.0 23.0 53.4 43.2 77.5 115.6 103.7 −45.1 32.7 157.8 47.8 47.2 91.0 82.8 91.2 171.3 −101.1 −7.9 −1.1 −5.3 −5.5 −4.4 +0.2 94.0 104.0 73.0 59.8 74.0 30.5 44.0 −28.7 −20.8 −27.4 −25.0 83.8 78.0 78.0 93.8 89.2 30.3 131.8 107.6 76.8 139.8 61.9 55.9 88.1 −58.0 133.2 131.8 54.1 74.3 27.8 95.4 −12.8 40.4 141.7 145.0 160.5 164.0 119.8 97.8 119.6 145.8 159.3 107.4 129.0 179.8 −10.3 67.8 62.3 102.1 92.0 72.8 −22.3 −37.4 44.4 80.2 69.0 107.6 147.7 133.7 −24.4 60.0 195.4 75.8 74.0 120.2 111.8 122.1 206.7 −93.3 +3.1 +9.9 +5.2 +5.3 +6.1 11.3 106.6 118.3 86.4 72.0 87.8 42.3 56.0 −18.7 −10.3 −17.1 −14.4 97.6 91.3 91.3 107.7 102.4 42.6 147.6 122.0 90.7 156.2 75.8 69.0 102.0 −49.2 148.2 147.5 66.2 86.7 40.0 109.0 −1.2 53.8 157.0 162.0 182.0 180.0 136.0 114.0 135.0 161.0 176.1 122.8 145.0 201.6 +5.0 81.8 76.0 116.2 106.0 86.2 −11.8 −27.4 55.0 93.9 81.9 122.2 163.5 148.2 −14.0 73.8 213.0 90.0 87.8 134.7 127.8 137.7 223.5 −85.2 15.0 22.1 17.2 17.2 18.2 23.5 119.7 133.8 101.3 85.0 102.1 55.8 69.4 −7.5 +1.1 −5.9 −2.9 112.0 105.0 105.0 122.0 117.0 56.2 164.0 136.4 105.8 175.8 90.8 84.0 116.3 −39.4 164.3 164.0 80.2 100.0 53.7 124.0 +12.0 68.2 175.2 180.9 203.8 197.0 153.7 130.8 151.8 179.8 194.0 139.8 162.0 215.5 22.3 96.8 91.2 131.3 120.4 100.8 0.0 −16.7 66.2 108.6 95.6 138.0 180.4 164.0 −2.8 88.7 233.5 104.6 102.4 150.0 141.6 153.8 242.3 1 5 10 20 40 −76.2 28.2 35.6 30.5 30.4 31.7 37.1 133.7 150.1 117.2 100.0 118.0 71.2 83.6 +5.0 13.9 +6.5 +9.9 129.2 121.5 121.5 138.0 133.3 71.4 182.8 152.7 122.5 196.0 107.7 100.2 132.3 −28.4 182.4 182.4 95.0 116.3 68.2 141.2 25.2 84.3 194.3 200.0 227.9 214.8 173.7 150.0 170.8 199.0 213.5 157.8 182.8 230.6 42.3 114.0 107.9 147.4 136.3 117.0 +13.2 −4.5 78.1 124.6 110.5 154.8 199.7 181.8 +10.0 105.5 254.5 121.7 118.6 167.2 157.4 172.1 260.8 60 −70.4 36.7 44.2 39.0 38.9 40.4 45.8 142.6 160.4 127.1 109.7 127.8 80.8 92.8 13.0 22.1 14.5 18.1 139.5 131.0 131.0 148.0 143.5 81.3 194.0 163.8 133.2 208.0 118.0 110.7 142.4 −21.4 193.8 193.8 105.2 126.4 77.7 151.3 33.8 94.6 206.9 212.0 244.2 226.2 186.0 162.0 183.4 211.5 225.9 170.2 194.8 240.4 55.8 124.3 118.2 156.5 146.3 126.8 21.6 +3.4 85.8 134.8 120.0 166.0 211.7 192.6 18.1 116.0 268.3 132.1 128.5 177.8 168.0 184.2 273.0 100 −62.7 48.2 56.0 50.6 50.5 52.5 57.7 153.7 175.1 140.4 121.9 141.5 93.9 104.8 23.9 33.3 25.4 29.3 152.2 143.0 143.0 161.0 156.0 94.2 210.0 177.5 147.3 222.6 132.3 124.7 155.3 −12.0 208.8 209.5 118.1 140.3 90.3 165.6 45.1 108.3 222.8 227.5 265.0 241.3 202.8 178.8 198.6 227.4 242.5 186.3 211.8 252.5 74.2 138.7 132.3 169.9 159.8 140.3 33.0 13.7 96.0 148.1 132.6 180.3 227.0 207.3 29.5 130.0 286.0 146.2 142.3 192.0 182.1 199.5 288.0 200 −50.9 65.7 73.8 68.1 68.0 70.0 75.6 171.0 196.3 160.0 140.0 161.0 114.0 123.3 40.3 50.1 41.8 46.2 173.0 161.5 161.5 181.5 176.2 114.2 232.7 198.0 167.8 245.0 153.2 145.6 175.8 +2.6 230.5 232.3 138.3 161.6 110.0 186.2 62.3 128.2 247.5 250.0 299.5 262.6 227.8 203.3 222.8 251.7 267.2 210.7 236.8 270.3 103.8 159.8 153.7 189.9 180.0 160.0 50.3 30.0 111.2 168.0 151.2 202.5 250.1 228.2 46.0 151.4 314.2 167.2 162.2 213.0 203.0 222.0 312.4 400 −37.8 85.6 94.1 88.2 87.9 90.4 96.0 189.8 219.5 182.2 159.8 183.5 136.0 143.3 59.2 69.4 60.6 65.5 196.0 184.2 184.2 203.6 197.8 136.4 257.8 221.0 192.0 269.6 177.5 168.7 197.5 18.7 255.0 257.4 161.5 185.4 131.3 209.5 81.8 150.5 274.1 275.6 337.2 285.8 255.0 230.7 249.8 278.3 294.0 237.5 263.9 290.0 140.0 184.3 177.6 210.5 203.8 183.1 69.5 48.2 127.3 190.3 171.8 226.5 275.6 251.8 64.4 175.2 343.5 191.0 185.5 235.7 225.0 248.0 337.0 760 −23.7 106.8 115.6 109.4 109.1 112.0 117.7 208.0 242.6 205.0 180.7 206.0 159.7 163.3 79.2 89.8 80.5 86.1 218.0 211.5 211.5 225.2 219.5 159.3 283.7 245.0 215.0 293.5 202.0 193.0 219.5 36.0 280.0 282.0 184.8 209.5 153.0 232.0 101.1 174.6 302.0 301.0 378.0 310.0 284.0 258.5 277.0 306.5 322.2 264.5 292.5 310.0 180.0 209.0 202.0 231.8 227.0 205.6 89.5 67.5 143.7 213.5 193.5 250.8 303.0 275.0 84.0 199.5 376.0 216.2 208.0 259.0 248.0 273.0 362.0 Temperature, °C

2-67

Melting point, °C −138.5

−90.7 38 −62 −52.8 −123.7 −135 −119.5 −135.0 75 25.5 74.5 62.5 68 51.5 38

−83.2 61.5 89 −61

10 52.9 68.5 61 51.5 27 124 44 26.5

−105

−122 −60 −32.6

−66.9 44.5 −9.6 −31.5 24 51.5

2-68

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C3H5ClO C4H8O C22H42O2 C10H12O C2H6 C10H16OSi C5H14OSi C20H20OSi C4H8O2 C6H10O3 C4H6 C5H8O2 C5H8O2 C5H7N C2H6O C2H7N C8H11N C8H11N C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C8H10 C9H10O2 C11H12O3 C2H5Br C6H11BrO2 C6H12O2 C6H12O2 C11H16O5 C8H16O2 C3H7NO2 C9H11NO2 C18H39N C2H5Cl C4H7ClO2 C4H5ClO3 C5H9ClO2 C11H12O2 C11H16 C11H16 C5H7NO2 C8H16 C7H14 C4H6Cl2O2 C8H15NO3 C14H15N C2H4 C6H8Cl2O4 C2H5ClO C2H8N2 C2H4Br2 C2H4Cl2 C2H6O2 C6H14O2 C4H10O2 C3H8O2 C2H4O C8H14O3 C2H5F C3H6O2 C7H8O3 C4H8O3 C8H18 C11H20O2 C2H4Cl2 C2H4F2 C2H5I C8H17NO2 C7H12O3 C2H6S C4H9NO2 C3H8O −16.5 −69.0 206.7 52.6 −159.5 36.3 −50.9 167.0 −43.4 28.5 −92.5 −29.5 47.0 −29.0 −31.3 −82.3 52.0 38.5 29.7 33.7 33.5 −9.8 44.0 107.6 −74.3 10.6 −18.4 −24.3 118.2 11.0 107.8 133.2 −89.8 +1.0 −5.1 +6.6 87.6 28.3 31.5 67.8 −14.5 −32.2 9.6 76.0 98.3 −168.3 112.0 −4.0 −11.0 −27.0 −44.5 53.0 −33.5 −48.0 −13.5 −89.7 40.5 −117.0 −60.5 37.6 14.3 −20.0 50.0 −60.7 −112.5 −54.4 27.8 47.3 −76.7 26.5 −91.0 +5.6 −50.0 239.7 80.0 −148.5 63.1 −31.0 198.2 −23.5 54.0 −76.7 −8.7 70.7 −6.4 −12.0 −66.4 80.0 66.4 55.9 60.3 60.2 +13.9 72.0 136.4 −56.4 35.8 +4.0 −2.4 149.8 35.8 65.8 131.8 168.2 −73.9 25.4 +18.0 30.2 108.5 55.5 58.4 93.5 +9.2 −10.8 34.0 106.3 130.2 −158.3 142.4 +19.0 +10.5 +4.7 −24.0 79.7 −10.2 −26.2 +10.2 −73.8 67.3 −103.8 −42.2 63.8 38.8 +2.1 77.7 −41.9 −98.4 −34.3 57.3 74.0 −59.1 51.0 −75.6 16.6 −40.3 254.5 93.7 −142.9 76.2 −20.7 213.5 −13.5 67.3 −68.7 +2.0 82.0 +5.0 −2.3 −58.3 93.8 80.6 69.0 73.9 73.9 25.9 86.0 150.3 −47.5 48.0 15.3 +8.4 165.0 48.0 77.8 143.7 186.0 −65.8 37.5 29.9 41.9 134.0 68.8 72.0 106.0 20.6 −0.1 46.3 121.7 146.0 −153.2 158.0 30.3 21.5 18.6 −13.6 92.1 +1.6 −15.3 22.0 −65.7 80.2 −97.7 −33.0 77.1 50.5 12.8 91.8 −32.3 −91.7 −24.3 72.1 87.3 −50.2 63.2 −67.8 29.0 −29.5 270.6 108.4 −136.7 91.0 −9.8 230.0 −3.0 81.1 −59.9 13.0 94.4 17.7 +8.0 −48.6 109.0 96.0 83.1 88.5 88.5 38.6 101.4 166.8 −37.8 61.8 27.8 20.6 181.8 61.7 91.0 155.5 205.5 −56.8 50.4 42.0 54.3 150.3 83.6 86.7 119.8 33.4 +11.7 59.5 137.7 162.8 −147.6 173.5 42.5 33.0 32.7 −2.4 105.8 14.7 −3.0 34.3 −56.6 94.6 −90.0 −22.7 91.5 63.9 25.0 106.3 −21.9 −84.1 −13.1 88.0 101.8 −40.7 76.1 −59.1 1 5 10 20 40 42.0 −17.3 289.1 124.6 −129.8 107.2 +3.7 247.0 +9.1 96.2 −50.0 26.0 108.1 31.8 19.0 −39.8 125.7 113.2 98.8 104.8 104.7 52.8 118.2 181.8 −26.7 77.0 41.5 33.8 199.8 76.3 105.6 168.8 226.5 −47.0 65.2 56.0 68.2 169.2 99.9 103.3 133.8 47.6 25.0 74.0 154.4 182.0 −141.3 191.0 56.0 45.8 48.0 +10.0 120.0 29.7 +10.7 47.8 −46.9 110.3 −81.8 −11.5 107.5 78.1 38.5 123.7 −10.2 −75.8 −0.9 106.0 117.7 −29.8 91.0 −49.4 60 50.6 −9.7 300.2 135.2 −125.4 127.5 11.5 258.3 16.6 106.0 −43.4 33.5 116.7 40.6 26.0 −33.4 136.0 123.6 109.0 115.5 115.4 61.8 129.0 191.9 −19.5 86.7 50.1 42.3 211.5 85.8 114.8 177.3 239.8 −40.6 74.0 65.2 77.3 181.2 110.2 113.8 142.1 56.7 33.4 83.6 166.0 193.7 −137.3 201.8 64.1 53.8 57.9 18.1 129.5 39.0 19.7 56.4 −40.7 120.6 −76.4 −4.3 117.5 87.6 47.1 134.0 −2.9 −70.4 +7.2 117.8 127.6 −22.4 100.0 −43.3 100 62.0 +1.2 314.4 148.5 −119.3 131.4 22.1 273.5 27.0 118.5 −34.9 44.5 127.5 53.0 34.9 −25.1 149.8 137.3 122.3 129.2 128.4 74.1 143.2 205.0 −10.0 99.8 62.0 53.5 226.6 98.4 126.2 187.9 256.8 −32.0 86.0 76.6 89.3 196.0 124.3 127.2 152.8 69.0 45.0 96.1 180.3 209.8 −131.8 215.0 75.0 62.5 70.4 29.4 141.8 51.8 31.8 68.0 −32.1 133.8 −69.3 −5.4 130.4 99.8 58.9 147.9 +7.2 −63.2 18.0 131.8 141.3 −13.0 112.0 −34.8 200 400 760 Temperature, °C 79.3 98.0 117.9 17.5 36.0 55.5 336.5 358.8 381.5 168.7 192.0 215.0 −110.2 −99.7 −88.6 151.5 175.0 199.5 38.1 56.3 75.7 295.0 319.5 344.0 42.0 59.3 77.1 138.0 158.2 180.8 −21.6 −6.9 +8.7 61.5 80.0 99.5 144.0 160.7 179.2 71.6 92.2 114.0 48.4 63.5 78.4 −12.3 +2.0 16.6 170.6 194.2 217.4 156.9 180.8 204.0 142.1 164.2 187.1 149.7 172.8 196.5 149.2 172.3 196.5 92.7 113.8 136.2 164.8 188.4 213.4 223.8 244.7 265.0 +4.5 21.0 38.4 119.7 141.2 163.6 79.8 100.0 121.0 71.0 90.0 110.0 248.5 272.8 298.0 117.8 139.2 160.4 144.2 164.0 184.0 203.8 220.0 237.0 283.3 313.0 342.0 −18.6 −3.9 +12.3 103.8 123.8 144.2 94.5 114.7 135.0 107.2 126.2 146.5 219.3 245.0 271.0 145.4 168.2 193.0 148.3 171.8 195.8 169.8 187.8 206.0 87.8 109.1 131.8 62.4 82.3 103.4 115.2 135.9 156.5 202.8 226.5 252.0 233.0 258.8 286.0 −123.4 −113.9 −103.7 237.3 259.5 283.5 91.8 110.0 128.8 81.0 99.0 117.2 89.8 110.1 131.5 45.7 64.0 82.4 158.5 178.5 197.3 71.8 94.1 119.5 50.0 85.3 −19.5 153.2 −58.0 20.0 150.1 117.8 76.7 168.2 22.4 −52.0 34.1 149.8 160.2 +1.5 130.0 −22.0 70.8 104.3 −4.9 175.6 −45.5 37.1 172.5 138.0 97.0 192.2 39.8 −39.5 52.3 167.3 183.0 17.7 149.8 −7.8 93.0 124.4 +10.7 198.0 −32.0 54.3 195.0 158.2 118.5 216.0 57.4 −26.5 72.4 184.0 206.2 35.0 170.0 +7.5 −111.3 −79 34 Melting point, °C −25.6 33.5 −183.2

TABLE 2-8

Epichlorohydrin 1,2-Epoxy-2-methylpropane Erucic acid Estragole (p-methoxy allyl benzene) Ethane Ethoxydimethylphenylsilane Ethoxytrimethylsilane Ethoxytriphenylsilane Ethyl acetate acetoacetate Ethylacetylene (1-butyne) Ethyl acrylate α-Ethylacrylic acid α-Ethylacrylonitrile Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) Ethylamine 4-Ethylaniline N-Ethylaniline 2-Ethylanisole 3-Ethylanisole 4-Ethylanisole Ethylbenzene Ethyl benzoate benzoylacetate bromide α-bromoisobutyrate n-butyrate isobutyrate Ethylcamphoronic anhydride Ethyl isocaproate carbamate carbanilate Ethylcetylamine Ethyl chloride chloroacetate chloroglyoxylate α-chloropropionate trans-cinnamate 3-Ethylcumene 4-Ethylcumene Ethyl cyanoacetate Ethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclopentane Ethyl dichloroacetate N,N-diethyloxamate N-Ethyldiphenylamine Ethylene Ethylene-bis-(chloroacetate) Ethylene chlorohydrin (2-chloroethanol) diamine (1,2-ethanediamine) dibromide (1,2-dibromethane) dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane) glycol (1,2-ethanediol) glycol diethyl ether (1,2-diethoxyethane) glycol dimethyl ether (1,2-dimethoxyethane) glycol monomethyl ether (2-methoxyethanol) oxide Ethyl α-ethylacetoacetate fluoride formate 2-furoate glycolate 3-Ethylhexane 2-Ethylhexyl acrylate Ethylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethane) fluoride (1,1-difluoroethane) Ethyl iodide Ethyl l-leucinate Ethyl levulinate Ethyl mercaptan (ethanethiol) Ethyl methylcarbamate Ethyl methyl ether

−82.4 −45 −130 −71.2 −112 −80.6 −4 −63.5

−94.9 −34.6 −117.8 −93.3 −88.2 49 52.5 −139 −26 12

−111.3 −138.6

−169 −69 8.5 10 −35.3 −15.6

−96.7 −117 −105 −121

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name 1-Ethylnaphthalene Ethyl α-naphthyl ketone (1-propionaphthone) Ethyl 3-nitrobenzoate 3-Ethylpentane 4-Ethylphenetole 2-Ethylphenol 3-Ethylphenol 4-Ethylphenol Ethyl phenyl ether (phenetole) Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl salicylate 3-Ethylstyrene 4-Ethylstyrene Ethylisothiocyanate 2-Ethyltoluene 3-Ethyltoluene 4-Ethyltoluene Ethyl trichloroacetate Ethyltrimethylsilane Ethyltrimethyltin Ethyl isovalerate 2-Ethyl-1,4-xylene 4-Ethyl-1,3-xylene 5-Ethyl-1,3-xylene Eugenol iso-Eugenol Eugenyl acetate Fencholic acid d-Fenchone dl-Fenchyl alcohol Fluorene Fluorobenzene 2-Fluorotoluene 3-Fluorotoluene 4-Fluorotoluene Formaldehyde Formamide Formic acid trans-Fumaryl chloride Furfural (2-furaldehyde) Furfuryl alcohol Geraniol Geranyl acetate Geranyl n-butyrate Geranyl isobutyrate Geranyl formate Glutaric acid Glutaric anhydride Glutaronitrile Glutaryl chloride Glycerol Glycerol dichlorohydrin (1,3-dichloro-2-propanol) Glycol diacetate Glycolide (1,4-dioxane-2,6-dione) Guaicol (2-methoxyphenol) Heneicosane Heptacosane Heptadecane Heptaldehyde (enanthaldehyde) n-Heptane Heptanoic acid (enanthic acid) 1-Heptanol Heptanoyl chloride (enanthyl chloride) 2-Heptene Heptylbenzene Heptyl cyanide (enanthonitrile) Hexachlorobenzene Hexachloroethane Hexacosane Hexadecane 1-Hexadecene n-Hexadecyl alcohol (cetyl alcohol) Formula C12H12 C13H12O C9H9NO4 C7H16 C10H14O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C8H10O C5H10O2 C5H12O C9H10O3 C10H12 C10H12 C3H5NS C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C4H5Cl3O2 C5H14Si C5H14Sn C7H14O2 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H12O2 C10H12O2 C12H14O3 C10H16O2 C10H16O C10H18O C13H10 C6H5F C7H7F C7H7F C7H7F CH2O CH3NO CH2O2 C4H2Cl2O2 C5H4O2 C5H6O2 C10H18O C12H20O2 C14H24O2 C14H24O2 C11H18O2 C5H8O4 C5H6O3 C5H6N2 C5H6Cl2O2 C3H8O3 C3H6Cl2O C6H10O4 C4H4O4 C7H8O2 C21H44 C27H56 C17H36 C7H14O C7H16 C7H14O2 C7H16O C7H13ClO C7H14 C13H20 C7H13N C6Cl6 C2Cl6 C26H54 C16H34 C16H32 C16H34O 70.0 124.0 108.1 −37.8 48.5 46.2 60.0 59.3 18.1 −28.0 −64.3 61.2 28.3 26.0 13.2 9.4 7.2 7.6 20.7 −60.6 −30.0 −6.1 25.7 26.3 22.1 78.4 86.3 101.6 101.7 28.0 45.8 −43.4 −24.2 −22.4 −21.8 70.5 −20.0 +15.0 18.5 31.8 69.2 73.5 96.8 90.9 61.8 155.5 100.8 91.3 56.1 125.5 28.0 38.3 52.4 152.6 211.7 115.0 12.0 −34.0 78.0 42.4 34.2 −35.8 64.0 21.0 114.4 32.7 204.0 105.3 101.6 122.7 101.4 155.5 140.2 −17.0 75.7 73.4 86.8 86.5 43.7 −7.2 −45.0 90.0 55.0 52.7 +10.6 34.8 32.3 32.7 45.5 −41.4 −7.6 +17.0 52.0 53.0 48.8 108.1 117.0 132.3 128.7 54.7 70.3 129.3 −22.8 −2.2 −0.3 +0.3 96.3 −5.0 38.5 42.6 56.0 96.8 102.7 125.2 119.6 90.3 183.8 133.3 123.7 84.0 153.8 52.2 64.1 103.0 79.1 188.0 248.6 145.2 32.7 −12.7 101.3 64.3 54.6 −14.1 94.6 47.8 149.3 49.8 240.0 135.2 131.7 158.3 116.8 171.0 155.0 −6.8 89.5 87.0 100.2 100.2 56.4 +3.4 −35.0 104.2 68.3 66.3 22.8 47.6 44.7 44.9 57.7 −31.8 +3.8 28.7 65.6 66.4 62.1 123.0 132.4 148.0 142.3 68.3 82.1 146.0 −12.4 +8.9 +11.0 11.8 −88.0 109.5 +2.1 51.8 54.8 68.0 110.0 117.9 139.0 133.0 104.3 196.0 149.5 140.0 97.8 167.2 64.7 77.1 116.6 92.0 205.4 266.8 160.0 43.0 −2.1 113.2 74.7 64.6 −3.5 110.0 61.6 166.4 73.5 257.4 149.8 146.2 177.8 133.8 188.1 173.6 +4.7 103.8 101.5 114.5 115.0 70.3 14.3 −24.0 119.3 82.8 80.8 36.1 61.2 58.2 58.5 70.6 −21.0 16.1 41.3 79.8 80.6 76.5 138.7 149.0 164.2 155.8 83.0 95.6 164.2 −1.2 21.4 23.4 24.0 −79.6 122.5 10.3 65.0 67.8 81.0 125.6 133.0 153.8 147.9 119.8 210.5 166.0 156.5 112.3 182.2 78.0 90.8 132.0 106.0 223.2 284.6 177.7 54.0 +9.5 125.6 85.8 75.0 +8.3 126.0 76.3 185.7 87.6 275.8 164.7 162.0 197.8 1 5 10 20 40 152.0 206.9 192.6 17.5 119.8 117.9 130.0 131.3 86.6 27.2 −12.0 136.7 99.2 97.3 50.8 76.4 73.3 73.6 85.5 −9.0 30.0 55.2 96.0 97.2 92.6 155.8 167.0 183.0 171.8 99.5 110.8 185.2 +11.5 34.7 37.0 37.8 −70.6 137.5 24.0 79.5 82.1 95.7 141.8 150.0 170.1 164.0 136.2 226.3 185.5 176.4 128.3 198.0 93.0 106.1 148.6 121.6 243.4 305.7 195.8 66.3 22.3 139.5 99.8 86.4 21.5 144.0 92.6 206.0 102.3 295.2 181.3 178.8 219.8 60 164.1 218.2 205.0 25.7 129.8 127.9 139.8 141.7 95.4 35.1 −4.0 147.6 109.6 107.6 59.8 86.0 82.9 83.2 94.4 −1.2 38.4 64.0 106.2 107.4 103.0 167.3 178.2 194.0 181.5 109.8 120.2 197.8 19.6 43.7 45.8 46.5 −65.0 147.0 32.4 89.0 91.5 104.0 151.5 160.3 180.2 174.0 147.2 235.5 196.2 189.5 139.1 208.0 102.0 115.8 158.2 131.0 255.3 318.3 207.3 74.0 30.6 148.5 108.0 93.5 30.0 154.8 103.0 219.0 112.0 307.8 193.2 190.8 234.3 100 180.0 233.5 220.3 36.9 143.5 141.8 152.0 154.2 108.4 45.2 +6.8 161.5 123.2 121.5 71.9 99.0 95.9 96.3 107.4 +9.2 50.0 75.9 120.0 121.2 116.5 182.2 194.0 209.7 194.0 123.6 132.3 214.7 30.4 55.3 57.5 58.1 −57.3 157.5 43.8 101.0 103.4 115.9 165.3 175.2 193.8 187.7 160.7 247.0 212.5 205.5 151.8 220.1 114.8 128.0 173.2 144.0 272.0 333.5 223.0 84.0 41.8 160.0 119.5 102.7 41.3 170.2 116.8 235.5 124.2 323.2 208.5 205.3 251.7 200 204.6 255.5 244.6 53.8 163.2 161.6 171.8 175.0 127.9 61.7 23.3 183.7 144.0 142.0 90.0 119.0 115.5 116.1 125.8 25.0 67.3 93.8 140.2 141.8 137.4 204.7 217.2 232.5 215.0 144.0 150.0 240.3 47.2 73.0 75.4 76.0 −46.0 175.5 61.4 120.0 121.8 133.1 185.6 196.3 214.0 207.6 182.6 265.0 236.5 230.0 172.4 240.0 133.3 147.8 194.0 162.7 296.5 359.4 247.8 102.0 58.7 179.5 136.6 116.3 58.6 193.3 137.7 258.5 143.1 348.4 231.7 226.8 280.2 400 230.8 280.2 270.6 73.0 185.7 184.5 193.3 197.4 149.8 79.8 41.6 207.0 167.2 165.0 110.1 141.4 137.8 136.4 146.0 42.8 87.6 114.0 163.1 164.4 159.6 228.3 242.3 257.4 237.8 166.8 173.2 268.6 65.7 92.8 95.4 96.1 −33.0 193.5 80.3 140.0 141.8 151.8 207.8 219.8 235.0 228.5 205.8 283.5 261.0 257.3 195.3 263.0 153.5 168.3 217.0 184.1 323.8 385.0 274.5 125.5 78.0 199.6 155.6 130.7 78.1 217.8 160.0 283.5 163.8 374.6 258.3 250.0 312.7 760 258.1 306.0 298.0 93.5 208.0 207.5 214.0 219.0 172.0 99.1 61.7 231.5 191.5 189.0 131.0 165.1 161.3 162.0 167.0 62.0 108.8 134.3 186.9 188.4 183.7 253.5 267.5 282.0 264.1 191.0 201.0 295.0 84.7 114.0 116.0 117.0 −19.5 210.5 100.6 160.0 161.8 170.0 230.0 243.3 257.4 251.0 230.0 303.0 287.0 286.2 217.0 290.0 174.3 190.5 240.0 205.0 350.5 410.6 303.0 155.0 98.4 221.5 175.8 145.0 98.5 244.0 184.6 309.4 185.6 399.8 287.5 274.0 344.0 Temperature, °C

2-69

Melting point, °C −27 47 −118.6 −45 −4 46.5 −30.2 −72.6 1.3 −5.9 −95.5

−99.3

−10 295 19 5 35 113 −42.1 −80 −110.8 −92 8.2

97.5

17.9 −31 97 28.3 40.4 59.5 22.5 −42 −90.6 −10 34.6

230 186.6 56.6 18.5 4 49.3

2-70

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C16H35N C18H30 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C6H14O C6H12 C11H20O3 C13H18O C9H10O2 CHN C6H6O2 C7H6O2 C4H8O3 C5H9NO C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C3H5NO C9H8 C6H5I C9H19I C7H7I C13H20O C5H8 C12H24O C12H24O2 C5H8O2 C5H8O3 C10H16 C12H20O2 C4H2O3 C10H20 C10H20O C12H22O2 C17H24O2 C11H20O2 C6H10O C4H6O2 C4H5N CH4 CH4S C3H6O3 C9H11NO C3H6O2 C3H4 C4H6O2 CH4O CH5N C7H9N C8H9NO2 C8H8O2 C8H7NS C8H10O CH3Br C5H10 C5H10 C6H14O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C11H22O2 C7H14O2 C9H18O2 CH3Cl C3H5ClO2 C10H10O2 C10H10O2 C7H14 C6H12 C4H8 C12H24O C3H4Cl2O2 C13H13N 123.6 −53.9 24.4 14.6 +2.5 −57.5 90.0 100.0 102.2 −71.0 132.4 121.2 73.5 41.0 44.6 22.0 58.7 16.4 24.1 70.0 37.2 79.5 −79.8 77.7 121.0 28.1 102.0 14.0 55.4 44.0 +9.7 56.0 57.4 123.2 47.3 −8.7 25.5 −44.5 −205.9 −90.7 52.5 −57.2 −111.0 −43.7 −44.0 −95.8 36.0 77.6 39.0 70.0 49.0 −96.3 −89.1 −75.4 −0.3 +7.7 −1.4 −26.8 −34.1 63.7 +5.0 34.2 −2.9 77.4 125.7 −35.9 −53.7 −96.0 77.1 3.2 103.5 157.8 134.3 −34.5 47.2 34.8 25.7 −38.0 120.0 130.3 133.5 −55.3 153.3 153.2 98.5 65.8 69.3 46.7 87.8 44.3 50.6 96.2 65.9 108.8 −62.3 108.4 150.6 54.9 128.1 40.4 82.5 63.4 35.7 83.2 85.8 154.2 75.8 +14.1 48.5 −23.3 −199.0 −75.3 79.3 103.8 −38.6 −97.5 −23.6 −25.3 −81.3 62.8 109.0 64.4 97.5 75.2 −80.6 −72.8 −57.0 +22.1 28.8 +19.7 −5.5 −13.0 93.5 30.0 61.7 −99.5 19.0 108.1 155.0 −14.0 −33.8 −80.6 106.0 26.7 134.0 176.0 150.3 −25.0 58.2 45.0 36.7 −28.1 134.7 145.5 148.7 −47.7 163.5 169.7 110.5 77.8 81.0 58.8 102.0 58.5 64.0 109.0 79.8 123.0 −53.3 123.7 166.0 68.0 141.8 53.8 96.0 78.7 48.3 96.0 100.0 170.0 90.0 26.0 60.0 −12.5 −195.5 −67.5 92.0 118.6 −29.3 −90.5 −13.5 −16.2 −73.8 76.2 124.2 77.3 111.2 88.0 −72.8 −64.3 −47.9 33.3 38.8 30.0 +5.0 −2.9 108.0 42.0 74.9 −92.4 30.0 123.0 169.8 −3.2 −23.7 −72.8 120.4 38.1 149.7 195.7 168.0 −14.1 70.3 55.9 49.0 −17.2 150.2 161.0 165.0 −39.7 174.6 186.8 123.8 90.7 94.0 72.0 117.9 73.9 78.3 123.0 95.6 139.0 −43.5 140.2 183.6 82.7 154.1 68.2 111.4 95.0 62.7 110.3 115.4 186.3 105.8 37.9 72.7 −0.6 −191.8 −58.8 106.5 135.1 −19.1 −82.9 −2.7 −6.0 −65.9 90.5 141.5 91.8 125.5 102.1 −64.0 −54.8 −37.9 45.4 50.0 40.8 16.7 +8.4 123.0 55.4 89.0 −84.8 41.5 140.0 185.2 +8.7 −12.8 −64.0 136.0 50.7 165.8 1 5 10 20 40 215.7 187.7 −2.3 83.7 67.9 62.2 −5.0 167.8 178.9 183.3 −30.9 192.0 206.0 138.0 104.8 108.2 86.7 134.1 90.7 94.4 138.1 112.4 155.6 −32.6 157.8 201.4 98.3 169.5 84.3 127.7 111.8 78.3 126.1 132.1 204.3 123.0 51.7 86.4 +12.8 −187.7 −49.2 122.0 152.2 −7.9 −74.3 +9.2 +5.0 −56.9 106.0 159.7 107.8 141.2 117.8 −54.2 −44.1 −26.7 58.2 62.0 52.8 29.6 21.0 139.0 70.0 105.3 −76.0 54.5 157.9 201.8 22.0 −0.6 −54.2 152.4 64.7 184.0 60 228.8 199.7 +5.4 92.0 76.0 70.7 +2.8 179.0 189.8 194.0 −25.1 203.0 217.5 146.4 113.9 117.4 96.0 144.7 100.8 105.0 147.7 123.8 166.3 −25.4 168.7 212.7 108.4 178.0 94.6 138.1 122.0 88.6 136.1 143.2 215.8 133.8 60.4 95.3 21.5 −185.1 −43.1 131.8 164.2 −0.5 −68.8 17.3 12.1 −51.3 115.8 172.0 117.4 150.4 127.4 −48.0 −37.3 −19.4 67.0 69.8 60.4 37.4 28.9 148.6 79.7 115.3 −70.4 63.0 170.0 212.0 30.5 +7.2 −48.0 163.8 73.6 195.4 100 245.8 216.0 15.8 102.8 87.3 81.8 13.0 193.6 204.2 209.0 −17.8 216.5 233.5 157.7 125.0 129.0 108.2 157.7 114.7 118.3 159.8 138.1 181.2 −16.0 184.5 227.5 121.8 190.2 108.3 151.8 135.8 102.1 149.4 156.7 230.4 148.0 72.1 106.6 32.8 −181.4 −34.8 144.5 179.8 +9.4 −61.3 28.0 21.2 −43.7 129.8 187.8 130.8 163.9 140.3 −39.4 −28.0 −9.9 78.0 79.8 70.4 48.0 39.6 161.5 91.4 128.0 −63.0 73.5 185.8 224.8 42.1 17.9 −39.3 177.5 85.4 210.1 200 400 760 Temperature, °C 272.2 300.4 330.0 241.7 268.5 298.3 31.6 49.6 68.7 119.6 138.0 157.0 103.7 121.8 139.9 98.3 117.0 135.5 29.0 46.8 66.0 215.7 241.0 266.8 225.0 248.3 271.3 230.8 255.0 279.8 −5.3 +10.2 25.9 238.0 262.5 286.2 256.8 282.6 310.0 175.2 193.8 212.0 142.0 159.8 178.8 146.5 165.5 185.0 126.8 147.5 167.9 178.0 200.0 221.0 135.6 157.8 181.6 139.8 163.9 188.6 179.0 199.3 219.5 160.0 185.7 211.0 202.5 225.2 250.0 −1.2 +15.4 32.6 207.8 231.8 257.0 249.8 273.8 299.2 142.0 164.0 187.0 208.3 227.4 245.8 128.5 151.4 175.0 173.3 196.2 220.0 155.9 179.5 202.0 122.7 146.0 169.5 168.3 190.2 212.0 178.8 202.8 227.0 253.2 277.1 301.0 169.8 194.2 219.0 90.0 109.8 130.0 123.9 142.5 161.0 50.0 70.3 90.3 −175.5 −168.8 −161.5 −22.1 −7.9 +6.8 163.5 184.2 204.0 202.3 227.4 253.0 24.0 40.0 57.8 −49.8 −37.2 −23.3 43.9 61.8 80.2 34.8 49.9 64.7 −32.4 −19.7 −6.3 149.3 172.0 195.5 212.4 238.5 266.5 151.4 174.7 199.5 183.2 204.5 225.5 159.0 180.7 204.0 −26.5 −11.9 +3.6 −13.8 +2.5 20.2 +4.9 21.6 38.5 94.9 94.3 85.6 64.3 55.7 181.6 109.8 148.1 −51.2 90.5 209.6 245.0 59.6 34.0 −26.0 199.0 103.2 232.8 113.5 111.0 102.0 83.1 73.6 202.9 129.8 170.0 −38.0 109.5 235.0 266.8 79.6 52.3 −11.3 222.5 122.6 257.0 131.7 127.5 119.0 102.3 92.6 224.0 150 193.0 −24.0 130.3 263.0 288.0 100.9 71.8 +4.5 246.5 143.0 282.0 Melting point, °C 130 −95.3 −51.6 −98.5 48.5 −13.2 170.3 115.5 79 −47 −2 −28.5

TABLE 2-8

n-Hexadecylamine (cetylamine) Hexaethylbenzene n-Hexane 1-Hexanol 2-Hexanol 3-Hexanol 1-Hexene n-Hexyl levulinate n-Hexyl phenyl ketone (enanthophenone) Hydrocinnamic acid Hydrogen cyanide (hydrocyanic acid) Hydroquinone 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde α-Hydroxyisobutyric acid α-Hydroxybutyronitrile 4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-butanone 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone 3-Hydroxypropionitrile Indene Iodobenzene Iodononane 2-Iodotoluene α-Ionone Isoprene Lauraldehyde Lauric acid Levulinaldehyde Levulinic acid d-Limonene Linalyl acetate Maleic anhydride Menthane 1-Menthol Menthyl acetate benzoate formate Mesityl oxide Methacrylic acid Methacrylonitrile Methane Methanethiol Methoxyacetic acid N-Methylacetanilide Methyl acetate acetylene (propyne) acrylate alcohol (methanol) Methylamine N-Methylaniline Methyl anthranilate benzoate 2-Methylbenzothiazole α-Methylbenzyl alcohol Methyl bromide 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Methyl isobutyl carbinol (2-methyl4-pentanol) n-butyl ketone (2-hexanone) isobutyl ketone (4-methyl-2-pentanone) n-butyrate isobutyrate caprate caproate caprylate chloride chloroacetate cinnamate α-Methylcinnamic acid Methylcyclohexane Methylcyclopentane Methylcyclopropane Methyl n-decyl ketone (n-dodecan-2-one) dichloroacetate N-Methyldiphenylamine

−146.7 44.5 48 33.5 −96.9 58 42.5 54.5 −59 15 −182.5 −121 102 −98.7 −102.7 −97.8 −93.5 −57 24 −12.5 15.4 −93 −135 −133 −56.9 −84.7 −84.7 −18 −40 −97.7 −31.9 33.4 −126.4 −142.4

−7.6

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm* (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Methyl n-dodecyl ketone (2-tetradecanone) Methylene bromide (dibromomethane) chloride (dichloromethane) Methyl ethyl ketone (2-butanone) 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane Methyl fluoride formate α-Methylglutaric anhydride Methyl glycolate 2-Methylheptadecane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylheptane 4-Methylheptane 2-Methyl-2-heptene 6-Methyl-3-hepten-2-ol 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-ol 2-Methylhexane 3-Methylhexane Methyl iodide laurate levulinate methacrylate myristate α-naphthyl ketone (1-acetonaphthone) β-naphthyl ketone (2-acetonaphthone) n-nonyl ketone (undecan-2-one) palmitate n-pentadecyl ketone (2-heptdecanone) 2-Methylpentane 3-Methylpentane 2-Methyl-1-pentanol 2-Methyl-2-pentanol Methyl n-pentyl ketone (2-heptanone) phenyl ether (anisole) 2-Methylpropene Methyl propionate 4-Methylpropiophenone 2-Methylpropionyl bromide Methyl propyl ether n-propyl ketone (2-pentanone) isopropyl ketone (3-Methyl-2-butanone) 2-Methylquinoline Methyl salicylate α-Methyl styrene 4-Methyl styrene Methyl n-tetradecyl ketone (2-hexadecanone) thiocyanate isothiocyanate undecyl ketone (2-tridecanone) isovalerate Monovinylacetylene (butenyne) Myrcene Myristaldehyde Myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid) Naphthalene 1-Naphthoic acid 2-Naphthoic acid 1-Naphthol 2-Naphthol 1-Naphthylamine 2-Naphthylamine Nicotine 2-Nitroaniline 3-Nitroaniline 4-Nitroaniline 2-Nitrobenzaldehyde 3-Nitrobenzaldehyde Nitrobenzene Nitroethane Nitroglycerin Nitromethane 2-Nitrophenol 2-Nitrophenyl acetate Formula C14H28O CH2Br2 CH2Cl2 C4H8O C8H18 C8H18 CH3F C2H4O2 C6H8O3 C3H6O3 C18H38 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H16 C8H16O C8H16O C7H16 C7H16 CH3I C13H26O2 C6H10O3 C5H8O2 C15H30O2 C12H10O C12H10O C11H22O C17H34O2 C17H34O C6H14 C6H14 C6H14O C6H14O C7H14O C7H8O C4H8 C4H8O2 C10H12O C4H7BrO C4H10O C5H10O C5H10O C10H9N C8H8O3 C9H10 C9H10 C16H32O C2H3NS C2H3NS C13H26O C6H12O2 C4H4 C10H16 C14H28O C14H28O2 C10H8 C11H8O2 C11H8O2 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C10H9N C10H14N2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO3 C7H5NO3 C6H5NO2 C2H5NO2 C3H5N3O9 CH3NO2 C6H5NO3 C8H7NO4 99.3 −35.1 −70.0 −48.3 −24.0 −23.9 −147.3 −74.2 93.8 +9.6 119.8 −21.0 −19.8 −20.4 −16.1 41.6 41.9 −40.4 −39.0 87.8 39.8 −30.5 115.0 115.6 120.2 68.2 134.3 129.6 −60.9 −59.0 15.4 −4.5 19.3 +5.4 −105.1 −42.0 59.6 13.5 −72.2 −12.0 −19.9 75.3 54.0 7.4 16.0 109.8 −14.0 −34.7 86.8 −19.2 −93.2 14.5 99.0 142.0 52.6 156.0 160.8 94.0 104.3 108.0 61.8 104.0 119.3 142.4 85.8 96.2 44.4 −21.0 127 −29.0 49.3 100.0 130.0 −13.2 −52.1 −28.0 −1.8 −1.4 −137.0 −57.0 125.4 33.7 152.0 +1.3 +2.6 +1.5 +6.7 65.0 66.0 −19.5 −18.1 −55.0 117.9 66.4 −10.0 145.7 146.3 152.3 95.5 166.8 161.6 −41.7 −39.8 38.0 +16.8 43.6 30.0 −96.5 −21.5 89.3 38.4 −54.3 +8.0 −1.0 104.0 81.6 34.0 42.0 151.5 +9.8 −8.3 117.0 +2.9 −77.7 40.0 132.0 174.1 74.2 184.0 189.7 125.5 128.6 137.7 141.6 91.8 135.7 151.5 177.6 117.7 127.4 71.6 +1.5 167 −7.9 76.8 128.0 145.5 −2.4 −43.3 −17.7 +9.5 +9.9 −131.6 −48.6 141.8 45.3 168.7 12.3 13.3 12.4 17.8 76.7 77.8 −9.1 −7.8 −45.8 133.2 79.7 +1.0 160.8 161.5 168.5 108.9 184.3 178.0 −32.1 −30.1 49.6 27.6 55.5 42.2 −81.9 −11.8 103.8 50.6 −45.4 17.9 +8.3 119.0 95.3 47.1 55.1 167.3 21.6 +5.4 131.8 14.0 −70.0 53.2 148.3 190.8 85.8 196.8 202.8 142.0 145.5 153.8 157.6 107.2 150.4 167.8 194.4 133.4 142.8 84.9 12.5 188 +2.8 90.4 142.0 161.3 +9.7 −33.4 −6.5 21.7 22.3 −125.9 −39.2 157.7 58.1 186.0 24.4 25.4 24.5 30.4 89.3 90.4 +2.3 +3.6 −35.6 149.0 93.7 11.0 177.8 178.4 185.7 123.1 202.0 196.4 −21.4 −19.4 61.6 38.8 67.7 55.8 −73.4 −1.0 120.2 64.1 −35.4 28.5 18.3 134.0 110.0 61.8 69.2 184.6 34.5 20.4 147.8 26.4 −61.3 67.0 166.2 207.6 101.7 211.2 216.9 158.0 161.8 171.6 175.8 123.7 167.7 185.5 213.2 150.0 159.0 99.3 24.8 210 14.1 105.8 155.8 1 5 10 20 40 179.8 23.3 −22.3 +6.0 35.2 36.2 −119.1 −28.7 177.5 72.3 204.8 37.9 38.9 38.0 44.0 102.7 104.0 14.9 16.4 −24.2 166.0 109.5 25.5 195.8 196.8 203.8 139.0 214.3 −9.7 −7.3 74.7 51.3 81.2 70.7 −63.8 +11.0 138.0 79.4 −24.3 39.8 29.6 150.8 126.2 77.8 85.0 203.7 49.0 38.2 165.7 39.8 −51.7 82.6 186.0 223.5 119.3 225.0 231.5 177.8 181.7 191.5 195.7 142.1 186.0 204.2 234.2 168.8 177.7 115.4 38.0 235 27.5 122.1 172.8 60 191.4 31.6 −15.7 14.0 43.9 45.0 −115.0 −21.9 189.9 81.8 216.3 46.6 47.6 46.6 52.8 111.5 112.8 23.0 24.5 −16.9 176.8 119.3 34.5 207.5 208.6 214.7 148.6 226.7 −1.9 +0.1 83.4 58.8 89.8 80.1 −57.7 18.7 149.3 88.8 −17.4 47.3 36.2 161.7 136.7 88.3 95.0 215.0 58.1 47.5 176.6 48.2 −45.3 92.6 198.3 237.2 130.2 234.5 241.3 190.0 193.7 203.8 208.1 154.7 197.8 216.5 245.9 180.7 189.5 125.8 46.5 251 35.5 132.6 181.7 100 206.0 42.3 −6.3 25.0 55.7 57.1 −109.0 −12.9 205.0 93.7 231.5 58.3 59.4 58.3 64.6 122.6 123.8 34.1 35.6 −7.0 190.8 133.0 47.0 222.6 223.8 229.8 161.0 242.0 +8.1 10.5 94.2 69.2 100.0 93.0 −49.3 29.0 164.2 101.6 −8.1 56.8 45.5 176.2 150.0 102.2 108.6 230.5 70.4 59.3 191.5 59.8 −37.1 106.0 214.5 250.5 145.5 245.8 252.7 206.0 209.8 220.0 224.3 169.5 213.0 232.1 261.8 196.2 204.3 139.9 57.8 46.6 146.4 194.1 200 228.2 58.5 +8.0 41.6 73.6 75.3 −99.9 +0.8 229.1 111.8 254.5 76.0 77.1 76.1 82.3 139.5 140.0 50.8 52.4 +8.0 153.4 63.0 245.3 246.7 251.6 181.2 265.8 24.1 26.5 111.3 85.0 116.1 112.3 −36.7 44.2 187.4 120.5 +6.0 71.0 59.0 197.8 172.6 121.8 128.7 254.4 89.8 77.5 214.0 77.3 −24.1 126.0 240.4 272.3 167.7 263.5 270.3 229.6 234.0 244.9 249.7 193.8 236.3 255.3 284.5 220.0 227.4 161.2 74.8 63.5 167.6 213.0 400 253.3 79.0 24.1 60.0 94.0 96.2 −89.5 16.0 255.5 131.7 279.8 96.2 97.4 96.3 102.2 156.6 156.6 69.8 71.6 25.3 175.8 82.0 269.8 270.5 275.8 202.3 291.7 41.6 44.2 129.8 102.6 133.2 133.8 −22.2 61.8 212.7 141.7 22.5 86.8 73.8 211.7 197.5 143.0 151.2 279.8 110.8 97.8 238.3 96.7 −10.1 148.3 267.9 294.6 193.2 281.4 289.5 255.8 260.6 272.2 277.4 219.8 260.0 280.2 310.2 246.8 252.1 185.8 94.0 82.0 191.0 233.5 760 278.0 98.6 40.7 79.6 115.6 118.3 −78.2 32.0 282.5 151.5 306.5 117.6 118.9 117.7 122.5 175.5 174.3 90.0 91.9 42.4 197.7 101.0 295.8 295.5 301.0 224.0 319.5 60.3 63.3 147.9 121.2 150.2 155.5 −6.9 79.8 238.5 163.0 39.1 103.3 88.9 246.5 223.2 165.4 175.0 307.0 132.9 119.0 262.5 116.7 +5.3 171.5 297.8 318.0 217.9 300.0 308.5 282.5 288.0 300.8 306.1 247.3 284.5 305.7 336.0 273.5 278.3 210.6 114.0 101.2 214.5 253.0 Temperature, °C

2-71

Melting point, °C −52.8 −96.7 −85.9 −114.5 −90 −99.8

−109.5 −120.8 −121.1

−118.2 −64.4 5 18.5 55.5 15 30 −154 −118 −103 −37.3 −140.3 −87.5

−77.8 −92 −1 −8.3 −23.2

−51 35.5 28.5

23.5 57.5 80.2 160.5 184 96 122.5 50 111.5 71.5 114 146.5 40.9 58 +5.7 −90 11 −29 45

2-72

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C3H7NO2 −9.6 C3H7NO2 −18.8 C7H7NO2 50.0 C7H7NO2 50.2 C7H7NO2 53.7 C8H9NO2 65.6 C29H60 234.2 C19H40 133.2 C9H20 +1.4 C9H20O 59.5 C9H18O 32.1 C28H58 226.5 C18H38 119.6 C8H18 −14.0 C8H18O 54.0 C8H16O 23.6 C11H20O2 58.5 C8H17I 45.8 C18H34O2 176.5 C16H32O 121.6 C16H32O2 153.6 C16H31N 134.3 C9H18O2 108.2 C6HCl5 98.6 C2HCl5 +1.0 C8H5Cl5 96.2 C6HCl5O C25H52 194.2 C15H32 91.6 C5H8 −71.8 C5H8 −83.5 C16H26 86.0 C16H25Cl 90.0 C5H12 −76.6 C5H12 −82.9 C5H12 −102.0 C5H12O3 155.0 C5H10 −80.4 C10H16 20.0 C14H10 118.2 C8H10O2 58.2 C8H11NO 67.0 C6H6O 40.1 C8H10O2 78.0 C10H12O3 82.6 C8H8O2 38.2 C8H8O2 97.0 C8H7N 60.0 C8H7ClO 48.0 C13H10O2 106.8 C10H10O 81.7 C7H5NO 10.6 C7H5N 12.0 C12H16 67.5 C6H5Cl2O2P 66.7 C6H8N2 C8H6O2 C6H8N2 C10H15NO2 C11H12O2 C12H10O C12H10O C9H12O C7H5NS C9H14O C9H14O CCl2O C8H4O3 C8H6O2 C8H4Cl2O2 C6H7N C7H12O4 C10H16 C10H16 99.8 71.8 145.0 98.0 100.0 74.7 47.2 42.0 38.0 −92.9 96.5 95.5 86.3 −11.1 163.4 −1.0 +4.2 +13.5 +4.1 79.1 81.0 85.0 95.0 269.8 166.3 25.8 86.1 59.0 260.3 152.1 +8.3 76.5 48.4 87.7 74.8 208.5 154.6 188.1 168.3 126.0 129.7 27.2 130.0 230.0 121.0 −53.8 −66.2 120.0 123.8 −62.5 −65.8 −85.4 189.3 −63.3 45.7 154.3 85.9 94.7 62.5 106.6 113.5 64.8 127.0 89.0 75.3 141.5 112.2 36.0 37.0 96.5 95.9 131.2 75.0 101.6 179.2 128.5 131.6 102.4 75.6 68.3 66.7 −77.0 121.3 127.7 118.3 +12.6 196.2 +24.6 30.0 25.3 15.8 93.8 96.0 100.5 109.8 286.4 183.5 38.0 99.7 72.3 277.4 169.6 19.2 88.3 60.9 102.0 90.0 223.0 171.8 205.8 185.8 137.4 144.3 39.8 148.0 248.2 135.4 −45.0 −57.1 135.8 140.7 −50.1 −57.0 −76.7 204.5 −54.5 58.0 173.0 100.0 108.6 73.8 121.2 128.0 78.0 141.3 103.5 89.0 157.8 127.4 48.5 49.7 111.3 110.0 147.0 87.8 115.8 195.8 144.0 146.2 176.2 116.0 89.8 81.5 81.2 −69.3 134.0 144.0 134.2 24.4 212.0 37.3 42.3 37.9 28.2 109.6 112.8 117.7 125.8 303.6 200.8 51.2 113.8 87.2 295.4 187.5 31.5 101.0 74.3 117.8 105.9 240.0 190.0 223.8 204.2 149.8 160.0 53.9 166.0 192.2 266.1 150.2 −34.8 −47.7 152.4 158.1 −40.2 −47.3 −67.2 220.5 −46.0 72.1 193.7 114.8 123.7 86.0 136.0 144.5 92.3 156.0 119.4 103.6 177.0 143.8 62.5 63.4 126.4 125.9 163.8 100.7 131.5 213.4 159.9 163.3 193.8 131.2 115.5 95.6 96.8 −60.3 151.7 161.3 151.0 37.4 229.3 51.4 58.1 1 5 10 20 40 51.8 41.8 126.3 130.7 136.0 143.3 323.2 220.0 66.0 129.0 103.4 314.2 207.4 45.1 115.2 89.8 135.6 123.8 257.2 210.0 244.4 223.8 163.7 178.5 69.9 186.2 211.2 285.6 167.7 −23.4 −37.0 171.9 178.2 −29.2 −36.5 −56.1 239.6 −34.1 87.8 215.8 130.5 139.9 100.1 152.2 162.3 108.1 173.6 136.3 119.8 197.6 161.3 77.7 78.3 144.0 143.4 182.5 115.5 148.2 233.0 178.0 180.3 213.0 147.4 122.5 111.3 114.5 −50.3 172.0 181.0 170.0 51.2 247.0 66.8 71.5 60 60.5 50.3 137.6 142.5 147.9 153.8 334.8 232.8 75.5 139.0 113.8 326.8 219.7 53.8 123.8 99.0 145.6 135.4 269.8 222.6 256.0 236.6 172.3 190.1 80.0 199.0 223.4 298.4 178.4 −16.5 −30.0 184.2 191.0 −22.2 −29.6 −49.0 249.8 −27.1 97.6 229.9 141.2 149.8 108.4 163.2 174.0 118.1 184.5 147.7 129.8 210.8 172.6 87.7 88.0 154.2 153.6 194.0 124.2 158.7 245.3 189.8 192.2 225.3 156.8 133.3 121.4 125.6 −44.0 185.3 193.5 182.2 59.9 258.2 76.8 81.2 100 72.3 62.0 151.5 156.9 163.0 168.5 350.0 248.0 88.1 151.3 127.4 341.8 236.0 65.7 135.2 111.7 159.1 150.0 286.0 239.5 271.5 251.5 184.4 205.5 93.5 216.0 239.6 314.0 194.0 −6.7 −20.6 200.0 208.0 −12.6 −20.2 −39.1 263.5 −17.7 110.6 249.0 154.0 163.5 121.4 176.5 189.2 131.6 198.2 161.8 143.5 227.8 187.8 100.6 101.0 169.3 168.0 209.9 136.2 173.5 260.6 204.5 205.9 240.9 170.3 147.7 134.0 140.6 −35.6 202.3 210.0 197.8 71.4 272.0 90.1 94.0 200 90.2 80.0 173.7 180.3 186.7 191.7 373.2 271.8 107.5 170.5 148.2 364.8 260.6 83.6 152.0 130.4 180.2 173.3 309.8 264.1 298.7 277.1 203.1 227.0 114.0 241.8 261.8 339.0 216.1 +8.0 −6.7 224.1 230.3 +1.9 −5.9 −23.7 284.5 −3.4 130.6 277.1 175.0 184.0 139.0 197.6 211.3 151.2 219.5 184.2 163.8 254.0 211.0 120.8 120.8 191.3 189.8 233.0 153.8 195.4 284.5 226.7 227.9 263.2 191.2 169.6 153.5 163.3 −22.3 228.0 234.5 222.0 89.0 294.5 110.2 114.1 400 110.6 99.8 197.7 206.8 212.5 217.5 397.2 299.8 128.2 192.1 171.2 388.9 288.0 104.0 173.8 151.0 204.0 199.3 334.7 292.3 326.0 304.5 227.5 251.6 137.2 269.3 285.0 365.4 242.8 24.7 +8.3 250.2 257.2 18.5 +10.5 −7.1 307.0 +12.8 152.0 308.0 197.5 207.0 160.0 221.0 235.0 173.5 243.0 208.5 186.0 283.5 235.4 142.7 142.3 214.6 213.0 259.0 173.5 218.2 311.3 251.2 251.8 285.5 212.8 194.0 175.3 188.7 −7.6 256.8 261.8 248.3 108.4 318.5 132.3 136.1 760 131.6 120.3 222.3 231.9 238.3 244.0 421.8 330.0 150.8 213.5 195.0 412.5 317.0 125.6 195.2 172.9 227.0 225.5 360.0 321.0 353.8 332.0 253.5 276.0 160.5 299.0 309.3 390.3 270.5 42.1 26.1 277.0 285.0 36.1 27.8 +9.5 327.2 30.1 175.0 340.2 219.5 228.0 181.9 245.3 259.7 195.9 265.5 233.5 210.0 314.0 261.0 165.6 165.0 240.0 239.5 285.5 193.5 243.5 337.8 276.5 275.0 308.0 235.0 218.5 197.2 215.2 +8.3 284.5 290.0 275.8 128.8 342.1 155.0 158.3 Temperature, °C Melting point, °C −108 −93 −4.1 15.5 51.9 +2 63.8 32 −53.7 −5 −19 61.6 28 −56.8 −15.4 −16 −45.9 14 34 64.0 31 12.5 85.5 −22 188.5 53.3 10

TABLE 2-8

1-Nitropropane 2-Nitropropane 2-Nitrotoluene 3-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitrotoluene 4-Nitro-1,3-xylene (4-nitro-m-xylene) Nonacosane Nonadecane n-Nonane 1-Nonanol 2-Nonanone Octacosane Octadecane n-Octane n-Octanol (1-octanol) 2-Octanone n-Octyl acrylate iodide (1-Iodooctane) Oleic acid Palmitaldehyde Palmitic acid Palmitonitrile Pelargonic acid Pentachlorobenzene Pentachloroethane Pentachloroethylbenzene Pentachlorophenol Pentacosane Pentadecane 1,3-Pentadiene 1,4-Pentadiene Pentaethylbenzene Pentaethylchlorobenzene n-Pentane iso-Pentane (2-methylbutane) neo-Pentane (2,2-dimethylpropane) 2,3,4-Pentanetriol 1-Pentene α-Phellandrene Phenanthrene Phenethyl alcohol (phenyl cellosolve) 2-Phenetidine Phenol 2-Phenoxyethanol 2-Phenoxyethyl acetate Phenyl acetate Phenylacetic acid Phenylacetonitrile Phenylacetyl chloride Phenyl benzoate 4-Phenyl-3-buten-2-one Phenyl isocyanate isocyanide Phenylcyclohexane Phenyl dichlorophosphate m-Phenylene diamine (1,3-phenylenediamine) Phenylglyoxal Phenylhydrazine N-Phenyliminodiethanol 1-Phenyl-1,3-pentanedione 2-Phenylphenol 4-Phenylphenol 3-Phenyl-1-propanol Phenyl isothiocyanate Phorone iso-Phorone Phosgene (carbonyl chloride) Phthalic anhydride Phthalide Phthaloyl chloride 2-Picoline Pimelic acid α-Pinene β-Pinene

−129.7 −159.7 −16.6

99.5 40.6 11.6 −6.7 76.5 −23.8 70.5 41.5 +7.5 62.8 73 19.5 56.5 164.5 −21.0 28 −104 130.8 73 88.5 −70 103 −55

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Piperidine Piperonal Propane Propenylbenzene Propionamide Propionic acid anhydride Propionitrile Propiophenone n-Propyl acetate iso-Propyl acetate n-Propyl alcohol (1-propanol) iso-Propyl alcohol (2-propanol) n-Propylamine Propylbenzene Propyl benzoate n-Propyl bromide (1-bromopropane) iso-Propyl bromide (2-bromopropane) n-Propyl n-butyrate isobutyrate iso-Propyl isobutyrate Propyl carbamate n-Propyl chloride (1-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloride (2-chloropropane) iso-Propyl chloroacetate Propyl chloroglyoxylate Propylene Propylene glycol (1,2-Propanediol) Propylene oxide n-Propyl formate iso-Propyl formate 4,4′-iso-Propylidenebisphenol n-Propyl iodide (1-iodopropane) iso-Propyl iodide (2-iodopropane) n-Propyl levulinate iso-Propyl levulinate Propyl mercaptan (1-propanethiol) 2-iso-Propylnaphthalene iso-Propyl β-naphthyl ketone (2-isobutyronaphthone) 2-iso-Propylphenol 3-iso-Propylphenol 4-iso-Propylphenol Propyl propionate 4-iso-Propylstyrene Propyl isovalerate Pulegone Pyridine Pyrocatechol Pyrocaltechol diacetate (1,2-phenylene diacetate) Pyrogallol Pyrotartaric anhydride Pyruvic acid Quinoline iso-Quinoline Resorcinol Safrole Salicylaldehyde Salicylic acid Sebacic acid Selenophene Skatole Stearaldehyde Stearic acid Stearyl alcohol (1-octadecanol) Styrene Styrene dibromide [(1,2-dibromoethyl) benzene] Suberic acid Succinic anhydride Succinimide Succinyl chloride α-Terpineol Terpenoline Formula C5H11N C8H6O3 C3H8 C9H10 C3H7NO C3H6O2 C6H10O3 C3H5N C9H10O C5H10O2 C5H10O2 C3H8O C3H8O C3H9N C9H12 C10H12O2 C3H7Br C3H7Br C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C7H14O2 C4H9NO2 C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C5H9ClO2 C5H7ClO3 C3H6 C3H8O2 C3H6O C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C15H16O2 C3H7I C3H7I C8H14O3 C8H14O3 C3H8S C13H14 C14H14O C9H12O C9H12O C9H12O C6H12O2 C11H14 C8H16O2 C10H16O C5H5N C6H6O2 C10H10O4 C6H6O3 C5H6O3 C3H4O3 C9H7N C9H7N C6H6O2 C10H10O2 C7H6O2 C7H6O3 C10H18O4 C4H4Se C9H9N C18H36O C18H36O2 C18H36O C8H8 C8H8Br2 C8H14O4 C4H4O3 C4H5NO2 C4H4Cl2O2 C10H18O C10H16 87.0 −128.9 17.5 65.0 4.6 20.6 −35.0 50.0 −26.7 −38.3 −15.0 −26.1 −64.4 6.3 54.6 −53.0 −61.8 −1.6 −6.2 −16.3 52.4 −68.3 −78.8 +3.8 9.7 −131.9 45.5 −75.0 −43.0 −52.0 193.0 −36.0 −43.3 59.7 48.0 −56.0 76.0 133.2 56.6 62.0 67.0 −14.2 34.7 +8.0 58.3 −18.9 98.0 69.7 21.4 59.7 63.5 108.4 63.8 33.0 113.7 183.0 −39.0 95.0 140.0 173.7 150.3 −7.0 86.0 172.8 92.0 115.0 39.0 52.8 32.3 −7.0 117.4 −115.4 43.8 91.0 28.0 45.3 −13.6 77.9 −5.4 −17.4 +5.0 −7.0 −46.3 31.3 83.8 −33.4 −42.5 +22.1 +16.8 +5.8 77.6 −50.0 −61.1 28.1 32.3 −120.7 70.8 −57.8 −22.7 −32.7 224.2 −13.5 −22.1 86.3 74.5 −36.3 107.9 165.4 83.8 90.3 94.7 +8.0 62.3 32.8 82.5 +2.5 104.0 129.8 151.7 99.7 45.8 89.6 92.7 138.0 93.0 60.1 136.0 215.7 −16.0 124.2 174.6 209.0 185.6 +18.0 115.6 205.5 115.0 143.2 65.0 80.4 58.0 +3.9 132.0 −108.5 57.0 105.0 39.7 57.7 −3.0 92.2 +5.0 −7.2 14.7 +2.4 −37.2 43.4 98.0 −23.3 −32.8 34.0 28.3 17.0 90.0 −41.0 −52.0 40.2 43.5 −112.1 83.2 −49.0 −12.6 −22.7 240.8 −2.4 −11.7 99.9 88.0 −26.3 123.4 181.0 97.0 104.1 108.0 19.4 76.0 45.1 94.0 13.2 118.3 145.7 167.7 114.2 57.9 103.8 107.8 152.1 107.6 73.8 146.2 232.0 −4.0 139.6 192.1 225.0 202.0 30.8 129.8 219.5 128.2 157.0 78.0 94.3 70.6 15.8 148.0 −100.9 71.5 119.0 52.0 70.4 +8.8 107.6 16.0 +4.2 25.3 12.7 −27.1 56.8 114.3 −12.4 −22.0 47.0 40.6 29.0 103.2 −31.0 −42.0 53.9 55.6 −104.7 96.4 −39.3 −1.7 −12.1 255.5 +10.0 0.0 114.0 102.4 −15.4 140.3 197.7 111.7 119.8 123.4 31.6 91.2 58.0 106.8 24.8 134.0 161.8 185.3 130.0 70.8 119.8 123.7 168.0 123.0 88.7 156.8 250.0 +9.1 154.3 210.6 243.4 220.0 44.6 145.2 238.2 145.3 174.0 91.8 109.8 84.8 1 5 10 20 40 29.2 165.7 −92.4 87.7 134.8 65.8 85.6 22.0 124.3 28.8 17.0 36.4 23.8 −16.0 71.6 131.8 −0.3 −10.1 61.5 54.3 42.4 117.7 −19.5 −31.0 68.7 68.8 −96.5 111.2 −28.4 +10.8 −0.2 273.0 23.6 +13.2 130.1 118.1 −3.2 159.0 215.6 127.5 136.2 139.8 45.0 108.0 72.8 121.7 38.0 150.6 179.8 204.2 147.8 85.3 136.7 141.6 185.3 140.1 105.2 172.2 268.2 24.1 171.9 230.8 263.3 240.4 59.8 161.8 254.6 163.0 192.0 107.5 126.0 100.0 60 37.7 177.0 −87.0 97.8 144.3 74.1 94.5 30.1 135.0 37.0 25.1 43.5 30.5 −9.0 81.1 143.3 +7.5 −2.5 70.3 63.0 51.4 126.5 −12.1 −23.5 78.0 77.2 −91.3 119.9 −21.3 18.8 +7.5 282.9 32.1 21.6 140.6 127.8 +4.6 171.4 227.0 137.7 146.6 149.7 53.8 118.4 82.3 130.2 46.8 161.7 191.6 216.3 158.6 94.1 148.1 152.0 195.8 150.3 115.7 182.0 279.8 33.8 183.6 244.2 275.5 252.7 69.5 172.2 265.4 174.0 203.0 117.2 136.3 109.8 100 49.0 191.7 −79.6 111.7 156.0 85.8 107.2 41.4 149.3 47.8 35.7 52.8 39.5 +0.5 94.0 157.4 18.0 +8.0 82.6 73.9 62.3 138.3 −2.5 −13.7 90.3 88.0 −84.1 132.0 −12.0 29.5 17.8 297.0 43.8 32.8 154.0 141.8 15.3 187.6 242.3 150.3 160.2 163.3 65.2 132.8 95.0 143.1 57.8 176.0 206.5 232.0 173.8 106.5 163.2 167.6 209.8 165.1 129.4 193.4 294.5 47.0 197.4 260.0 291.0 269.4 82.0 186.3 279.8 189.0 217.4 130.0 150.1 122.7 200 66.2 214.3 −68.4 132.0 174.2 102.5 127.8 58.2 170.2 64.0 51.7 66.8 53.0 15.0 113.5 180.1 34.0 23.8 101.0 91.8 80.2 155.8 +12.2 +1.3 108.8 104.7 −73.3 149.7 +2.1 45.3 33.6 317.5 61.8 50.0 175.6 161.6 31.5 211.8 264.0 170.1 182.0 184.0 82.7 153.9 113.9 162.5 75.0 197.7 228.7 255.3 196.1 124.7 186.2 190.0 230.8 186.2 150.0 210.0 313.2 66.7 218.8 285.0 316.5 293.5 101.3 207.8 300.5 212.0 240.0 149.3 171.2 142.0 400 85.7 238.5 −55.6 154.7 194.0 122.0 146.0 77.7 194.2 82.0 69.8 82.0 67.8 31.5 135.7 205.2 52.0 41.5 121.7 112.0 100.0 175.8 29.4 18.1 128.0 123.0 −60.9 168.1 17.8 62.6 50.5 339.0 81.8 69.5 198.0 185.2 49.2 238.5 288.2 192.6 205.0 206.1 102.0 178.0 135.0 189.8 95.6 221.5 253.3 281.5 221.0 144.7 212.3 214.5 253.4 210.0 173.7 230.5 332.8 89.8 242.5 313.8 343.0 320.3 122.5 230.0 322.8 237.0 263.5 170.0 194.3 163.5 760 106.0 263.0 −42.1 179.0 213.0 141.1 167.0 97.1 218.0 101.8 89.0 97.8 82.5 48.5 159.2 231.0 71.0 60.0 142.7 133.9 120.5 195.0 46.4 36.5 148.6 150.0 −47.7 188.2 34.5 81.3 68.3 360.5 102.5 89.5 221.2 208.2 67.4 266.0 313.0 214.5 228.0 228.2 122.4 202.5 155.9 221.0 115.4 245.5 278.0 309.0 247.4 165.0 237.7 240.5 276.5 233.0 196.5 256.0 352.3 114.3 266.2 342.5 370.0 349.5 145.2 254.0 345.5 261.0 287.5 192.5 217.5 185.0 Temperature, °C

2-73

Melting point, °C −9 37 −187.1 −30.1 79 −22 −45 −91.9 21 −92.5 −127 −85.8 −83 −99.5 −51.6 −109.9 −89.0 −95.2

−122.8 −117 −185 −112.1 −92.9 −98.8 −90 −112

15.5 26 61 −76

−42 105 133 13.6 −15 24.6 110.7 11.2 −7 159 134.5 95 63.5 69.3 58.5 −30.6 142 119.6 125.5 17 35

2-74

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Continued ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Formula C2H2Br4 C2H2Br4 C16H32 C24H50 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C6H2Cl4 C2Cl4F2 C2H2Cl4 C2H2Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C2Cl4 C6H2Cl4O C8H6Cl4 C14H30 C14H31N C17H38Si C8H20O4Si C14H22 C8H18O5 C8H17ClO4 C8H20Pb C8H20Si C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C8H18 C4H8Br2 C4H12Pb C4H12Sn C15H32O5 C2H4O2S C4H10O2S C4H4S C6H6S C10H16O C10H14O C5H8O C5H8O2 C5H7N C7H8 C7H10N2 C8H7N C8H7N C7H9N C7H9N C7H9N C8H7N C7H10N2 C2HBr3O C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C4H7Br3 C2H3Br3 C3H5Br3 C12H27N C12H24 C18H30O C2HCl3O2 C4Cl6O3 C2BrCl3O C6H4Cl3N C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C6H3Cl3 C4H7Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2H3Cl3 C2HCl3 CCl3F C6H3Cl3O C6H3Cl3O 58.0 65.0 63.8 183.8 68.5 58.2 −37.5 −16.3 −3.8 77.0 −20.6 100.0 94.4 76.4 102.6 120.0 16.0 65.7 153.9 110.1 38.4 −1.0 38.0 42.6 40.6 45.0 −17.4 32.0 −29.0 −51.3 116.6 60.0 42.0 −40.7 18.6 38.3 64.3 −25.0 52.0 −25.5 −26.7 106.5 36.7 42.5 44.0 41.0 42.0 25.2 82.4 18.5 45.0 41.0 38.2 32.6 47.5 32.3 18.0 95.2 51.0 56.2 −7.4 134.0 40.0 38.4 +0.5 −52.0 −24.0 −43.8 −84.3 72.0 76.5 83.3 95.5 93.7 219.6 99.6 89.0 −16.0 +7.4 +20.7 110.0 +2.4 130.3 125.0 106.0 135.8 150.7 40.3 96.2 183.7 141.8 63.6 +23.9 65.3 68.7 65.8 65.0 +3.2 58.8 −6.8 −31.0 147.8 87.7 96.0 −20.8 43.7 65.7 92.8 −1.6 77.8 −2.4 −4.4 137.2 64.0 71.3 69.3 68.0 68.2 51.0 110.0 45.0 73.5 69.0 66.0 58.0 75.8 57.4 44.0 126.1 76.0 85.3 +16.7 157.8 70.0 67.3 63.8 27.2 −32.0 −2.0 −22.8 −67.6 102.1 105.9 95.7 110.0 108.5 237.6 114.7 104.1 −5.0 19.3 33.0 126.0 13.8 145.3 140.3 120.7 152.0 166.2 52.6 111.6 197.1 156.1 74.8 36.3 79.0 81.8 77.8 74.6 13.5 72.4 +4.4 −20.6 163.0 101.5 128.0 −10.9 56.0 79.3 107.4 +10.0 90.2 +9.2 +6.4 151.7 77.9 85.8 81.4 82.0 81.8 64.0 123.8 58.0 87.8 83.2 79.8 70.6 90.0 69.8 56.5 142.0 88.2 99.6 29.3 170.0 85.6 81.7 78.0 40.0 −21.9 +8.3 −12.4 −59.0 117.3 120.2 108.5 126.0 124.5 255.3 131.2 121.6 +6.7 32.1 46.2 143.7 26.3 161.0 156.0 135.6 170.0 183.5 65.8 127.7 212.3 172.6 88.0 50.0 93.8 95.8 91.0 88.0 24.6 87.6 16.6 −9.3 179.8 115.8 165.0 0.0 69.7 93.7 122.6 23.2 103.8 22.1 18.4 167.9 93.0 101.7 95.1 96.7 95.8 78.2 138.6 72.1 103.2 98.6 94.6 84.2 105.8 83.0 70.0 158.0 101.8 114.3 42.1 182.6 101.8 97.2 93.7 55.0 −10.8 21.6 −1.0 −49.7 134.0 135.8 1 5 10 20 40 123.2 144.0 142.2 276.3 149.2 140.0 146.0 19.8 46.7 60.8 162.1 40.1 179.1 174.2 152.7 189.0 201.5 81.1 145.8 228.0 190.0 102.4 65.3 110.4 111.5 105.8 104.2 36.8 104.0 30.3 +3.5 197.7 131.8 210.0 +12.5 84.2 110.0 139.8 37.0 119.0 36.7 31.8 185.7 110.0 109.5 110.0 113.5 111.5 94.0 154.1 87.8 120.2 116.0 111.8 100.0 122.8 97.8 86.7 177.4 116.3 131.2 57.2 195.8 119.8 114.8 110.8 71.5 +1.6 35.2 +11.9 −39.0 151.5 152.2 60 132.0 155.1 152.6 288.4 160.0 152.0 157.7 28.1 56.0 70.0 175.0 49.2 190.0 185.8 164.0 200.2 213.3 90.7 156.7 237.8 200.5 111.7 74.8 121.3 121.8 115.4 114.8 44.5 115.1 39.2 11.7 209.0 142.0 240.5 20.1 93.9 120.2 149.8 45.8 127.8 46.0 40.3 196.2 120.8 130.0 119.8 123.8 121.5 104.0 165.0 97.5 131.6 127.0 122.2 110.0 134.0 107.3 96.7 188.0 125.9 141.8 66.7 204.5 131.5 125.7 121.8 82.0 9.5 44.0 20.0 −32.3 162.5 163.5 100 144.0 170.0 167.5 305.2 175.7 168.0 173.5 38.6 68.0 83.2 191.6 61.3 205.2 200.5 178.5 215.7 227.8 103.6 172.4 250.0 214.7 123.8 88.0 135.3 135.7 128.3 128.1 54.8 128.7 50.8 22.8 223.3 154.0 285 30.5 106.6 134.0 164.1 57.7 140.5 58.2 51.9 211.5 135.0 145.2 133.0 136.7 133.7 117.7 178.0 110.2 146.0 141.8 136.3 123.5 148.0 119.7 110.0 203.0 137.8 155.2 79.5 214.6 146.0 140.0 136.0 96.2 20.0 55.7 31.4 −23.0 178.0 177.8 200 161.5 192.5 190.0 330.5 198.0 193.7 196.0 55.0 87.2 102.2 215.3 79.8 227.2 223.0 201.8 239.8 250.0 123.5 196.0 268.4 236.5 142.0 108.0 157.2 155.7 149.9 149.5 70.2 149.8 68.8 39.8 245.0 46.5 125.8 154.2 185.5 75.4 158.0 77.8 69.5 232.8 156.0 167.3 153.0 157.6 154.0 137.8 198.0 130.0 167.8 163.5 157.8 143.5 170.0 138.0 130.2 226.2 155.4 176.2 98.4 229.8 168.2 162.0 157.7 118.0 36.2 73.3 48.0 −9.1 201.5 199.0 400 181.0 217.5 214.6 358.0 225.5 220.0 220.5 73.1 108.2 124.0 243.0 100.0 250.4 248.3 226.8 264.6 275.0 146.2 221.4 288.0 258.2 161.8 130.2 181.8 180.0 173.7 172.1 87.4 173.8 89.0 58.5 268.3 64.7 146.7 177.8 209.2 95.5 179.2 99.7 89.5 256.0 180.0 193.0 176.2 180.6 176.9 159.9 219.5 151.6 192.0 188.0 182.2 165.4 195.0 157.8 153.0 250.6 175.2 199.8 120.2 246.4 193.5 187.7 183.0 143.0 54.6 93.0 67.0 +6.8 226.5 222.5 760 200.0 243.5 240.0 386.4 254.0 246.0 245.0 92.0 130.5 145.9 270.0 120.8 275.0 273.5 252.5 291.2 300.0 168.5 248.0 307.8 281.5 183.0 153.0 207.2 204.4 197.9 195.9 106.3 197.5 110.0 78.0 292.7 84.4 168.0 201.0 231.8 116.4 198.5 122.0 110.6 280.0 205.2 217.6 199.7 203.3 200.4 183.5 242.0 174.0 216.2 213.8 206.5 188.4 220.0 179.0 179.0 276.3 195.6 223.0 143.0 262.0 218.5 213.0 208.4 169.0 74.1 113.9 86.7 23.7 251.8 246.0 Temperature, °C Melting point, °C

TABLE 2-8

1,1,1,2-Tetrabromoethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrabromoethane Tetraisobutylene Tetracosane 1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 1,2,3,5-Tetrachloro-4-ethylbenzene Tetrachloroethylene 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 3,4,5,6-Tetrachloro-1,2-xylene Tetradecane Tetradecylamine Tetradecyltrimethylsilane Tetraethoxysilane 1,2,3,4-Tetraethylbenzene Tetraethylene glycol Tetraethylene glycol chlorohydrin Tetraethyllead Tetraethylsilane Tetralin 1,2,3,4-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,3,5-Tetramethylbenzene 1,2,4,5-Tetramethylbenzene 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane Tetramethylene dibromide (1,4-dibromobutane) Tetramethyllead Tetramethyltin Tetrapropylene glycol monoisopropyl ether Thioacetic acid (mercaptoacetic acid) Thiodiglycol (2,2′-thiodiethanol) Thiophene Thiophenol (benzenethiol) α-Thujone Thymol Tiglaldehyde Tiglic acid Tiglonitrile Toluene Toluene-2,4-diamine 2-Toluic nitrile (2-tolunitrile) 4-Toluic nitrile (4-tolunitrile) 2-Toluidine 3-Toluidine 4-Toluidine 2-Tolyl isocyanide 4-Tolylhydrazine Tribromoacetaldehyde 1,1,2-Tribromobutane 1,2,2-Tribromobutane 2,2,3-Tribromobutane 1,1,2-Tribromoethane 1,2,3-Tribromopropane Triisobutylamine Triisobutylene 2,4,6-Tritertbutylphenol Trichloroacetic acid Trichloroacetic anhydride Trichloroacetyl bromide 2,4,6-Trichloroaniline 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,3-Trichlorobutane 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 1,1,2-Trichloroethane Trichloroethylene Trichlorofluoromethane 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

51.1 46.5 54.5 139 26.5 −68.7 −36 −19.0 69.5 5.5

11.6 −136 −31.0 −6.2 −24.0 79.5 −102.2 −20 −27.5 −16.5 −38.3 51.5 64.5 −95.0 99 −13 29.5 −16.3 −31.5 44.5 65.5

−26 16.5 −22 57 78 52.5 17 63.5 −30.6 −36.7 −73 62 68.5

VAPOR PRESSURES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-8 Vapor Pressures of Organic Compounds, up to 1 atm (Concluded ) Pressure, mm Hg Compound Name Tri-2-chlorophenylthiophosphate 1,1,1-Trichloropropane 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane Tricosane Tridecane Tridecanoic acid Triethoxymethylsilane Triethoxyphenylsilane 1,2,4-Triethylbenzene 1,3,4-Triethylbenzene Triethylborine Triethyl camphoronate citrate Triethyleneglycol Triethylheptylsilane Triethyloctylsilane Triethyl orthoformate phosphate Triethylthallium Trifluorophenylsilane Trimethallyl phosphate 2,3,5-Trimethylacetophenone Trimethylamine 2,4,5-Trimethylaniline 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane Trimethyl citrate Trimethyleneglycol (1,3-propanediol) 1,2,4-Trimethyl-5-ethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethyl-2-ethylbenzene 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethyl-3-pentanone Trimethyl phosphate 2,4,5-Trimethylstyrene 2,4,6-Trimethylstyrene Trimethylsuccinic anhydride Triphenylmethane Triphenylphosphate Tripropyleneglycol Tripropyleneglycol monobutyl ether Tripropyleneglycol monoisopropyl ether Tritolyl phosphate Undecane Undecanoic acid 10-Undecenoic acid Undecan-2-ol n-Valeric acid iso-Valeric acid γ-Valerolactone Valeronitrile Vanillin Vinyl acetate 2-Vinylanisole 3-Vinylanisole 4-Vinylanisole Vinyl chloride (1-chloroethylene) cyanide (acrylonitrile) fluoride (1-fluoroethylene) Vinylidene chloride (1,1-dichloroethene) 4-Vinylphenetole 2-Xenyl dichlorophosphate 2,4-Xyaldehyde 2-Xylene (2-xylene) 3-Xylene (3-xylene) 4-Xylene (4-xylene) 2,4-Xylidine 2,6-Xylidine Formula C18H12Cl3O3 188.2 PS C3H5Cl3 −28.8 C3H5Cl3 +9.0 C2Cl3F3 −68.0 C23H48 170.0 C13H28 59.4 C13H26O2 137.8 C7H18O3Si −1.5 C12H20O3Si 71.0 C12H18 46.0 C12H18 47.9 C6H15B C15H26O6 C12H20O7 107.0 C6H14O4 114.0 C13H30Si 70.0 C14H32Si 73.7 C7H16O3 +5.5 C6H15O4P 39.6 C6H15Tl +9.3 C6H5F3Si −31.0 C12H21PO4 93.7 C11H14O 79.0 C3H9N −97.1 C9H13N 68.4 C9H12 16.8 C9H12 13.6 C9H12 9.6 C7H16 C9H14O7 106.2 C3H8O2 59.4 C11H16 43.7 C11H16 38.8 C8H18 −29.0 C8H18 −36.5 C8H18 −25.8 C8H18 −26.3 C8H16O 14.7 C3H9O4P 26.0 C11H14 48.1 C11H14 37.5 C7H10O3 53.5 C19H16 169.7 C18H15O4P 193.5 C9H20O4 96.0 C13H28O4 101.5 C12H26O4 82.4 C21H21O4P 154.6 C11H24 32.7 C11H22O2 101.4 C11H20O2 114.0 C11H24O 71.1 C5H10O2 42.2 C5H10O2 34.5 C5H8O2 37.5 C5H9N −6.0 C8H8O3 107.0 C4H6O2 −48.0 C9H10O 41.9 C9H10O 43.4 C9H10O 45.2 C2H3Cl −105.6 C3H3N −51.0 C2H3F −149.3 C2H2Cl2 −77.2 C10H12O 64.0 C12H9Cl2PO 138.2 C9H10O 59.0 C8H10 −3.8 C8H10 −6.9 C8H10 −8.1 C8H11N 52.6 C8H11N 44.0 217.2 −7.0 33.7 −49.4 206.3 98.3 166.3 +22.8 98.8 74.2 76.0 150.2 138.7 144.0 99.8 104.8 29.2 67.8 37.6 −9.7 131.0 108.0 −81.7 95.9 42.9 38.3 34.7 146.2 87.2 71.2 67.0 −7.1 −15.0 −3.9 −4.1 36.0 53.7 77.0 65.7 82.6 188.4 230.4 125.7 131.6 112.4 184.2 59.7 133.1 142.8 99.0 67.7 59.6 65.8 +18.1 138.4 −28.0 68.0 69.9 72.0 −90.8 −30.7 −138.0 −60.0 91.7 171.1 85.9 +20.2 +16.8 +15.5 79.8 72.6 231.2 +4.2 46.0 −40.3 223.0 104.0 181.0 34.6 112.6 88.5 90.2 −148.0 166.0 144.0 158.1 114.6 120.6 40.5 82.1 51.7 +0.8 149.8 122.3 −73.8 109.0 55.9 50.7 47.4 −18.8 160.4 100.6 84.6 80.5 +3.9 −4.3 +6.9 +7.1 46.4 67.8 91.6 79.7 97.4 197.0 249.8 140.5 147.0 127.3 198.0 73.9 149.0 156.3 112.8 79.8 71.3 79.8 30.0 154.0 −18.0 81.0 83.0 85.7 −83.7 −20.3 −132.2 −51.2 105.6 187.0 99.0 32.1 28.3 27.3 93.0 87.0 246.7 16.2 59.3 −30.0 242.0 120.2 195.8 47.2 127.2 104.0 105.8 −140.6 183.6 171.1 174.0 130.3 137.7 53.4 97.8 67.7 12.3 169.8 137.5 −65.0 123.7 69.9 64.5 61.0 −7.5 177.2 115.5 99.7 96.0 16.0 +7.5 19.2 19.3 57.6 83.0 107.1 94.8 113.8 206.8 269.7 155.8 161.8 143.7 213.2 85.6 166.0 172.0 127.5 93.1 84.0 95.2 43.3 170.5 −7.0 94.7 97.2 100.0 −75.7 −9.0 −125.4 −41.7 120.3 205.0 114.0 45.1 41.1 40.1 107.6 102.7 1 5 10 20 40 261.7 29.9 74.0 −18.5 261.3 137.7 212.4 61.7 143.5 121.7 122.6 −131.4 201.8 190.4 191.3 148.0 155.7 67.5 115.7 85.4 25.4 192.0 154.2 −55.2 139.8 85.4 79.8 76.1 +5.2 194.2 131.0 106.0 113.2 29.5 20.7 33.0 32.9 69.8 100.0 124.2 111.8 131.0 215.5 290.3 173.7 179.8 161.4 229.7 104.4 185.6 188.7 143.7 107.8 98.0 101.9 57.8 188.7 +5.3 110.0 112.5 116.0 −66.8 +3.8 −118.0 −31.1 136.3 223.8 129.7 59.5 55.3 54.4 123.8 120.2 60 271.5 38.3 83.6 −11.2 273.8 148.2 222.0 70.4 153.2 132.2 133.4 −125.2 213.5 202.5 201.5 158.2 168.0 76.0 126.3 95.7 33.2 207.0 165.7 −48.8 149.5 95.3 89.5 85.8 13.3 205.5 141.1 126.3 123.8 38.1 29.1 41.8 41.6 77.3 110.0 135.5 122.3 142.2 221.2 305.2 184.6 190.2 173.2 239.8 115.2 197.2 199.5 153.7 116.6 107.3 122.4 66.9 199.8 13.0 119.8 122.3 126.1 −61.1 11.8 −113.0 −24.0 146.4 236.0 139.8 68.8 64.4 63.5 133.7 131.5 100 283.8 50.0 96.1 −1.7 289.8 162.5 236.0 82.7 167.5 146.8 147.7 −116.0 228.6 217.8 214.6 174.0 184.3 88.0 141.6 112.1 44.2 225.7 179.7 −40.3 162.0 108.8 102.8 98.9 24.4 219.6 153.4 140.3 137.9 49.9 40.7 53.8 53.4 87.6 124.0 149.8 136.8 156.5 228.4 322.5 199.0 204.4 187.8 252.2 128.1 212.5 213.5 167.2 128.3 118.9 136.5 78.6 214.5 23.3 132.3 135.3 139.7 −53.2 22.8 −106.2 −15.0 159.8 251.5 152.2 81.3 76.8 75.9 146.8 146.0 200 302.8 67.7 115.6 +13.5 313.5 185.0 255.2 101.0 188.0 168.3 168.3 −101.0 250.8 242.2 235.2 196.0 208.0 106.0 163.7 136.0 60.1 255.0 201.3 −27.0 182.3 129.0 122.7 118.6 41.2 241.3 172.8 160.3 158.4 67.8 58.1 72.0 71.3 102.2 145.0 171.8 157.8 179.8 239.7 349.8 220.2 224.4 209.7 271.8 149.3 237.8 232.8 187.7 146.0 136.2 157.7 97.7 237.3 38.4 151.0 154.0 159.0 −41.3 38.7 −95.4 −1.0 180.0 275.3 172.3 100.2 95.5 94.6 166.4 168.0 400 322.0 87.5 137.0 30.2 339.8 209.4 276.5 121.8 210.5 193.7 193.2 −81.0 276.0 267.5 256.6 221.0 235.0 125.7 187.0 163.5 78.7 288.5 224.3 −12.5 203.7 152.0 145.4 141.0 60.4 264.2 193.8 184.5 183.5 88.2 78.0 92.7 91.8 118.4 167.8 196.1 182.3 205.5 249.8 379.2 244.3 247.0 232.8 292.7 171.9 262.8 254.0 209.8 165.0 155.2 182.3 118.7 260.0 55.5 172.1 175.8 182.0 −28.0 58.3 −84.0 +14.8 202.8 301.5 194.1 121.7 116.7 115.9 188.3 193.7 760 341.3 108.2 158.0 47.6 366.5 234.0 299.0 143.5 233.5 218.0 217.5 −56.2 301.0 294.0 278.3 247.0 262.0 146.0 211.0 192.1 98.3 324.0 247.5 +2.9 234.5 176.1 169.2 164.7 80.9 287.0 214.2 208.1 208.0 109.8 99.2 114.8 113.5 135.0 192.7 221.2 207.0 231.0 259.2 413.5 267.2 269.5 256.6 313.0 195.8 290.0 275.0 232.0 184.4 175.1 207.5 140.8 285.0 72.5 194.0 197.5 204.5 −13.8 78.5 −72.2 31.7 225.0 328.5 215.5 144.4 139.1 138.3 211.5 217.9 Temperature, °C

2-75

Melting point, °C

−77.7 −14.7 −35 47.7 −6.2 41

135

−63.0

−117.1 67 −25.5 −44.1 −44.8 −25.0 78.5

−112.3 −107.3 −101.5 −109.2

93.4 49.4

−25.6 29.5 24.5 −34.5 −37.6 81.5

−153.7 −82 −160.5 −122.5 75 −25.2 −47.9 +13.3

2-76

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5°C + 32. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934. To convert cubic feet to cubic meters, multiply by 0.02832. To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14.504. To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

TABLE 2-9

Partial Pressures of Water over Aqueous Solutions of HCl* log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. Partial pressure of H2O, mmHg, °C A B 2282 2295 2300 2323 2334 2363 2356 2390 2395 2422 2453 2487 2526 2579 2647 2709 0° 4.18 3.84 3.39 2.87 2.62 2.33 2.05 1.76 1.50 1.26 1.04 0.85 0.68 0.53 0.41 0.31 5° 6.04 5.52 4.91 4.21 3.83 3.40 3.04 2.60 2.24 1.90 1.57 1.29 1.03 0.81 0.63 0.48 10° 8.45 7.70 6.95 5.92 5.40 4.82 4.31 3.71 3.21 2.73 2.27 1.87 1.50 1.20 0.94 0.72 15° 11.7 10.7 9.65 8.26 7.50 6.75 6.03 5.21 4.54 3.88 3.25 2.70 2.19 1.75 1.37 1.06 20° 15.9 14.6 13.1 11.3 10.3 9.30 8.30 7.21 6.32 5.41 4.55 3.81 3.10 2.51 2.00 1.56 25° 21.8 20.0 18.0 15.4 14.1 12.6 11.4 9.95 8.75 7.52 6.37 5.35 4.41 3.60 2.88 2.30 30° 29.1 26.8 24.1 20.6 19.0 17.1 15.4 13.5 11.8 10.2 8.70 7.32 6.08 5.03 4.09 3.28 35° 39.4 35.5 31.9 27.5 25.1 22.8 20.4 18.0 15.8 13.7 11.7 9.95 8.33 6.92 5.68 4.60 40° 50.6 47.0 42.1 36.4 33.3 30.2 27.1 24.0 21.1 18.4 15.7 13.5 11.4 9.52 7.85 6.45 45° 66.2 61.5 55.3 47.9 43.6 39.8 35.7 31.7 27.9 24.3 21.0 18.1 15.4 13.0 10.7 8.90 50° 86.0 80.0 72.0 62.5 57.0 52.0 46.7 41.5 36.5 32.0 27.7 24.0 20.4 17.4 14.5 12.1 60° 139 130 116 102 93.5 85.6 77.0 69.0 60.7 53.5 46.5 40.5 34.8 29.6 25.0 21.2 70° 220 204 185 162 150 138 124 112 99.0 87.5 76.5 66.5 57.0 49.1 42.1 35.8 80° 333 310 273 248 230 211 194 173 154 136 120 104 90.0 77.5 67.3 57.2 90° 492 463 425 374 345 317 290 261 234 207 184 161 140 120 105 89.2 100° 110° 715 677 625 550 510 467 426 387 349 310 275 243 212 182 158 135 960 892 783 729 670 611 555 499 444 396 355 311 266 230 195

% HCl 6 10 14 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42

8.99156 8.99864 8.97075 8.98014 8.97877 9.02708 8.96022 9.01511 8.97611 9.00117 9.03317 9.07143 9.11815 9.20783 9.33923 9.44953

*Accuracy, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths.

TABLE 2-10
% HCl 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46

Partial Pressures of HCl over Aqueous Solutions of HCl*

log10 pmm = A − B/T, (T in K), which, however, agrees only approximately with the table. The table is more nearly correct. mmHg, °C 0° 5° 10° 15° 20° 25° 30° 35° 40° 45° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 100° 110°

A 11.8037 11.6400 11.2144 11.0406 10.9311 10.7900 10.6954 10.6261 10.4957 10.3833 10.3172 10.2185 10.1303 10.0115 9.8763 9.7523 9.6061 9.5262 9.4670 9.2156

B

4736 0.0000117 0.000023 0.000044 0.000084 0.000151 0.000275 0.00047 0.00083 0.00140 0.00380 0.0100 0.0245 0.058 0.132 0.280 4471 0.000018 0.000036 .000069 .000131 .00024 .00044 .00077 .00134 .0023 .00385 .0064 .0165 .0405 .095 .21 .46 .93 4202 .000066 .000125 .000234 .000425 .00076 .00131 .00225 .0038 .0062 .0102 .0163 .040 .094 .206 .44 .92 1.78 4042 .000118 .000323 .000583 .00104 .00178 .0031 .00515 .0085 .0136 .022 .0344 .081 .183 .39 .82 1.64 3.10 3908 .00042 .00075 .00134 .00232 .00395 .0067 .0111 .0178 .0282 .045 .069 .157 .35 .73 1.48 2.9 5.4 3765 3636 3516 3376 3245 .00099 .0024 .0056 .0135 .0316 .00175 .00415 .0095 .0225 .052 .119 .277 .64 1.52 3.57 8.3 18.8 41.0 87.0 176 332 655 .00305 .0071 .016 .037 .084 .187 .43 .98 2.27 5.23 11.8 26.4 56.4 117 233 430 840 .0052 .0118 .0265 .060 .132 .294 .66 1.47 3.36 7.60 16.8 36.8 78 158 307 560 .0088 .0196 .0428 .095 .205 .45 1.00 2.17 4.90 10.6 23.5 50.5 105.5 210 399 709 .0145 .0316 .0685 .148 .32 .68 1.49 3.20 7.05 15.1 32.5 68.5 142 277 515 900 .0234 .050 .106 .228 .48 1.02 2.17 4.56 9.90 21.0 44.5 92 188 360 627 .037 .078 .163 .345 .72 1.50 3.14 6.50 13.8 28.6 60.0 122 246 465 830 .058 .121 .247 .515 1.06 2.18 4.5 9.2 19.1 39.4 81 161 322 598 .091 .185 .375 .77 1.55 3.14 6.4 12.7 26.4 53 107 211 416 758 .136 .275 .55 1.11 2.21 4.42 8.9 17.5 35.7 71 141 273 535 955 .305 .60 1.17 2.3 4.4 8.6 16.9 32.5 64 124 238 450 860 .66 1.25 2.40 4.55 8.5 16.3 31.0 58.5 112 208 390 720 1.34 2.50 4.66 8.6 15.6 29.3 54.5 100 188 340 623 2.65 4.8 8.8 15.7 28.1 52 94 169 309 542 970 5.1 9.0 16.1 28 49 90 157 276 493 845 9.3 16.0 28 48 83 146 253 436 760

3125 .0734 2995 .175 2870 .41 2732 1.0 2593 2.4 2457 2316 2229 2094 1939 5.7 13.1 29.0 63.0 130

8.9925 1800 253 8.8621 1681 510 940

*Accuracy, ca. 2 percent for solutions of 15 to 30 percent HCl between 0 and 100°; for solutions of > 30 percent HCl the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and ca. 15 percent at the higher temperatures. Below 15 percent HCl, the accuracy is ca. 5 percent at the lower temperatures and higher strengths to ca. 15 to 20 percent at the lower strengths and perhaps 15 to 20 percent at the higher temperatures and lower strengths.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS

2-77

FIG. 2-1 Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: partial pressure of H2O vapor. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

FIG. 2-2 Vapor pressures of H3PO4 aqueous: weight of H2O in saturated air. (Courtesy of Victor Chemical Works, Stauffer Chemical Company; measurements by W. H. Woodstock.)

TABLE 2-11 g SO2 / 100 g H2O 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00

Partial Pressures of H2O and SO2 over Aqueous Solutions of Sulfur Dioxide* Partial pressures of H2O and SO2, mmHg, °C Temperature, ∞C 0 0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17 4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8 58.6 93.2 129 165 202 275 351 542 735 10 0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13 6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5 88.5 139 192 245 299 407 517 796 20 0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93 10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4 129 202 277 353 430 585 741 30 0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8 15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7 183 285 389 496 602 818 40 0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0 22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117 253 393 535 679 824 50 0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8 31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159 342 530 720 60 0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6 42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212 453 700 90 1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7 95.8 118 164 211 454 955 120 2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145 186 229 316 404 856

*Extracted with permission from J. Chem Eng. Data 8, 1963: 333–336. Copyright 1963 American Chemical Society.

2-78

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4 20.0 .534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617 .891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658 13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681 64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.946 30.0 .448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542 .786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640 11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715 60.081 68.100 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043 40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434 .634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259 10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.865 54.868 62.553 70.947 80.077 89.969 100.646 50.0 .193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298 .441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397 8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926 47.346 54.470 62.337 70.988 80.463 90.802 60.0 .836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161 .244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169 5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.121 26.274 31.003 36.360 42.395 49.164 56.721 65.123 74.426 70.0 .207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01 .905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .481 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017 2.632 3.395 4.331 5.466 6.831 8.458 10.382 12.640 15.269 18.311 21.808 25.804 30.343 35.473 41.240 47.692 75.0 .747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−02 .170E−01 .281E−01 .452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212 1.606 2.101 2.714 3.467 4.381 5.480 6.788 8.333 10.142 12.242 14.665 17.438 20.591 24.153 28.154 32.622 80.0 .197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−04 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01 .192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673 .913 1.220 1.609 2.096 2.699 3.435 4.326 5.395 6.663 8.155 9.897 11.912 14.227 16.867 19.855 23.217 85.0 .343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .133E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02 .666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .682E−01 .101 .147 .208 .291 .401 .542 .724 .952 1.237 1.587 2.012 2.525 3.136 3.857 4.701 5.680 6.806 8.093 9.551 11.193

TABLE 2-12 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 10.0

.582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664 .957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289 13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015

300 66.934 310 75.495 320 84.705 330 94.567 340 105.083 350 116.251

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-12 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 90.0 .518E−06 .159E−05 .448E−05 .117E−04 .285E−04 .652E−04 .141E−03 .290E−03 .569E−03 .107E−02 .194E−02 .338E−02 .571E−02 .938E−02 .150E−01 .233E−01 .354E−01 .526E−01 .766E−01 .110 .154 .213 .290 .389 .514 .673 .870 1.112 1.407 1.763 2.190 2.696 3.292 3.990 4.801 5.738 Water Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions (Concluded ) Weight percent, H2SO4 92.0 .242E−06 .762E−06 .220E−05 .587E−05 .146E−04 .341E−04 .754E−04 .158E−03 .316E−03 .606E−03 .112E−02 .198E−02 .341E−02 .569E−02 .923E−02 .146E−01 .225E−01 .340E−01 .502E−01 .729E−01 .104 .146 .201 .273 .366 .485 .635 .822 1.052 1.335 1.676 2.088 2.578 3.159 3.843 4.641 94.0 .107E−06 .344E−06 .101E−05 .275E−05 .696E−05 .166E−04 .372E−04 .795E−04 .162E−03 .315E−03 .590E−03 .107E−02 .186E−02 .315E−02 .519E−02 .832E−02 .130E−01 .199E−01 .298E−01 .438E−01 .631E−01 .894E−01 .125 .171 .232 .310 .409 .534 .689 .880 1.112 1.394 1.732 2.133 2.608 3.164 96.0 .401E−07 .130E−06 .390E−06 .108E−05 .278E−05 .672E−05 .154E−04 .334E−04 .691E−04 .137E−03 .261E−03 .479E−03 .851E−03 .146E−02 .245E−02 .399E−02 .633E−02 .983E−02 .149E−01 .222E−01 .325E−01 .467E−01 .660E−01 .918E−01 .126 .170 .227 .300 .391 .505 .646 .817 1.025 1.274 1.571 1.922 97.0 .218E−07 .713E−07 .215E−06 .598E−06 .155E−05 .379E−05 .875E−05 .192E−04 .400E−04 .801E−04 .154E−03 .285E−03 .511E−03 .886E−03 .149E−02 .245E−02 .393E−02 .614E−02 .941E−02 .141E−01 .208E−01 .300E−01 .427E−01 .598E−01 .825E−01 .112 .151 .200 .263 .341 .437 .556 .701 .875 1.083 1.331 98.0 .980E−08 .323E−07 .978E−07 .275E−06 .720E−06 .177E−05 .413E−05 .912E−05 .192E−04 .388E−04 .752E−04 .141E−03 .254E−03 .445E−03 .757E−03 .125E−02 .202E−02 .319E−02 .492E−02 .744E−02 .110E−01 .161E−01 .230E−01 .325E−01 .451E−01 .618E−01 .835E−01 .111 .147 .192 .248 .316 .400 .502 .624 .770 98.5 .569E−08 .188E−07 .572E−07 .161E−06 .424E−06 .105E−05 .245E−05 .544E−05 .115E−04 .234E−04 .455E−04 .855E−04 .155E−03 .278E−03 .467E−03 .776E−03 .126E−02 .199E−02 .309E−02 .469E−02 .698E−02 .102E−01 .147E−01 .208E−01 .290E−01 .398E−01 .540E−01 .723E−01 .957E−01 .125 .162 .208 .264 .331 .413 .511 99.0 .268E−08 .888E−08 .271E−07 .766E−07 .202E−06 .503E−06 .118E−05 .263E−05 .559E−05 .114E−04 .223E−04 .420E−04 .766E−04 .135E−03 .232E−03 .387E−03 .629E−03 .999E−03 .155E−02 .236E−02 .352E−02 .516E−02 .743E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .202E−01 .274E−01 .366E−01 .485E−01 .634E−01 .820E−01 .105 .133 .167 .208 .256 99.5 .775E−09 .258E−08 .789E−08 .224E−07 .595E−07 .149E−06 .350E−06 .784E−06 .168E−05 .343E−05 .674E−05 .128E−04 .233E−04 .414E−04 .711E−04 .119E−03 .194E−03 .309E−03 .482E−03 .735E−03 .110E−02 .161E−02 .232E−02 .329E−02 .460E−02 .633E−02 .858E−02 .115E−01 .152E−01 .199E−01 .257E−01 .328E−01 .415E−01 .520E−01 .646E−01 .795E−01

2-79

100.0 .196E−09 .655E−09 .201E−08 .575E−08 .153E−07 .384E−07 .910E−07 .205E−06 .439E−06 .903E−06 .178E−05 .339E−05 .623E−05 .111E−04 .191E−04 .321E−04 .526E−04 .840E−04 .131E−03 .201E−03 .300E−03 .442E−03 .638E−03 .906E−03 .127E−02 .174E−02 .237E−02 .317E−02 .420E−02 .548E−02 .708E−02 .905E−02 .114E−01 .143E−01 .178E−01 .218E−01

2-80

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4 20.0 .103E−27 .223E−26 .394E−25 .577E−24 .714E−23 .757E−22 .699E−21 .567E−20 .410E−19 .266E−18 .157E−17 .844E−17 .418E−16 .191E−15 .815E−15 .325E−14 .122E−13 .430E−13 .144E−12 .458E−12 .139E−11 .404E−11 .112E−10 .301E−10 .777E−10 .193E−09 .466E−09 .109E−08 .247E−08 .545E−08 .117E−07 .245E−07 .502E−07 .100E−06 .196E−06 .376E−06 30.0 .205E−26 .395E−25 .626E−24 .832E−23 .941E−22 .921E−21 .789E−20 .599E−19 .408E−18 .250E−17 .140E−16 .719E−16 .340E−15 .150E−14 .615E−14 .237E−13 .862E−13 .296E−12 .967E−12 .301E−11 .893E−11 .254E−10 .695E−10 .183E−09 .465E−09 .114E−08 .272E−08 .628E−08 .141E−07 .308E−07 .657E−07 .136E−06 .277E−06 .551E−06 .107E−05 .204E−05 40.0 .688E−25 .113E−23 .156E−22 .181E−21 .181E−20 .158E−19 .122E−18 .843E−18 .524E−17 .296E−16 .153E−15 .730E−15 .323E−14 .133E−13 .517E−13 .188E−12 .649E−12 .212E−11 .622E−11 .197E−10 .561E−10 .154E−09 .405E−09 .103E−08 .253E−08 .602E−08 .139E−07 .312E−07 .683E−07 .145E−06 .302E−06 .614E−06 .122E−05 .237E−05 .452E−05 .846E−05 50.0 .368E−23 .522E−22 .621E−21 .630E−20 .555E−19 .429E−18 .294E−17 .181E−16 .101E−15 .516E−15 .242E−14 .105E−13 .424E−13 .160E−12 .569E−12 .191E−11 .608E−11 .184E−10 .532E−10 .147E−09 .391E−09 .100E−08 .246E−08 .587E−08 .135E−07 .303E−07 .660E−07 .140E−06 .288E−06 .580E−06 .114E−05 .220E−05 .414E−05 .766E−05 .139E−04 .246E−04 60.0 .341E−21 .415E−20 .426E−19 .376E−18 .288E−17 .195E−16 .118E−15 .643E−15 .319E−14 .145E−13 .606E−13 .236E−12 .858E−12 .293E−11 .943E−11 .287E−10 .833E−10 .231E−09 .610E−09 .155E−08 .379E−08 .894E−08 .204E−07 .450E−07 .965E−07 .201E−06 .408E−06 .807E−06 .156E−05 .295E−05 .546E−05 .990E−05 .176E−04 .308E−04 .529E−04 .893E−04 70.0 .784E−19 .796E−18 .685E−17 .509E−16 .331E−15 .191E−14 .985E−14 .461E−13 .197E−12 .775E−12 .283E−11 .961E−11 .307E−10 .922E−10 .262E−09 .710E−09 .183E−08 .453E−08 .107E−07 .246E−07 .542E−07 .116E−06 .240E−06 .482E−06 .944E−06 .180E−05 .336E−05 .612E−05 .109E−04 .191E−04 .329E−04 .556E−04 .923E−04 .151E−03 .243E−03 .387E−03 75.0 .174E−17 .158E−16 .121E−15 .808E−15 .473E−14 .246E−13 .116E−12 .492E−12 .192E−11 .693E−11 .232E−10 .729E−10 .215E−09 .601E−09 .159E−08 .403E−08 .974E−08 .226E−07 .505E−07 .109E−06 .228E−06 .462E−06 .911E−06 .175E−05 .328E−05 .600E−05 .108E−04 .189E−04 .326E−04 .553E−04 .921E−04 .151E−03 .245E−03 .391E−03 .617E−03 .963E−03 80.0 .531E−16 .417E−15 .280E−14 .164E−13 .851E−13 .395E−12 .165E−11 .634E−11 .223E−10 .731E−10 .223E−09 .641E−09 .174E−08 .446E−08 .109E−07 .256E−07 .575E−07 .125E−06 .260E−06 .527E−06 .103E−05 .198E−05 .368E−05 .668E−05 .119E−04 .206E−04 .352E−04 .590E−04 .973E−04 .158E−03 .253E−03 .398E−03 .621E−03 .956E−03 .145E−02 .219E−02 85.0 .229E−14 .141E−13 .767E−13 .371E−12 .162E−11 .643E−11 .234E−10 .791E−10 .249E−09 .734E−09 .204E−08 .538E−08 .135E−07 .324E−07 .745E−07 .165E−06 .351E−06 .725E−06 .145E−05 .282E−05 .534E−05 .986E−05 .178E−04 .314E−04 .543E−04 .923E−04 .154E−03 .253E−03 .408E−03 .649E−03 .102E−02 .158E−02 .242E−02 .367E−02 .550E−02 .815E−02

TABLE 2-13 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350

10.0 .644E−29 .149E−27 .278E−26 .426E−25 .549E−24 .602E−23 .573E−22 .477E−21 .352E−20 .233E−19 .139E−18 .756E−18 .377E−17 .174E−16 .743E−16 .297E−15 .111E−14 .393E−14 .131E−13 .415E−13 .125E−12 .362E−12 .100E−11 .265E−11 .678E−11 .167E−10 .399E−10 .920E−10 .206E−09 .449E−09 .953E−09 .197E−08 .397E−08 .782E−08 .151E−07 .285E−07

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley.

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-13 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Sulfur Trioxide Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions (Concluded ) Weight percent, H2SO4 92.0 .216E−12 .107E−11 .475E−11 .192E−10 .709E−10 .242E−09 .771E−09 .230E−08 .643E−08 .171E−07 .430E−07 .103E−06 .238E−06 .526E−06 .112E−05 .230E−05 .459E−05 .886E−05 .166E−04 .304E−04 .543E−04 .946E−04 .161E−03 .269E−03 .441E−03 .708E−03 .112E−02 .174E−02 .266E−02 .401E−02 .595E−02 .873E−02 .126E−01 .181E−01 .255E−01 .357E−01 94.0 .677E−12 .326E−11 .141E−10 .557E−10 .201E−09 .669E−09 .207E−08 .602E−08 .165E−07 .426E−07 .105E−06 .247E−06 .555E−06 .120E−05 .250E−05 .504E−05 .983E−05 .186E−04 .343E−04 .615E−04 .108E−03 .185E−03 .309E−03 .508E−03 .819E−03 .130E−02 .202E−02 .309E−02 .466E−02 .694E−02 .102E−01 .148E−01 .211E−01 .299E−01 .418E−01 .578E−01 96.0 .240E−11 .114E−10 .482E−10 .186E−09 .655E−09 .214E−08 .647E−08 .184E−07 .492E−07 .124E−06 .300E−06 .689E−06 .152E−05 .321E−05 .656E−05 .129E−04 .247E−04 .459E−04 .829E−04 .146E−03 .251E−03 .422E−03 .694E−03 .112E−02 .178E−02 .276E−02 .423E−02 .638E−02 .948E−02 .139E−01 .201E−01 .287E−01 .405E−01 .565E−01 .780E−01 .107 97.0 .500E−11 .234E−10 .986E−10 .376E−09 .131E−08 .424E−08 .127E−07 .357E−07 .946E−07 .237E−06 .565E−06 .128E−05 .280E−05 .586E−05 .118E−04 .231E−04 .438E−04 .806E−04 .144E−03 .252E−03 .429E−03 .714E−03 .117E−02 .187E−02 .293E−02 .453E−02 .688E−02 .103E−01 .152E−01 .221E−01 .318E−01 .451E−01 .632E−01 .877E−01 .120 .164 98.0 .124E−10 .578E−10 .241E−09 .911E−09 .315E−08 .101E−07 .299E−07 .833E−07 .218E−06 .541E−06 .127E−05 .287E−05 .619E−05 .128E−04 .257E−04 .497E−04 .932E−04 .170E−03 .301E−03 .520E−03 .878E−03 .145E−02 .235E−02 .373E−02 .582E−02 .891E−02 .134E−01 .200E−01 .293E−01 .423E−01 .604E−01 .852E−01 .119 .164 .224 .303 98.5 .224E−10 .104E−09 .433E−09 .163E−08 .562E−08 .179E−07 .528E−07 .146E−06 .381E−06 .940E−06 .220E−05 .494E−05 .106E−04 .219E−04 .435E−04 .837E−04 .156E−03 .283E−03 .499E−03 .859E−03 .144E−02 .237E−02 .383E−02 .605E−02 .939E−02 .143E−01 .215E−01 .319E−01 .465E−01 .670E−01 .953E−01 .134 .186 .256 .348 .470 99.0 .502E−10 .232E−09 .961E−09 .360E−08 .123E−07 .391E−07 .115E−06 .316E−06 .820E−06 .201E−05 .470E−05 .105E−04 .224E−04 .459E−04 .910E−04 .174E−03 .324E−03 .586E−03 .103E−02 .177E−02 .296E−02 .486E−02 .781E−02 .123E−01 .191E−01 .291E−01 .437E−01 .646E−01 .943E−01 .136 .193 .272 .378 .520 .708 .956 99.5 .182E−09 .839E−09 .346E−08 .129E−07 .440E−07 .139E−06 .405E−06 .111E−05 .286E−05 .698E−05 .162E−04 .359E−04 .764E−04 .156E−03 .308E−03 .588E−03 .109E−02 .196E−02 .343E−02 .587E−02 .981E−02 .161E−01 .258E−01 .405E−01 .627E−01 .955E−01 .143 .212 .309 .444 .632 .889 1.236 1.703 2.323 3.142

2-81

90.0 .671E−13 .345E−12 .159E−11 .664E−11 .254E−10 .897E−10 .294E−09 .904E−09 .261E−08 .712E−08 .184E−07 .456E−07 .108E−06 .244E−06 .533E−06 .112E−05 .229E−05 .453E−05 .870E−05 .163E−04 .297E−04 .528E−04 .919E−04 .157E−03 .261E−03 .428E−03 .690E−03 .109E−02 .170E−02 .261E−02 .395E−02 .589E−02 .868E−02 .126E−01 .181E−01 .258E−01

100.0 .755E−09 .347E−08 .142E−07 .528E−07 .179E−06 .560E−06 .163E−05 .444E−05 .114E−04 .276E−04 .638E−04 .141E−03 .298E−03 .606E−03 .119E−02 .226E−02 .416E−02 .746E−02 .130E−01 .222E−01 .370E−01 .603E−01 .965E−01 .152 .234 .356 .532 .786 1.144 1.646 2.339 3.289 4.575 6.303 8.603 11.640

TABLE 2-14 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350

Sulfuric Acid Partial Pressure, bar, over Aqueous Sulfuric Acid* Weight Percent, H2SO4 20.0 .843E−20 .874E−19 .769E−18 .584E−17 .389E−16 .229E−15 .121E−14 .581E−14 .254E−13 .102E−12 .381E−12 .132E−11 .432E−11 .132E−10 .385E−10 .106E−09 .279E−09 .702E−09 .170E−08 .394E−08 .883E−08 .191E−07 .401E−07 .817E−07 .162E−06 .312E−06 .588E−06 .108E−05 .194E−05 .342E−05 .591E−05 .100E−04 .167E−04 .273E−04 .440E−04 .698E−04 92.0 .803E−09 .296E−08 .993E−08 .306E−07 .870E−07 .231E−06 .575E−06 .135E−05 .302E−05 .642E−05 .131E−04 .256E−04 .482E−04 .879E−04 .155E−03 .266E−03 .444E−03 .723E−03 .115E−02 .179E−02 .273E−02 .408E−02 .601E−02 .869E−02 .124E−01 .174E−01 .240E−01 .329E−01 .444E−01 .592E−01 .782E−01 .102 .132 .170 .216 .272 30.0 .141E−18 .131E−17 .104E−16 .721E−16 .441E−15 .241E−14 .119E−13 .535E−13 .221E−12 .844E−12 .300E−11 .997E−11 .312E−10 .924E−10 .259E−09 .694E−09 .178E−08 .436E−08 .103E−07 .234E−07 .514E−07 .109E−06 .226E−06 .455E−06 .889E−06 .170E−05 .316E−05 .577E−05 .103E−04 .180E−04 .309E−04 .522E−04 .865E−04 .141E−03 .227E−03 .360E−03 94.0 .112E−08 .409E−08 .136E−07 .415E−07 .117E−06 .309E−06 .765E−06 .179E−05 .396E−05 .835E−05 .169E−04 .328E−04 .614E−04 .111E−03 .195E−03 .332E−03 .550E−03 .889E−03 .140E−02 .217E−02 .329E−02 .490E−02 .715E−02 .103E−01 .146E−01 .203E−01 .279E−01 .380E−01 .510E−01 .676E−01 .888E−01 .115 .149 .190 .240 .301 40.0 .344E−17 .276E−16 .193E−15 .119E−14 .649E−14 .320E−13 .144E−12 .592E−12 .225E−11 .798E−11 .264E−10 .824E−10 .243E−09 .678E−09 .181E−08 .460E−08 .112E−07 .264E−07 .599E−07 .131E−06 .278E−06 .573E−06 .115E−05 .224E−05 .427E−05 .793E−05 .144E−04 .257E−04 .450E−04 .771E−04 .130E−03 .215E−03 .352E−03 .565E−03 .895E−03 .140E−02 96.0 .148E−08 .540E−08 .179E−07 .543E−07 .153E−06 .400E−06 .985E−06 .229E−05 .504E−05 .106E−04 .213E−04 .412E−04 .767E−04 .138E−03 .241E−03 .408E−03 .673E−03 .108E−02 .170E−02 .262E−02 .395E−02 .585E−02 .850E−02 .122E−01 .171E−01 .238E−01 .326E−01 .441E−01 .589E−01 .778E−01 .102 .132 .169 .214 .270 .337 50.0 .109E−15 .769E−15 .474E−14 .259E−13 .127E−12 .562E−12 .228E−11 .851E−11 .295E−10 .956E−10 .291E−09 .835E−09 .227E−08 .589E−08 .146E−07 .346E−07 .789E−07 .174E−06 .369E−06 .760E−06 .152E−05 .295E−05 .559E−05 .103E−04 .186E−04 .329E−04 .569E−04 .965E−04 .161E−03 .263E−03 .424E−03 .672E−03 .105E−02 .162E−02 .246E−02 .369E−02 97.0 .167E−08 .609E−08 .201E−07 .611E−07 .171E−06 .449E−06 .110E−05 .256E−05 .562E−05 .118E−04 .237E−04 .457E−04 .849E−04 .153E−03 .266E−03 .449E−03 .740E−03 .119E−02 .186E−02 .286E−02 .431E−02 .637E−02 .924E−02 .132E−01 .186E−01 .257E−01 .352E−01 .475E−01 .633E−01 .835E−01 .109 .141 .180 .228 .287 .358 60.0 .438E−14 .273E−13 .149E−12 .725E−12 .317E−11 .126E−10 .462E−10 .156E−09 .492E−09 .145E−08 .402E−08 .106E−07 .264E−07 .631E−07 .144E−06 .316E−06 .670E−06 .137E−05 .271E−05 .521E−05 .975E−05 .178E−04 .316E−04 .549E−04 .935E−04 .156E−03 .255E−03 .411E−03 .650E−03 .101E−02 .156E−02 .236E−02 .352E−02 .519E−02 .757E−02 .109E−01 98.0 .187E−08 .679E−08 .224E−07 .680E−07 .191E−06 .498E−06 .122E−05 .283E−05 .622E−05 .130E−04 .261E−04 .503E−04 .935E−04 .168E−03 .292E−03 .493E−03 .810E−03 .130E−02 .204E−02 .312E−02 .470E−02 .693E−02 .100E−01 .143E−01 .201E−01 .278E−01 .380E−01 .513E−01 .683E−01 .900E−01 .117 .151 .193 .245 .307 .383 70.0 .249E−12 .135E−11 .649E−11 .278E−10 .108E−09 .380E−09 .124E−08 .373E−08 .105E−07 .279E−07 .698E−07 .166E−06 .375E−06 .814E−06 .169E−05 .340E−05 .659E−05 .124E−04 .225E−04 .400E−04 .691E−04 .117E−03 .193E−03 .311E−03 .494E−03 .770E−03 .118E−02 .178E−02 .265E−02 .389E−02 .563E−02 .805E−02 .114E−01 .159E−01 .221E−01 .303E−01 98.5 .196E−08 .714E−08 .236E−07 .714E−07 .200E−06 .523E−06 .128E−05 .297E−05 .652E−05 .136E−04 .274E−04 .527E−04 .977E−04 .175E−03 .304E−03 .514E−03 .844E−03 .135E−02 .212E−02 .325E−02 .488E−02 .720E−02 .104E−01 .149E−01 .209E−01 .289E−01 .394E−01 .531E−01 .706E−01 .930E−01 .121 .156 .199 .252 .317 .394 75.0 .200E−11 .101E−10 .447E−10 .178E−09 .643E−09 .212E−08 .646E−08 .183E−07 .485E−07 .121E−06 .287E−06 .644E−06 .138E−05 .285E−05 .565E−05 .108E−04 .200E−04 .359E−04 .627E−04 .107E−03 .177E−03 .288E−03 .459E−03 .717E−03 .110E−02 .166E−02 .247E−02 .362E−02 .524E−02 .750E−02 .106E−01 .148E−01 .205E−01 .281E−01 .382E−01 .516E−01 99.0 .206E−08 .750E−08 .247E−07 .749E−07 .210E−06 .548E−06 .134E−05 .310E−05 .681E−05 .143E−04 .285E−04 .549E−04 .102E−03 .182E−03 .316E−03 .534E−03 .876E−03 .140E−02 .220E−02 .336E−02 .505E−02 .744E−02 .108E−01 .153E−01 .215E−01 .297E−01 .405E−01 .545E−01 .725E−01 .954E−01 .124 .160 .204 .258 .328 .402 80.0 .161E−10 .743E−10 .305E−09 .113E−08 .379E−08 .117E−07 .334E−07 .888E−07 .222E−06 .522E−06 .117E−05 .249E−05 .508E−05 .995E−05 .188E−04 .343E−04 .608E−04 .104E−03 .175E−03 .286E−03 .457E−03 .715E−03 .110E−02 .166E−02 .245E−02 .358E−02 .516E−02 .733E−02 .103E−01 .143E−01 .196E−01 .266E−01 .359E−01 .480E−01 .636E−01 .836E−01 99.5 .217E−08 .788E−08 .260E−07 .786E−07 .220E−06 .574E−06 .140E−05 .325E−05 .712E−05 .149E−04 .298E−04 .572E−04 .106E−03 .190E−03 .329E−03 .554E−03 .909E−03 .145E−02 .227E−02 .348E−02 .522E−02 .768E−02 .111E−01 .158E−01 .221E−01 .305E−01 .416E−01 .560E−01 .744E−01 .978E−01 .127 .164 .209 .263 .330 .410 85.0 .121E−09 .490E−09 .179E−08 .594E−08 .181E−07 .513E−07 .135E−06 .336E−06 .786E−06 .175E−05 .371E−05 .752E−05 .147E−04 .277E−04 .503E−04 .889E−04 .152E−03 .255E−03 .416E−03 .663E−03 .104E−02 .159E−02 .239E−02 .354E−02 .515E−02 .740E−02 .105E−01 .147E−01 .203E−01 .278E−01 .376E−01 .504E−01 .670E−01 .883E−01 .116 .150 100.0 .228E−08 .827E−08 .273E−07 .824E−07 .230E−06 .600E−06 .147E−05 .339E−05 .743E−05 .155E−04 .310E−04 .595E−04 .110E−03 .197E−03 .341E−03 .574E−03 .941E−03 .150E−02 .235E−02 .359E−02 .538E−02 .791E−02 .114E−01 .162E−01 .227E−01 .314E−01 .427E−01 .574E−01 .762E−01 .100 .130 .167 .213 .269 .386 .417

10.0 .576E−21 .634E−20 .588E−19 .468E−18 .324E−17 .197E−16 .107E−15 .526E−15 .235E−14 .960E−14 .353E−13 .127E−12 .418E−12 .129E−11 .375E−11 .103E−10 .272E−10 .682E−10 .164E−09 .378E−09 .842E−09 .181E−08 .376E−08 .758E−08 .148E−07 .283E−07 .526E−07 .954E−07 .169E−06 .294E−06 .500E−06 .834E−06 .137E−05 .220E−05 .349E−05 .544E−05 90.0 .534E−09 .200E−08 .677E−08 .211E−07 .607E−07 .163E−06 .411E−06 .976E−06 .220E−05 .473E−05 .973E−05 .192E−04 .366E−04 .672E−04 .120E−03 .207E−03 .348E−03 .572E−03 .917E−03 .144E−02 .221E−02 .333E−02 .494E−02 .719E−02 .103E−01 .146E−01 .203E−01 .279E−01 .380E−01 .510E−01 .678E−01 .892E−01 .116 .150 .192 .243

Weight percent, H2SO4

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, CA, 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley. 2-82

TABLE 2-15 Total Pressure, bar, of Aqueous Sulfuric Acid Solutions* Weight percent, H2SO4 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 10.0 .582E−02 .117E−01 .223E−01 .404E−01 .703E−01 .117 .189 .296 .449 .664 .957 1.349 1.863 2.524 3.361 4.404 5.685 7.236 9.093 11.289 13.861 16.841 20.264 24.160 28.561 33.494 38.984 45.055 51.726 59.015 66.934 75.495 84.705 94.567 105.083 116.251 90.0 .518E−06 .159E−05 .449E−05 .117E−04 .385E−04 .653E−04 .141E−03 .291E−03 .571E−03 .107E−02 .195E−02 .340E−02 .575E−02 .944E−02 .151E−01 .235E−01 .357E−01 .532E−01 .775E−01 .111 .156 .216 .295 .396 .525 .688 .881 1.141 1.447 1.817 2.261 2.791 3.417 4.153 5.011 6.006 20.0 .534E−02 .107E−01 .205E−01 .373E−01 .649E−01 .109 .175 .275 .417 .617 .891 1.258 1.740 2.361 3.149 4.132 5.342 6.810 8.571 10.658 13.107 15.951 19.225 22.960 27.188 31.939 37.240 43.116 49.590 56.681 64.407 72.781 81.816 91.518 101.894 112.947 92.0 .243E−06 .765E−06 .221E−05 .590E−05 .147E−04 .344E−04 .759E−04 .159E−03 .319E−03 .612E−03 .113E−02 .201E−02 .346E−02 .578E−02 .939E−02 .149E−01 .230E−01 .347E−01 .514E−01 .747E−01 .107 .150 .207 .282 .379 .503 .660 .856 1.099 1.398 1.761 2.199 2.723 3.347 4.084 4.949 30.0 .448E−02 .909E−02 .174E−01 .319E−01 .558E−01 .939E−01 .152 .239 .365 .542 .786 1.113 1.544 2.101 2.810 3.697 4.793 6.127 7.731 9.640 11.887 14.505 17.529 20.992 24.927 29.364 34.334 39.865 45.984 52.715 60.081 68.101 76.792 86.172 96.252 107.043 94.0 .109E−06 .348E−06 .102E−05 .279E−05 .708E−05 .169E−04 .380E−04 .813E−04 .166E−03 .324E−03 .607E−03 .110E−02 .192E−02 .327E−02 .539E−02 .866E−02 .136E−01 .208E−01 .312E−01 .460E−01 .665E−01 .944E−01 .132 .182 .247 .331 .439 .575 .744 .954 1.211 1.524 1.901 2.353 2.889 3.523 40.0 .326E−02 .670E−02 .130E−01 .241E−01 .427E−01 .725E−01 .119 .188 .290 .434 .634 .904 1.264 1.732 2.333 3.090 4.031 5.185 6.584 8.259 10.245 12.576 15.287 18.414 21.992 26.056 30.642 35.784 41.514 47.866 54.869 62.553 70.947 80.078 89.970 100.647 96.0 .416E−07 .136E−06 .407E−06 .113E−05 .293E−05 .712E−05 .164E−04 .357E−04 .742E−04 .148E−03 .283E−03 .521E−03 .929E−03 .161E−02 .270E−02 .441E−02 .703E−02 .110E−01 .167E−01 .250E−01 .367E−01 .530E−01 .752E−01 .105 .145 .197 .264 .351 .460 .597 .767 .977 1.234 1.545 1.919 2.366 50.0 .193E−02 .405E−02 .802E−02 .151E−01 .272E−01 .470E−01 .782E−01 .126 .196 .298 .441 .638 .903 1.253 1.708 2.289 3.021 3.930 5.045 6.397 8.020 9.948 12.217 14.864 17.929 21.452 25.472 30.030 35.168 40.926 47.347 54.470 62.338 70.990 80.466 90.806 97.0 .235E−07 .774E−07 .235E−06 .659E−06 .173E−05 .425E−05 .987E−05 .218E−04 .458E−04 .921E−04 .178E−03 .332E−03 .598E−03 .104E−02 .177E−02 .293E−02 .471E−02 .741E−02 .114E−01 .172E−01 .255E−01 .371E−01 .531E−01 .749E−01 .104 .143 .193 .258 .341 .446 .578 .742 .944 1.191 1.491 1.852 60.0 .836E−03 .180E−02 .367E−02 .710E−02 .131E−01 .232E−01 .395E−01 .651E−01 .104 .161 .244 .360 .519 .734 1.020 1.392 1.870 2.475 3.233 4.169 5.312 6.696 8.354 10.322 12.641 15.351 18.496 22.122 26.275 31.004 36.361 42.398 49.168 56.727 65.130 74.437 98.0 .117E−07 .391E−07 .121E−06 .344E−06 .914E−06 .228E−05 .538E−05 .120E−04 .257E−04 .524E−04 .103E−03 .194E−03 .354E−03 .626E−03 .107E−02 .180E−02 .293E−02 .466E−02 .726E−02 .111E−01 .166E−01 .245E−01 .354E−01 .505E−01 .710E−01 .985E−01 .135 .153 .245 .324 .425 .553 .713 .911 1.156 1.456 70.0 .207E−03 .467E−03 .995E−03 .201E−02 .387E−02 .715E−02 .127E−01 .217E−01 .360E−01 .578E−01 .905E−01 .138 .206 .301 .431 .605 .837 1.138 1.525 2.017 2.633 3.396 4.331 5.466 6.832 8.459 10.384 12.642 15.272 18.315 21.814 25.812 30.355 35.489 41.262 47.723 98.5 .768E−08 .261E−07 .812E−07 .234E−06 .630E−06 .159E−05 .379E−05 .856E−05 .184E−04 .390E−04 .751E−04 .143E−03 .263E−03 .470E−03 .815E−03 .137E−02 .226E−02 .363E−02 .571E−02 .880E−02 .133E−01 .198E−01 .289E−01 .417E−01 .592E−01 .830E−01 .115 .157 .213 .285 .379 .498 .649 .840 1.078 1.374 75.0 .747E−04 .175E−03 .388E−03 .811E−03 .162E−02 .309E−02 .565E−02 .997E−01 .170E−01 .281E−01 .452E−01 .708E−01 .108 .162 .236 .339 .478 .662 .902 1.212 1.606 2.101 2.715 3.468 4.382 5.481 6.791 8.337 10.147 12.250 14.675 17.453 20.611 24.182 28.193 32.674 99.0 .479E−08 .166E−07 .528E−07 .155E−06 .425E−06 .109E−05 .264E−05 .605E−05 .132E−04 .277E−04 .555E−04 .107E−03 .201E−03 .363E−03 .639E−03 .109E−02 .183E−02 .299E−02 .478E−02 .749E−02 .115E−01 .175E−01 .260E−01 .382E−01 .553E−01 .790E−01 .112 .156 .215 .295 .399 .536 .714 .944 1.239 1.614 80.0 .197E−04 .490E−04 .115E−03 .253E−03 .531E−03 .106E−02 .204E−02 .376E−02 .668E−02 .115E−01 .192E−01 .312E−01 .493E−01 .760E−01 .115 .170 .246 .350 .489 .673 .913 1.221 1.610 2.098 2.701 3.439 4.332 5.402 6.673 8.170 9.916 11.939 14.264 16.916 19.920 23.303 99.5 .313E−08 .113E−07 .373E−07 .114E−06 .323E−06 .861E−06 .216E−05 .514E−05 .117E−04 .253E−04 .527E−04 .106E−03 .206E−03 .387E−03 .708E−03 .126E−02 .219E−02 .372E−02 .619E−02 .101E−01 .161E−01 .253E−01 .392E−01 .596E−01 .895E−01 .132 .193 .279 .398 .562 .785 1.085 1.486 2.018 2.718 3.631 85.0 .343E−05 .952E−05 .245E−04 .589E−04 .134E−03 .286E−03 .584E−03 .114E−02 .213E−02 .383E−02 .666E−02 .112E−01 .183E−01 .291E−01 .451E−01 .683E−01 .101 .147 .209 .292 .402 .544 .726 .956 1.242 1.594 2.023 2.540 3.157 3.886 4.740 5.732 6.876 8.185 9.672 11.351 100.0 .323E−08 .124E−07 .435E−07 .141E−06 .425E−06 .120E−05 .319E−05 .804E−05 .193E−04 .441E−04 .966E−04 .204E−03 .414E−03 .314E−03 .155E−02 .287E−02 .516E−02 .905E−02 .155E−01 .260E−01 .427E−01 .687E−01 .109 .169 .258 .389 .577 .846 1.225 1.751 2.476 3.465 4.800 6.586 8.957 12.079

Weight percent, H2SO4

*Vermeulen, Dong, Robinson, Nguyen, and Gmitro, AIChE meeting, Anaheim, Calif., 1982; and private communication from Prof. Theodore Vermeulen, Chemical Engineering Dept., University of California, Berkeley. 2-83

2-84

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Partial Pressures of HNO3 and H2O over Aqueous Solutions of HNO3 mmHg Percentages are weight % HNO3 in solution. 20% 25% H2O 4.1 5.7 8.0 10.9 15.2 20.6 27.6 36.5 47.5 62 0.09 .13 .19 .27 .38 .53 .74 1.01 1.37 1.87 2.50 80 100 128 162 200 250 307 378 458 555 675 800 HNO3 H2O 3.8 5.4 7.6 10.3 14.2 19.2 25.7 33.8 44 57.5 75 94 121 151 187 234 287 352 426 517 628 745 30% HNO3 H2O 3.6 5.0 7.1 9.7 13.2 17.8 23.8 31.1 41 53 69 87 113 140 174 217 267 325 393 478 580 690 0.09 .13 .20 .28 .42 .59 .85 1.18 1.63 2.26 3.07 4.15 5.50 7.32 9.7 12.7 16.5 35% HNO3 H2O 3.3 4.6 6.5 8.9 12.0 16.2 21.7 28.3 37.7 48 63 79 102 127 159 198 243 297 359 436 530 631 755 0.12 .17 .25 .36 .52 .75 1.04 1.48 2.05 2.80 3.80 5.10 6.83 9.0 11.7 15.5 20.0 25.7 32.5 40% HNO3 H2O 3.0 4.2 5.8 8.0 10.8 14.6 19.5 25.5 33.5 43 56 71 90 114 143 178 218 268 325 394 480 573 688 810 80% H2O 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.0 4.1 5.5 7.4 9.8 12.8 16.7 21.8 27.3 35.3 44.5 56 70 86 107 130 158 192 231 278 330 393 469 HNO3 2 3 4 6 8 10.5 14 18.5 24.5 32 41 52 67 85 106 130 158 192 230 278 330 392 465 545 640 H2O 5.5 8 11 15 20 27 36 47 62 80 103 127 157 192 232 282 338 405 480 570 675 790 1 1.3 1.8 2.4 3 4 5 6.5 8 10 13 16 20 24 29 35 42 45% HNO3 H2O 2.6 3.6 5.0 6.9 9.4 12.7 16.9 22.3 29.3 38.0 49.5 62.5 80 100 126 158 195 240 292 355 430 520 625 740 90% HNO3 H2O 50% HNO3 H2O 2.1 3.0 4.2 5.8 7.9 10.7 14.4 19.0 25.0 32.5 42.5 54 70 88 110 138 170 211 258 315 383 463 560 665 785 100% HNO3 11 15 22 30 42 57 77 102 133 170 215 262 320 385 460 540 625 720 820

TABLE 2-16

°C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 °C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125

HNO3

0.10 .15 .23 .33 .48 .68 .96 1.35 1.83 2.54 3.47 4.65 6.20 8.15 10.7 13.7 17.8 23.0 29.2 37.0 46

0.12 .18 .27 .39 .56 .80 1.13 1.57 2.18 2.95 4.05 5.46 7.25 9.6 12.5 16.3 20.9 26.8 34.2 43.0 54.5 67 84

0.09 .13 .18 .28 .40 .54 .77 1.05 1.44 1.95 2.62 3.50 4.65

0.11 .17 .25 .35 .51 .71 1.00 1.38 1.87 2.53 3.38 4.53 6.05 7.90

55% HNO3 0.14 .21 .31 .45 .66 .93 1.30 1.82 2.50 3.41 4.54 6.15 8.18 10.7 13.9 18.0 23.0 29.4 37.3 47 58.5 73 90 110 H2O 1.8 2.5 3.5 4.9 6.7 9.1 12.2 16.1 21.3 28.0 36.3 46 60 76 95 120 148 182 223 272 331 400 485 575 685 HNO3 0.19 .28 .41 .59 .84 1.21 1.66 2.28 3.10 4.20 5.68 7.45 9.9 13.0 16.8 21.8 27.5 34.8 43.7 55.0 69.5 84.5 103 126 156 187

60% H2O 1.5 2.1 3.0 4.1 5.6 7.7 10.3 13.6 18.1 23.7 31 39 51 64 81 102 126 156 192 233 285 345 417 495 590 700 HNO3 0.41 .60 .86 1.21 1.68 2.32 3.17 4.26 5.70 7.55 10.0 12.8 16.8 21.7 27.5 35.0 43.5 54.5 67.5 83.5 103 124 152 181 218 260

65% H2O 1.3 1.8 2.6 3.5 4.9 6.6 8.8 11.6 15.5 20.0 26.0 33.0 43.0 54.5 68 86 106 131 160 195 238 288 345 410 490 580 HNO3

70% 0.79 1.12 1.58 2.18 3.00 4.10 5.50 7.30 9.65 12.6 16.5 21.0 27.1 34.5 43.3 54.5 67.5 83 103 125 152 183 221 262 312 372

1.2 1.7 2.4 3.2 4 5.5 7 9.5 12 15 20 25 31 38 48 60 73 89 108 129 155 185 219

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-17 Partial Pressures of H2O and HBr over Aqueous Solutions of HBr at 20 to 55°C mmHg % HBr 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 20°C HBr H2O 25°C HBr 0.0016 .0022 .0033 .0061 .011 .023 .048 .10 .13 .37 1.1 3.2 9.3 27 H2O 50°C HBr H2O 55°C HBr H2O TABLE 2-20 Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of CH3COOH Percentages of weight % acetic acid in the solution mmHg °C 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 25% 16.3 22.1 29.6 39.4 51.7 67.0 87.2 110 141 178 223 277 342 419 510 618 743 50% 15.7 21.4 28.8 38.3 50.2 65.0 85.0 107 138 172 216 269 331 407 497 602 725

2-85

75% 15.3 20.8 27.8 36.6 48.1 62.0 80.1 102 130 162 203 251 310 376 458 550 666

0.09 .23 .71 2.2 6.8 21

6.2 4.5 3.3 2.4 1.7 1.3

8.2 6.1 4.5 3.3 2.4 1.9

1.3 3.2 7.2 17 40 91

30.2 24.3 19.3 16.0 13.3 10.4

2.0 4.6 10.2 23.0 51 115 260

38 31 25 21 18 14 11.4

TABLE 2-18 Partial Pressures of HI over Aqueous Solutions of HI at 25°C mmHg %HI pHI 4 0.00064 46 0.0010 48 0.0022 50 0.0050 52 0.013 54 0.035 56 0.10

TABLE 2-19 Vapor Pressures of the System: Water-Sulfuric Acid-Nitric Acid For these data reference must be made to the graphs of International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 306–308.
FIG. 2-3 Vapor pressure of aqueous diethylene glycol solutions. (Courtesy of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corp.)

TABLE 2-21

Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3*
Pressures are in pounds per square inch absolute Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solution in percentages)

t, °F 32 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

0 (0)

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

(4.74) (9.50) (14.29) (19.10) (23.94) (28.81) (33.71) (38.64) (43.59) (48.57) (53.58) (58.62) (63.69) (68.79) (73.91) (79.07) (84.26) (89.47) (94.72) 0.079 .108 .16 .23 .32 .45 .63 .85 1.14 1.51 1.98 2.57 3.31 4.22 5.34 6.69 8.32 10.27 12.58 15.32 18.51 22.25 26.58 0.074 .101 .15 .21 .30 .42 .58 .79 1.07 1.42 1.86 2.42 3.11 3.97 5.02 6.30 7.82 9.65 11.82 14.39 17.40 20.91 25.00 0.070 .095 .14 .20 .28 .40 .55 .74 1.00 1.33 1.74 2.26 2.91 3.71 4.70 5.89 7.32 9.04 11.07 13.48 16.29 19.58 23.39 0.065 .089 .13 .19 .26 .37 .51 .69 .93 1.24 1.62 2.11 2.72 3.46 4.38 5.49 6.83 8.43 10.32 12.57 15.19 18.26 21.82 0.060 .083 .12 .17 .25 .34 .47 .64 .86 1.15 1.51 1.96 2.52 3.22 4.07 5.10 6.34 7.83 9.59 11.67 14.11 16.95 20.25 0.056 .076 .11 .16 .23 .32 .44 .59 .80 1.06 1.39 1.81 2.33 2.97 3.75 4.71 5.86 7.23 8.86 10.78 13.03 15.66 18.71 0.051 .070 .10 .15 .21 .29 .40 .55 .73 .97 1.28 1.66 2.14 2.73 3.45 4.33 5.38 6.64 8.13 9.90 11.97 14.38 17.18 0.047 .064 .094 .13 .19 .27 .37 .50 .67 .89 1.17 1.52 1.95 2.49 3.15 3.94 4.91 6.06 7.42 9.03 10.91 13.12 15.67 0.042 .058 .085 .12 .17 .24 .33 .45 .60 .80 1.05 1.37 1.76 2.25 2.84 3.57 4.44 5.48 6.71 8.17 9.87 11.86 0.038 .052 .076 .11 .15 .22 .30 .41 .54 .72 .95 1.23 1.59 2.02 2.56 3.21 3.99 4.93 6.04 7.31 0.034 .046 .068 .097 .14 .19 .26 .36 .48 .64 .84 1.10 1.41 1.80 2.28 2.85 3.55 4.38 5.34 0.030 .040 .059 .085 .12 .17 .23 .31 .42 .56 .74 .96 1.24 1.58 1.99 2.50 3.10 3.81 0.025 .035 .051 .073 .10 .14 .20 .27 .36 .48 .63 .82 1.06 1.35 1.71 2.14 2.65 0.021 .029 .042 .061 .086 .12 .16 .22 .30 .40 .53 .69 .88 1.12 1.42 1.77 0.017 .023 .034 .049 .069 .096 .13 .18 .24 .32 .42 .55 .71 .90 1.13 1.42 0.013 .015 .025 .037 .052 .072 .10 .13 .18 .24 .32 .41 .53 .67 1.85 1.06 0.008 .012 .017 .024 .034 .048 .066 .090 .120 .160 .210 .270 .350 .450 .570 0.004 .006 .008 .012 .017 .024 .033 .045 .061 .081 .100 .140 .180 .220 .300

0.09 0.084 .12 .115 .18 .17 .26 .24 .36 .34 .51 .48 .70 .66 .95 .90 1.27 1.20 1.69 1.60 2.22 2.89 3.72 4.74 5.99 2.10 2.73 3.51 4.48 5.66

180 7.51 7.10 190 9.34 8.83 200 11.53 10.90 210 14.12 13.35 220 17.19 16.25 230 20.78 19.64 240 24.97 23.60 250 29.83 28.20

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

TABLE 2-22

Mole Percentages of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of NH3*
Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages)

t, °F 32 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

0 (0) 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

5 (4.74) 24.3 25.3 26.6 27.9 29.1 31.6 32.7 34.4 35.9 37.5 39.0 40.7 42.3 44.1 45.6 47.3 48.7 50.4 52.1 53.7 55.2 56.8 58.4

10 (9.50) 13.2 14.1 15.2 16.2 17.4 18.5 20.0 21.0 22.2 23.4 24.5 25.8 27.1 28.3 29.6 30.9 32.2 33.4 34.7 36.1 37.3 38.6 39.8

15 (14.29) 7.63 8.15 9.09 9.50 10.30 11.20 12.00 12.90 13.80 14.70 15.60 16.50 17.50 18.40 19.40 20.40 21.40 22.30 23.40 24.40 25.40 26.50 27.50

20 (19.10) 4.43 4.73 5.24 5.69 6.14 6.89 7.40 7.92 8.59 9.22 9.85 10.50 11.20 11.90 12.70 13.40 14.10 14.90 15.70 16.40 17.30 18.00 18.80

25 (23.94) 2.50 2.74 3.03 3.42 3.65 4.08 4.47 4.85 5.29 5.75 6.18 6.69 7.19 7.69 8.22 8.76 9.31 9.88 10.45 11.05 11.63 12.24 12.88

30 (28.81) 1.43 1.59 1.78 1.97 2.27 2.45 2.73 3.00 3.30 3.63 3.95 4.28 4.63 5.01 5.38 5.78 6.18 6.59 7.03 7.48 7.91 8.36 8.82

35 (33.71) 0.856 .943 1.060 1.210 1.390 1.550 1.730 1.890 2.110 2.320 2.550 2.790 3.080 3.300 3.580 3.870 4.160 4.470 4.780 5.100 5.440 5.780 6.120

40 (38.64) 0.514 .581 .652 .777 .873 .978 1.100 1.250 1.370 1.520 1.690 1.860 2.040 2.230 2.430 2.640 2.860 3.080 3.310 3.560 3.810 4.060 4.340

45 (43.59) 0.335 .372 .434 .481 .569 .659 .742 .834 .932 1.044 1.160 1.286 1.410 1.550 1.700 1.850 2.020 2.190 2.360 2.540 2.730 2.920 3.120

50 (48.57) 0.216 .248 .290 .331 .383 .444 .505 .574 .644 .714 .811 .906 1.004 1.110 1.220 1.340 1.460 1.580 1.720 1.860 2.000 2.150

55 (53.58) 0.151 .172 .202 .238 .266 .323 .366 .420 .466 .529 .596 .663 .741 .818 .904 .994 1.087 1.187 1.272 1.390

60 (58.62) 0.109 .124 .148 .172 .205 .230 .267 .307 .347 .395 .444 .501 .558 .617 .689 .756 .830 .907 .983

65 (63.69) 0.0816 .0914 .1095 .1290 .1510 .1750 .2020 .2290 .2640 .3020 .3430 .3840 .4320 .4800 .5300 .5860 .6420 .7010

70 (68.79) 0.0585 .0706 .0838 .0986 .112 .130 .157 .179 .208 .233 .263 .297 .334 .372 .414 .456 .501

75 (73.91) 0.0457 .0533 .0630 .0754 .0882 .103 .115 .135 .157 .180 .205 .232 .257 .287 .320 .352

80 (79.07) 0.0345 .0395 .0477 .0566 .0656 .0772 .0884 .104 .118 .135 .154 .175 .197 .218 .242 .268

85 (84.26) 0.0249 .0243 .0332 .0406 .0474 .0528 .0647 .0714 .0846 .0970 .1117 .124 .140 .154 .174 .192

90 (89.47) 0.0146 .0185 .0215 .0251 .0296 .0351 .0408 .0473 .0540 .0619 .0703 .0786 .0892 .1005 .112

95 (94.72) 0.00689 .00879 .00959 .01125 .0135 .0167 .0194 .0226 .0262 .0300 .0339 .0385 .0439 .0499 .0567

100 (100.00) 0.00

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

2-86

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-23 Partial Pressures of NH3 over Aqueous Solutions of NH3* Pressures are in pounds per square inch absolute
Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages) t, °F 32 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170

2-87

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 (4.74) (9.50) (14.29) (19.10) (23.94) (28.81) (33.71) (38.64) (43.59) (48.57) (53.58) (58.62) (63.69) (68.79) (73.91) (79.07) (84.26) (89.47) (94.72) 0.26 .33 .47 .62 .83 1.04 1.36 1.72 2.14 2.67 3.28 3.97 4.78 5.68 6.75 0.52 .66 .89 1.19 1.52 1.98 2.52 3.20 4.00 4.95 6.09 7.41 8.92 10.70 12.67 14.96 17.55 20.45 23.68 27.15 31.09 35.40 40.09 0.90 1.14 1.50 2.00 2.60 3.34 4.25 5.34 6.65 8.21 10.05 12.21 14.70 17.57 20.85 24.56 28.78 33.49 38.76 44.61 51.06 58.00 65.74 1.51 1.92 2.53 3.21 4.28 5.45 6.88 8.60 10.64 13.09 15.93 19.23 23.09 27.45 32.41 38.13 44.49 51.58 59.65 68.43 78.14 89.02 100.69 2.67 3.16 4.16 5.36 6.87 8.69 10.89 13.53 16.65 20.30 24.58 29.43 35.09 41.56 48.89 57.19 66.49 76.90 88.48 101.24 115.45 130.94 147.66 4.27 5.13 6.63 8.48 10.76 13.52 16.76 20.68 25.21 30.54 36.74 43.77 51.91 61.03 71.48 83.07 96.22 110.85 126.83 144.74 164.17 185.79 209.37 6.54 7.98 10.24 13.06 16.33 20.29 25.04 30.57 37.01 44.56 53.16 62.97 74.28 86.91 101.09 116.97 134.89 154.58 176.24 200.46 226.67 255.26 286.89 8.93 11.98 15.24 19.15 23.84 29.40 35.94 43.57 52.43 62.62 74.27 87.53 102.51 119.37 138.30 159.37 182.72 208.56 236.97 268.30 302.53 339.72 380.42 14.13 17.14 21.56 26.92 33.20 40.69 49.45 59.49 71.20 84.44 99.69 116.72 136.15 157.71 181.95 208.66 238.39 270.94 307.08 346.07 389.29 435.78 486.73 19.36 23.33 29.17 36.14 44.25 53.84 64.99 77.85 92.59 109.40 128.45 149.93 173.64 200.45 230.36 263.43 299.86 340.02 383.99 431.43 483.53 540.44 25.12 30.15 37.46 46.12 56.29 67.97 81.61 97.27 115.16 135.48 158.45 184.17 212.91 244.98 280.54 319.89 363.11 410.17 462.36 518.19 31.13 37.15 45.86 56.22 68.32 82.36 98.35 116.81 137.62 161.44 188.16 218.18 251.24 288.38 329.42 374.25 424.15 478.62 537.56 36.74 43.69 53.79 65.81 79.42 95.52 113.79 134.70 158.42 185.14 215.14 248.70 286.00 327.82 373.61 424.10 479.40 539.79 42.69 49.56 60.82 73.99 89.26 107.06 127.22 150.23 176.18 205.81 238.70 275.33 316.24 361.75 411.59 466.26 526.15 45.92 54.40 66.63 80.90 97.42 116.42 138.18 162.94 190.85 222.28 257.87 297.12 340.82 389.08 442.28 500.63 49.26 58.31 71.26 86.44 104.01 124.20 147.02 173.22 203.02 236.05 272.88 314.45 360.39 411.30 466.67 528.08 52.13 61.62 75.22 91.04 109.55 130.57 154.46 181.97 212.71 247.14 286.08 328.99 376.57 429.73 487.85 551.24 54.89 64.77 79.05 95.67 114.83 136.35 161.74 190.13 222.22 258.24 298.46 342.93 392.45 447.35 507.63 58.01 68.31 83.40 100.65 120.61 143.70 169.73 199.17 232.79 270.02 311.80 358.46 409.62 466.38 528.50

180 7.90 190 9.23 200 10.70 210 12.26 220 14.02 230 15.95 240 17.92 250 20.12

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

TABLE 2-24

Total Vapor Pressures of Aqueous Solutions of NH3* Pressures are in pounds per square inch absolute
Molal concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages (Weight concentration of ammonia in the solutions in percentages)

t, °F 32 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250

0 (0) 0.09 .12 .18 .26 .36 .51 .70 .95 1.27 1.69 2.22 2.89 3.72 4.74 5.99 7.51 9.34 11.53 14.12 17.19 20.78 24.97 29.83

5 (4.74) 0.34 .45 .64 .86 1.17 1.52 2.02 2.62 3.34 4.27 5.38 6.70 8.29 10.16 12.41 15.00 18.06 21.60 25.61 30.27 35.59 41.52 48.32

10 (9.50) 0.60 .77 1.05 1.42 1.84 2.43 3.15 4.05 5.14 6.46 8.07 9.98 12.23 14.92 18.01 21.65 25.87 30.72 36.26 42.47 49.60 57.65 66.67

15 (14.29) 0.97 1.24 1.65 2.21 2.90 3.76 4.83 6.13 7.72 9.63 11.91 14.63 17.81 21.54 25.87 30.86 36.60 43.14 50.58 59.00 68.46 78.91 90.74

20 (19.10) 1.58 2.01 2.67 3.51 4.56 5.85 7.43 9.34 11.64 14.42 17.67 21.49 26.00 31.16 37.11 44.02 51.81 60.62 70.72 81.91 94.43 108.60 124.08

25 (23.94) 2.60 3.25 4.29 5.55 7.13 9.06 11.40 14.22 17.58 21.54 26.20 31.54 37.81 45.02 53.27 62.68 73.32 85.33 98.80 113.81 130.64 149.20 169.48

30 (28.81) 4.20 5.21 6.75 8.65 11.01 13.86 17.23 21.32 26.07 31.69 38.25 45.73 54.43 64.25 75.55 88.17 102.56 118.68 136.42 156.41 178.28 202.74 229.62

35 (33.71) 6.54 8.06 10.35 13.22 16.56 20.61 25.48 31.16 37.81 45.62 54.55 64.78 76.61 89.88 104.84 121.68 140.75 161.81 185.10 211.24 239.70 270.92 305.60

40 (38.64) 9.93 12.05 15.34 19.30 24.05 29.69 36.34 44.12 53.16 63.59 75.55 89.19 104.65 122.10 141.75 163.7 188.1 215.2 245.1 278.2 314.5 354.1 397.6

45 (43.59) 14.18 17.20 21.65 27.05 33.39 40.96 49.82 59.99 71.87 85.33 100.86 118.24 138.1 160.2 185.1 212.6 243.3 277.0 314.5 355.1 400.2 448.9 502.4

50 (48.57) 19.40 23.39 29.26 36.26 44.42 54.08 65.32 78.30 93.19 110.2 129.5 151.3 175.4 202.7 233.2 267.0 304.3 345.5 390.7 439.6 493.4 552.3

55 (53.58) 25.16 30.20 37.54 46.23 56.44 68.19 81.91 97.68 115.7 136.2 159.0 185.4 214.5 247.0 283.1 323.1 367.1 415.1 468.4 525.5

60 (58.62) 31.16 37.20 45.93 56.32 68.46 82.55 98.61 117.17 138.10 162.08 189.00 219.28 252.65 290.18 331.7 377.1 427.7 483.0 542.9

65 (63.69) 36.77 43.73 53.85 65.90 79.54 95.69 114.02 135.01 158.84 185.70 215.88 249.66 287.24 329.4 375.6 426.6 482.5 543.6

70 (68.79) 42.72 49.60 60.87 74.06 89.36 107.20 127.42 150.50 176.54 206.29 239.33 276.15 317.3 363.1 413.3 468.4 528.8

75 (73.91) 45.94 54.43 66.67 80.96 97.51 116.54 138.34 163.16 191.15 222.68 258.40 297.81 341.7 390.2 443.7 502.4

80 (79.07) 49.28 58.33 71.29 86.49 104.08 124.30 147.15 173.40 203.26 236.37 273.3 315.0 361.1 412.2 467.8 529.5

85 (84.26) 52.14 61.64 75.25 91.08 109.60 130.64 154.56 182.10 212.89 247.38 286.4 329.4 377.1 430.4 488.7 552.3

90 (89.47) 54.90 64.78 79.07 95.69 114.86 136.40 161.81 190.22 222.34 258.40 298.67 343.2 392.8 447.8 508.2

95 (94.72) 58.01 68.32 83.41 100.66 120.63 143.72 169.76 199.22 232.85 270.1 311.9 358.6 409.8 466.6 528.8

100 (100.00) 62.29 73.32 89.19 107.6 128.8 153.0 180.6 211.9 247.0 286.4 330.3 379.1 432.2 492.8 558.4

*Wilson, Univ. Ill., Eng. Expt. Sta. Bull. 146.

2-88

VAPOR PRESSURES OF SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-25 Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Carbonate mmHg %Na2CO3 t, °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 4.5 9.2 17.5 31.8 55.3 92.5 149.5 239.8 355.5 526.0 760.0 5 4.5 9.0 17.2 31.2 54.2 90.7 146.5 235 348 516 746 10 8.8 16.8 30.4 53.0 88.7 143.5 230.5 342 506 731 15 20 25 30 TABLE 2-26 Partial Pressures of H2O and CH3OH over Aqueous Solutions of Methyl Alcohol* Mole fraction CH3OH 0 14.99 17.85 21.07 27.31 31.06 40.1 47.0 55.8 68.9 86.0 100.0 39.9°C PH2O, mmHg 54.7 39.2 38.5 37.2 35.8 34.9 32.8 31.5 27.3 20.7 10.1 0 PCH3OH , mmHg 0 66.1 75.5 85.2 100.6 108.8 127.7 141.6 158.4 186.6 225.2 260.7 Mole fraction CH3OH 0 22.17 27.40 33.24 39.80 47.08 55.5 69.2 78.5 85.9 100.0 59.4°C PH2O, mmHg 145.4 106.9 102.2 96.6 91.7 84.8 76.9 57.8 43.8 30.1 0

2-89

PCH3OH , mmHg 0 210.1 240.2 272.1 301.9 335.6 373.7 439.4 486.6 526.9 609.3

16.3 29.6 57.6 86.5 139.9 225 334 494 715

28.8 50.2 84.1 136.1 219 325 482 697

27.8 48.4 81.2 131.6 211.5 315 467 676

26.4 46.1 77.5 125.7 202.5 301 447 648

*International Critical Tables, vol. 3, McGraw-Hill, p. 290.

TABLE 2-27 Conc. g NaOH/ 100 g H2O 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 500 700 1000 2000 4000 8000

Partial Pressures of H2O over Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Hydroxide mmHg Temperature, °C 0 4.6 4.4 4.2 3.6 2.9 2.2 20 17.5 16.9 16.0 13.9 11.3 8.7 6.3 4.4 3.0 2.0 1.3 0.9 40 55.3 53.2 50.6 44.2 36.6 28.7 20.7 15.5 10.9 7.6 5.2 3.6 1.7 60 149.5 143.5 137.0 120.5 101.0 81.0 62.5 47.0 34.5 24.5 17.5 12.5 6.3 3.0 1.5 80 355.5 341.5 325.5 288.5 246.0 202.0 160.5 124.0 94.0 70.5 53.0 38.5 20.5 11.0 6.0 3.5 2.0 0.5 0.1 100 760.0 730.0 697.0 621.0 537.0 450.0 368.0 294.0 231.0 179.0 138.0 105.0 61.0 35.5 20.5 12.0 7.0 2.0 0.5 120 1,489 1,430 1,365 1,225 1,070 920 770 635 515 415 330 262 164 102 63 40 25 8 2.7 0.9 160 4,633 4,450 4,260 3,860 3,460 3,090 2,690 2,340 2,030 1,740 1,490 1,300 915 765 470 340 245 110 50 23 11 200 11,647 11,200 10,750 9,800 8,950 8,150 7,400 6,750 6,100 5,500 5,000 4,500 3,650 2,980 2,430 1,980 1,620 985 610 380 240 100 250 29,771 28,600 27,500 25,300 23,300 21,500 19,900 18,400 17,100 15,800 14,700 13,650 11,800 10,300 8,960 7,830 6,870 5,000 3,690 2,750 2,080 1,210 440 300 64,200 61,800 59,300 54,700 50,800 47,200 44,100 41,200 38,700 36,300 34,200 32,200 28,800 25,900 23,300 21,200 19,200 15,400 12,500 10,300 8,600 6,100 3,300 1,470 150 350 123,600 118,900 114,100 105,400 98,000 91,600 85,800 80,700 76,000 71,900 68,100 64,600 58,600 53,400 49,000 45,100 41,800 35,000 29,800 25,700 22,400 17,500 11,500 6,800 1,760 120 7

2-90

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

WATER-VAPOR CONTENT OF GASES
CHART FOR GASES AT HIGH PRESSURES The accompanying figure is useful in determining the water-vapor content of air at high pressure in contact with liquid water.

FIG. 2-4

Water content of air, °C = (°F − 32) × 5⁄ 9. (Landsbaum, Dadds, and Stutzman. Reprinted from vol. 47, January 1955 issue of Ind. Eng. Chem. [p. 192]. Copyright 1955 by the American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.)

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES

2-91

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. To convert kilograms per cubic meter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 0.06243.

TABLE 2-28 t, °C 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Density (kg/m3) of Water from 0 to 100°C* ρ, kg/m3 0.0 0.1 999.846 999.903 999.943 999.966 999.972 999.962 999.937 999.897 999.842 999.773 999.691 999.595 999.486 999.364 999.230 999.084 998.926 998.757 998.577 998.385 998.183 997.971 997.747 997.515 997.272 997.019 996.757 996.485 996.205 995.915 995.617 995.310 994.997 994.670 994.338 993.997 993.648 993.292 992.928 992.557 992.177 991.791 991.396 990.995 990.587 990.171 989.749 989.320 988.884 988.441 0.2 999.852 999.908 999.946 999.967 999.972 999.960 999.934 999.892 999.836 999.765 999.682 999.584 999.474 999.351 999.216 999.069 998.910 998.740 998.558 998.366 998.162 997.949 997.725 997.491 997.247 996.993 996.730 996.458 996.176 995.886 995.586 995.278 994.962 994.637 994.304 993.963 993.613 993.256 992.891 992.519 992.139 991.751 991.357 990.955 990.546 990.129 989.706 989.276 988.840 988.396 0.3 999.859 999.913 999.949 999.968 999.971 999.958 999.930 999.887 999.829 999.758 999.672 999.574 999.462 999.338 999.202 999.054 999.894 998.722 998.539 998.346 998.141 997.927 997.702 997.467 997.222 996.967 996.703 996.430 996.148 995.856 995.556 995.247 994.930 994.604 994.270 993.928 993.578 993.220 992.855 992.481 992.100 991.712 991.317 990.914 990.504 990.087 989.664 989.233 988.796 988.352 0.4 999.865 999.917 999.952 999.969 999.971 999.956 999.926 999.882 999.823 999.750 999.663 999.563 999.451 999.325 999.188 999.038 998.877 998.704 998.520 998.326 998.120 997.905 997.679 997.443 997.197 996.941 996.676 996.402 996.119 995.827 995.526 995.216 994.898 994.571 994.236 993.893 993.543 993.184 992.818 992.444 992.062 992.673 991.277 990.873 990.463 990.045 989.621 989.190 988.752 988.307 0.5 999.871 999.921 999.954 999.970 999.970 999.954 999.923 999.877 999.816 999.742 999.654 999.553 999.439 999.312 999.173 999.022 998.860 998.686 998.502 998.306 998.099 997.883 997.656 997.419 997.172 996.915 996.649 996.374 996.090 995.797 995.495 995.184 994.865 994.538 994.202 993.859 993.507 993.148 992.780 992.406 992.023 991.634 991.237 990.833 990.421 990.003 989.578 989.146 988.707 988.262 0.6 999.877 999.925 999.956 999.971 999.969 999.951 999.919 999.871 999.809 999.734 999.644 999.542 999.426 999.299 999.159 999.007 998.843 998.668 998.482 998.286 998.078 997.860 997.632 997.394 997.146 996.889 996.622 996.346 996.061 995.767 995.464 995.153 994.833 994.505 994.168 993.824 993.471 993.111 992.743 992.368 991.985 991.594 991.197 990.792 990.380 989.961 989.535 989.103 988.663 988.217 0.7 999.882 999.929 999.959 999.971 999.968 999.949 999.915 999.866 999.802 999.725 999.635 999.531 999.414 999.285 999.144 998.991 998.826 998.650 998.463 998.265 998.057 997.838 997.609 997.370 997.121 996.863 996.595 996.318 996.032 995.737 995.433 995.121 994.801 994.472 994.134 993.789 993.436 993.075 992.706 992.330 991.946 991.555 991.157 990.751 990.338 989.919 989.492 989.059 988.619 988.172 0.8 999.888 999.933 999.961 999.972 999.967 999.946 999.910 999.860 999.795 999.717 999.625 999.520 999.402 999.272 999.129 998.975 998.809 998.632 998.444 998.245 998.035 997.816 997.585 997.345 997.096 996.836 996.568 996.290 996.003 995.707 995.403 995.090 994.768 994.438 994.100 993.754 993.400 993.038 992.669 992.292 991.907 991.515 991.116 990.710 990.297 989.876 989.449 989.015 988.574 988.127 0.9 999.893 999.936 999.962 999.972 999.965 999.943 999.906 999.854 999.788 999.708 999.615 999.509 999.389 999.258 999.114 998.958 998.792 998.614 998.425 998.224 998.014 997.793 997.562 997.321 997.070 996.810 996.540 996.262 995.974 995.677 995.372 995.058 994.735 994.405 994.066 993.719 993.364 993.002 992.631 992.254 992.868 991.476 991.076 990.669 990.255 989.834 989.406 988.971 988.530 988.082

999.839 999.898 999.940 999.964 999.972 999.964 999.940 999.901 999.848 999.781 999.699 999.605 999.497 999.377 999.244 999.099 998.943 998.775 998.595 998.405 998.204 997.992 997.770 997.538 997.296 997.045 996.783 996.513 996.233 995.945 995.647 995.341 995.026 994.703 994.371 994.032 993.684 993.328 992.965 992.594 992.215 991.830 991.436 991.036 990.628 990.213 989.792 989.363 988.928 988.485

*From “Water: Density at Atmospheric Pressure and Temperatures from 0 to 100°C,” Tables of Standard Handbook Data, Standartov, Moscow, 1978. To conserve space, only a few tables of density values are given. The reader is reminded that density values may be found as the reciprocal of the specific volume values tabulated in the “Thermodynamic Properties: Tables” subsection.

2-92

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Density (kg/m3) of Water from 0 to 100°C (Concluded ) ρ, kg/m3 0.0 988.037 987.581 987.120 986.652 986.177 985.696 985.219 984.716 984.217 983.712 983.200 982.683 982.160 981.631 981.097 980.557 980.011 979.459 978.902 978.339 977.771 977.198 976.619 976.035 975.445 974.850 974.250 973.645 973.025 972.419 971.799 971.173 970.543 969.907 969.267 968.621 967.971 967.316 966.656 965.991 965.321 964.647 963.967 963.284 962.595 961.902 961.204 960.501 959.794 959.082 958.365 0.1 987.992 987.536 987.073 986.604 986.129 985.648 985.160 984.666 984.167 983.661 983.149 982.631 982.108 981.578 981.043 980.502 979.956 979.403 978.846 978.283 977.714 977.140 976.561 975.976 975.386 974.791 974.190 973.584 972.974 972.358 971.737 971.110 970.479 969.843 969.202 968.556 967.906 967.250 966.589 965.924 965.254 954.579 963.899 963.215 962.526 961.832 961.134 960.431 959.723 959.010 0.2 987.946 987.490 987.027 986.557 986.081 985.599 985.111 984.617 984.116 983.610 983.097 982.579 982.055 981.525 980.989 980.443 979.901 979.348 978.790 978.226 977.657 977.082 976.503 975.917 975.327 974.731 974.130 973.524 972.912 972.296 971.674 971.048 970.416 969.772 969.138 968.491 967.840 967.184 966.523 965.857 965.187 964.511 963.831 963.146 962.457 961.762 961.064 960.360 959.652 958.939 0.3 987.901 987.444 986.980 986.510 986.033 985.551 985.062 984.567 984.066 983.559 983.046 982.527 982.002 981.472 980.935 980.393 979.846 979.293 978.734 978.170 977.600 977.025 976.444 975.858 975.267 974.671 974.069 973.463 972.851 972.234 971.612 970.985 970.353 969.715 969.073 968.427 967.775 967.118 966.457 965.790 965.119 964.443 963.763 963.077 962.387 961.693 960.993 960.289 959.581 958.867 0.4 987.844 987.398 986.933 986.463 985.985 985.502 985.013 984.517 984.016 983.508 982.994 982.475 981.949 981.418 980.881 980.339 979.791 979.237 978.678 978.113 977.543 976.967 976.386 975.800 975.208 974.611 974.009 973.402 972.789 972.172 971.549 970.922 970.289 969.652 969.009 968.362 967.709 967.052 966.390 965.723 965.052 964.376 963.694 963.009 962.318 961.693 960.923 960.219 959.510 958.796 0.5 987.810 987.351 986.886 986.415 985.937 985.454 984.963 984.467 983.965 983.457 982.943 982.422 981.897 981.365 980.827 980.284 979.736 979.181 978.621 978.056 977.485 976.909 976.327 975.741 975.148 974.551 973.948 973.341 972.728 972.110 971.487 970.859 970.226 969.587 968.944 968.297 967.641 966.986 966.324 965.656 964.984 964.308 963.626 962.940 962.249 961.553 960.853 960.148 959.438 958.724 0.6 987.764 987.305 986.840 986.368 985.889 985.405 984.914 984.417 983.914 983.406 982.891 982.370 981.844 981.311 980.773 980.230 979.680 979.126 978.565 977.999 977.428 976.851 976.269 975.682 975.089 974.491 973.888 973.280 972.666 972.048 971.424 970.796 970.162 969.523 968.880 969.232 967.578 966.920 966.257 965.589 964.917 964.240 963.558 962.871 962.180 961.483 960.783 960.077 959.367 958.653 0.7 987.719 987.259 986.793 986.320 985.841 985.356 984.865 984.367 983.864 983.354 982.839 982.318 981.791 981.258 980.719 980.175 979.625 979.070 978.509 977.942 977.370 976.793 976.211 975.623 975.029 974.431 973.827 973.218 972.605 971.986 971.361 970.732 970.098 969.459 968.815 968.166 967.513 966.854 966.191 965.522 964.849 964.172 963.489 962.802 962.110 961.414 960.712 960.006 959.296 958.581 0.8 987.673 987.213 986.746 986.272 985.793 985.307 984.815 984.317 983.813 983.303 982.787 982.265 981.738 981.204 980.665 980.120 979.570 979.014 978.452 977.885 977.313 976.735 976.152 975.564 974.970 974.371 973.767 973.157 972.543 971.923 971.299 970.669 970.035 969.395 968.751 968.101 967.447 966.788 966.124 965.455 964.782 964.104 963.421 962.733 962.041 961.344 960.642 959.936 959.225 958.509 0.9 987.627 987.166 986.699 986.225 985.745 985.258 984.766 984.267 983.762 983.252 982.735 982.213 981.685 981.151 980.611 980.065 979.515 978.958 978.396 977.828 977.255 976.677 976.093 975.504 974.910 974.311 973.706 973.096 972.481 971.861 971.236 970.606 969.971 969.331 968.686 968.036 967.381 966.722 966.057 965.388 964.714 964.036 963.352 962.664 961.971 961.274 960.572 959.865 959.153 958.431

TABLE 2-28 t, °C 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

DENSITIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
TABLE 2-29 t, °C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Density (kg/m3) of Mercury from 0 to 350°C* Density, kg /m3 0 13595.08 13570.44 13545.87 13521.36 13496.92 13472.54 13448.22 13423.96 13399.75 13375.59 13351.5 13327.4 13303.4 13279.4 13255.4 13231.5 13207.6 13183.7 13159.8 13136.0 13112.1 13088.3 13064.5 13040.6 13016.8 12993.0 12969.2 12945.4 12921.5 12897.7 12873.8 12849.9 12825.9 12801.9 12777.8 12753.7 1 13592.61 13567.98 13543.41 13518.91 13494.48 13470.11 13445.80 13421.54 13397.34 13373.18 13349.1 13325.0 13301.0 13277.0 13253.0 13229.1 13205.2 13181.3 13157.4 13133.6 13109.7 13085.9 13062.1 13038.3 13014.5 12990.6 12966.8 12943.0 12919.1 12895.3 12871.4 12847.5 12823.5 12799.5 12775.4 2 13590.14 13565.52 13540.96 13516.47 13492.04 13467.67 13443.37 13419.12 13394.92 13370.77 13346.7 13322.6 13298.6 13274.6 13250.6 13226.7 13202.8 13178.9 13155.0 13131.2 13107.4 13083.5 13059.7 13035.9 13012.1 12988.3 12964.4 12940.6 12916.7 12892.9 12869.0 12845.1 12821.1 12797.1 12773.0 3 13587.68 13563.06 13538.51 13514.02 13489.60 13465.24 13440.94 13416.69 13392.50 13368.36 13344.3 13320.2 13296.2 13272.2 13248.2 13224.3 13200.4 13176.5 13152.6 13128.3 13105.0 13081.1 13057.3 13033.5 13009.7 12985.9 12962.0 12938.2 12914.4 12890.5 12866.6 12842.7 12818.7 12794.7 12770.6 4 13585.21 13560.60 13536.06 13511.58 13487.16 13462.81 13438.51 13414.27 13390.08 13365.94 13341.9 13317.8 13293.8 13269.8 13245.8 13221.9 13198.0 13174.1 13150.3 13126.4 13102.6 13078.8 13054.9 13031.1 13007.3 12983.5 12959.7 12935.8 12912.0 12888.1 12864.2 12840.3 12816.3 12792.3 12768.2 5 13582.75 13558.14 13533.61 13509.13 13484.72 13460.38 13436.09 13411.85 13387.67 13363.53 13339.4 13315.4 13291.4 13267.4 13243.4 13219.5 13195.6 13171.7 13147.9 13124.0 13100.2 13076.4 13052.6 13028.7 13004.9 12981.1 12957.3 12933.4 12909.6 12885.7 12861.8 12837.9 12813.9 12789.9 12765.8 6 13580.29 13555.69 13531.16 13506.69 13482.29 13457.94 13433.66 13409.43 13385.25 13361.12 13337.0 13313.0 13288.9 13265.0 13241.0 13217.1 13193.2 13169.4 13145.5 13121.7 13097.8 13074.0 13050.2 13026.4 13002.5 12978.7 12954.9 12931.1 12907.2 12883.3 12859.4 12835.5 12811.5 12787.5 12763.4 7 13577.82 13553.23 13528.71 13504.25 13479.85 13455.51 13431.23 13407.01 13382.84 13358.71 13334.6 13310.6 13286.6 13262.6 13238.7 13214.7 13190.8 13167.0 13143.1 13119.3 13095.4 13071.6 13047.8 13024.0 13000.2 12976.3 12952.5 12928.7 12904.8 12880.9 12857.0 12833.1 12809.1 12785.1 12761.0 8 13575.36 13550.78 13526.26 13501.80 13477.41 13453.08 13428.81 13404.59 13380.42 13356.30 13332.2 13308.2 13284.2 13260.2 13236.3 13212.4 13188.5 13164.6 13140.7 13116.9 13093.1 13069.2 13045.4 13021.6 12997.8 12974.0 12950.1 12926.3 12902.4 12878.5 12854.6 12830.7 12806.7 12782.7 12758.6

2-93

9 13572.90 13548.32 13523.81 13499.36 13474.98 13450.65 13426.39 13402.17 13378.01 13353.89 13329.8 13305.8 13281.8 13257.8 13233.9 13210.0 13186.1 13162.2 13138.3 13114.5 13090.7 13066.8 13043.0 13019.2 12995.4 12971.6 12947.7 12923.9 12900.0 12876.2 12852.2 12828.3 12804.3 12780.2 12756.1

*From “Mercury—Density and Thermal Expansion at Atmospheric Pressure and Temperatures from 0 to 350°C,” Tables of Standard Handbook Data, Standartov, Moscow, 1978. The density values obtainable from those cited for the specific volume of the saturated liquid in the “Thermodynamic Properties” subsection show minor differences. No attempt was made to adjust either set.

TABLE 2-30 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 2-94

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids Name Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 693027 764352 928494 Mol. wt. 16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285 156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553 58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231 28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188 112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119 26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119 82.145 82.145 82.145 C1 2.9214 1.9122 1.3757 1.0677 0.84947 0.70824 0.61259 0.53731 0.48387 0.42831 0.39 0.35541 0.3216 0.30545 0.28445 0.26807 0.2545 0.23864 0.22451 0.21624 1.0463 0.9079 0.76929 0.73335 0.7229 0.6028 0.5886 2.0961 1.4094 1.0972 1.1609 1.1426 0.9038 0.7389 0.63734 0.5871 0.4945 0.44244 1.1454 0.91619 0.93322 1.187 1.2384 0.95673 2.4091 1.6086 1.1717 0.94575 0.8491 0.92099 0.84427 0.76277 0.78045 C2 0.28976 0.27937 0.27453 0.27188 0.26726 0.26411 0.26211 0.26115 0.26147 0.25745 0.25678 0.25511 0.2504 0.2535 0.25269 0.25287 0.254 0.25272 0.25133 0.25287 0.27294 0.2761 0.27524 0.2687 0.28614 0.27446 0.27373 0.27657 0.26465 0.2649 0.27104 0.27095 0.26648 0.26147 0.26319 0.27005 0.26108 0.25838 0.2725 0.26752 0.27251 0.26114 0.2725 0.26488 0.27223 0.26448 0.25895 0.26008 0.2352 0.25419 0.27185 0.25248 0.26065 C3 190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7 639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768 408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96 282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29 566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484 308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519 516.2 549 544 C4 0.28881 0.29187 0.29359 0.28688 0.27789 0.27537 0.28141 0.28034 0.28281 0.28912 0.2913 0.29368 0.3071 0.30538 0.30786 0.31143 0.31072 0.31104 0.3133 0.31613 0.27301 0.28673 0.27691 0.28361 0.2713 0.2741 0.2846 0.29147 0.295 0.29043 0.2816 0.2854 0.2905 0.2902 0.27375 0.27187 0.27319 0.28411 0.28186 0.28164 0.26031 0.3065 0.28813 0.28571 0.28477 0.279 0.27289 0.30807 0.353 0.31077 0.2771 0.31611 0.28571 Tmin, K 90.69 90.35 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51 247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58 113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 160.00 172.22 165.78 104.00 87.89 87.80 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27 171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 164.25 127.27 192.40 170.45 240.91 183.45 167.45 163.83 141.25 183.65 170.05 Density at Tmin 28.18 21.64 16.583 12.62 10.474 8.747 7.6998 6.6558 6.007 5.3811 4.9362 4.5132 4.2035 3.8924 3.6471 3.4187 3.2241 3.0466 2.8933 2.7496 12.575 10.776 9.0343 9.2041 7.8746 7.0934 6.9163 23.326 18.143 14.326 13.895 13.1 11.543 9.6388 8.1759 7.1247 6.333 5.7131 13.506 11.332 11.218 15.123 14.061 12.205 23.692 19.027 13.767 11.519 12.532 12.24 10.23 10.133 10.021 Tmax, K 190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7 639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768 408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96 282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29 566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484 308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519 516.2 549 544 Density at Tmax 10.082 6.845 5.011 3.927 3.178 2.682 2.337 2.058 1.851 1.664 1.519 1.393 1.284 1.205 1.126 1.060 1.002 0.944 0.893 0.855 3.833 3.288 2.795 2.729 2.526 2.196 2.150 7.579 5.326 4.142 4.283 4.217 3.392 2.826 2.422 2.174 1.894 1.712 4.203 3.425 3.425 4.546 4.545 3.612 8.850 6.082 4.525 3.636 3.610 3.623 3.106 3.021 2.994

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene1 Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne1

54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene2 Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene6 Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl-n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether1 Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether

C7H12 C8H14 C4H4 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O

628717 629050 689974 287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556 108952 95487 108394 106445 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297

96.172 110.199 52.076 70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145 78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194 120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309 32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095 94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 74.123

0.67366 0.59229 1.2703 1.124 0.84798 0.7193 0.8908 0.735 0.55873 0.61587 1.1035 0.88824 0.92997 1.0162 0.8488 0.69883 0.69555 0.6816 0.6952 0.57695 0.60394 0.604 0.59879 0.51036 0.61674 0.5039 0.7397 0.30826 2.288 1.648 1.235 0.965 0.966 1.24 0.9212 0.8164 0.82046 0.837 0.70617 0.60481 0.8243 1.3151 1.0923 1.3798 1.0861 0.9061 1.1503 1.5693 1.2635 1.0124 1.0318 0.8281 0.8252 0.82157 0.9554

0.26003 0.26118 0.26041 0.28859 0.27042 0.26936 0.27396 0.27041 0.25143 0.26477 0.27035 0.26914 0.27056 0.2655 0.26655 0.26113 0.26204 0.25963 0.26037 0.25395 0.25955 0.25912 0.25916 0.25383 0.25473 0.25273 0.2603 0.23669 0.2685 0.27627 0.27136 0.2666 0.26064 0.27342 0.2544 0.2673 0.26829 0.27375 0.26901 0.2632 0.26546 0.25125 0.26106 0.31598 0.30624 0.28268 0.31861 0.2679 0.27878 0.27942 0.28478 0.27245 0.27282 0.27032 0.26847

559 585 454 511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4 562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32 649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85 512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21 586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626 694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65 400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7

0.29804 0.29357 0.297 0.2506 0.28276 0.2777 0.2851 0.2927 0.27758 0.28054 0.28699 0.27874 0.28943 0.28212 0.2878 0.27429 0.27602 0.2768 0.2844 0.283 0.27716 0.2914 0.27968 0.28816 0.27355 0.281 0.3009 0.29678 0.2453 0.2331 0.24 0.24419 0.2746 0.2353 0.276 0.2506 0.2322 0.22951 0.2479 0.273 0.2848 0.2187 0.20459 0.32768 0.30587 0.2707 0.30104 0.2882 0.2744 0.2555 0.2444 0.2827 0.2857 0.2829 0.2814

192.22 193.55 173.15 179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66 161.84 138.13 146.62 169.67 278.68 178.18 247.98 225.30 286.41 178.15 183.15 229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 333.15 342.20 242.54 360.00 175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.97 195.56 203.00 155.95 228.55 239.15 296.60 260.15 213.15 314.06 304.19 285.39 307.93 131.65 160.00 133.97 127.93 157.48 150.00 164.55 156.85

8.4987 7.478 15.664 11.883 10.492 9.018 9.3797 9.018 7.3417 7.8679 13.47 10.98 11.16 11.421 10.495 8.6285 8.6505 8.1616 9.0568 7.8942 7.6895 7.9496 7.6154 6.8779 7.7543 6.4395 9.1088 4.5223 27.912 19.413 15.231 12.016 12.57 14.547 10.555 10.057 10.017 10.204 8.4506 7.421 9.4693 18.31 14.363 11.244 9.5751 9.6115 9.4494 18.95 13.995 11.696 11.568 9.8068 9.7673 9.7682 11.487

559 585 454 511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4 562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32 649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85 512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21 586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626 694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65 400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7

2.591 2.268 4.878 3.895 3.136 2.670 3.252 2.718 2.222 2.326 4.082 3.300 3.437 3.828 3.184 2.676 2.654 2.625 2.670 2.272 2.327 2.331 2.311 2.011 2.421 1.994 2.842 1.302 8.521 5.965 4.551 3.620 3.706 4.535 3.621 3.054 3.058 3.058 2.625 2.298 3.105 5.234 4.184 4.367 3.547 3.205 3.610 5.858 4.532 3.623 3.623 3.040 3.025 3.039 3.559

2-95

TABLE 2-30 Cmpd. no. 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 2-96

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Continued ) Name Formula C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N CAS no. 628320 625547 100663 101848 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 Mol. wt. 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211 30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268 58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151 46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090 60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133 116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090 31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 73.138 C1 0.7908 0.82049 0.77488 0.52133 1.9415 1.6994 1.296 1.0361 0.83871 0.71899 0.62649 0.56833 0.49587 0.46802 1.2332 0.93767 0.90411 0.8374 0.70659 0.71791 0.6969 0.71811 0.66469 0.56213 0.8663 0.64417 1.938 1.4486 1.1041 0.89213 0.88575 0.71587 0.86852 1.525 1.13 0.9147 0.76983 1.1343 0.8996 0.7405 0.63566 0.915 0.73041 0.669 0.53944 0.4883 0.9591 1.39 1.5436 1.0116 1.1477 0.85379 C2 0.266 0.26994 0.26114 0.26218 0.22309 0.26167 0.26439 0.26731 0.26252 0.26531 0.26376 0.26939 0.26135 0.27146 0.25886 0.25035 0.27207 0.26204 0.26073 0.26491 0.2587 0.24129 0.24527 0.23385 0.26941 0.24863 0.24225 0.25892 0.25659 0.25938 0.25736 0.24812 0.25187 0.2634 0.2593 0.2594 0.26173 0.26168 0.25856 0.25563 0.25613 0.26134 0.25456 0.26028 0.23519 0.23878 0.2593 0.21405 0.27784 0.25683 0.23182 0.25675 C3 500.23 489 645.6 766.8 408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2 508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5 588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606 487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546 571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13 430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6 C4 0.292 0.30381 0.28234 0.31033 0.28571 0.2913 0.29471 0.28397 0.29444 0.27628 0.29221 0.26975 0.30736 0.26869 0.2913 0.29964 0.30669 0.2857 0.2963 0.28544 0.2857 0.27996 0.34305 0.2618 0.2977 0.28661 0.24435 0.2529 0.26874 0.24909 0.26265 0.2857 0.31172 0.2806 0.2764 0.2774 0.26879 0.2791 0.278 0.2795 0.27829 0.28 0.27666 0.309 0.2676 0.28487 0.27448 0.2275 0.2572 0.2696 0.26053 0.27027 Tmin, K 145.65 140.00 235.65 300.03 181.15 150.15 170.00 176.75 182.00 217.15 229.80 246.00 255.15 267.15 178.45 186.48 196.29 181.15 217.35 189.15 167.15 234.18 200.00 204.81 242.00 292.81 281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 227.15 395.45 200.15 174.15 175.15 185.65 187.35 193.55 189.60 199.25 175.15 180.25 178.15 199.65 260.75 238.45 180.35 179.69 180.96 156.08 192.15 223.35 Density at Tmin 9.8474 9.9117 9.6675 6.2648 30.945 21.499 15.929 12.589 10.534 8.7243 7.6002 6.6637 6.0165 5.3834 15.683 12.663 10.398 10.565 8.7505 8.8579 9.1722 10.102 9.0933 8.7779 10.081 8.5581 26.806 17.492 13.933 11.087 11.42 8.8935 11.643 18.811 14.475 11.678 9.7638 14.006 11.478 9.6317 8.4912 11.59 9.7941 8.3747 8.2133 7.2924 12.287 25.378 16.964 13.144 17.588 10.575 Tmax, K 500.23 489 645.6 766.8 408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2 508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5 588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606 487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546 571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13 430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6 Density at Tmax 2.973 3.040 2.967 1.988 8.703 6.494 4.902 3.876 3.195 2.710 2.375 2.110 1.897 1.724 4.764 3.745 3.323 3.196 2.710 2.710 2.694 2.976 2.710 2.404 3.216 2.591 8.000 5.595 4.303 3.440 3.442 2.885 3.448 5.790 4.358 3.526 2.941 4.335 3.479 2.897 2.482 3.501 2.869 2.570 2.294 2.045 3.699 6.494 5.556 3.939 4.951 3.325

Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether Formaldehyde3 Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone1 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone1 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid1 Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine

161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217

Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide5 N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane1 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air Hydrogen Helium-44 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine

C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4

121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012

101.192 59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182 44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101 45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123 48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189 34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966 78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010 28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045

0.7035 0.9195 0.659 1.2801 0.6181 1.0405 0.6527 0.4923 1.836 1.1339 1.2875 0.9815 1.2486 0.89615 1.016 0.88268 1.3064 1.0224 0.87533 0.73136 1.9323 1.3047 1.0714 0.89458 0.88801 0.89137 1.4029 1.067 0.82413 2.1854 1.817 1.0841 0.99835 1.6762 1.6525 2.176 1.1908 1.087 1.1202 0.91064 0.89833 1.5115 1.0146 0.8711 0.8226 2.8963 5.414 7.2475 7.3718 3.8469 4.2895 2.23 2.1872 3.9143 3.2091 3.5383 1.0516

0.27386 0.23878 0.26428 0.2828 0.25786 0.2807 0.24324 0.22868 0.26024 0.24741 0.28195 0.24957 0.20352 0.23478 0.21845 0.23568 0.22597 0.23452 0.24331 0.24793 0.28018 0.2694 0.27214 0.27463 0.27262 0.27365 0.27991 0.27101 0.26333 0.24725 0.25877 0.2581 0.274 0.26141 0.27099 0.3377 0.25595 0.26832 0.27669 0.26561 0.26142 0.2707 0.27277 0.26805 0.26632 0.26733 0.34893 0.41865 0.3067 0.2881 0.28587 0.27645 0.29527 0.28772 0.2861 0.25443 0.16613

535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15 469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95 771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35 469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15 317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8 503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15 132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15

0.2872 0.2461 0.2766 0.2972 0.271 0.29236 0.25374 0.2335 0.2696 0.2612 0.3077 0.29295 0.25178 0.28091 0.26116 0.27379 0.28678 0.2804 0.28586 0.2841 0.28523 0.27866 0.29481 0.28512 0.29522 0.2953 0.2741 0.29363 0.27445 0.27558 0.2833 0.2741 0.287 0.28402 0.2442 0.3361 0.29152 0.28055 0.27646 0.28571 0.2868 0.2716 0.28291 0.2799 0.2821 0.27341 0.2706 0.24096 0.2786 0.29783 0.28776 0.2926 0.3295 0.2924 0.2966 0.2888 0.1898

158.45 188.36 210.15 177.95 176.85 267.13 216.15 275.60 160.65 187.55 234.94 231.51 275.60 212.72 353.33 301.15 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.40 150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 169.20 131.35 175.43 209.63 250.33 179.47 129.95 134.80 154.55 150.35 155.97 200.00 172.71 119.36 230.94 227.95 242.43 59.15 13.95 2.20 24.56 83.78 53.48 172.12 265.85 54.35 63.15 195.41 274.69

8.2843 13.764 7.9929 13.561 8.0541 11.176 9.7244 7.9705 23.477 15.702 13.431 13.193 25.488 13.954 16.936 13.012 20.628 16.027 13.047 10.009 21.564 16.242 12.716 10.585 10.851 10.761 15.556 12.672 10.476 29.526 22.347 13.702 10.843 20.64 19.785 16.934 15.833 13.328 12.855 11.03 11.526 18.481 11.374 10.385 9.9087 33.279 38.487 37.115 61.796 35.491 44.888 24.242 20.109 40.77 31.063 43.141 31.934

535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15 469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95 771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35 469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15 317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8 503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15 132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15

2.569 3.851 2.494 4.527 2.397 3.707 2.683 2.153 7.055 4.583 4.566 3.933 6.135 3.817 4.651 3.745 5.781 4.360 3.598 2.950 6.897 4.843 3.937 3.257 3.257 3.257 5.012 3.937 3.130 8.839 7.022 4.200 3.644 6.412 6.098 6.444 4.653 4.051 4.049 3.429 3.436 5.584 3.720 3.250 3.089 10.834 15.516 17.312 24.036 13.353 15.005 8.067 7.408 13.605 11.217 13.907 6.330 2-97

TABLE 2-30 Cmpd. no. 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Densities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Concluded ) Name Formula N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O CAS no. 10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185 Mol. wt. 44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015 C1 2.781 5.246 1.0761 2.897 2.768 1.7968 2.5635 3.342 2.832 1.3413 2.7672 2.106 1.4969 5.459 C2 0.27244 0.3044 0.20984 0.27532 0.26212 0.28749 0.1766 0.2729 0.2832 0.18589 0.27369 0.25842 0.19013 0.30542 C3 309.57 180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13 C4 0.2882 0.242 0.20635 0.2813 0.2908 0.3226 0.3733 0.3217 0.28571 0.28206 0.29015 0.2895 0.4359 0.081 Tmin, K 182.30 109.50 245.25 68.15 216.58 161.11 189.79 158.97 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 289.95 273.16 Density at Tmin 27.928 44.487 18.513 30.18 26.828 19.064 60.203 34.854 27.985 27.202 29.13 25.298 24.241 55.583 Tmax, K 309.57 180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 333.15 Density at Tmax 10.208 17.234 5.128 10.522 10.560 6.250 14.516 12.246 10.000 7.216 10.111 8.150 7.873 54.703

Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide1 Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water7

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are in kelvins. Liquid densities are in kmol/m3. Density formulas: kmol/m3 × (mol. wt./1E+03) = g/cm3; kmol/m3 × (mol. wt./1.601846E+01) = lb/ft3. C The liquid density equation is C1/C2[1 + (1 − T/C3) 4] unless otherwise noted. 1 The modified Rackett equation, density = (Pc /RTc)/ZRA1 + [1 − (T/Tc)]2/7, was used. See Spencer, C. F., and R. P. Danner, “Improved Equation for Prediction of Saturated Liquid Density,” J. Chem. Eng. Data 17, 236 (1972). 2 Decomposes violently on heating. Forms explosive peroxides with air or oxygen. Polymerizes under pressure and heat. 3 For the hypothetical pure liquid. 4 Exhibits superfluid properties below 2.2 K. 5 Coefficients are hypothetical above the decomposition temperature. 6 Lower limit is for the undercooled liquid. 7 For the temperature range 333.15 to 403.15 K, use the coefficients: C1 = 4.9669E+00, C2 = 2.7788E−01, C3 = 6.4713E+02, C4 = 1.8740E−01. For the temperature range 403.15 to 647.13 K, use C1 = 4.3910E+00, C2 = 2.4870E−01, C3 = 6.4713E+02, C4 = 2.5340E−01.

2-98

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS

2-99

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS
UNITS AND UNITS CONVERSIONS Densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES For more detailed data on densities see International Critical Tables: tabular index, vol. 3, p. 1; abrasives, vol. 2, p. 87; air, moist, vol. 1, p. 71; building stones, vol. 2, p. 52; clays, vol. 2, p. 56; coals, vol. 2, p. 135; compounds, vol. 1. pp. 106, 176, 313, 341; elements, vol. 1, pp. 102, 340; fibers, vol. 2, p. 237; gases and vapors, vol. 3, pp. 3, 345; glass, vol. 2, p. 93; liquids and vitreous solids, vol. 3, p. 22; vol. 1, pp. 102, 340; vol. 2, pp. 456, 463; vol. 3, pp. 20, 35; liquid coolants and saturated
TABLE 2-31 % 1 2 4 8 12 TABLE 2-32 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 Aluminum Sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] d 15 4 1.0093 1.0195 1.0404 1.0837 1.1293 Ammonia (NH3) 0°C 5°C 10°C 20°C 25°C % d 15 4 TABLE 2-37 % 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 0°C 1.0043 1.0088 1.0178 1.0358 1.0539 1.0721 1.0905 1.1090 1.1277 1.1371 1.1862 1.2380 Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3) 10°C 1.0039 1.0082 1.0168 1.0340 1.0515 1.0691 1.0870 1.1051 1.1234 1.1327 1.1810 1.2320 25°C 1.0011 1.0051 1.0132 1.0297 1.0464 1.0633 1.0806 1.0982 1.1161 1.1252 1.1727 1.2229 40°C 0.9961 1.0000 1.0079 1.0238 1.0400 1.0565 1.0734 1.0907 1.1082 1.1171 1.1640 1.2136 60°C 0.9870 .9908 .9985 1.0142 1.0301 1.0462 1.0627 1.0796 1.0968 1.1055 1.1515 1.2006 80°C 0.9755 .9793 .9869 1.0024 1.0181 1.0342 1.0506 1.0673 1.0844 1.0931 1.1385 1.1868 % 16 20 24 26 d 15 4 1.1770 1.2272 1.2803 1.3079

vapors are available from WADC-TR-59-598, 1959; plastics are collected in the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.: solid helium, neon, argon, fluorine, and methane data are given by Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960; temperatures of maximum solubility, vol. 3, p. 107; metals, vol. 2, p. 463; oils, fats, and waxes, vol. 2, p. 201; orthobaric, vol. 3, pp. 202, 228, 237, 244; petroleums, vol. 2, pp. 137, 144; plastics, vol. 2, p. 296; porcelains, vol. 2, pp. 68, 75; refrigerating brines, vol. 2, p. 327; rubber, vol. 2, pp. 255, 259; soaps, vol. 5, p. 447; metallic solid solutions, vol. 2, p. 358; solids, vol. 3, pp. 43, 45; vol. 2, p. 456; vol. 3, p. 21; solutions and mixtures, vol. 3, pp. 17, 51, 95, 104, 107, 111, 125, 130; woods, vol. 2, p. 1. Also see the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., 40th ed., etc.
TABLE 2-36 Ammonium Chromate [(NH4)2CrO4] % 3.80 10.52 19.75 28.04 °C 20 13 13.7 19.6
t d4

1.0219 1.0627 1.1189 1.1707

% −15°C −10°C −5°C

0.9943 0.9954 0.9959 0.9958 0.9955 0.9939 0.993 32 0.889 .9906 .9915 .9919 .9917 .9913 .9895 .988 36 .877 .9834 .9840 .9842 .9837 .9832 .9811 .980 40 .865 0.970 .9701 .9701 .9695 .9686 .9677 .9651 .964 45 .849 .958 .9576 .9571 .9561 .9548 .9534 .9501 .948 50 .832 .947 .9461 .9450 .9435 .9420 .9402 .9362 .934 60 .796 .9353 .9335 .9316 .9296 .9275 .9229 70 .755 .9249 .9226 .9202 .9179 .9155 .9101 80 .711 .9150 .9122 .9094 .9067 .9040 .8980 90 .665 .9101 .9070 .9040 .9012 .8983 .8920 100 .618 TABLE 2-34 Ammonium Bichromate [(NH4)2Cr2O7] % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 d412 1.0051 1.0108 1.0223 1.0463 1.0715 1.0981 1.1263

TABLE 2-33 Ammonium Acetate* (CH3COONH4) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45
25 d4

0.9992 1.0013 1.0055 1.0136 1.0216 1.0294 1.0368 1.0439 1.0507 1.0540 1.0618 1.0691 1.0760

TABLE 2-38 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 35 40 50

Ammonium Sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] 0°C 20°C 1.0041 1.0101 1.0220 1.0456 1.0691 1.0924 1.1154 1.1383 1.1609 1.2800 1.2277 1.2825 40°C 0.9980 1.0039 1.0155 1.0387 1.0619 1.0849 1.1077 1.1304 1.1529 1.1919 1.2196 1.2745 80°C 0.9777 .9836 .9953 1.0187 1.0421 1.0653 1.0883 1.1111 1.1338 1.1731 1.2011 1.2568 100°C 0.9644 .9705 .9826 1.0066 1.0303 1.0539 1.0772 1.1003 1.1232 1.1629 1.1910 1.2466

*For data at 16°C for 3(1)52 percent see Atack Handbook of Chemical Data, p. 33, Reinhold, New York, 1957. TABLE 2-35 Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 0°C 1.0033 1.0067 1.0135 1.0266 1.0391 1.0510 1.0625 1.0736 10°C 1.0029 1.0062 1.0126 1.0251 1.0370 1.0485 1.0596 1.0705 20°C 1.0013 1.0045 1.0107 1.0227 1.0344 1.0457 1.0567 1.0674 30°C 0.9987 1.0018 1.0077 1.0195 1.0310 1.0422 1.0532 1.0641 50°C 0.9910 .9940 .9999 1.0116 1.0231 1.0343 1.0454 1.0564 80°C 0.9749 .9780 .9842 .9963 1.0081 1.0198 1.0312 1.0426 100°C 0.9617 .9651 .9718 .9849 .9975 1.0096 1.0213 1.0327

1.0061 1.0124 1.0248 1.0495 1.0740 1.0980 1.1215 1.1448 1.1677 1.2072 1.2350 1.2899

TABLE 2-39 % 1 2 6 10 16

Arsenic Acid (H3A3O4) d 15 4 1.0057 1.0124 1.0398 1.0681 1.1128 % 20 30 40 50 60 70 d 15 4 1.1447 1.2331 1.3370 1.4602 1.6070 1.7811

2-100

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Barium Chloride (BaCl2) 20°C 1.0159 1.0341 1.0721 1.1128 1.1564 1.2031 1.2531 1.2793 40°C 1.0096 1.0275 1.0648 1.1047 1.1478 1.1938 1.2430 1.2688 60°C 1.0004 1.0181 1.0551 1.0948 1.1373 1.1828 1.2316 1.2571 80°C 0.9890 1.0066 1.0434 1.0827 1.1249 1.1702 1.2186 1.2440 100°C 0.9755 .9931 1.0299 1.0692 1.1113 1.1563 1.2045 1.2298 TABLE 2-46 % 1 2 6 10 16 Chromic Acid (CrO3) d 15 4 1.006 1.014 1.045 1.076 1.127 % 20 26 30 40 50 60 d 15 4 1.163 1.220 1.260 1.371 1.505 1.663

TABLE 2-40 % 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26 0°C 1.0181 1.0368 1.0760 1.1178 1.1627 1.2105

TABLE 2-41 % 2 4 8 12 16

Cadmium Nitrate [Cd(NO3)2] d 18 4 1.0154 1.0326 1.0683 1.1061 1.1468 % 20 25 30 40 50 d 18 4 1.1904 1.2488 1.3124 1.4590 1.6356

TABLE 2-47

Chromium Chloride (CrCl3) d 18 4 Equilibrium mixture of violet and green 1.0075 1.0165 1.0347 1.0722 1.1111

% 1 2 4 8 12 14

Violet 1.0076 1.0166 1.0349 1.0724 1.1114 1.1316

Green 1.0071 1.0157 1.0332 1.0691 1.1065

TABLE 2-42 % −5°C 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 0°C

Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) 20°C 1.0148 1.0316 1.0659 1.1015 1.1386 1.1775 1.2284 1.2816 1.3373 1.3957 30°C 1.0120 1.0286 1.0626 1.0978 1.1345 1.1730 1.2236 1.2764 1.3316 1.3895 40°C 1.0084 1.0249 1.0586 1.0937 1.1301 1.1684 1.2186 1.2709 1.3255 1.3826 60°C 0.9994 1.0158 1.0492 1.0840 1.1202 1.1581 1.2079 1.2597 1.3137 1.3700 80°C 100°C 120°C* 140°C 0.9881 1.0046 1.0382 1.0730 1.1092 1.1471 1.1965 1.2478 1.3013 1.3571 0.9748 .9915 1.0257 1.0610 1.0973 1.1352 1.1846 1.2359 1.2893 1.3450 0.9596 .9765 1.0111 1.0466 1.0835 1.1219 0.9428 .9601 .9954 1.0317 1.0691 1.1080

1.0708 1.1083 1.1471 1.1874

1.0171 1.0346 1.0703 1.1072 1.1454 1.1853 1.2376 1.2922

TABLE 2-48 % 1 2 4 8

Copper Nitrate [Cu(NO3)2] d 20 4 1.007 1.015 1.032 1.069 % 12 16 20 25 d 20 4 1.107 1.147 1.189 1.248

*Corrected to atmospheric pressure.

TABLE 2-43 Calcium Hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] % 0.05 .10 .15 d 15 4 0.99979 1.00044 1.00110
25 d4

TABLE 2-44 Calcium Hypochlorite* (CaOCl2) % total salt 2 4 6 8 10 12 *CaOCl2 = 89.15% CaCl2 = 7.31% Ca(ClO3)2 = 0.26% Ca(OH)2 = 2.92%. d 15 4 1.0169 1.0345 1.0520 1.0697 1.0876 1.1060

TABLE 2-49 (CuSO4) % 1 4 8 12 16 18 0°C 1.0104 1.0429 1.0887 1.1379

Copper Sulfate 20°C 1.0086 1.0401 1.084 1.1308 1.180 1.206 40°C 1.0024 1.0332 1.0764 1.1222

TABLE 2-50 Cuprous Chloride (Cu2Cl2) % 1 4 8 12 16 20 0°C 1.0095 1.0387 1.0788 1.1208 1.1653 1.2121 20°C 1.0072 1.036 1.0754 1.1165 1.1595 1.2052 40°C 1.002 1.0305 1.0682 1.107 1.151 1.1953

0.99773 .99838 .99904

TABLE 2-45 Calcium Nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] % 2* 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 68* 6°C 1.0157 1.0316 1.0641 1.0979 1.1330 1.1694 1.2168 18°C 1.0137 1.0291 1.0608 1.0937 1.1279 1.1636 1.2106 1.260 1.311 1.365 1.422 1.747 25°C 1.0120 1.0272 1.0585 1.0911 1.1250 1.1602 1.2065 30°C 1.0105 1.0256 1.0565 1.0887 1.1224 1.1575 1.2032

TABLE 2-51 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) 0°C 1.0086 1.0174 1.0347 1.0703 1.1088 1.1475 1.1870 1.2400 1.2970 1.3605 1.4280 10°C 1.0084 1.0168 1.0341 1.0692 1.1071 1.1449 1.1847 1.2380 1.2950 1.3580 1.4235 1.4920 1.5610 20°C 1.0068 1.0152 1.0324 1.0669 1.1040 1.1418 1.1820 1.2340 1.2910 1.3530 1.4175 1.4850 1.5510 30°C 1.0040 1.0122 1.0292 1.0636 1.1006 1.1386 1.1786 1.2290 1.2850 1.3475 1.4115

1.741

1.736

*Supercooled tetrahydrate (m.p. 41.4°C).

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-52 [Fe2(SO4)3] % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 60 Ferric Sulfate d4
17.5

2-101

TABLE 2-53 [Fe(NO3)3] % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 25

Ferric Nitrate d4
18

TABLE 2-58 Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) % 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 100 d4
20

TABLE 2-59 Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) % 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 d4
18

d4 1.017 1.035 1.070 1.101 1.130 1.155

0

% 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 100

d4

18

1.0072 1.0157 1.0327 1.0670 1.1028 1.1409 1.1811 1.3073 1.4487 1.6127 1.7983

1.0065 1.0144 1.0304 1.0636 1.0989 1.1359 1.1748 1.2281

1.020 1.040 1.080 1.119 1.159 1.198 1.235 1.258 1.259 1.178 1.089 1.0005

1.0022 1.0058 1.0131 1.0204 1.0277 1.0351 1.0425 1.0499 1.0574 1.0649 1.0725 1.0802 1.0880

1.0959 1.1040 1.1122 1.1327 1.1536 1.1749 1.1966 1.2188 1.2416 1.2897 1.3406 1.3931 1.4465

TABLE 2-54 Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO4) % 0.2 0.4 0.8 1.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 15°C 18°C 1.00068 1.00275 1.00645 1.0085 1.0375 1.0785 1.1220 1.1675 1.2135 20°C 1.0002 1.0022 1.0062 1.0082

TABLE 2-55 Hydrogen Bromide (HBr) % 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 24.0 26.0 28.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 65.0 d4 1.0073 1.0146 1.0295 1.0448 1.0604 1.0764 1.0928 1.1097 1.1272 1.1453 1.1640 1.1832 1.2030 1.2235 1.2446 1.2663 1.3877 1.5305 1.6950 1.7854
4

d4

10

d4

25

TABLE 2-60 % 1 2 4 8 12

Hydrofluosilic Acid (H2SiF6) d4
17.5

% 16 20 25 30 34

d4

17.5

1.0090 1.0380 1.0790 1.1235 1.1690 1.2150

TABLE 2-56 Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 82 90 100 d4
15

0.998 .996 .993 .984 .971 .956 .752 .724 .691

1.0068 1.0139 1.0285 1.0435 1.0589 1.0747 1.0910 1.1078 1.1251 1.1430 1.1615 1.1806 1.2003 1.2206 1.2415 1.2630 1.3838 1.5257 1.6892 1.7792

1.0041 1.0111 1.0255 1.0402 1.0552 1.0707 1.0867 1.1032 1.1202 1.1377 1.1557 1.1743 1.1935 1.2134 1.2340 1.2552 1.3736 1.5127 1.6731 1.7613

1.0080 1.0161 1.0324 1.0661 1.1011

1.1373 1.1748 1.2235 1.2742 1.3162

TABLE 2-61 % 2 4 8 12 16 20 25 30 0°C 1.0168 1.0338 1.0683 1.1035 1.1395 1.1764 1.2246 1.2754

Magnesium Chloride (MgCl2) 20°C 1.0146 1.0311 1.0646 1.0989 1.1342 1.1706 1.2184 1.2688 40°C 1.0084 1.0248 1.0580 1.0921 1.1272 1.1635 1.2111 1.2614 60°C 0.9995 1.0159 1.0493 1.0836 1.1188 1.1552 1.2031 1.2535 80°C 0.9883 1.0050 1.0388 1.0735 1.1092 1.1460 1.1942 1.2451 100°C 0.9753 .9923 1.0269 1.0622 1.0984 1.1359 1.1847 1.2360

TABLE 2-62 % 2 4 8 12 16 20 26 0°C 1.0210 1.0423 1.0858 1.1309 1.1777 1.2264 1.3032

Magnesium Sulfate (MgSO4) 20°C 1.0186 1.0392 1.0816 1.1256 1.1717 1.2198 1.2961 30°C 1.0158 1.0362 1.0782 1.1220 1.1679 1.2159 1.2922 40°C 1.0123 1.0326 1.0743 1.1179 1.1637 1.2117 1.2879 50°C 1.0081 1.0283 1.0700 1.1135 1.1592 1.2072 1.2836 60°C 1.0032 1.0234 1.0650 1.1083 80°C 0.9916 1.0118 1.0534 1.0968

TABLE 2-57 % 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 −5°C 1.0048 1.0104 1.0213 1.0321 1.0428 1.0536 1.0645 1.0754 1.0864 1.0975 1.1087 1.1200 1.1314 1.1426 1.1537 1.1648

Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) 0°C 1.0052 1.0106 1.0213 1.0319 1.0423 1.0528 1.0634 1.0741 1.0849 1.0958 1.1067 1.1177 1.1287 1.1396 1.1505 1.1613 10°C 1.0048 1.0100 1.0202 1.0303 1.0403 1.0504 1.0607 1.0711 1.0815 1.0920 1.1025 1.1131 1.1238 1.1344 1.1449 1.1553 20°C 1.0032 1.0082 1.0181 1.0279 1.0376 1.0474 1.0574 1.0675 1.0776 1.0878 1.0980 1.1083 1.1187 1.1290 1.1392 1.1493 1.1593 1.1691 1.1789 1.1885 1.1980 40°C 0.9970 1.0019 1.0116 1.0211 1.0305 1.0400 1.0497 1.0594 1.0692 1.0790 1.0888 1.0986 1.1085 1.1183 1.1280 1.1376 60°C 0.9881 .9930 1.0026 1.0121 1.0215 1.0310 1.0406 1.0502 1.0598 1.0694 1.0790 1.0886 1.0982 1.1076 1.1169 1.1260 80°C 0.9768 0.9819 0.9919 1.0016 1.0111 1.0206 1.0302 1.0398 1.0494 1.0590 1.0685 1.0780 1.0874 1.0967 1.1058 1.1149 100°C 0.9636 .9688 .9791 .9892 .9992 1.0090 1.0188 1.0286 1.0383 1.0479 1.0574 1.0668 1.0761 1.0853 1.0942 1.1030

TABLE 2-63 Nickel Chloride (NiCl2) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 d4
18

TABLE 2-64 Nickel Nitrate [Ni(NO3)2] % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 35 d4
20

TABLE 2-65 Nickel Sulfate (NiSO4 ) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 18 d4
18

1.0082 1.0179 1.0375 1.0785 1.1217 1.1674 1.2163 1.353

1.0065 1.0150 1.0325 1.0688 1.1070 1.1480 1.191 1.311 1.377

1.0091 1.0198 1.0415 1.0852 1.1325 1.1825 1.2090

2-102

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Nitric Acid (HNO3) 5°C 1.00572 1.01149 1.01730 1.02315 1.02904 1.03497 1.0410 1.0471 1.0532 1.0594 1.0656 1.0718 1.0781 1.0845 1.0909 1.0973 1.1038 1.1103 1.1168 1.1234 1.1300 1.1366 1.1433 1.1501 1.1569 1.1638 1.1707 1.1777 1.1847 1.1917 1.1988 1.2059 1.2131 1.2203 1.2275 1.2344 1.2412 1.2479 1.2546 1.2613 1.2680 1.2747 1.2814 1.2880 1.2947 1.3014 1.3080 1.3147 1.3214 1.3277 1.3339 1.3401 1.3462 1.3523 1.3583 1.3642 1.3700 1.3757 1.3813 1.3868 1.3922 1.3975 1.4027 1.4078 10°C 1.00534 1.01099 1.01668 1.02240 1.02816 1.03397 1.0399 1.0458 1.0518 1.0578 1.0639 1.0700 1.0762 1.0824 1.0887 1.0950 1.1014 1.1078 1.1142 1.1206 1.1271 1.1336 1.1402 1.1469 1.1536 1.1603 1.1670 1.1738 1.1807 1.1876 1.1945 1.2014 1.2084 1.2155 1.2227 1.2294 1.2361 1.2428 1.2494 1.2560 1.2626 1.2692 1.2758 1.2824 1.2890 1.2955 1.3021 1.3087 1.3153 1.3215 1.3277 1.3338 1.3399 1.3459 1.3518 1.3576 1.3634 1.3691 1.3747 1.3801 1.3855 1.3907 1.3958 1.4007 15°C 1.00464 1.01018 1.01576 1.02137 1.02702 1.03272 1.0385 1.0443 1.0502 1.0561 1.0621 1.0681 1.0742 1.0803 1.0865 1.0927 1.0989 1.1052 1.1115 1.1178 1.1242 1.1306 1.1371 1.1437 1.1503 1.1569 1.1635 1.1702 1.1770 1.1838 1.1906 1.1974 1.2043 1.2113 1.2183 1.2249 1.2315 1.2381 1.2446 1.2511 1.2576 1.2641 1.2706 1.2771 1.2836 1.2901 1.2966 1.3031 1.3096 1.3157 1.3218 1.3278 1.3338 1.3397 1.3455 1.3512 1.3569 1.3625 1.3680 1.3734 1.3787 1.3838 1.3888 1.3936 20°C 1.00364 1.00909 1.01457 1.02008 1.02563 1.03122 1.0369 1.0427 1.0485 1.0543 1.0602 1.0661 1.0721 1.0781 1.0842 1.0903 1.0964 1.1026 1.1088 1.1150 1.1213 1.1276 1.1340 1.1404 1.1469 1.1534 1.1600 1.1666 1.1733 1.1800 1.1867 1.1934 1.2002 1.2071 1.2140 1.2205 1.2270 1.2335 1.2399 1.2463 1.2527 1.2591 1.2655 1.2719 1.2783 1.2847 1.2911 1.2975 1.3040 1.3100 1.3160 1.3219 1.3278 1.3336 1.3393 1.3449 1.3505 1.3560 1.3614 1.3667 1.3719 1.3769 1.3818 1.3866 25°C 1.00241 1.00778 1.01318 1.01861 1.02408 1.02958 1.0352 1.0409 1.0466 1.0523 1.0581 1.0640 1.0699 1.0758 1.0818 1.0879 1.0940 1.1001 1.1062 1.1123 1.1185 1.1247 1.1310 1.1374 1.1438 1.1502 1.1566 1.1631 1.1697 1.1763 1.1829 1.1896 1.1963 1.2030 1.2098 1.2163 1.2227 1.2291 1.2354 1.2417 1.2480 1.2543 1.2606 1.2669 1.2732 1.2795 1.2858 1.2921 1.2984 1.3043 1.3102 1.3160 1.3218 1.3275 1.3331 1.3386 1.3441 1.3495 1.3548 1.3600 1.3651 1.3700 1.3748 1.3795 30°C 1.0009 1.0061 1.0114 1.0168 1.0222 1.0277 1.0333 1.0389 1.0446 1.0503 1.0560 1.0618 1.0676 1.0735 1.0794 1.0854 1.0914 1.0974 1.1034 1.1094 1.1155 1.1217 1.1280 1.1343 1.1406 1.1469 1.1533 1.1597 1.1662 1.1727 1.1792 1.1857 1.1922 1.1988 1.2055 1.2119 1.2182 1.2245 1.2308 1.2370 1.2432 1.2494 1.2556 1.2618 1.2680 1.2742 1.2804 1.2867 1.2929 1.2987 1.3045 1.3102 1.3159 1.3215 1.3270 1.3324 1.3377 1.3430 1.3482 1.3533 1.3583 1.3632 1.3679 1.3725 40°C 0.9973 1.0025 1.0077 1.0129 1.0182 1.0235 1.0289 1.0344 1.0399 1.0455 1.0511 1.0567 1.0624 1.0681 1.0739 1.0797 1.0855 1.0913 1.0972 1.1031 1.1090 1.1150 1.1210 1.1271 1.1332 1.1394 1.1456 1.1519 1.1582 1.1645 1.1708 1.1772 1.1836 1.1901 1.1966 1.2028 1.2089 1.2150 1.2210 1.2270 1.2330 1.2390 1.2450 1.2510 1.2570 1.2630 1.2690 1.2750 1.2811 1.2867 1.2923 1.2978 1.3033 1.3087 1.3141 1.3194 1.3246 1.3298 1.3348 1.3398 1.3447 1.3494 1.3540 50°C 0.9931 .9982 1.0033 1.0084 1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0295 1.0349 1.0403 1.0458 1.0513 1.0568 1.0624 1.0680 1.0737 1.0794 1.0851 1.0908 1.0966 1.1024 1.1083 1.1142 1.1201 1.1260 1.1320 1.1381 1.1442 1.1503 1.1564 1.1625 1.1687 1.1749 1.1812 1.1876 1.1936 1.1995 1.2054 1.2112 1.2170 1.2229 1.2287 1.2345 1.2403 1.2461 1.2519 1.2577 1.2635 1.2693 1.2748 1.2802 1.2856 1.2909 1.2961 1.3013 1.3064 1.3114 1.3164 1.3213 1.3261 1.3308 1.3354 1.3398 60°C 0.9882 .9932 .9982 1.0033 1.0084 1.0136 1.0188 1.0241 1.0294 1.0347 1.0401 1.0455 1.0509 1.0564 1.0619 1.0675 1.0731 1.0787 1.0843 1.0899 1.0956 1.1013 1.1070 1.1127 1.1185 1.1244 1.1303 1.1362 1.1422 1.1482 1.1542 1.1602 1.1662 1.1723 1.1784 1.1842 1.1899 1.1956 1.2013 1.2069 1.2126 1.2182 1.2238 1.2294 1.2350 1.2406 1.2462 1.2518 1.2575 1.2628 1.2680 1.2731 1.2782 1.2833 1.2883 1.2932 1.2981 1.3029 1.3077 1.3124 1.3169 1.3213 1.3255 80°C 0.9767 .9816 .9865 .9915 .9965 1.0015 1.0066 1.0117 1.0169 1.0221 1.0273 1.0326 1.0379 1.0432 1.0485 1.0538 1.0592 1.0646 1.0700 1.0754 1.0808 1.0862 1.0917 1.0972 1.1027 1.1083 1.1139 1.1195 1.1251 1.1307 1.1363 1.1419 1.1476 1.1533 1.1591 1.1645 1.1699 1.1752 1.1805 1.1858 1.1911 1.1963 1.2015 1.2067 1.2119 1.2171 1.2223 1.2275 1.2328 1.2377 1.2425 1.2473 1.2521 1.2568 1.2615 1.2661 1.2706 1.2751 1.2795 1.2839 1.2881 1.2922 1.2962 100°C 0.9632 .9681 .9730 .9779 .9829 .9879 .9929 .9980 1.0032 1.0083 1.0134 1.0186 1.0238 1.0289 1.0341 1.0393 1.0444 1.0496 1.0547 1.0598 1.0650 1.0701 1.0753 1.0805 1.0857 1.0910 1.0963 1.1016 1.1069 1.1122 1.1175 1.1228 1.1281 1.1335 1.1390 1.1440 1.1490 1.1540 1.1589 1.1638 1.1687 1.1735 1.1783 1.1831 1.1879 1.1927 1.1976 1.2024 1.2073 1.2118 1.2163 1.2208 1.2252 1.2296 1.2339 1.2382 1.2424 1.2466 1.2507 1.2547 1.2587 1.2625 1.2661

TABLE 2-66 % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 0°C

1.0058 1.0117 1.0176 1.0236 1.0296 1.0357 1.0418 1.0480 1.0543 1.0606 1.0669 1.0733 1.0797 1.0862 1.0927 1.0992 1.1057 1.1123 1.1189 1.1255 1.1322 1.1389 1.1457 1.1525 1.1594 1.1663 1.1733 1.1803 1.1874 1.1945 1.2016 1.2088 1.2160 1.2233 1.2306 1.2375 1.2444 1.2513 1.2581 1.2649 1.2717 1.2786 1.2854 1.2922 1.2990 1.3058 1.3126 1.3194 1.3263 1.3327 1.3391 1.3454 1.3517 1.3579 1.3640 1.3700 1.3759 1.3818 1.3875 1.3931 1.3986 1.4039 1.4091

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-66 % 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C Nitric Acid (HNO3) (Concluded ) 5°C 1.4128 1.4177 1.4224 1.4271 1.4317 1.4362 1.4406 1.4449 1.4491 1.4532 1.4573 1.4613 1.4652 1.4690 1.4727 1.4764 1.4800 1.4835 1.4869 1.4903 1.4936 1.4968 1.4999 1.5029 1.5058 1.5085 1.5111 1.5136 1.5156 1.5177 1.5198 1.5220 1.5244 1.5278 1.5327 1.5402 10°C 1.4055 1.4103 1.4150 1.4196 1.4241 1.4285 1.4328 1.4371 1.4413 1.4454 1.4494 1.4533 1.4572 1.4610 1.4647 1.4683 1.4718 1.4753 1.4787 1.4820 1.4852 1.4883 1.4913 1.4942 1.4970 1.4997 1.5023 1.5048 1.5068 1.5088 1.5109 1.5130 1.5152 1.5187 1.5235 1.5310 15°C 1.3984 1.4031 1.4077 1.4122 1.4166 1.4210 1.4252 1.4294 1.4335 1.4376 1.4415 1.4454 1.4492 1.4529 1.4565 1.4601 1.4636 1.4670 1.4704 1.4737 1.4769 1.4799 1.4829 1.4858 1.4885 1.4911 1.4936 1.4960 1.4979 1.4999 1.5019 1.5040 1.5062 1.5096 1.5144 1.5217 20°C 1.3913 1.3959 1.4004 1.4048 1.4091 1.4134 1.4176 1.4218 1.4258 1.4298 1.4337 1.4375 1.4413 1.4450 1.4486 1.4521 1.4555 1.4589 1.4622 1.4655 1.4686 1.4716 1.4745 1.4773 1.4800 1.4826 1.4850 1.4873 1.4892 1.4912 1.4932 1.4952 1.4974 1.5008 1.5056 1.5129 25°C 1.3841 1.3887 1.3932 1.3976 1.4019 1.4061 1.4102 1.4142 1.4182 1.4221 1.4259 1.4296 1.4333 1.4369 1.4404 1.4439 1.4473 1.4507 1.4540 1.4572 1.4603 1.4633 1.4662 1.4690 1.4716 1.4741 1.4766 1.4789 1.4807 1.4826 1.4846 1.4867 1.4889 1.4922 1.4969 1.5040 30°C 1.3770 1.3814 1.3857 1.3900 1.3942 1.3983 1.4023 1.4063 1.4103 1.4142 1.4180 1.4217 1.4253 1.4288 1.4323 1.4357 1.4391 1.4424 1.4456 1.4487 1.4518 1.4548 1.4577 1.4605 1.4631 1.4656 1.4681 1.4704 1.4722 1.4741 1.4761 1.4781 1.4802 1.4835 1.4881 1.4952 40°C 50°C 60°C 80°C

2-103

100°C

TABLE 2-67 % 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 d4
15

Perchloric Acid (HClO4) d4
20

TABLE 2-69 % 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 d4
15

Potassium Bicarbonate (KHCO3) 2% 1.0134 1.0132 1.0125 1.0117 1.0092 1.0058 1.0017 0.9969 .9855 .9722 4% 1.0270 1.0268 1.0260 1.0252 1.0228 1.0195 1.0154 1.0106 0.9993 .9860 6% 8% 10%

d4

25

d4

50

d4

20

d4

50

°C 0 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100

1% 1.0066 1.0064 1.0058 1.0049 1.0024 0.9990 .9949 .9901 .9786 .9653

1.0050 1.0109 1.0228 1.0348 1.0471 1.0597 1.0726 1.0589 1.0995 1.1135 1.1279 1.1428 1.1581 1.1738

1.0020 1.0070 1.0169 1.0270 1.0372 1.0475

1.1697

0.9933 0.9986 0.9906 1.0205 1.0320 1.0440 1.0560 1.0680 1.0810 1.0940 1.1070 1.1205 1.1345 1.1490

1.1900 1.2067 1.2239 1.2418 1.2603 1.2794 1.2991 1.3521 1.4103 1.4733 1.5389 1.6059 1.6736

1.1851 1.2013 1.2183 1.2359 1.2542 1.2732 1.2927 1.3450 1.4018 1.4636 1.5298 1.5986 1.6680

1.1645 1.1800 1.1960 1.2130 1.2310 1.2490 1.2680 1.3180 1.3730 1.4320 1.4950 1.5620 1.6290

1.0396

1.0534

1.0674

TABLE 2-70 Potassium Bromide (KBr) TABLE 2-68 °C 0 10 20 30 40 2% 1.0113 1.0109 1.0092 1.0065 1.0029 Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) 6% 1.0339 1.0330 1.0309 1.0279 1.0241 14% 1.0811 1.0792 1.0764 1.0728 1.0685 20% 26% 35% 50% 75% 100% 1.1192 1.1167 1.1567 1.221 1.341 1.1134 1.1529 1.216 1.335 1.579 1.1094 1.1484 1.211 1.329 1.572 1.1048 % 1 2 6 12 20 30 40 d 20 4 1.0054 1.0127 1.0426 1.0903 1.1601 1.2593 1.3746

1.870 1.862

2-104

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Potassium Carbonate (K2CO3) 10°C 1.0089 1.0182 1.0369 1.0746 1.1131 1.1530 1.1941 1.2366 1.2804 1.3028 1.3600 1.4195 1.4815 1.5462 20°C 1.0072 1.0163 1.0345 1.0715 1.1096 1.1490 1.1898 1.2320 1.2756 1.2979 1.3548 1.4141 1.4759 1.5404 40°C 1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0640 1.1013 1.1399 1.1801 1.2219 1.2652 1.2873 1.3440 1.4029 1.4644 1.5285 60°C 0.9919 1.0005 1.0180 1.0538 1.0906 1.1290 1.1690 1.2106 1.2538 1.2759 1.3324 1.3913 1.4528 1.5169 80°C 0.9803 .9889 1.0063 1.0418 1.0786 1.1170 1.1570 1.1986 1.2418 1.2640 1.3206 1.3795 1.4408 1.5048 100°C 0.9670 .9756 .9951 1.0291 1.0663 1.1049 1.1451 1.1869 1.2301 1.2522 1.3089 1.3678 1.4290 1.4928 TABLE 2-77 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 0°C 1.00654 1.01326 1.02677 1.05419 1.08221 Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) 10°C 1.00615 1.01262 1.02566 1.05226 1.07963 20°C 1.00447 1.01075 1.02344 1.04940 1.07620 1.10392 1.13261 1.16233 40°C 0.99825 1.00430 1.01652 1.04152 1.06740 1.09432 1.12240 1.15175 60°C 0.9890 .9949 1.0068 1.0313 1.0567 1.0831 1.1106 1.1391 80°C 0.9776 .9834 .9951 1.0192 1.0442 1.0703 1.0974 1.1256 100°C 0.9641 .9699 .9816 1.0056 1.0304 1.0562 1.0831 1.1110

TABLE 2-71 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 0°C 1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0768 1.1160 1.1562 1.1977 1.2405 1.2846 1.3071 1.3646 1.4244 1.4867 1.5517

TABLE 2-78 Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7) % 1 2 4 6 8 10 d4
20

TABLE 2-79 Potassium Sulfate (K2SO4) % 1 2 4 6 8 10 d4
20

TABLE 2-72 Potassium Chromate (K2Cr O4) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 d4
15

TABLE 2-73 (KClO3) °C 0 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 1% 1.0061 1.0059 1.0045 1.0020 0.9986 .9895 .9781 .9646

Potassium Chlorate 2% 1.0124 1.0122 1.0109 1.0085 1.0051 0.9959 .9845 .9709 3% 1.0189 1.0187 1.0174 1.0151 1.0116 1.0024 0.9910 .9774 4% 1.0256 1.0254 1.0241 1.0218 1.0183 1.0091 0.9977 .9840

d4

18

1.0052 1.0122 1.0264 1.0408 1.0554 1.0703

1.0063 1.0145 1.0310 1.0477 1.0646 1.0817

1.0073 1.0155 1.0321 1.0659 1.1009

1.0066 1.0147 1.0311 1.0647 1.0999 1.1366 1.1748 1.2147 1.2566 1.2784

TABLE 2-80 Potassium Sulfite (K2SO3) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26 d4
15

TABLE 2-81 Sodium Acetate (NaC2H3O2) % 1 2 4 8 12 18 20 26 28 d4
20

TABLE 2-74 % 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0 20.0 24.0 28.0 0°C 1.00661 1.01335 1.02690 1.05431 1.08222 1.11068 1.13973

Potassium Chloride (KCl) 20°C 1.00462 1.01103 1.02391 1.05003 1.07679 1.10434 1.13280 1.16226 110°C 0.9733 .9978 1.0388 25°C 1.00342 1.00977 1.02255 1.04847 1.07506 1.10245 1.13072 1.15995 40°C 0.99847 1.00471 1.01727 1.04278 1.06897 1.09600 1.12399 1.15299 1.18304 60°C 0.9894 .9956 1.0080 1.0333 1.0592 1.0861 1.1138 1.1425 1.1723 130°C 0.9583 .9827 1.0238 80°C 0.9780 .9842 .9966 1.0219 1.0478 1.0746 1.1024 1.1311 1.1609 100°C 0.9646 .9708 .9634 1.0888 1.0350 1.0619 1.0897 1.1185 1.1483

1.0073 1.0155 1.0322 1.0667 1.1026 1.1402 1.1793 1.2197 1.2404

1.0033 1.0084 1.0186 1.0392 1.0598 1.0807 1.1021 1.1351 1.1462

TABLE 2-82 Sodium Arsenate (Na3AsO4) % 1 2 4 8 10 12 d4
17

TABLE 2-83 Sodium Bichromate (Na2Cr2O7) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 d4
15

% 3.79 7.45 13.62

120°C 0.9663 .9899 1.0313

140°C 0.9502 .9745 1.0159

1.0097 1.0207 1.0431 1.0892 1.1130 1.1373

TABLE 2-75 Potassium Chrome Alum [K2Cr2(SO4)4] % 1 2 6 10 14 20 30 40 50 d 15 4 1.007 1.016 1.052 1.089 1.129 1.193 1.315 1.456 1.615

TABLE 2-76 Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) % 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 51.7 d 15 4 1.0083 1.0175 1.0359 1.0544 1.0730 1.0918 1.1396 1.1884 1.2387 1.2905 1.3440 1.3991 1.4558 1.5143 1.5355 (sat’d. soln.) TABLE 2-84 Sodium Bromide (NaBr) % 1 2 4 8 10 12 20 30 40 d4
17

1.006 1.013 1.027 1.056 1.084 1.112 1.140 1.166 1.193 1.207 1.244 1.279 1.312 1.342

TABLE 2-85 Sodium Formate (HCOONa) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 d4
25

1.0060 1.0139 1.0298 1.0631 1.0803 1.0981 1.1745 1.2841 1.4138

1.003 1.009 1.022 1.048 1.074 1.100 1.127 1.155 1.184 1.199 1.236 1.274

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-86 % 1 2 4 8 12 14 16 18 20 24 28 30 0°C 1.0109 1.0219 1.0439 1.0878 1.1319 1.1543 Sodium Carbonate (Na2CO3) 10°C 1.0103 1.0210 1.0423 1.0850 1.1284 1.1506 20°C 1.0086 1.0190 1.0398 1.0816 1.1244 1.1463 30°C 1.0058 1.0159 1.0363 1.0775 1.1200 1.1417 1.1636 1.1859 1.2086 1.2552 1.3031 1.3274 40°C 1.0022 1.0122 1.0323 1.0732 1.1150 1.1365 60°C 0.9929 1.0027 1.0223 1.0625 1.1039 1.1251 80°C 0.9814 .9910 1.0105 1.0503 1.0914 1.1125 100°C 0.9683 .9782 .9980 1.0380 1.0787 1.0996 TABLE 2-90 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 50 0°C 1.0124 1.0244 1.0482 1.0943 1.1399 1.1849 1.2296 1.2741 1.3182 1.3614 1.4030 1.4435 1.4825 1.5210 1.5400 Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 15°C 1.01065 1.02198 1.04441 1.08887 1.13327 1.17761 1.22183 1.26582 1.3094 1.3520 1.3933 1.4334 1.4720 1.5102 1.5290 20°C 1.0095 1.0207 1.0428 1.0869 1.1309 1.1751 1.2191 1.2629 1.3064 1.3490 1.3900 1.4300 1.4685 1.5065 1.5253 40°C 1.0033 1.0139 1.0352 1.0780 1.1210 1.1645 1.2079 1.2512 1.2942 1.3362 1.3768 1.4164 1.4545 1.4922 1.5109 60°C 0.9941 1.0045 1.0254 1.0676 1.1101 1.1531 1.1960 1.2388 1.2814 1.3232 1.3634 1.4027 1.4405 1.4781 1.4967 80°C 0.9824 .9929 1.0139 1.0560 1.0983 1.1408 1.1833 1.2259 1.2682 1.3097 1.3498 1.3889 1.4266 1.4641 1.4827

2-105

100°C 0.9693 .9797 1.0009 1.0432 1.0855 1.1277 1.1700 1.2124 1.2546 1.2960 1.3360 1.3750 1.4127 1.4503 1.4690

TABLE 2-87 % 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Sodium Chlorate (NaClO3) d4
18

% 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34

d4

18

1.0053 1.0121 1.0258 1.0397 1.0538 1.0681 1.0827 1.0977 1.1131

1.1288 1.1449 1.1614 1.1782 1.1953 1.2128 1.2307 1.2491 1.2680

TABLE 2-91 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 0°C 1.0071 1.0144 1.0290 1.0587 1.0891 1.1203 1.1526 1.1860 1.2204 1.2380 1.2834 1.3316

Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) 20°C 1.0049 1.0117 1.0254 1.0532 1.0819 1.1118 1.1429 1.1752 1.2085 1.2256 1.2701 1.3175 1.3683 40°C 0.9986 1.0050 1.0180 1.0447 1.0724 1.1013 1.1314 1.1629 1.1955 1.2122 1.2560 1.3027 1.3528 60°C 0.9894 .9956 1.0082 1.0340 1.0609 1.0892 1.1187 1.1496 1.1816 1.1980 1.2413 1.2875 1.3371 80°C 0.9779 .9840 .9964 1.0218 1.0481 1.0757 1.1048 1.1351 1.1667 1.1830 1.2258 1.2715 1.3206 100°C 0.9644 .9704 .9826 1.0078 1.0340 1.0614 1.0901 1.1200 1.1513 1.1674 1.2100 1.2555 1.3044

TABLE 2-88 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26 0°C 1.00747 1.01509 1.03038 1.06121 1.09244 1.12419 1.15663 1.18999 1.20709

Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 10°C 1.00707 1.01442 1.02920 1.05907 1.08946 1.12056 1.15254 1.18557 1.20254 25°C 1.00409 1.01112 1.02530 1.05412 1.08365 1.11401 1.14533 1.17776 1.19443 40°C 0.99908 1.00593 1.01977 1.04798 1.07699 1.10688 1.13774 1.16971 1.18614 60°C 0.9900 .9967 1.0103 1.0381 1.0667 1.0962 1.1268 1.1584 1.1747 80°C 0.9785 .9852 .9988 1.0264 1.0549 1.0842 1.1146 1.1463 1.1626 100°C 0.9651 .9719 .9855 1.0134 1.0420 1.0713 1.1017 1.1331 1.1492

TABLE 2-89 Sodium Chromate (Na2CrO4) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 26 d4
18

TABLE 2-92 Sodium Nitrite (NaNO2) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 d4
15

1.0074 1.0164 1.0344 1.0718 1.1110 1.1518 1.1942 1.2383 1.2611

1.0058 1.0125 1.0260 1.0535 1.0816 1.1103 1.1394

TABLE 2-93

Sodium Silicates Concentration, % 1 2 1.014 1.014 1.016 1.016 1.017 4 1.030 1.030 1.034 1.035 1.036 8 1.063 1.065 1.071 1.073 1.077 10 1.080 1.083 1.090 1.093 1.098 14 d4 1.006 1.006 1.007 1.007 1.007 1.116 1.120 1.130 1.134 1.141 20
20

24 1.211 1.222 1.247 1.259

30 1.275 1.290 1.309 1.321 1.337

36

40

45

50

Formula Na2O/3.9SiO2 Na2O/3.36SiO2 Na2O/2.40SiO2 Na2O/2.44SiO2 Na2O/2.06SiO2 Na2O/1.69SiO2

1.172 1.179 1.200 1.210

1.365 1.387 1.397 1.424 1.445 1.450 1.520 1.594

2-106

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-94 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 0°C 1.0094 1.0189 1.0381 1.0773 1.1174 1.1585 1.2008 1.2443 Sodium Sulfate (Na2SO4) 20°C 1.0073 1.0164 1.0348 1.0724 1.1109 1.1586 1.1915 1.2336 30°C 1.0046 1.0135 1.0315 1.0682 1.1062 1.1456 1.1865 1.2292 40°C 1.0010 1.0098 1.0276 1.0639 1.1015 1.1406 1.1813 1.2237 60°C 0.9919 1.0007 1.0184 1.0544 1.0915 1.1299 1.1696 80°C 0.9805 .9892 1.0068 1.0426 1.0795 1.1176 1.1569 100°C 0.9671 .9758 .9934 1.0292 1.0661 1.1042

TABLE 2-95 Sodium Sulfide (Na2S) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 18 d 18 4 1.0098 1.0211 1.0440 1.0907 1.1388 1.1885 1.2140

TABLE 2-96 Sodium Sulfite (Na2SO3) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 18 d 19 4 1.0078 1.0172 1.0363 1.0751 1.1146 1.1549 1.1755

TABLE 2-97 Sodium Thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 d 20 4 1.0065 1.0148 1.0315 1.0654 1.1003 1.1365 1.1740 1.2128 1.2532 1.2739 1.3273 1.3827

TABLE 2-98 Sodium Thiosulfate Pentahydrate (Na2S2O3⋅5H2O) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 40 50 d 19 4 1.0052 1.0105 1.0211 1.0423 1.0639 1.0863 1.1087 1.1322 1.1558 1.1676 1.2297 1.2954

TABLE 2-99 Stannic Chloride (SnCl4) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 d 15 4 1.007 1.015 1.031 1.064 1.099 1.135 1.173 1.212 1.255 1.278 1.337 1.403 1.475 1.555 1.644 1.742 1.851 1.971

TABLE 2-100 Stannous Chloride (SnCl2) % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 d 15 4 1.0068 1.0146 1.0306 1.0638 1.0986 1.1353 1.1743 1.2159 1.2603 1.2837 1.3461 1.4145 1.4897 1.5729 1.6656 1.7695 1.8865

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS INORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-101 % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 0°C 1.0074 1.0147 1.0219 1.0291 1.0364 1.0437 1.0511 1.0585 1.0660 1.0735 1.0810 1.0886 1.0962 1.1039 1.1116 1.1194 1.1272 1.1351 1.1430 1.1510 1.1590 1.1670 1.1751 1.1832 1.1914 1.1996 1.2078 1.2160 1.2243 1.2326 1.2409 1.2493 1.2577 1.2661 1.2746 1.2831 1.2917 1.3004 1.3091 1.3179 1.3268 1.3357 1.3447 1.3538 1.3630 1.3724 1.3819 1.3915 1.4012 1.4110 1.4209 1.4310 1.4412 1.4515 1.4619 1.4724 1.4830 1.4937 1.5045 1.5154 1.5264 1.5375 1.5487 1.5600 Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) 10°C 1.0068 1.0138 1.0206 1.0275 1.0344 1.0414 1.0485 1.0556 1.0628 1.0700 1.0773 1.0846 1.0920 1.0994 1.1069 1.1145 1.1221 1.1298 1.1375 1.1453 1.1531 1.1609 1.1688 1.1768 1.1848 1.1929 1.2010 1.2091 1.2173 1.2255 1.2338 1.2421 1.2504 1.2588 1.2672 1.2757 1.2843 1.2929 1.3016 1.3103 1.3191 1.3280 1.3370 1.3461 1.3553 1.3646 1.3740 1.3835 1.3931 1.4029 1.4128 1.4228 1.4329 1.4431 1.4535 1.4640 1.4746 1.4852 1.4959 1.5067 1.5177 1.5287 1.5398 1.5510 15°C 1.0060 1.0129 1.0197 1.0264 1.0332 1.0400 1.0469 1.0539 1.0610 1.0681 1.0753 1.0825 1.0898 1.0971 1.1045 1.1120 1.1195 1.1271 1.1347 1.1424 1.1501 1.1579 1.1657 1.1736 1.1816 1.1896 1.1976 1.2057 1.2138 1.2220 1.2302 1.2385 1.2468 1.2552 1.2636 1.2720 1.2805 1.2891 1.2978 1.3065 1.3153 1.3242 1.3332 1.3423 1.3515 1.3608 1.3702 1.3797 1.3893 1.3990 1.4088 1.4188 1.4289 1.4391 1.4494 1.4598 1.4703 1.4809 1.4916 1.5024 1.5133 1.5243 1.5354 1.5465 20°C 1.0051 1.0118 1.0184 1.0250 1.0317 1.0385 1.0453 1.0522 1.0591 1.0661 1.0731 1.0802 1.0874 1.0947 1.1020 1.1094 1.1168 1.1243 1.1318 1.1394 1.1471 1.1548 1.1626 1.1704 1.1783 1.1862 1.1942 1.2023 1.2104 1.2185 1.2267 1.2349 1.2432 1.2515 1.2599 1.2684 1.2769 1.2855 1.2941 1.3028 1.3116 1.3205 1.3294 1.3384 1.3476 1.3569 1.3663 1.3758 1.3854 1.3951 1.4049 1.4148 1.4248 1.4350 1.4453 1.4557 1.4662 1.4768 1.4875 1.4983 1.5091 1.5200 1.5310 1.5421 25°C 1.0038 1.0104 1.0169 1.0234 1.0300 1.0367 1.0434 1.0502 1.0571 1.0640 1.0710 1.0780 1.0851 1.0922 1.0994 1.1067 1.1141 1.1215 1.1290 1.1365 1.1441 1.1517 1.1594 1.1672 1.1750 1.1829 1.1909 1.1989 1.2069 1.2150 1.2232 1.2314 1.2396 1.2479 1.2563 1.2647 1.2732 1.2818 1.2904 1.2991 1.3079 1.3167 1.3256 1.3346 1.3437 1.3530 1.3624 1.3719 1.3814 1.3911 1.4009 1.4109 1.4209 1.4310 1.4412 1.4516 1.4621 1.4726 1.4832 1.4940 1.5048 1.5157 1.5267 1.5378 30°C 1.0022 1.0087 1.0152 1.0216 1.0281 1.0347 1.0414 1.0481 1.0549 1.0617 1.0686 1.0756 1.0826 1.0897 1.0968 1.1040 1.1113 1.1187 1.1261 1.1335 1.1410 1.1486 1.1563 1.1640 1.1718 1.1796 1.1875 1.1955 1.2035 1.2115 1.2196 1.2278 1.2360 1.2443 1.2526 1.2610 1.2695 1.2780 1.2866 1.2953 1.3041 1.3129 1.3218 1.3308 1.3399 1.3492 1.3586 1.3680 1.3775 1.3872 1.3970 1.4069 1.4169 1.4270 1.4372 1.4475 1.4580 1.4685 1.4791 1.4898 1.5006 1.5115 1.5225 1.5335 40°C 0.9986 1.0050 1.0113 1.0176 1.0240 1.0305 1.0371 1.0437 1.0503 1.0570 1.0637 1.0705 1.0774 1.0844 1.0914 1.0985 1.1057 1.1129 1.1202 1.1275 1.1349 1.1424 1.1500 1.1576 1.1653 1.1730 1.1808 1.1887 1.1966 1.2046 1.2126 1.2207 1.2289 1.2371 1.2454 1.2538 1.2622 1.2707 1.2793 1.2880 1.2967 1.3055 1.3144 1.3234 1.3325 1.3417 1.3510 1.3604 1.3699 1.3795 1.3893 1.3991 1.4091 1.4191 1.4293 1.4396 1.4500 1.4604 1.4709 1.4816 1.4923 1.5031 1.5140 1.5250 50°C 0.9944 1.0006 1.0067 1.0129 1.0192 1.0256 1.0321 1.0386 1.0451 1.0517 1.0584 1.0651 1.0719 1.0788 1.0857 1.0927 1.0998 1.1070 1.1142 1.1215 1.1288 1.1362 1.1437 1.1512 1.1588 1.1665 1.1742 1.1820 1.1898 1.1977 1.2057 1.2137 1.2218 1.2300 1.2383 1.2466 1.2550 1.2635 1.2720 1.2806 1.2893 1.2981 1.3070 1.3160 1.3251 1.3343 1.3435 1.3528 1.3623 1.3719 1.3816 1.3914 1.4013 1.4113 1.4214 1.4317 1.4420 1.4524 1.4629 1.4735 1.4842 1.4950 1.5058 1.5167 60°C 0.9895 .9956 1.0017 1.0078 1.0140 1.0203 1.0266 1.0330 1.0395 1.0460 1.0526 1.0593 1.0661 1.0729 1.0798 1.0868 1.0938 1.1009 1.1081 1.1153 1.1226 1.1299 1.1373 1.1448 1.1523 1.1599 1.1676 1.1753 1.1831 1.1909 1.1988 1.2068 1.2148 1.2229 1.2311 1.2394 1.2477 1.2561 1.2646 1.2732 1.2819 1.2907 1.2996 1.3086 1.3177 1.3269 1.3362 1.3455 1.3549 1.3644 1.3740 1.3837 1.3936 1.4036 1.4137 1.4239 1.4342 1.4446 1.4551 1.4656 1.4762 1.4869 1.4977 1.5086 80°C 0.9779 .9839 .9900 .9961 1.0022 1.0084 1.0146 1.0209 1.0273 1.0338 1.0403 1.0469 1.0536 1.0603 1.0671 1.0740 1.0809 1.0879 1.0950 1.1021 1.1093 1.1166 1.1239 1.1313 1.1388 1.1463 1.1539 1.1616 1.1693 1.1771 1.1849 1.1928 1.2008 1.2088 1.2169 1.2251 1.2334 1.2418 1.2503 1.2589 1.2675 1.2762 1.2850 1.2939 1.3029 1.3120 1.3212 1.3305 1.3399 1.3494 1.3590 1.3687 1.3785 1.3884 1.3984 1.4085 1.4187 1.4290 1.4393 1.4497 1.4602 1.4708 1.4815 1.4923

2-107

100°C 0.9645 .9705 .9766 .9827 .9888 .9950 1.0013 1.0076 1.0140 1.0204 1.0269 1.0335 1.0402 1.0469 1.0537 1.0605 1.0674 1.0744 1.0814 1.0885 1.0957 1.1029 1.1102 1.1176 1.1250 1.1325 1.1400 1.1476 1.1553 1.1630 1.1708 1.1787 1.1866 1.1946 1.2027 1.2109 1.2192 1.2276 1.2361 1.2446 1.2532 1.2619 1.2707 1.2796 1.2886 1.2976 1.3067 1.3159 1.3253 1.3348 1.3444 1.3540 1.3637 1.3735 1.3834 1.3934 1.4035 1.4137 1.4240 1.4344 1.4449 1.4554 1.4660 1.4766

2-108

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) (Concluded ) 10°C 1.5623 1.5736 1.5850 1.5965 1.6081 1.6198 1.6315 1.6433 1.6551 1.6670 1.6789 1.6908 1.7026 1.7144 1.7261 1.7376 1.7489 1.7599 1.7704 1.7804 1.7897 1.7983 1.8061 1.8132 1.8195 1.8252 1.8302 1.8346 1.8384 1.8415 1.8439 1.8457 1.8466 1.8463 1.8445 1.8409 % 0.005 .01 .02 .03 .04 .05 .06 .07 .08 .09 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 15°C 1.5578 1.5691 1.5805 1.5920 1.6035 1.6151 1.6268 1.6385 1.6503 1.6622 1.6740 1.6858 1.6976 1.7093 1.7209 1.7323 1.7435 1.7544 1.7649 1.7748 1.7841 1.7927 1.8006 1.8077 1.8141 1.8198 1.8248 1.8293 1.8331 1.8363 1.8388 1.8406 1.8414 1.8411 1.8393 1.8357 20°C 1.5533 1.5646 1.5760 1.5874 1.5989 1.6105 1.6221 1.6338 1.6456 1.6574 1.6692 1.6810 1.6927 1.7043 1.7158 1.7272 1.7383 1.7491 1.7594 1.7693 1.7786 1.7872 1.7951 1.8022 1.8087 1.8144 1.8195 1.8240 1.8279 1.8312 1.8337 1.8355 1.8364 1.8361 1.8342 1.8305 d 5.96 4 1.000 0140 1.000 0576 1.000 1434 1.000 2276 1.000 3104 1.000 3920 1.000 4726 1.000 5523 1.000 6313 1.000 7098 1.000 7880 1.001 1732 1.001 5514 1.001 9254 1.002 2961 1.002 6639 1.003 0292 1.003 3923 1.003 7534 25°C 1.5490 1.5602 1.5715 1.5829 1.5944 1.6059 1.6175 1.6292 1.6409 1.6526 1.6644 1.6761 1.6878 1.6994 1.7108 1.7221 1.7331 1.7437 1.7540 1.7639 1.7732 1.7818 1.7897 1.7968 1.8033 1.8091 1.8142 1.8188 1.8227 1.8260 1.8286 1.8305 1.8314 1.8310 1.8292 1.8255 % 0.05 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 30°C 1.5446 1.5558 1.5671 1.5785 1.5899 1.6014 1.6130 1.6246 1.6363 1.6480 1.6597 1.6713 1.6829 1.6944 1.7058 1.7170 1.7279 1.7385 1.7487 1.7585 1.7678 1.7763 1.7842 1.7914 1.7979 1.8038 1.8090 1.8136 1.8176 1.8210 1.8236 1.8255 1.8264 1.8261 1.8242 1.8205 40°C 1.5361 1.5472 1.5584 1.5697 1.5811 1.5925 1.6040 1.6155 1.6271 1.6387 1.6503 1.6619 1.6734 1.6847 1.6959 1.7069 1.7177 1.7281 1.7382 1.7479 1.7571 1.7657 1.7736 1.7809 1.7874 1.7933 1.7986 1.8033 1.8074 1.8109 1.8137 1.8157 1.8166 1.8163 1.8145 1.8107 d 13.00 4 0.999 810 1.000 185 1.000 912 1.001 623 1.002 326 1.003 023 1.003 716 1.005 090 1.006 452 1.007 807 1.009 159 1.010 510 1.011 860 1.013 209 1.014 557 1.015 904 50°C 1.5277 1.5388 1.5499 1.5611 1.5724 1.5838 1.5952 1.6067 1.6182 1.6297 1.6412 1.6526 1.6640 1.6751 1.6862 1.6971 1.7077 1.7180 1.7279 1.7375 1.7466 1.7552 1.7632 1.7705 1.7770 1.7829 1.7883 1.7932 1.7974 1.8011 1.8040 1.8060 1.8071 1.8068 1.8050 1.8013 60°C 1.5195 1.5305 1.5416 1.5528 1.5640 1.5753 1.5867 1.5981 1.6095 1.6209 1.6322 1.6435 1.6547 1.6657 1.6766 1.6873 1.6978 1.7080 1.7179 1.7274 1.7364 1.7449 1.7529 1.7602 1.7669 1.7729 1.7783 1.7832 1.7876 1.7914 1.7944 1.7965 1.7977 1.7976 1.7958 1.7922 d 18.00 4 0.999 028 .999 400 1.000 119 1.000 820 1.001 512 1.002 197 1.002 877 1.004 227 1.005 570 1.006 909 1.008 247 1.009 583 1.010 918 1.012 252 1.013 586 1.014 919 80°C 1.5031 1.5140 1.5249 1.5359 1.5470 1.5582 1.5694 1.5806 1.5919 1.6031 1.6142 1.6252 1.6361 1.6469 1.6575 1.6680 1.6782 1.6882 1.6979 1.7072 1.7161 1.7245 1.7324 1.7397 1.7464 1.7525 1.7581 1.7633 1.7681 100°C 1.4873 1.4981 1.5089 1.5198 1.5307 1.5417 1.5527 1.5637 1.5747 1.5857 1.5966 1.6074 1.6181 1.6286 1.6390 1.6493 1.6594 1.6692 1.6787 1.6878 1.6966 1.7050 1.7129 1.7202 1.7269 1.7331 1.7388 1.7439 1.7485

TABLE 2-101 % 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C

1.5714 1.5828 1.5943 1.6059 1.6176 1.6293 1.6411 1.6529 1.6648 1.6768 1.6888 1.7008 1.7128 1.7247 1.7365 1.7482 1.7597 1.7709 1.7815 1.7916 1.8009 1.8095 1.8173 1.8243 1.8306 1.8361 1.8410 1.8453 1.8490 1.8520 1.8544 1.8560 1.8569 1.8567 1.8551 1.8517

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-102 % 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 60 65 0°C 1.0188 1.0381 1.0777 1.1186 1.1609 1.2043 1.3288 1.477 1.661 1.891 2.026 Zinc Bromide (ZnBr2) 20°C 1.0167 1.0354 1.0738 1.1135 1.1544 1.1965 1.3170 1.462 1.643 1.869 2.002 40°C 1.0102 1.0285 1.0660 1.1046 1.1445 1.1855 1.3030 1.445 1.623 1.845 1.976 60°C 1.0008 1.0187 1.0554 1.0932 1.1320 1.1720 1.2868 1.427 1.602 1.822 1.951 80°C 0.9890 1.0065 1.0422 1.0789 1.1169 1.1560 1.2688 1.406 1.579 1.797 1.924 100°C 0.9751 0.9921 1.0270 1.0629 1.1000 1.1382 1.2489 1.385 1.555 1.771 1.898 TABLE 2-104 [Zn(NO3)2] % 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18°C 1.0154 1.0322 1.0496 1.0675 1.0859 1.1048 1.1244 1.1445 Zinc Nitrate % 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 18°C 1.1652 1.1865 1.2427 1.3029 1.3678 1.4378 1.5134 1.5944 TABLE 2-105 (ZnSO4) % 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

2-109

Zinc Sulfate 20°C 1.019 1.0403 1.0620 1.0842 1.1071 1.1308 1.1553 1.1806

TABLE 2-103 % 2 4 8 12 16 20 30 40 50 60 70 0°C 1.0192 1.0384 1.0769 1.1159 1.1558 1.1970 1.3062 1.4329 1.5860

Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) 20°C 1.0167 1.0350 1.0715 1.1085 1.1468 1.1866 1.2928 1.4173 1.5681 1.749 1.962 40°C 1.0099 1.0274 1.0624 1.0980 1.1350 1.1736 1.2778 1.4003 1.5495 60°C 1.0003 1.0172 1.0508 1.0853 1.1212 1.1590 1.2614 1.3824 1.5300 80°C 0.9882 1.0044 1.0369 1.0704 1.1055 1.1428 1.2438 1.3637 1.5097 100°C 0.9739 .9894 1.0211 1.0541 1.0888 1.1255 1.2252 1.3441 1.4892

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS*
UNITS AND UNITS CONVERSIONS Unless otherwise noted, densities are given in grams per cubic centimeter. To convert to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32
TABLE 2-106 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 0°C 0.9999 1.0028 1.0059 1.0090 1.0120 1.0150 1.0179 1.0207 1.0237 1.0266 1.0295 1.0324 1.0351 1.0379 1.0407 1.0435 1.0463 1.0491 1.0518 1.0545 1.0571 1.0598 1.0625 1.0652 1.0679 Formic Acid (HCOOH) 20°C 0.9982 1.0019 1.0044 1.0070 1.0093 1.0115 1.0141 1.0170 1.0196 1.0221 1.0246 1.0271 1.0296 1.0321 1.0345 1.0370 1.0393 1.0417 1.0441 1.0464 1.0488 1.0512 1.0537 1.0561 1.0585 30°C 0.9957 0.9980 1.0004 1.0028 1.0053 1.0075 1.0101 1.0125 1.0149 1.0173 1.0197 1.0221 1.0244 1.0267 1.0290 1.0313 1.0336 1.0358 1.0381 1.0404 1.0427 1.0451 1.0473 1.0496 1.0518 % 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 0°C 1.0706 1.0733 1.0760 1.0787 1.0813 1.0839 1.0866 1.0891 1.0916 1.0941 1.0966 1.0993 1.1018 1.1043 1.1069 1.1095 1.1122 1.1148 1.1174 1.1199 1.1224 1.1249 1.1274 1.1299 1.1324 15°C 1.0627 1.0652 1.0678 1.0702 1.0726 1.0750 1.0774 1.0798 1.0821 1.0844 1.0867 1.0892 1.0916 1.0940 1.0964 1.0988 1.1012 1.1036 1.1060 1.1084 1.1109 1.1133 1.1156 1.1179 1.1202 20°C 1.0609 1.0633 1.0656 1.0681 1.0705 1.0729 1.0753 1.0777 1.0800 1.0823 1.0847 1.0871 1.0895 1.0919 1.0940 1.0963 1.0990 1.1015 1.1038 1.1062 1.1085 1.1108 1.1130 1.1157 1.1185 30°C 1.0540 1.0564 1.0587 1.0609 1.0632 1.0654 1.0676 1.0699 1.0721 1.0743 1.0766 1.0788 1.0810 1.0832 1.0854 1.0876 1.0898 1.0920 1.0943 1.0965 1.0987 1.1009 1.1031 1.1053 1.1076 % 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 0°C 1.1349 1.1374 1.1399 1.1424 1.1448 1.1472 1.1497 1.1523 1.1548 1.1573 1.1597 1.1621 1.1645 1.1669 1.1694 1.1718 1.1742 1.1766 1.1790 1.1813 1.1835 1.1858 1.1882 1.1906 1.1929 15°C 1.1225 1.1248 1.1271 1.1294 1.1318 1.1341 1.1365 1.1388 1.1411 1.1434 1.1458 1.1481 1.1504 1.1526 1.1549 1.1572 1.1595 1.1618 1.1640 1.1663 1.1685 1.1707 1.1729 1.1751 1.1773 20°C 1.1207 1.1223 1.1244 1.1269 1.1295 1.1320 1.1342 1.1361 1.1381 1.1401 1.1424 1.1448 1.1473 1.1493 1.1517 1.1543 1.1565 1.1584 1.1604 1.1628 1.1655 1.1677 1.1702 1.1728 1.1752 30°C 1.1098 1.1120 1.1142 1.1164 1.1186 1.1208 1.1230 1.1253 1.1274 1.1295 1.1317 1.1338 1.1360 1.1382 1.1403 1.1425 1.1446 1.1467 1.1489 1.1510 1.1531 1.1552 1.1573 1.1595 1.1615 % 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C 1.1953 1.1976 1.1999 1.2021 1.2043 1.2065 1.2088 1.2110 1.2132 1.2154 1.2176 1.2196 1.2217 1.2237 1.2258 1.2278 1.2297 1.2316 1.2335 1.2354 1.2372 1.2390 1.2408 1.2425 1.2441 1.2456 15°C 1.1794 1.1816 1.1837 1.1859 1.1881 1.1902 1.1924 1.1944 1.1965 1.1985 1.2005 1.2025 1.2045 1.2064 1.2084 1.2102 1.2121 1.2139 1.2157 1.2174 1.2191 1.2208 1.2224 1.2240 1.2257 1.2273 20°C 1.1769 1.1785 1.1801 1.1818 1.1837 1.1806 1.1876 1.1896 1.1914 1.1929 1.1953 1.1976 1.1994 1.2012 1.2028 1.2044 1.2059 1.2078 1.2099 1.2117 1.2140 1.2158 1.2170 1.2183 1.2202 1.2212 30°C 1.1636 1.1656 1.1676 1.1697 1.1717 1.1737 1.1758 1.1778 1.1798 1.1817 1.1837 1.1856 1.1875 1.1893 1.1910 1.1927 1.1945 1.1961 1.1978 1.1994 1.2008 1.2022 1.2036 1.2048 1.2061 1.2073

From International Critical Tables, vol. 3, pp. 115–129. All compositions are in weight percent in vacuo. All density values are d4t = g/mL in vacuo.
*For gasoline and aircraft fuels see Hibbard, NACA Res. Mem. E56I21 (declassified 1958).

15°C 0.9991 1.0019 1.0045 1.0072 1.0100 1.0124 1.0151 1.0177 1.0204 1.0230 1.0256 1.0281 1.0306 1.0330 1.0355 1.0380 1.0405 1.0430 1.0455 1.0480 1.0505 1.0532 1.0556 1.0580 1.0604

2-110

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) 10°C 0.9997 1.0013 1.0029 1.0044 1.0060 1.0076 1.0092 1.0108 1.0124 1.0140 1.0156 1.0171 1.0187 1.0202 1.0217 1.0232 1.0247 1.0262 1.0276 1.0291 1.0305 1.0319 1.0333 1.0347 1.0361 1.0375 1.0388 1.0401 1.0414 1.0427 1.0440 1.0453 1.0465 1.0477 1.0489 1.0501 1.0513 1.0524 1.0535 1.0546 1.0557 1.0568 1.0578 1.0588 1.0598 1.0608 1.0618 1.0627 1.0636 1.0645 15°C 0.9991 1.0006 1.0021 1.0036 1.0051 1.0066 1.0081 1.0096 1.0111 1.0126 1.0141 1.0155 1.0170 1.0184 1.0199 1.0213 1.0227 1.0241 1.0255 1.0269 1.0283 1.0297 1.0310 1.0323 1.0336 1.0349 1.0362 1.0374 1.0386 1.0399 1.0411 1.0423 1.0435 1.0446 1.0458 1.0469 1.0480 1.0491 1.0501 1.0512 1.0522 1.0532 1.0542 1.0551 1.0561 1.0570 1.0579 1.0588 1.0597 1.0605 20°C 0.9982 .9996 1.0012 1.0025 1.0040 1.0055 1.0069 1.0083 1.0097 1.0111 1.0125 1.0139 1.0154 1.0168 1.0182 1.0195 1.0209 1.0223 1.0236 1.0250 1.0263 1.0276 1.0288 1.0301 1.0313 1.0326 1.0338 1.0349 1.0361 1.0372 1.0384 1.0395 1.0406 1.0417 1.0428 1.0438 1.0449 1.0459 1.0469 1.0479 1.0488 1.0498 1.0507 1.0516 1.0525 1.0534 1.0542 1.0551 1.0559 1.0567 25°C 0.9971 .9987 1.0000 1.0013 1.0027 1.0041 1.0055 1.0068 1.0081 1.0094 1.0107 1.0120 1.0133 1.0146 1.0159 1.0172 1.0185 1.0198 1.0210 1.0223 1.0235 1.0248 1.0260 1.0272 1.0283 1.0295 1.0307 1.0318 1.0329 1.0340 1.0350 1.0361 1.0372 1.0382 1.0392 1.0402 1.0412 1.0422 1.0432 1.0441 1.0450 1.0460 1.0469 1.0477 1.0486 1.0495 1.0503 1.0511 1.0518 1.0526 30°C 0.9957 .9971 .9984 .9997 1.0011 1.0024 1.0037 1.0050 1.0063 1.0076 1.0089 1.0102 1.0115 1.0127 1.0139 1.0151 1.0163 1.0175 1.0187 1.0198 1.0210 1.0222 1.0233 1.0244 1.0256 1.0267 1.0278 1.0289 1.0299 1.0310 1.0320 1.0330 1.0341 1.0351 1.0361 1.0371 1.0380 1.0390 1.0399 1.0408 1.0416 1.0425 1.0433 1.0441 1.0449 1.0456 1.0464 1.0471 1.0479 1.0486 40°C 0.9922 .9934 .9946 .9958 .9970 .9982 .9994 1.0006 1.0018 1.0030 1.0042 1.0054 1.0065 1.0077 1.0088 1.0099 1.0110 1.0121 1.0132 1.0142 1.0153 1.0164 1.0174 1.0185 1.0195 1.0205 1.0215 1.0225 1.0234 1.0244 1.0253 1.0262 1.0272 1.0281 1.0289 1.0298 1.0306 1.0314 1.0322 1.0330 1.0338 1.0346 1.0353 1.0361 1.0368 1.0375 1.0382 1.0389 1.0395 1.0402 % 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C 1.0729 1.0738 1.0748 1.0757 1.0765 1.0774 1.0782 1.0790 1.0798 1.0805 1.0813 1.0820 1.0826 1.0833 1.0838 1.0844 1.0850 1.0856 1.0860 1.0865 1.0869 1.0874 1.0877 1.0881 1.0884 1.0887 1.0889 1.0891 1.0893 1.0894 1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0895 1.0893 1.0891 1.0887 1.0883 1.0877 1.0872 1.0865 1.0857 1.0848 1.0838 1.0826 1.0813 1.0798 1.0780 1.0759 1.0730 1.0697 10°C 1.0654 1.0663 1.0671 1.0679 1.0687 1.0694 1.0701 1.0708 1.0715 1.0722 1.0728 1.0734 1.0740 1.0746 1.0752 1.0757 1.0762 1.0767 1.0771 1.0775 1.0779 1.0783 1.0786 1.0789 1.0792 1.0794 1.0796 1.0797 1.0798 1.0798 1.0798 1.0797 1.0796 1.0795 1.0793 1.0790 1.0787 1.0783 1.0778 1.0773 1.0766 1.0758 1.0749 1.0739 1.0727 1.0714 15°C 1.0613 1.0622 1.0629 1.0637 1.0644 1.0651 1.0658 1.0665 1.0672 1.0678 1.0684 1.0690 1.0696 1.0701 1.0706 1.0711 1.0716 1.0720 1.0725 1.0729 1.0732 1.0736 1.0738 1.0741 1.0743 1.0745 1.0746 1.0747 1.0747 1.0747 1.0747 1.0745 1.0743 1.0741 1.0738 1.0735 1.0731 1.0726 1.0721 1.0715 1.0708 1.0700 1.0690 1.0680 1.0667 1.0652 1.0632 1.0611 1.0590 1.0567 1.0545 20°C 1.0575 1.0582 1.0590 1.0597 1.0604 1.0611 1.0618 1.0624 1.0631 1.0637 1.0642 1.0648 1.0653 1.0658 1.0662 1.0666 1.0671 1.0675 1.0678 1.0682 1.0685 1.0687 1.0690 1.0693 1.0694 1.0696 1.0698 1.0699 1.0700 1.0700 1.0700 1.0699 1.0698 1.0696 1.0693 1.0689 1.0685 1.0680 1.0675 1.0668 1.0661 1.0652 1.0643 1.0632 1.0619 1.0605 1.0588 1.0570 1.0549 1.0524 1.0498 25°C 1.0534 1.0542 1.0549 1.0555 1.0562 1.0568 1.0574 1.0580 1.0586 1.0592 1.0597 1.0602 1.0607 1.0612 1.0616 1.0621 1.0624 1.0628 1.0631 1.0634 1.0637 1.0640 1.0642 1.0644 1.0645 1.0647 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648 1.0648 1.0647 1.0646 1.0644 1.0642 1.0638 1.0635 1.0630 1.0626 1.0620 1.0613 1.0605 1.0597 1.0587 1.0577 1.0564 1.0551 1.0535 1.0516 1.0495 1.0468 1.0440 30°C 1.0492 1.0499 1.0506 1.0512 1.0518 1.0525 1.0531 1.0536 1.0542 1.0547 1.0552 1.0557 1.0562 1.0566 1.0571 1.0575 1.0578 1.0582 1.0585 1.0588 1.0590 1.0592 1.0594 1.0595 1.0596 1.0597 1.0598 1.0598 1.0598 1.0597 1.0596 1.0594 1.0592 1.0589 1.0585 1.0582 1.0576 1.0571 1.0564 1.0557 1.0549 1.0541 1.0530 1.0518 1.0506 1.0491 1.0473 1.0454 1.0431 1.0407 1.0380 40°C 1.0408 1.0414 1.0421 1.0427 1.0432 1.0438 1.0443 1.0448 1.0453 1.0458 1.0462 1.0466 1.0470 1.0473 1.0477 1.0480 1.0483 1.0486 1.0489 1.0491 1.0493 1.0495 1.0496 1.0497 1.0498 1.0499 1.0499 1.0499 1.0498 1.0497 1.0495 1.0493 1.0490 1.0487 1.0483 1.0479 1.0473 1.0467 1.0460 1.0453 1.0445 1.0436 1.0426 1.0414 1.0401 1.0386 1.0368 1.0348 1.0325 1.0299 1.0271

TABLE 2-107 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 0°C 0.9999 1.0016 1.0033 1.0051 1.0070 1.0088 1.0106 1.0124 1.0142 1.0159 1.0177 1.0194 1.0211 1.0228 1.0245 1.0262 1.0278 1.0295 1.0311 1.0327 1.0343 1.0358 1.0374 1.0389 1.0404 1.0419 1.0434 1.0449 1.0463 1.0477 1.0491 1.0505 1.0519 1.0532 1.0545 1.0558 1.0571 1.0584 1.0596 1.0608 1.0621 1.0633 1.0644 1.0656 1.0667 1.0679 1.0689 1.0699 1.0709 1.0720

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-108 % 1 2 4 Oxalic Acid (H2C2O4) d 17.5 4 1.0035 1.0070 1.0140 % 8 10 12 d 17.5 4 1.0280 1.0350 1.0420

2-111

TABLE 2-109 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 0°C 0.9999 .9981 .9963 .9946 .9930 .9914 .9899 .9884 .9870 .9856 .9842 .9829 .9816 .9804 .9792 .9780 .9769 .9758 .9747 .9736 .9725 .9714 .9702 .9690 .9678 .9666 .9654 .9642 .9629 .9616 .9604 .9590 .9576 .9563 .9549

Methyl Alcohol (CH3OH)* 15.56°C 0.9990 .9973 .9955 .9938 .9921 .9904 .9889 .9872 .9857 .9841 .9826 .9811 .9796 .9781 .9766 .9752 .9738 .9723 .9709 .9695 .9680 .9666 .9652 .9638 .9624 .9609 .9595 .9580 .9565 .9550 .9535 .9521 .9505 .9489 .9473 20°C 0.9982 .9965 .9948 .9931 .9914 .9896 .9880 .9863 .9847 .9831 .9815 .9799 .9784 .9768 .9754 .9740 .9725 .9710 .9696 .9681 .9666 .9651 .9636 .9622 .9607 .9592 .9576 .9562 .9546 .9531 .9515 .9499 .9483 .9466 .9450 15°C 0.99913 .99727 .99543 .99370 .99198 .99029 .98864 .98701 .98547 .98394 .98241 .98093 .97945 .97802 .97660 .97518 .97377 .97237 .97096 .96955 .96814 .96673 .96533 .96392 .96251 .96108 .95963 .95817 .95668 .95518 .95366 .95213 .95056 .94896 .94734 % 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 0°C 0.9534 .9520 .9505 .9490 .9475 .9459 .9443 .9427 .9411 .9395 .9377 .9360 .9342 .9324 .9306 .9287 .9269 .9250 .9230 .9211 .9191 .9172 .9151 .9131 .9111 .9090 .9068 .9046 .9024 .9002 .8980 .8958 .8935 .8913 .8891 10°C 0.9484 .9469 .9453 .9437 .9420 .9403 .9387 .9370 .9352 .9334 .9316 .9298 .9279 .9260 .9240 .9221 .9202 .9182 .9162 .9142 .9122 .9101 .9080 .9060 .9039 .9018 .8998 .8977 .8955 .8933 .8911 .8888 .8865 .8842 .8818 15.56°C 0.9456 .9440 .9422 .9405 .9387 .9369 .9351 .9333 .9315 .9297 .9279 .9261 .9242 .9223 .9204 .9185 .9166 .9146 .9126 .9106 .9086 .9065 .9045 .9024 .9002 .8980 .8958 .8936 .8913 .8890 .8867 .8844 .8820 .8797 .8771 20°C 0.9433 .9416 .9398 .9381 .9363 .9345 .9327 .9309 .9290 .9272 .9252 .9234 .9214 .9196 .9176 .9156 .9135 .9114 .9094 .9073 .9052 .9032 .9010 .8988 .8968 .8946 .8924 .8902 .8879 .8856 .8834 .8811 .8787 .8763 .8738 15°C 0.94570 .94404 .94237 .94067 .93894 .93720 .93543 .93365 .93185 .93001 .92815 .92627 .92436 .92242 .92048 .91852 .91653 .91451 .91248 .91044 .90839 .90631 .90421 .90210 .89996 .89781 .89563 .89341 .89117 .88890 .88662 .88433 .88203 .87971 .87739 % 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C 0.8869 .8847 .8824 .8801 .8778 .8754 .8729 .8705 .8680 .8657 .8634 .8610 .8585 .8560 .8535 .8510 .8483 .8456 .8428 .8400 .8374 .8347 .8320 .8293 .8266 .8240 .8212 .8186 .8158 .8130 .8102 10°C 0.8794 .8770 .8747 .8724 .8699 .8676 .8651 .8626 .8602 .8577 .8551 .8527 .8501 .8475 .8449 .8422 .8394 .8367 .8340 .8314 .8287 .8261 .8234 .8208 .8180 .8152 .8124 .8096 .8068 .8040 .8009 15.56°C 0.8748 .8726 .8702 .8678 .8653 .8629 .8604 .8579 .8554 .8529 .8503 .8478 .8452 .8426 .8400 .8374 .8347 .8320 .8294 .8267 .8239 .8212 .8185 .8157 .8129 .8101 .8073 .8045 .8016 .7987 .7959 20°C 0.8715 .8690 .8665 .8641 .8616 .8592 .8567 .8542 .8518 .8494 .8469 .8446 .8420 .8394 .8366 .8340 .8314 .8286 .8258 .8230 .8202 .8174 .8146 .8118 .8090 .8062 .8034 .8005 .7976 .7948 .7917 15°C 0.87507 .87271 .87033 .86792 .86546 .86300 .86051 .85801 .85551 .85300 .85048 .84794 .84536 .84274 .84009 .83742 .83475 .83207 .82937 .82667 .82396 .82124 .81849 .81568 .81285 .80999 .80713 .80428 .80143 .79859 .79577

10°C 0.9997 .9980 .9962 .9945 .9929 .9912 .9896 .9881 .9865 .9849 .9834 .9820 .9805 .9791 .9778 .9764 .9751 .9739 .9726 .9713 .9700 .9687 .9673 .9660 .9646 .9632 .9618 .9604 .9590 .9575 .9560 .9546 .9531 .9516 .9500

*It should be noted that the values for 100 percent do not agree with some data available elsewhere, e.g., American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957. Also, see Atack, Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957.

2-112

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Ethyl Alcohol (C2H5OH)* 15°C 0.99913 725 542 365 195 032 .98877 729 584 442 304 171 041 .97914 790 669 552 433 313 191 068 .96944 818 689 558 424 287 144 .95996 844 686 524 357 186 011 .94832 650 464 273 079 .93882 682 478 271 062 .92852 640 426 211 .91995 20°C 0.99823 636 453 275 103 .98938 780 627 478 331 187 047 .97910 775 643 514 387 259 129 .96997 864 729 592 453 312 168 020 .95867 710 548 382 212 038 .94860 679 494 306 114 .93919 720 518 314 107 .92897 685 472 257 041 .91823 604 25°C 0.99708 520 336 157 .98984 817 656 500 346 193 043 .97897 753 611 472 334 199 062 .96923 782 639 495 348 199 048 .95895 738 576 410 241 067 .94890 709 525 337 146 .93952 756 556 353 148 .92940 729 516 301 085 .91868 649 429 208 30°C 0.99568 379 194 014 .98839 670 507 347 189 031 .97875 723 573 424 278 133 .96990 844 697 547 395 242 087 .95929 769 607 442 272 098 .94922 741 557 370 180 .93986 790 591 390 186 .92979 770 558 344 128 .91910 692 472 250 028 .90805 35°C 0.99406 217 031 .98849 672 501 335 172 009 .97846 685 527 371 216 063 .96911 760 607 452 294 134 .95973 809 643 476 306 133 .94955 774 590 403 214 021 .93825 626 425 221 016 .92808 597 385 170 .91952 733 513 291 069 .90845 621 396 40°C 0.99225 034 .98846 663 485 311 142 .97975 808 641 475 312 150 .96989 829 670 512 352 189 023 .95856 687 516 343 168 .94991 810 625 438 248 055 .93860 662 461 257 051 .92843 634 422 208 .91992 774 554 332 108 .90884 660 434 207 .89979 % 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 10°C 0.92126 .91943 723 502 279 055 .90831 607 381 154 .89927 698 468 237 006 .88774 541 308 074 .87839 602 365 127 .86888 648 408 168 .85927 685 442 197 .84950 702 453 203 .83951 697 441 181 .82919 654 386 114 .81839 561 278 .80991 698 399 094 .79784 15°C 0.91776 555 333 110 .90885 659 433 207 .89980 752 523 293 062 .88830 597 364 130 .87895 660 424 187 .86949 710 470 229 .85988 747 505 262 018 .84772 525 277 028 .83777 525 271 014 .82754 492 227 .81959 688 413 134 .80852 566 274 .79975 670 360 20°C 0.91384 160 .90936 711 485 258 031 .89803 574 344 113 .88882 650 417 183 .87948 713 477 241 004 .86766 527 287 047 .85806 564 322 079 .84835 590 344 096 .83848 599 348 095 .82840 583 323 062 .81797 529 257 .80983 705 424 138 .79846 547 243 .78934 25°C 0.90985 760 534 307 079 .89850 621 392 162 .88931 699 446 233 .87998 763 527 291 054 .86817 579 340 100 .85859 618 376 134 .84891 647 403 158 .83911 664 415 164 .82913 660 405 148 .81888 626 362 094 .80823 549 272 .79991 706 415 117 .78814 506 30°C 0.90580 353 125 .89896 667 437 206 .88975 744 512 278 044 .87809 574 337 100 .86863 625 387 148 .85908 667 426 184 .84941 698 455 211 .83966 720 473 224 .82974 724 473 220 .81965 708 448 186 .80922 655 384 111 .79835 555 271 .78981 684 382 075 35°C 0.90168 .89940 710 479 248 016 .88784 552 319 085 .87851 615 379 142 .86905 667 429 190 .85950 710 470 228 .84986 743 500 257 013 .83768 523 277 029 .82780 530 279 027 .81774 519 262 003 .80742 478 211 .79941 669 393 114 .78831 542 247 .77946 641 40°C 0.89750 519 288 056 .88823 589 356 122 .87888 653 417 180 .86943 705 466 227 .85987 747 407 266 025 .84783 540 297 053 .83809 564 319 074 .82827 578 329 079 .81828 576 322 067 .80811 552 291 028 .79761 491 220 .78947 670 388 100 .77806 507 203

TABLE 2-110 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 10°C 0.99973 785 602 426 258 098 .98946 801 660 524 393 267 145 026 .97911 800 692 583 473 363 252 139 024 .96907 787 665 539 406 268 125 .95977 823 665 502 334 162 .94986 805 620 431 238 042 .93842 639 433 226 017 .92806 593 379

*For data from −78° to 78°C, see p. 2-142, Table 2N-5, American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-111 % alcohol by weight 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 Densities of Mixtures of C2H5OH and H2O at 20°C g /mL Tenths of % 0 0.99823 636 453 275 103 .98938 780 627 478 331 187 047 .97910 775 643 514 387 259 129 .96997 864 729 592 453 312 168 020 .95867 710 548 382 212 038 .94860 679 494 306 114 .93919 720 518 314 107 .92897 685 472 257 041 .91823 604 1 804 618 435 257 087 922 765 612 463 316 172 033 896 761 630 501 374 246 116 984 850 716 578 439 297 153 005 851 694 532 365 195 020 842 660 475 287 095 899 700 498 294 086 876 664 450 236 019 801 582 2 785 599 417 240 070 906 749 597 449 301 158 019 883 748 617 488 361 233 103 971 837 702 564 425 283 139 *990 836 678 516 349 178 003 824 642 456 268 075 879 680 478 273 065 855 642 429 214 *997 780 560 3 766 581 399 222 053 890 734 582 434 287 144 006 869 735 604 475 349 220 089 957 823 688 551 411 269 124 *975 820 662 499 332 161 *985 806 624 438 249 056 859 660 458 253 044 834 621 408 193 *976 758 538 4 748 562 381 205 037 874 718 567 419 273 130 *992 855 722 591 462 336 207 076 944 810 675 537 396 254 109 *959 805 646 483 315 143 *967 788 605 419 230 036 840 640 437 232 023 812 600 386 171 *954 736 516 5 729 544 363 188 020 859 703 553 404 258 117 *978 842 709 578 450 323 194 063 931 796 661 523 382 240 094 *944 789 630 466 298 126 *950 770 587 400 211 017 820 620 417 212 002 791 579 365 150 *932 714 494 6 710 525 345 171 003 843 688 538 389 244 103 *964 828 696 565 438 310 181 050 917 783 647 509 368 225 080 *929 773 613 450 281 108 *932 752 568 382 192 *997 800 599 396 191 *981 770 557 343 128 *910 692 472 7 692 507 327 154 *987 827 673 523 374 229 089 *951 815 683 552 425 297 168 037 904 769 634 495 354 211 065 *914 757 597 433 264 091 *914 734 550 363 172 *978 780 579 376 170 *960 749 536 322 106 *889 670 450 8 9 673 655 489 471 310 292 137 120 *971 *954 811 658 508 360 215 796 642 493 345 201 % alcohol by weight 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 *Indicates change in the first two decimal places. Tenths of % 0 0.91384 160 .90936 711 485 258 031 .89803 574 344 113 .88882 650 417 183 .87948 713 477 241 004 .86766 527 287 047 .85806 564 322 079 .84835 590 344 096 .83848 599 348 095 .82840 583 323 062 .81797 529 257 .80983 705 424 138 .79846 547 243 .78934 1 361 138 914 689 463 236 008 780 551 321 090 859 626 393 160 925 689 454 218 *981 742 503 263 022 781 540 297 055 811 566 319 072 823 574 323 070 815 557 297 035 770 502 230 955 677 395 109 816 517 213 2 339 116 891 666 440 213 *985 757 528 298 067 836 603 370 136 901 666 430 194 *957 718 479 239 *998 757 515 273 031 787 541 294 047 798 549 297 044 789 531 271 009 744 475 203 928 649 367 080 787 487 182 3 317 093 869 644 417 190 *962 734 505 275 044 812 580 347 113 878 642 406 170 *933 694 455 215 *974 733 4 295 071 846 621 395 167 *939 711 482 252 021 789 557 323 089 854 619 383 147 *909 671 431 191 *950 709 5 272 049 824 598 372 145 *917 688 459 229 *998 766 533 300 066 831 595 359 123 *885 647 407 167 *926 685 6 250 026 801 576 349 122 *894 665 436 206 *975 743 510 277 042 807 572 336 099 *862 623 383 143 *902 661 7

2-113

8

9

228 206 183 004 *981 *959 779 756 734 553 531 508 327 304 281 099 076 054 *871 *848 *825 643 620 597 413 390 367 183 160 137 *951 *928 *905 720 696 673 487 463 440 253 230 206 019 *995 *972 784 760 737 548 524 501 312 288 265 075 052 028 *838 *814 *790 599 575 551 339 335 311 119 095 071 *878 *854 *830 636 612 588

075 061 *937 *923 801 788 670 657 539 526 412 284 155 024 891 756 620 481 340 196 400 272 142 010 877 742 606 467 326 182

050 035 *898 *883 742 726 581 565 416 400 247 230 074 056 *896 *878 715 697 531 512 344 325 153 134 *958 *939 760 740 559 539 356 335 149 129 *939 *918 728 707 515 493 300 279 085 063 *867 *845 648 626 428 406

491 467 443 419 394 370 346 249 225 200 176 152 128 103 006 *982 *958 *933 *909 *884 *860 762 738 713 689 664 640 615 517 492 467 443 418 393 369 270 022 773 523 272 019 763 505 245 *983 717 448 175 900 621 338 051 757 456 151 245 *997 748 498 247 *994 738 479 219 *956 690 421 148 872 593 220 *972 723 473 222 *968 712 453 193 *930 664 394 120 844 565 196 *947 698 448 196 *943 686 427 167 *903 637 366 093 817 537 171 146 121 *923 *898 *873 674 649 624 423 398 373 171 146 120 *917 *892 *866 660 635 609 401 375 349 140 114 088 *877 *850 *824 610 339 066 789 509 583 312 038 761 480 556 285 010 733 452

310 281 253 224 195 166 022 *993 *963 *934 *905 *875 727 698 668 638 608 578 426 396 365 335 305 274 120 089 059 028 *997 *966

2-114

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Specific Gravity (60°/60°F [(15.56°/15.56°C)]) of Mixtures by Volume of C2H5OH and H2O % alcohol by volume at 60°F 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

TABLE 2-112 % alcohol by volume at 60°F 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Tenths of % 0 1 2 *970 820 674 531 391 255 124 *997 875 755 637 521 408 297 190 083 977 875 774 674 576 476 375 272 168 063 957 848 738 625 511 394 271 144 015 881 742 599 452 302 147 *988 825 660 490 316 138 956 771 581 3 *955 806 659 516 378 242 111 *984 863 743 625 509 396 286 179 072 967 864 764 664 566 466 365 262 158 052 946 837 727 614 499 382 259 132 002 867 728 585 437 286 131 *972 809 643 473 298 120 938 752 562 4 *940 791 645 502 364 228 098 *972 851 731 614 498 385 275 168 062 956 854 754 654 556 456 354 252 147 042 935 826 715 603 488 370 246 119 *988 854 714 570 423 271 115 *956 792 626 455 281 102 920 733 543 5 *925 776 630 488 350 215 085 *960 838 720 602 487 374 264 157 051 946 844 744 645 546 446 344 241 137 031 924 815 704 591 476 358 234 106 *975 840 700 556 408 256 100 *940 776 609 438 263 084 901 714 523 6 *910 761 616 474 336 202 073 *947 826 708 590 475 363 254 147 040 936 834 734 635 536 436 334 231 126 020 914 804 693 580 464 346 221 093 *962 826 685 541 393 240 084 *923 759 592 421 245 066 883 695 504 7 *895 747 602 460 323 189 060 *935 814 696 579 464 352 243 136 030 925 824 724 625 526 425 324 221 116 010 903 793 682 568 453 334 209 080 *948 812 671 526 378 225 068 *907 743 575 403 228 048 864 676 485 8 *880 732 587 446 309 9 865 717 573 432 296 1.00000 *985 0.99850 835 703 688 559 545 419 405 282 150 022 .98899 779 661 544 430 319 210 104 .97998 895 794 694 596 496 395 293 189 084 .96978 870 760 648 534 418 296 170 041 .95908 770 628 482 332 178 020 .94858 693 524 351 174 .93993 808 619 269 137 009 887 767 649 532 419 308 200 093 988 885 784 684 586 486 385 283 179 073 967 859 749 637 522 406 284 157 028 894 756 614 467 317 162 004 842 676 507 334 156 975 789 600

Tenths of % 0 0.93426 230 031 .92830 626 419 210 .91999 784 565 344 120 .90893 664 434 202 .89967 729 489 245 .88999 751 499 244 .87987 728 465 199 .86929 656 380 100 .85817 531 240 .84944 642 336 025 .83707 382 049 .82705 351 .81984 603 206 .80792 356 .79889 389 1 407 210 011 810 605 398 189 978 762 543 322 097 870 641 411 179 943 705 465 220 974 725 474 218 961 702 439 172 902 629 352 072 789 502 211 914 612 305 *994 675 349 015 670 315 947 564 165 750 311 841 2 387 190 *991 789 585 377 168 956 741 521 299 075 847 618 388 155 920 681 441 196 950 700 448 193 935 676 412 145 875 601 324 044 760 473 181 884 581 274 *962 643 315 *981 635 279 909 525 125 707 265 792 3 368 171 *971 769 564 357 147 935 719 499 277 052 825 595 365 132 896 657 416 171 925 675 423 167 910 650 386 118 847 574 296 015 732 444 152 854 551 243 *930 610 282 *947 600 243 871 486 084 664 219 743 4 348 151 *951 749 544 336 126 914 697 477 255 030 802 572 341 108 872 633 392 147 900 650 397 141 884 623 359 092 820 546 269 *987 703 415 122 824 520 212 *899 578 249 *913 565 206 834 446 042 620 173 693 5 328 131 *931 728 523 315 105 892 675 455 232 007 779 549 318 085 848 609 368 122 875 625 372 116 858 597 332 065 793 518 241 *959 674 386 093 794 490 181 *867 545 216 *879 529 170 796 407 001 577 127 643 6 309 111 *911 708 502 294 084 871 653 433 210 *984 756 526 295 061 825 585 343 098 850 600 346 090 832 571 306 038 766 491 213 *931 646 357 063 764 459 150 *835 513 183 *845 494 133 757 367 *960 533 080 593 7 8 9 289 270 250 091 071 051 *890 *870 *850 688 667 647 482 461 440 273 062 849 631 410 252 041 827 610 388 231 020 806 588 366

176 163 047 035 *923 *911 803 791 684 672 567 452 341 232 125 019 915 814 714 615 516 415 313 210 105 556 441 330 221 115 009 905 804 704 605 506 405 303 200 095

188 165 143 *962 *939 *916 733 710 687 503 480 457 272 249 225 038 801 561 319 073 825 574 321 064 806 014 *991 777 753 537 513 295 270 048 024 801 549 296 039 780 776 524 270 013 754

*999 *988 892 881 782 771 671 659 557 546 441 429 321 309 196 183 067 054 *935 *921 798 657 512 362 209 784 643 497 347 194

545 518 492 279 252 226 011 *984 *957 738 711 684 463 435 408 185 157 129 *902 *874 *846 617 588 560 328 299 270 033 004 *974 734 703 673 428 398 367 119 088 056 *803 *771 *739 480 447 415 150 116 083 *810 *776 *741 458 423 387 096 059 022 719 681 642 327 287 247 *918 *876 *834 489 445 401 033 *985 *937 543 492 441

052 036 *891 *875 726 710 558 541 386 369 210 030 845 657 465 192 011 827 638 446

*Indicates change in first two decimal places.

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-113 n-Propyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 0°C 0.9999 .9982 .9967 .9952 .9939 .9926 .9914 .9904 .9894 .9883 .9874 .9865 .9857 .9849 .9841 .9833 .9825 .9817 .9808 .9800 15°C 0.9991 .9974 .9960 .9944 .9929 .9915 .9902 .9890 .9877 .9864 .9852 .9840 .9828 .9817 .9806 .9793 .9780 .9768 .9752 .9739 30°C 0.9957 .9940 .9924 .9908 .9893 .9877 .9862 .9848 .9834 .9819 .9804 .9790 .9775 .9760 .9746 .9730 .9714 .9698 .9680 .9661 % 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 0°C 0.9789 .9776 .9763 .9748 .9733 .9717 .9700 .9682 .9664 .9646 .9627 .9608 .9589 .9570 .9550 .9530 .9511 .9491 .9471 .9450 15°C 0.9723 .9705 .9688 .9670 .9651 .9633 .9614 .9594 .9576 .9556 .9535 .9516 .9495 .9474 .9454 .9434 .9413 .9392 .9372 .9351 30°C 0.9643 .9622 .9602 .9583 .9563 .9543 .9522 .9501 .9481 .9460 .9439 .9418 .9396 .9375 .9354 .9333 .9312 .9289 .9269 .9247 % 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 0°C 0.9430 .9411 .9391 .9371 .9352 .9332 .9311 .9291 .9272 .9252 .9232 .9213 .9192 .9173 .9153 .9132 .9112 .9093 .9073 .9053 15°C 0.9331 .9310 .9290 .9269 .9248 .9228 .9207 .9186 .9165 .9145 .9124 .9104 .9084 .9064 .9044 .9023 .9003 .8983 .8963 .8942 30°C 0.9226 .9205 .9184 .9164 .9143 .9122 .9100 .9079 .9057 .9036 .9015 .8994 .8973 .8952 .8931 .8911 .8890 .8869 .8849 .8828 % 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 0°C 0.9033 .9013 .8994 .8974 .8954 .8934 .8913 .8894 .8874 .8854 .8835 .8815 .8795 .8776 .8756 .8736 .8716 .8695 .8675 .8655 15°C 0.8922 .8902 .8882 .8861 .8841 .8820 .8800 .8779 .8759 .8739 .8719 .8700 .8680 .8659 .8639 .8618 .8598 .8577 .8556 .8536 30°C 0.8807 .8786 .8766 .8745 .8724 .8703 .8682 .8662 .8641 .8620 .8600 .8580 .8559 .8539 .8518 .8497 .8477 .8456 .8435 .8414 % 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C 0.8634 .8614 .8594 .8574 .8554 .8534 .8513 .8492 .8471 .8450 .8429 .8408 .8387 .8364 .8342 .8320 .8296 .8272 .8248 .8222 .8194 15°C 0.8516 .8496 .8475 .8454 .8434 .8413 .8393 .8372 .8351 .8330 .8308 .8287 .8266 .8244 .8221 .8199 .8176 .8153 .8128 .8104 .8077

2-115

30°C 0.8394 .8373 .8352 .8332 .8311 .8290 .8269 .8248 .8227 .8206 .8185 .8164 .8142 .8120 .8098 .8077 .8054 .8031 .8008 .7984 .7958

TABLE 2-114 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 0°C 0.9999 .9980 .9962 .9946 .9930 .9916 .9902 .9890 .9878 .9866 .9856 .9846 .9838 .9829 .9821 .9814 .9806 .9799 .9792 .9784 .9777 .9768 .9759 .9749 .9739 .9727 .9714 .9699 .9684 .9669 .9652 .9634 .9615 .9596 .9577

Isopropyl Alcohol (C3H7OH) 15°C* 0.99913 .9972 .9954 .9936 .9920 .9904 .9890 .9875 .9862 .9849 .98362 .9824 .9812 .9800 .9788 .9777 .9765 .9753 .9741 .9728 .97158 .9703 .9689 .9674 .9659 .9642 .9624 .9605 .9586 .9568 .95493 .9530 .9510 .9489 .9468 20°C 0.9982 .9962 .9944 .9926 .9909 .9893 .9877 .9862 .9847 .9833 .9820 .9808 .9797 .9876 .9776 .9765 .9754 .9743 .9731 .9717 .9703 .9688 .9669 .9651 .9634 .9615 .9597 .9577 .9558 .9540 .9520 .9500 .9481 .9460 .9440 30°C 0.9957 .9939 .9921 .9904 .9887 .9871 .9855 .9839 .9824 .9809 .9794 .9778 .9764 .9750 .9735 .9720 .9705 .9690 .9675 .9658 .9642 .9624 .9606 .9587 .9569 .9549 .9529 .9509 .9488 .9467 .9446 .9426 .9405 .9383 .9361 % 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 0°C 0.9557 .9536 .9514 .9493 .9472 .9450 .9428 .9406 .9384 .9361 .9338 .9315 .9292 .9270 .9247 .9224 .9201 .9178 .9155 .9132 .9109 .9086 .9063 .9040 .9017 .8994 .8970 .8947 .8924 .8901 .8878 .8854 .8831 .8807 .8784 15°C* 15°C* 0.9446 .9424 .9401 .9379 .9356 .93333 .9311 .9288 .9266 .9243 .9220 .9197 .9174 .9150 .9127 .91043 .9081 .9058 .9035 .9011 .8988 .8964 .8940 .8917 .8893 .88690 .8845 .8821 .8798 .8775 .8752 .8728 .8705 .8682 .8658 20°C 0.9419 .9399 .9377 .9355 .9333 .9310 .9287 .9264 .9239 .9215 .9191 .9165 .9141 .9117 .9093 .9069 .9044 .9020 .8996 .8971 .8946 .8921 .8896 .8874 .8850 .8825 .8800 .8776 .8751 .8727 .8702 .8679 .8656 .8632 .8609 30°C 0.9338 .9315 .9292 .9269 .9246 .9224 .9201 .9177 .9154 .9130 .9106 .9082 .9059 .9036 .9013 .8990 .8966 .8943 .8919 .8895 .8871 .8847 .8823 .8800 .8777 .8752 .8728 .8704 .8680 .8656 .8631 .8607 .8583 .8559 .8535 % 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 0°C 0.8761 .8738 .8714 .8691 .8668 .8644 .8621 .8598 .8575 .8551 .8528 .8503 .8479 .8456 .8432 .8408 .8384 .8360 .8336 .8311 .8287 .8262 .8237 .8212 .8186 .8160 .8133 .8106 .8078 .8048 .8016 15°C* 0.8639 .8615 .8592 .8568 .8545 .8521 .8497 .8474 .8450 .8426 .8403 .8379 .8355 .8331 .8307 .8282 .8259 .8234 .8209 .8184 .8161 .8136 .8110 .8085 .8060 .8034 .8008 .7981 .7954 .7926 .7896 15°C* 0.86346 .8611 .8588 .8564 .8541 .8517 .8493 .8470 .8446 .8422 .83979 .8374 .8350 .8326 .8302 .8278 .8254 .8229 .8205 .8180 .81553 .8130 .8104 .8079 .8052 .8026 .7999 .7972 .7945 .7918 .78913 20°C 0.8584 .8560 .8537 .8513 .8489 .8464 .8439 .8415 .8391 .8366 .8342 .8317 .8292 .8268 .8243 .8219 .8194 .8169 .8145 .8120 .8096 .8072 .8047 .8023 .7998 .7973 .7949 .7925 .7901 .7877 .7854 30°C 0.8511 .8487 .8464 .8440 .8416 .8392 .8368 .8344 .8321 .8297 .8273 .8248 .8224 .8200 .8175 .8151 .8127 .8201 .8078 .8053 .8029 .8004 .7979 .7954 .7929 .7904 .7878 .7852 .7826 .7799 .7770

15°C* 0.9991 .9973 .9956 .9938 .9922 .9906 .9892 .9878 .9864 .9851 .9838 .9826 .9813 .9802 .9790 .9779 .9768 .9756 .9745 .9730 .9719 .9704 .9690 .9675 .9660 .9643 .9626 .9608 .9590 .9570 .9551

0.8829 .8805 .8781 .8757 .8733 .8710 .8686 .8662

*Two different observers; see International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 120.

2-116

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Glycerol* Density 15°C 1.26415 1.26160 1.25900 1.25645 1.25385 1.25130 1.24865 1.24600 1.24340 1.24075 1.23810 1.23545 1.23280 1.23015 1.22750 1.22485 1.22220 1.21955 1.21690 1.21425 1.21160 1.20885 1.20610 1.20335 1.20060 1.19785 1.19510 1.19235 1.18965 1.18690 1.18415 1.18135 1.17860 1.17585 1.17305 15.5°C 1.26381 1.26125 1.25865 1.25610 1.25350 1.25095 1.24830 1.24565 1.24305 1.24040 1.23775 1.23510 1.23245 1.22980 1.22710 1.22445 1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21385 1.21120 1.20845 1.20570 1.20300 1.20025 1.19750 1.19480 1.19205 1.18930 1.18655 1.18385 1.18105 1.17830 1.17555 1.17275 20°C 1.26108 1.25850 1.25590 1.25335 1.25080 1.24825 1.24560 1.24300 1.24035 1.23770 1.23510 1.23245 1.22975 1.22710 1.22445 1.22180 1.21915 1.21650 1.21380 1.21115 1.20850 1.20575 1.20305 1.20030 1.19760 1.19485 1.19215 1.18940 1.18670 1.18395 1.18125 1.17850 1.17575 1.17300 1.17025 25°C 1.15802 1.25545 1.25290 1.25030 1.24770 1.24515 1.24250 1.23985 1.23725 1.23460 1.23200 1.22935 1.22665 1.22400 1.22135 1.21870 1.21605 1.21340 1.21075 1.20810 1.20545 1.20275 1.20005 1.19735 1.19465 1.19195 1.18925 1.18650 1.18380 1.18110 1.17840 1.17565 1.17295 1.17020 1.16745 30°C 1.25495 1.25235 1.24975 1.24710 1.24450 1.24190 1.23930 1.23670 1.23410 1.23150 1.22890 1.22625 1.22360 1.22095 1.21830 1.21565 1.21300 1.21035 1.20770 1.20505 1.20240 1.19970 1.19705 1.19435 1.19170 1.18900 1.18635 1.18365 1.18100 1.17830 1.17565 1.17290 1.17020 1.16745 1.16470 Glycerol, % 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 Density 15°C 1.17030 1.16755 1.16480 1.16200 1.15925 1.15650 1.15370 1.15095 1.14815 1.14535 1.14260 1.13980 1.13705 1.13425 1.13150 1.12870 1.12600 1.12325 1.12055 1.11780 1.11510 1.11235 1.10960 1.10690 1.10415 1.10145 1.09875 1.09605 1.09340 1.09070 1.08800 1.08530 1.08265 1.07995 1.07725 15.5°C 1.17000 1.16725 1.16445 1.16170 1.15895 1.15615 1.15340 1.15065 1.14785 1.14510 1.14230 1.13955 1.13680 1.13400 1.13125 1.12845 1.12575 1.12305 1.12030 1.11760 1.11490 1.11215 1.10945 1.10670 1.10400 1.10130 1.09860 1.09590 1.09320 1.09050 1.08780 1.08515 1.08245 1.07975 1.07705 20°C 1.16750 1.16475 1.16205 1.15930 1.15655 1.15380 1.15105 1.14830 1.14555 1.14280 1.14005 1.13730 1.13455 1.13180 1.12905 1.12630 1.12360 1.12090 1.11820 1.11550 1.11280 1.11010 1.10740 1.10470 1.10200 1.09930 1.09665 1.09400 1.09135 1.08865 1.08600 1.08335 1.08070 1.07800 1.07535 25°C 1.16475 1.16200 1.15925 1.15655 1.15380 1.15105 1.14835 1.14560 1.14285 1.14015 1.13740 1.13465 1.13195 1.12920 1.12650 1.12375 1.12110 1.11840 1.11575 1.11310 1.11040 1.10775 1.10510 1.10240 1.09975 1.09710 1.09445 1.09180 1.08915 1.08655 1.08390 1.08125 1.07860 1.07600 1.07335 30°C 1.16195 1.15925 1.15650 1.15375 1.15100 1.14830 1.14555 1.14285 1.14010 1.13740 1.13470 1.13195 1.12925 1.12650 1.12380 1.12110 1.11845 1.11580 1.11320 1.11055 1.10795 1.10530 1.10265 1.10005 1.09740 1.09475 1.09215 1.08955 1.08690 1.08430 1.08165 1.07905 1.07645 1.07380 1.07120 Glycerol, % 15°C 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1.07455 1.07195 1.06935 1.06670 1.06410 1.06150 1.05885 1.05625 1.05365 1.05100 1.04840 1.04590 1.04335 1.04085 1.03835 1.03580 1.03330 1.03080 1.02830 1.02575 1.02325 1.02085 1.01840 1.01600 1.01360 1.01120 1.00875 1.00635 1.00395 1.00155 Density 15.5°C 1.07435 1.07175 1.06915 1.06655 1.06390 1.06130 1.05870 1.05610 1.05350 1.05090 1.04825 1.04575 1.04325 1.04075 1.03825 1.03570 1.03320 1.03070 1.02820 1.02565 1.02315 1.02075 1.01835 1.01590 1.01350 1.01110 1.00870 1.00630 1.00385 1.00145 20°C 1.07270 1.07010 1.06755 1.06495 1.06240 1.05980 1.05720 1.05465 1.05205 1.04950 1.04690 1.04440 1.04195 1.03945 1.03695 1.03450 1.03200 1.02955 1.02705 1.02455 1.02210 1.01970 1.01730 1.01495 1.01255 1.01015 1.00780 1.00540 1.00300 1.00060 25°C 1.07070 1.06815 1.06560 1.06305 1.06055 1.05800 1.05545 1.05290 1.05035 1.04780 1.04525 1.04280 1.04035 1.03790 1.03545 1.03300 1.03055 1.02805 1.02560 1.02315 1.02070 1.01835 1.01600 1.01360 1.01125 1.00890 1.00655 1.00415 1.00180 0.99945 30°C 1.06855 1.06605 1.06355 1.06105 1.05855 1.05605 1.05350 1.05100 1.04850 1.04600 1.04350 1.04105 1.03860 1.03615 1.03370 1.03130 1.02885 1.02640 1.02395 1.02150 1.01905 1.01670 1.01440 1.01205 1.00970 1.00735 1.00505 1.00270 1.00035 0.99800

TABLE 2-115 Glycerol, % 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66

0.99913 0.99905 0.99823 0.99708 0.99568

*Bosart and Snoddy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 20, (1928): 1378.

TABLE 2-116 % 1 2 4 8 12 16 20 24 28

Hydrazine (N2H4) d 15 4 1.0002 1.0013 1.0034 1.0077 1.0121 1.0164 1.0207 1.0248 1.0286 % 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 d 15 4 1.0305 1.038 1.044 1.047 1.046 1.040 1.030 1.011

DENSITIES OF AQUEOUS ORGANIC SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-117 Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds*

2-117

d (resp., dw, ds) = density of the solution (resp., water; resp., the pure liquid solute) in g/mL; ps (resp., pw) = wt % of solute (resp., water) in the solution; range = range of applicability of the equation. Section A Name Acetaldehyde Acetamide Acetone Acetonitrile Allyl alcohol Benzenepentacarboxylic acid Butyl alcohol (n-) Butyric acid (n-) Chloral hydrate Chloroacetic acid Citric acid (hydrate) Dichloroacetic acid Diethylamine hydrochloride Ethylamine hydrochloride Ethylene glycol Ethyl ether tartrate Formaldehyde Formamide Furfural Isoamyl alcohol Isobutyl alcohol Isobutyric acid Isovaleric acid Lactic acid Maleic acid Malic acid Malonic acid Methyl acetate glucoside (α-) Nicotine Nitrophenol (p-) Oxalic acid Formula C2H4O C2H5NO C3H6O C2H3N C3H6O C11H6O10 C4H10O C4H8O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C2H3ClO2 C6H3O7 + H2O C2H2Cl2O2 C4H12ClN C2H8ClN C2H6O2 C4H10O C8H14O6 CH2O CH3NO C5H4O2 C5H12O C4H10O C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O C4H4O4 C4H6O5 C3H4O4 C3H6O2 C7H14O6 C10H14N2 C6H5NO3 C2H2O4 t, °C 18 15 0 4 15 20 25 15 0 25 20 18 25 0 15 30 20 25 18 20 25 21 21 0 15 20 25 15 15 25 20 25 20 15 20 15 18 25 25 25 25 20 25 20 20 0 30 20 15 0 15 17.5 20 25 15 80 25 25 25 18 25 25 18 25 15 17.5 20 30 40 50 60
2 d = d w + Aps + Bp s + Cp3 s

Range, ps 0– 30 0– 6 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0–100 0– 16 0– 89 0– 0.6 0– 7.9 0– 10 0– 62 0– 70 0– 78 0– 90 0– 32 0– 86 0– 50 0– 30 0– 97 0– 36 0– 65 0–100 0– 6 0– 5 0– 4.5 0– 95 0– 40 22– 96 0– 8 0– 8 0– 2.5 0– 8 0– 8 0– 9 0– 9 0– 12 0– 5 0– 9 0– 40 0– 40 0– 40 0– 40 0– 20 26– 51 26– 51 0– 60 0– 1.5 0– 4 0– 4 0– 9 0– 4 0– 4 0– 5 0– 65 0– 11 0– 70 0– 60 0– 10 0– 40 0– 60 0– 52 0– 5.5 0– 15 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50 0– 50

A +0.03255 +0.03639 −0.03856 −0.027648 −0.021009 −0.021233 −0.021171 −0.021175 −0.033729 +0.025615 −0.021651 +0.03414 +0.035135 +0.024489 +0.024455 +0.024401 +0.023648 +0.023602 +0.023824 +0.024427 +0.024427 +0.0334 +0.021193 +0.021483 +0.02133 −0.02221 −0.02221 +0.022367 +0.022518 +0.021217 +0.021827 +0.021664 +0.02155 −0.02146 −0.02169 +0.0352 +0.0345 +0.0337 +0.03253 +0.02231 +0.0234 +0.023933 +0.023736 +0.02389 +0.0340 +0.023336 +0.023151 +0.03642 +0.023216 +0.025898 +0.02494 +0.02494 +0.025264 +0.025108 +0.02111 +0.03462 +0.02207 −0.04386 −0.04683 +0.0395 +0.039245 +0.03229 +0.02201 +0.02304 +0.024482 +0.024455 +0.024432 +0.024335 +0.024265 +0.024205 +0.024155

B −0.0516 +0.04171 −0.05449 −0.041193 −0.059682 −0.053529 −0.05904 −0.042024 −0.041232 −0.02117 +0.04285 +0.04131 −0.04166 +0.042802 +0.042198 +0.041887 +0.05302 +0.05552 +0.041141 +0.05537 +0.05537 +0.0676 −0.05307 +0.052992 −0.05108 +0.0448 +0.0435 +0.05358 −0.05658 +0.053199 +0.05366 +0.0421 +0.043 +0.056 +0.0438

C

−0.07588 +0.08272 −0.08624 −0.075327 −0.0856 +0.072984

+0.0611 −0.071291 +0.074366 +0.076549 +0.0722 +0.0717 +0.077534 +0.077534 −0.0747 −0.075248

−0.076005 +0.06542 −0.072529

Phenol Phenylglycolic acid Picoline (α-) (β-) Propionic acid Pyridine Resorcinol Succinic acid

C6H6O C8H8O3 C6H7N C6H7N C3H6O2 C5H5N C6H6O2 C4H6O4

−0.04282 +0.05186 +0.0575 +0.05957 +0.04175 +0.041066 −0.0574 +0.05996 +0.05975 +0.05454 −0.0455 −0.033185 −0.058 −0.058 −0.031996 −0.031607 −0.04283 −0.0686 +0.0423 −0.051405 −0.0513 −0.04172 −0.0599 −0.05204 +0.05519 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.041837 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185 +0.04185

+0.01544 +0.08978 −0.07687 +0.0441 +0.04254 +0.04208

−0.074167 +0.07361 −0.0828 −0.0819

Tartaric acid (d, l, or dl)

C4H6O6

*From “International Critical Tables,” vol. 3, pp. 111–114.

2-118

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Densities of Aqueous Solutions of Miscellaneous Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Section A Name Formula C8H20ClN CH4N2S C2HCl3O2 C6H16ClN C4H10O CH4N2O C3H7NO2 C5H10O2 Formula C4H10O C4H8O2 C4H10O C4H10O C4H8O2 C10H14N2 C6H7N C6H7N C5H5N C4H10O Formula C3H6O C4H10O C2H3Cl3O2 C7H14O6 C5H4O2 ds 0.8097 0.9534 0.7077 0.8170 0.8055 0.9425 1.0093 0.9404 0.9515 0.9776 0.7856 Section C Name ps 76.60 80.95 2.00 10.00 5.00 10.00 25.00 4.62 5.69 6.56 9.34 21.20 29.50 40.40
2 d = d w + Aps + Bp s + Cp3 (Cont.) s

TABLE 2-117

t, °C 21 15 12.5 20 25 21 20 25 14.8 18 20 25 20 25 Section B t, °C 20 25 25 0 15 26 20 25 25 25 20

Range, ps 0– 63 0– 7 0– 61 10– 30 0– 94 0– 54 0–100 0–100 0– 12 0– 51 0– 35 0– 10 0– 56 0– 3 d = ds + Apw + Bp 2 + Cp 3 w w Range, pw 0–20 0–38 0– 1.1 0–14 0–16 0–80 0–40 0–30 0–40 0–40 0–20 do 0.9122 0.8614 1.0094 1.0476 1.0150 1.0270 1.0665 1.0125 1.0140 1.0155 1.0055 1.0115 1.0145 1.0182

A +0.031884 +0.022995 +0.02499 +0.025053 +0.025051 +0.046 −0.02117 −0.021286 +0.023213 +0.022718 +0.022702 +0.022728 +0.021278 +0.0334 A +0.022103 +0.021854 +0.0234 +0.022437 +0.02224 +0.021808 +0.02199 +0.022715 +0.021925 +0.021157 +0.022287 Range, °C 0–45 0–43 7–80 7–80 15–80 15–80 15–80 22–74 22–74 22–74 11–73 14–73 12–72 9–74

B +0.056 +0.05374 +0.04153 +0.041387 +0.056119 +0.05558 −0.041908 −0.04176 −0.044802 +0.051552 +0.053712 −0.041817 −0.05245 −0.0427 B −0.04113 −0.042314 +0.0336 −0.04285 −0.04129 −0.042358 −0.04331 −0.04393 −0.04352 −0.05536 +0.05275 A −0.038 −0.037292 −0.042597 −0.047955 −0.032103 −0.032116 −0.03401 −0.03232 −0.03221 −0.03211 −0.03171 −0.03378 −0.03463 −0.03605

C +0.07122

Tetraethyl ammonium chloride Thiourea Trichloroacetic acid Triethylamine hydrochloride Trimethyl carbinol Urea Urethane Valeric acid (n-) Name Butyl alcohol (n-) Butyric acid (n-) Ethyl ether Isobutyl alcohol Isobutyric acid Nicotine Picoline (α-) (β-) Pyridine Trimethyl carbinol

+0.061038 −0.0869 +0.07957 +0.07887 +0.051216 +0.072573 −0.072285 +0.051379 −0.073437

C

+0.061253 +0.07315 +0.0625 −0.062

dt = do + At + Bt2 B −0.0527 −0.0675 −0.054313 −0.054253 −0.052544 −0.062929 −0.0523 −0.05254 −0.05268 −0.05290 −0.053615 −0.05248 −0.05235 −0.05167

Allyl alcohol Butyl alcohol (n-) Chloral hydrate Ethyl tartrate Furfural

Pyridine

C5H5N

DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS

2-119

DENSITIES OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS
TABLE 2-118 Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids*
Aver. weight lb/ft 3 165 481 534 509 554 556 262 536 1205 1073 1383 442 450 485 468 437 325 237 315 172 710 465 475 259 849 555 537 1330 656 489 487 481 459 418 1200 440 253 26 39 45 48 15 93 58 28 47 162 161 184 247 20 59 58 44 59 94 48 67 96 125 82 Aver. weight lb/ft 3 44 34 42 44 22 27 30 29 35 32 25 29 48 45 44 43 33 46 54 42 48 34 32 30 38–42 27 27 26 28 62 48 37 28 49 50 75 94 112 95 46 106 58 57 54 62.428 59.830 56 8 64 153 159 153 162 143 147 153 147 156 137 Aver. weight lb/ft 3 130 125 110 128 112 103 112 144 130 100 40–45 94 53–64 103 94–135 196 67–72 98–117 96 49–55 63 110 100 76 95 78 96 108 115 80–85 90 105 90–105 100–120 126 80 90 60 65 70 65 153 281 184 159 159 109 143 137 181 162 175 165 187 159 187 155 170 187 200 172

Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance Metals, Alloys, Ores Aluminum, cast-hammered bronze Brass, cast-rolled Bronze, 7.9 to 14% Sn phosphor Copper, cast-rolled ore, pyrites German silver Gold, cast-hammered coin (U.S.) Iridium Iron, gray cast cast, pig wrought spiegeleisen ferro-silicon ore, hematite ore, limonite ore, magnetite slag Lead ore, galena Manganese ore, pyrolusite Mercury Monel metal, rolled Nickel Platinum, cast-hammered Silver, cast-hammered Steel, cold-drawn machine tool Tin, cast-hammered cassiterite Tungsten Zinc, cast-rolled blende Various Solids Cereals, oats, bulk barley, bulk corn, rye, bulk wheat, bulk Cork Cotton, flax, hemp Fats Flour, loose pressed Glass, common plate or crown crystal dint Hay and straw, bales Leather Paper Potatoes, piled Rubber, caoutchouc goods Salt, granulated, piled Saltpeter Starch Sulfur Wool

Sp. gr. 2.55–2.80 7.7 8.4–8.7 7.4–8.9 8.88 8.8–8.95 4.1–4.3 8.58 19.25–19.35 17.18–17.2 21.78–22.42 7.03–7.13 7.2 7.6–7.9 7.5 6.7–7.3 5.2 3.6–4.0 4.9–5.2 2.5–3.0 11.34 7.3–7.6 7.42 3.7–4.6 13.6 8.97 8.9 21.5 10.4–10.6 7.83 7.80 7.70–7.73 7.2–7.5 6.4–7.0 19.22 6.9–7.2 3.9–4.2 0.51 0.62 0.73 0.77 0.22–0.26 1.47–1.50 0.90–0.97 0.40–0.50 0.70–0.80 2.40–2.80 2.45–2.72 2.90–3.00 3.2–4.7 0.32 0.86–1.02 0.70–1.15 0.67 0.92–0.96 1.0–2.0 0.77 1.07 1.53 1.93–2.07 1.32

Substance Timber, Air-dry Apple Ash, black white Birch, sweet, yellow Cedar, white, red Cherry, wild red Chestnut Cypress Elm, white Fir, Douglas balsam Hemlock Hickory Locust Mahogany Maple, sugar white Oak, chestnut live red, black white Pine, Norway Oregon red Southern white Poplar Redwood, California Spruce, white, red Teak, African Indian Walnut, black Willow Various Liquids Alcohol, ethyl (100%) methyl (100%) Acid, muriatic, 40% nitric, 91% sulfuric, 87% Chloroform Ether Lye, soda, 66% Oils, vegetable mineral, lubricants Turpentine Water, 4°C max. density 100°C ice snow, fresh fallen sea water Ashlar Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone Rubble Masonry Bluestone Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone Marble Sandstone

Sp. gr. 0.66–0.74 0.55 0.64–0.71 0.71–0.72 0.35 0.43 0.48 0.45–0.48 0.56 0.48–0.55 0.40 0.45–0.50 0.74–0.80 0.67–0.77 0.56–0.85 0.68 0.53 0.74 0.87 0.64–0.71 0.77 0.55 0.51 0.48 0.61–0.67 0.43 0.43 0.42 0.45 0.99 0.66–0.88 0.59 0.42–0.50 0.789 0.796 1.20 1.50 1.80 1.500 0.736 1.70 0.91–0.94 0.88–0.94 0.861–0.867 1.0 0.9584 0.88–0.92 0.125 1.02–1.03 2.3–2.6 2.4–2.7 2.1–2.8 2.4–2.8 2.0–2.6 2.2–2.5 2.3–2.6 2.0–2.7 2.3–2.7 1.9–2.5

Substance Dry Rubble Masonry Granite, syenite, gneiss Limestone, marble Sandstone, bluestone Brick Masonry Hard brick Medium brick Soft brick Sand-lime brick Concrete Masonry Cement, stone, sand slag, etc. cinder, etc. Various Building Materials Ashes, cinders Cement, Portland, loose Lime, gypsum, loose Mortar, lime, set Portland cement Portland cement Slags, bank slag bank screenings machine slag slag sand Earth, etc., Excavated Clay, dry damp plastic and gravel, dry Earth, dry, loose dry, packed moist, loose moist, packed mud, flowing mud, packed Riprap, limestone Riprap, sandstone Riprap, shale Sand, gravel, dry, loose gravel, dry, packed gravel, wet Excavations in Water Clay River mud Sand or gravel and clay Soil Stone riprap Minerals Asbestos Barytes Basait Bauxite Bluestone Borax Chalk Clay, marl Dolomite Feldspar, orthoclase Gneiss Granite Greenstone, trap Gypsum, alabaster Hornblende Limestone Marble Magnesite Phosphate rock, apatite Porphyry

Sp. gr. 1.9–2.3 1.9–2.1 1.8–1.9 1.8–2.3 1.6–2.0 1.4–1.9 1.4–2.2 2.2–2.4 1.9–2.3 1.5–1.7 0.64–0.72 1.5 0.85–1.00 1.4–1.9 2.08–2.25 3.1–3.2 1.1–1.2 1.5–1.9 1.5 0.8–0.9 1.0 1.76 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.3–1.4 1.4 1.7 1.4–1.7 1.6–1.9 1.89–2.16 1.28 1.44 0.96 1.00 1.12 1.00 2.1–2.8 4.50 2.7–3.2 2.55 2.5–2.6 1.7–1.8 1.8–2.8 1.8–2.6 2.9 2.5–2.7 2.7–2.9 2.6–2.7 2.8–3.2 2.3–2.8 3.0 2.1–2.86 2.6–2.86 3.0 3.2 2.6–2.9

*From Marks, Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook, McGraw-Hill.

2-120

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Approximate Specific Gravities and Densities of Miscellaneous Solids and Liquids (Concluded )
Aver. weight lb/ft3 40 165 143 171 172 169 165 96 107 95 82 92 Aver. weight lb/ft 3 81 97 84 78 47 23 33 75 135 56 Aver. weight lb/ft3 54 50 46 45 69 75 47–58 40–54 20–26 10–14 23–32

TABLE 2-118

Water at 4°C and normal atmospheric pressure taken as unity. For more detailed data on any material, see the section dealing with the properties of that material.

Substance Minerals (Cont.) Pumice, natural Quartz, flint Sandstone Serpentine Shale, slate Soapstone, talc Syenite Stone, Quarried, Piled Basalt, granite, gneiss Greenstone, hornblende Limestone, marble, quartz Sandstone Shale
NOTE:

Sp. gr. 0.37–0.90 2.5–2.8 2.0–2.6 2.7–2.8 2.6–2.9 2.6–2.8 2.6–2.7 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.5

Substance Bituminous Substances Asphaltum Coal, anthracite bituminous lignite peat, turf, dry charcoal, pine charcoal, oak coke Graphite Paraffin

Sp. gr. 1.1–1.5 1.4–1.8 1.2–1.5 1.1–1.4 0.65–0.85 0.28–0.44 0.47–0.57 1.0–1.4 1.64–2.7 0.87–0.91

Substance Bituminous Substances (Cont.) Petroleum refined (kerosene) benzine gasoline Pitch Tar, bituminous Coal and Coke, Piled Coal, anthracite bituminous, lignite peat, turf charcoal coke

Sp. gr. 0.87 0.78–0.82 0.73–0.75 0.70–0.75 1.07–1.15 1.20 0.75–0.93 0.64–0.87 0.32–0.42 0.16–0.23 0.37–0.51

To convert pounds per cubic foot to kilograms per cubic meter, multiply by 16.02. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32.

TABLE 2-119 Temperature, K* 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
NOTE:

Density (kg/m3) of Selected Elements as a Function of Temperature Element symbol Al 2736 2732 2726 2719 2710 2701 2681 2661 2639 2591 2365 2305 2255 Be† 3650 3640 3630 3620 3610 3600 3580 3555 3530 Cr 7160 7155 7150 7145 7140 7135 7120 7110 7080 7040 7000 6945 6890 6760 6700 Cu 9019 9009 8992 8973 8951 8930 8885 8837 8787 8686 8568 8458 7920 7750 7600 7460 Au 19,490 19,460 19,420 19,380 19,340 19,300 19,210 19,130 19,040 18,860 18,660 18,440 17,230 16,950 Ir 22,600 22,580 22,560 22,540 22,520 22,500 22,450 22,410 22,360 22,250 22,140 22,030 21,920 21,790 21,660 21,510 Fe 7910 7900 7890 7880 7870 7860 7830 7800 7760 7690 7650 7620 7520 7420 7320 7030 Pb 11,570 11,520 11,470 11,430 11,380 11,330 11,230 11,130 11,010 10,430 10,190 9,940 Mo 10,260 10,260 10,250 10,250 10,250 10,240 10,220 10,210 10,190 10,160 10,120 10,080 10,040 10,000 9,950 9,900 Ni 8960 8950 8940 8930 8910 8900 8860 8820 8780 8690 8610 8510 8410 8320 7690 7450 Pt 21,570 21,550 21,530 21,500 21,470 21,450 21,380 21,330 21,270 21,140 21,010 20,870 20,720 20,570 20,400 20,220 Ag 10,620 10,600 10,575 10,550 10,520 10,490 10,430 10,360 10,300 10,160 10,010 9,850 9,170 8,980 Zn† 7280 7260 7230 7200 7170 7135 7070 7000 6935 6430 6260

Above the horizontal line the condensed phase is solid; below the line, it is liquid. *°R = 9⁄ 5 K. †Polycrystalline form tabulated. Similar tables for an additional 45 elements appear in the Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1984.

SOLUBILITIES
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert cubic centimeters to cubic feet, multiply by 3.532 × 10−5. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 0.01934. To convert grams per liter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 6.243 × 10−2.

TABLE 2-120

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures*

This table shows the amount of anhydrous substance that is soluble in 100 g of water at the temperature in degrees Celsius as indicated; when the name is followed by †, the value is expressed in grams of substance in 100 cm3 of saturated solution. Solid phase gives the hydrated form in equilibrium with the saturated solution. Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Aluminum chloride sulfate Ammonium aluminum sulfate bicarbonate bromide chloride chloroplatinate chromate chromium sulfate dichromate dihydrogen phosphite hydrogen phosphate iodide magnesium phosphate manganese phosphate nitrate oxalate perchlorate† persulfate sulfate thiocyanate vanadate (meta) Antimonious fluoride sulfide Arsenic oxide Arsenious sulfide Barium acetate acetate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate hydroxide iodide iodide nitrate nitrite oxalate perchlorate sulfate Beryllium sulfate sulfate sulfate Boric acid Boron oxide Bromine Cadmium chloride chloride chloride cyanide hydroxide sulfate Calcium acetate acetate Formula AlCl3 Al2(SO4)3 (NH4)2Al2(SO4)4 NH4HCO3 NH4Br NH4Cl (NH4)2PtCl6 (NH4)2CrO4 (NH4)2Cr2(SO4)4 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4H2PO3 (NH4)2HPO4 NH4I NH4MgPO4 NH4MnPO4 NH4NO3 (NH4)2C2O4 NH4ClO4† (NH4)2S2O8 (NH4)2SO4 NH4CNS NH4VO3 SbF3 Sb2S3 As2O5 As2S3 Ba(C2H3O2)2 Ba(C2H3O2)2 BaCO3 Ba(ClO3)2 BaCl2 BaCrO4 Ba(OH)2 BaI2 BaI2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba(NO2)2 BaC2O4 Ba(ClO4)2 BaSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 BeSO4 H3BO3 B2O3 Br2 CdCl2 CdCl2 CdCl2 Cd(CN)2 Cd(OH)2 CdSO4 Ca(C2H3O2)2 Ca(C2H3O2)2 Solid phase 6H2O 18H2O 24H2O 0°C 31.2 2.1 11.9 60.6 29.4 10°C 33.5 4.99 15.8 68 33.3 0.7 20°C 69.8615° 36.4 7.74 21 75.5 37.2 10.7825° 171 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O 154.2 0.023 118.3 2.2 11.56 58.2 70.6 119.8 384.7 59.5 5.17×10−5 at 18° 59 62.1 63 0.0016 °
8

30°C 40.4 10.94 27 83.2 41.4 40.4 47.17 26031° 181.4 241.8 5.9 78.0 207.7 0.84 563.6 69.5

40°C 46.1 14.88 91.1 45.8

50°C 52.2 20.10 99.2 50.4

60°C 59.2 26.70 107.8 55.2

70°C 66.1 116.8 60.2

80°C 73.0 126 65.6

90°C 80.8 135.6 71.3

100°C 89.0 109.796° 145.6 77.3 1.25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54

24II2O

163.2

3.1 73.0 144

19014.5° 13115 172.3 0.052 0 192 4.4 20.85 75.4 170 0.48 444.7 0.00017518° 65.8 71 0.0022 °
18

190.5 0.036 0 297.0 8.0 30.58 81.0 1.32 71.2

199.6 0.030 344.0 10.3

208.9 0.040 0 421.0 39.05 88.0

218.7 0.016 0.005 499.0

228.8 0.019 0.007 580.0 48.19 95.3

250.3 740.0 871.0 57.01 103.3

1.78 73.0

3.05 75.1 76.7

3H2O 1H2O 1H2O 2H2O 8H2O 6H2O 2H2O 1H2O 3H2O 6H2O 4H2O 2H2O

20.34 31.6 0.0002 1.67 170.2 5.0

26.95 33.3 0.00028 2.48 185.7 7.0 0.00168°

33.80 35.7 0.00037 3.89 203.1 9.2 67.5 0.002218° 289.1 2.4 × 10−4

75 0.0024 at 24.2° 41.70 38.2 0.00046 5.59 219.6 11.6 0.0024 at 24.2° 2.85 × 10−4 52 43.78 6.60 3.13 132.1

79 49.61 40.7 8.22 231.9 14.2

77

74 66.81 46.4 20.94 247.3 20.3

74 84.84 52.4 101.4 261.0 27.0 205.8 495.2 62 562.3 83 98 30.38

75 104.9 58.8

43.6 13.12 17.1

49.4

271.7 34.2 300

205.8 1.15 × 10−4

2.0 × 10−4

358.7 46.74 8.72 4.0

426.3 60.67 11.54 14.81 6.2

4H2O 2aH2O 1H2O

2.66 1.1 4.22 97.59 90.01

3.57 1.5 3.4 125.1 135.1

5.04 2.2 3.20 134.5 1.715° 76.60 34.7

16.73

84.76 23.75 9.5

100 110 40.25 15.7

135.3 2.6 × 10 at 25° 33.8
−4

136.5

140.4

147.0

2H2O 1H2O

76.48 37.4

76.00 36.0

78.54 33.2

83.68 32.7

63.13 33.5 31.1

60.77 29.7

*By N. A. Lange. Abridged from “Table of Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures” in Lange, Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961. For tables of the solubility of gases in water at various temperatures, Atack (Handbook of Chemical Data, Reinhold, New York, 1957) gives values at closer temperature intervals, usually 1 or 5°C, than are tabulated here. For materials marked by ‡, additional data are given in tables subsequent to this one. For the solubility of various hydrocarbons in water at high pressures see J. Chem. Eng. Data, 4, 212 (1959).

2-121

TABLE 2-120

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Continued )
Formula Ca(HCO3)2 CaCl2 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(OH)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO2)2 Ca(NO2)2 CaC2O4 CaSO4 CO2 CO CsCl CsNO3 Cs2SO4 Cl2 CrO3 CuCl2 Cu(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2 CuSO4 CuS CuCl FeCl3 FeCl2 FeCl2 Fe(NO3)2 FeSO4 FeSO4 HBr HCl I2 Pb(C2H3O2)2 PbBr2 PbCO3 PbCl2 PbCrO4 PbF2 Pb(NO3)2 PbSO4 MgBr2 MgCl2 Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 MgSO4 MgSO4 MgSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 MnSO4 HgCl MoO3 NiCl2 Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2 NiSO4 NiSO4 NO N2O Solid phase 6H2O 2H2O 4H2O 3H2O 4H2O 2H2O 2H2O 0°C 16.15 59.5 0.185 102.0 62.07 6.7 × 10−4 at 13° 0.1928 0.2318 0.0035 174.7 14.9 173.1 0.980 73.76 95.28 17.4 10°C 65.0 0.176 115.3 20°C 16.60 74.5 0.001618° 0.165 129.3 76.68 6.8 × 10−4 at 25° 0.1688 0.0028 186.5 23.0 178.7 0.716 77.0 125.1 20.7 3.3 × 10−5 at 18° 1.5225° 91.8 83.8 26.5 198 0.029 3H2O 0.4554 0.6728 38.8 0.0028 91.0 52.8 66.55 40.8 53.23 30.9 42.2 60.01 59.5 35.5 44.5 62.9 64.5 0.0002 0.138 64.2 96.31 40.8 45.3 67.76 66.44 0.264 68.9 42.46 0.00618 0.1211 0.00517 0.00440 50.15 0.00376 54.80 0.00324 59.44 0.00267 63.17 0.00199 0.00114 76.7 0 0.060 48.3 0.0035 94.5 53.5 0.85 0.00011 0.99 7 × 10−6 0.064 56.5 0.0041 96.5 54.5 0.000918° 67.3 0.04 55.0425° 1.15 1.20 0.068 66 0.0049 99.2 63.3 0.056 1.53 1.45 75 0.0056 101.6 57.5 84.74 45.6 50.4 53.5 59.5 64.2 62.9 9.5 × 10−4 at 50° 0.2090 0.1257 0.0024 197.3 33.9 184.1 0.562 80.34 25 14 × 10−4 at 95° 0.2097 0.0973 0.0021 208.0 47.2 189.9 0.451 174.0 83.8 159.8 28.5 132.6 0.2047 0.0576 0.0015 229.7 83.8 199.9 0.324 91.2 178.8 40 151.9 0.1966 0.0013 239.5 107.0 205.0 0.274 0.0010 250.0 134.0 210.3 0.219 99.2 207.8 55 0.0006 260.1 163.0 214.9 0.125 217.5 244.8 0.1619 0 0 270.5 197.0 220.3 0 206.8 107.9 75.4 30°C 102 0.001726° 0.153 152.6 136.8 0.141 195.9 237.5 0.128 281.5 358.7 363.6 0.116 141.7 0.106 147.0 0.094 152.7 0.085 159 0.077 40°C 17.05 50°C 60°C 17.50 70°C 80°C 17.95 90°C 100°C 18.40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62

Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 Calcium bicarbonate chloride chloride fluoride hydroxide nitrate nitrate nitrate nitrite nitrite oxalate sulfate Carbon dioxide, 760 mm ‡ monoxide, 760 mm ‡ Cesium chloride nitrate sulfate Chlorine, 760 mm ‡ Chromic anhydride Cuprio chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfide Cuprous chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride chloride nitrate sulfate sulfate Hydrobromic acid, 760 mm Hydrochloric acid, 760 mm Iodine Lead acetate bromide carbonate chloride chromate fluoride nitrate sulfate Magnesium bromide chloride hydroxide nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate Manganous sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Mercurous chloride Molybdic oxide Nickel chloride nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate Nitric oxide, 760 mm Nitrous oxide

2H2O 6H2O 3H2O 5H2O

0.1759 0.3346 0.0044 161.4 9.33 167.1 1.46 164.9 70.7 81.8 14.3

0.0761 0.0018 218.5 64.4 194.9 0.386 182.1 87.44 33.3

74.4 4H2O 6H2O 7H2O 1H2O 71.02 15.65 221.2 82.3

81.9 64.5 20.51 210.3

73.0 32.9

77.3 40.2

315.1 82.5 48.6

88.7 165.6 50.9

525.8 100 105.3 43.6 37.3

535.7 105.8

171.5 59.6 0.078 1.94 1.70 85 104.1

130 56.1 2.36 1.98 95 107.5 61.0 3.34 2.62 115 113.7 66.0 137.0 69.0 74.0 68.3 4.75 3.34 38.8 120.2 73.0

6H2O 6H2O 6H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O 7H2O 5H2O 4H2O 1H2O 2H2O 6H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O

68.8 0.0007 0.476 73.3 122.2

72.6 58.17 0.687 78.3

55.0 1.206 82.2 163.1

52.0 2.055 85.2 169.1

48.0 2.106

42.5

34.0 87.6

0.00014 53.9 79.58 27.22 0.00984 59.5 32 0.00757 0.1705

235.1

2-122

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

Potassium acetate acetate alum bicarbonate bisulfate bitartrate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate dichromate ferricyanide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite perchlorate permanganate persulfate† sulfate thiocyanate Silver cyanide nitrate sulfate Sodium acetate acetate bicarbonate carbonate carbonate chlorate chloride chromate chromate chromate dichromate dichromate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate dihydrogen phosphate hydrogen arsenate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydrogen phosphate hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide hydroxide nitrate nitrite oxalate phosphate, tripyrophosphate sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfide sulfide sulfide sulfite sulfite tetraborate tetraborate vanadate (meta)

KC2H3O2 KC2H3O2 K2SO4⋅Al2(SO4)3 KHCO3 KHSO4 KHC4H4O6 K2CO3 KClO3 KCl K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 K3Fe(CN)6 KOH KOH KNO3 KNO2 KClO4 KMnO4 K2S2O8† K2SO4 KCNS AgCN AgNO3 Ag2SO4 NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2 NaHCO3 Na2CO3 Na2CO3 NaClO8 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 Na2Cr2O7 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 NaH2PO4 Na2HAsO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 Na2HPO4 NaOH NaOH NaOH NaOH NaNO3 NaNO2 Na2C2O4 Na3PO4 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2SO4 Na2S Na2S Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7 NaVO8

1aH2O aH2O 24H2O

216.7 3.0 22.4 36.3 0.32 105.5 3.3 27.6 58.2 5 31 97 13.3 278.8 0.75 2.83 1.62 7.35 177.0 122 0.573 36.3 119 6.9 7 79 35.7 31.70 163.0 57.9 7.3 1.67

233.9 4.0 27.7 0.40 108 5 31.0 60.0 7 36 103 20.9 1.05 4.4 2.60 9.22 170 0.695 40.8 121 8.15 12.5 89 35.8 50.17

255.6 5.9 33.2 51.4 0.53 110.5 7.4 34.0 61.7 12 43 112 31.6 298.4 1.80 6.4 4.49 11.11 217.5 2.2 × 10−5 222 0.796 46.5 123.5 9.6 21.5 101 36.0 88.7 177.8

283.8 8.39 39.1 0.90 113.7 10.5 37.0 63.4 20 50 126 45.8 2.6 9.0 7.19 12.97 300 0.888 54.5 126 11.1 38.8 50.5 113 36.3 88.7

323.3 11.70 45.4 67.3 1.32 116.9 14 40.0 65.2 26 60 63.9 334.9 4.4 12.56 9.89 14.76 376 0.979 65.5 129.5 12.7 48.5 126 36.6 95.96 337.3 17.00 1.83 121.2 19.3 42.6 66.8 34 140 85.5 6.5 16.89 16.50 455 1.08 83 134 14.45 140 37.0 104 244.8 350 24.75 60.0 2.46 126.8 24.5 45.5 68.6 43 66 110.0 9 22.2 18.17 525 1.15 139 139.5 16.4 46.4 155 37.3 114.6 123.0 316.7 124.8 376.2 125.9 426.3 364.8 40.0 380.1 71.0 4.6 139.8 38.5 51.1 72.1 61 396.3 109.0 121.6 6.95 155.7 57 56.7 75.6 80 82.6104 178 246 412.8 21.8 24.1 952 1.41 170 45.5 230 39.8

2H2O

133.1 48.3 70.4 52

147.5 54.0 73.9 70

2H2O 1H2O

138 11.8 19.75

169 14.8 21.4 669 1.30 153 45.8 189 38.4

202 18 22.8

†

1.22 146

1.36 161

3H2O 10H2O 1H2O 10H2O 4H2O 2H2O 2H2O 1H2O 12H2O 12H2O 7H2O 2H2O 4H2O 3aH2O 1H2O

172 37.8

39.0

69.9 15.5 3.6

85.2 26.5 7.7

106.5 37 20.8

138.2 158.6 47 51.8 80.2 82.9 88.1 92.4 102.9 102.2 179.3 65 190.3 207.3 85 225.3 246.6

42 51.5 109 73 72.1 80 78.0 4.1 3.95 9.0 30 15.42 13.9 1.3 20 1.6 88 84.5 3.7 11 6.23 19.4 44 18.8 26.9 2.7 15.325° 119 96 91.6 20 9.95 40.8 22.5 36 28 3.9 30.2 28.2 10.5 28.8 20.3 24.4 68.4 28.3 31.5 41 52.5 129 104 98.4 31 13.50 48.8 28.5 145 114 104.1 43 17.45 46.7 39.82 36.4 174 313 124 55 21.83 45.3 42.69 39.1 45.73 43.31 148 132.6 81 30.04 43.7 51.40 49.14 59.23 57.28 347 180 163.2 6.33 108 40.26 42.5

12H2O 10H2O 10H2O 7H2O 9H2O 5aH2O 6H2O 7H2O 10H2O 5H2O 2H2O

1.5 3.16 5.0 19.5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

2-123

TABLE 2-120

Solubilities of Inorganic Compounds in Water at Various Temperatures (Concluded )
Formula NaVO3 SnCl2 SnSO4 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 SrCl2 SrCl2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 SO2 Tl2SO4 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 Th(SO4)2 ZnClO3 ZnClO3 Zn(NO3)2 Zn(NO3)2 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 ZnSO4 Solid phase 0°C 83.9 4H2O aH2O 6H2O 2H2O 1H2O 4H2O 36.9 43.5 52.7 40.1 0.0113 22.83 2.70 0.74 1.0 1.50 145.0 94.78 41.9 47 16.21 3.70 0.98 1.25 152.5 200.3 118.3 54.4 70.1 76.8 86.6 83.7 80.8 209.2 223.2 206.9 273.1 43.61 42.95 47.7 10°C 20°C 21.1025° 269.815° 19 41.6 52.9 64.0 70.5 0.0114 11.29 4.87 1.38 1.62 1.90 88.6 0.0114 7.81 6.16 1.995 2.45 4.04 2.54 90.1 5.41 2.998 4.5 9.21 5.22 39.5 58.7 30°C 40°C 26.23 50°C 60°C 32.97 70°C 36.9 80°C 38.875° 18 65.3 37.35 72.4 83.8 36.24 81.8 85.9 97.2 93.8 10.92 6.64 1.63 96 12.74 98 14.61 90.5 130.4 100 16.53 18.45 100.8 139 36.10 36.4 90°C 100°C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Substance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sodium vanadate (meta) Stannous chloride sulfate Strontium acetate acetate chloride chloride nitrate nitrate nitrate sulfate Sulfur dioxide, 760 mm † Thallium sulfate Thorium sulfate sulfate sulfate sulfate Zinc chlorate chlorate nitrate nitrate sulfate sulfate sulfate

9H2O 8H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 4H2O 6H2O 3H2O 7H2O 6H2O 1H2O

1.09

2-124

SOLUBILITIES The H in solubility tables (2-121 to 2-144) is the proportionality constant for the expression of Henry’s law, p = Hx, where x = mole fraction of the solute in the liquid phase; p = partial pressure of the solute in the gas phase, expressed in atmospheres; and H = a proportionality constant expressed in units of atmospheres of solute pressure in the gas phase per unit concentration of the solute in the liquid phase. (The unit of concentration of the solute in the liquid phase is moles solute per mole solution.)
TABLE 2-124 Ammonia (NH3)—Low Pressures 0.105 0.244 0.32 0.38 0.576

2-125

Weight NH3 per 100 weights H2O Partial pressure NH3, mm. Hg, at 25°C Weight NH3 per 100 weights H2O Partial pressure NH3, mm. Hg, at 25°C

0.751

1.02

0.791 1.31

1.83 1.53

2.41 1.71

2.89 1.98

4.41 2.11

5.80 2.58

7.96 2.75

10.31

11.91

13.46

15.75

16.94

20.86

22.38

TABLE 2-121 t, °C 10−3 × H* 0

Acetylene (C2H2) 5 0.84 10 0.96 15 1.08 20 1.21 25 1.33 30 1.46

“Landolt-Börnstein Physikalische-chemische Tabellen,” Eg. I, p. 303, 1927. Phase-equilibrium data for the binary system NH3-H2O are given by Clifford and Hunter, J. Phys. Chem., 37, 101 (1933).

0.72

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260, McGraw-Hill, 1928. *H. See footnote for Table 2-122. TABLE 2-125 Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

TABLE 2-122 t, °C 10−4 × H* t, °C 10−4 × H* 0

Air 5 4.88 45 9.11 10 5.49 50 9.46 15 6.07 60 10.1 20 6.64 70 10.5 25 7.20 80 10.7 30 7.71 90 10.8 35 8.23 100 10.7

Weight of CO2 per 100 weights of H2O* Total pressure, atm 12°C 18°C 25°C 31.04°C 35°C 40°C 50°C 75°C 100°C 25 50 75 100 150 200 300 400 500 700 7.03 7.18 7.27 7.59 7.86 8.12 3.86 6.33 6.69 6.72 7.07 7.35 7.77 5.38 6.17 6.28 2.80 4.77 5.80 5.97 6.25 6.48 7.27 7.65 2.56 4.39 5.51 5.76 6.03 6.29 7.06 7.51 2.30 4.02 5.10 5.50 5.81 6.28 6.89 7.26 1.92 3.41 4.45 5.07 5.47 5.76 6.20 6.58 7.58 1.35 2.49 3.37 4.07 4.86 5.27 5.83 6.30 7.43 1.06 2.01 2.82 3.49 4.49 5.08 5.84 6.40 7.61

4.32 40 8.70

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. *H is calculated from the absorption coefficients of O2 and N2, taking into consideration the correction for constant argon content.

7.54

*In the original, concentration is expressed in cubic centimeters of CO2 (reduced to 0°C and 1 atm) dissolved in 1 g of water. TABLE 2-123 Weight NH3 per 100 weights H2O 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 10 7.5 5 4 3 2.5 2 1.6 1.2 1.0 0.5 Ammonia (NH3) Partial pressure of NH3, mm. Hg 0°C 947 785 636 500 380 275 190 119 89.5 64 42.7 25.1 17.7 11.2 10°C 20°C 25°C 30°C 40°C 50°C 60°C TABLE 2-126 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 10−4 × H 17.7°C 4.77 4.77 4.77 4.78 4.80 4.82 4.86 4.88 19.0°C 4.88 4.91 4.93 4.95 4.97 4.98 5.02 5.08

987 1450 780 1170 600 945 439 686 301 470 190 298 144 227 103.5 166 70.1 114 41.8 69.6 29.9 50.0 19.1 31.7 16.1 24.9 11.3 18.2 15.0 12.0

23.5 19.4 15.3 12.0 9.1 7.4 3.4

719 454 352 260 179 110 79.7 51.0 40.1 29.6 24.4 19.3 15.3 11.5

3300 2760 2130 1520 1065 692 534 395 273 167 120 76.5 60.8 45 (37.6)* (30.0) (24.1) (18.3) (15.4)

Partial pressure of CO, mm Hg 900 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

825 596 405 247 179 115 91.1 67.1 (55.7) (44.5) (35.5) (26.7) (22.2)

834 583 361 261 165 129.2 94.3 77.0 61.0 48.7 36.3 30.2

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-127 t °C 10−3 × H 0

Carbonyl Sulfide (COS) 5 1.17 10 1.48 15 1.82 20 2.19 25 2.59 30 3.04

0.92

*Extrapolated values.

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 261.

2-126

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Chlorine (Cl2) Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 0°C 0.488 .679 1.221 1.717 2.79 3.81 4.78 5.71 10°C 0.451 .603 1.024 1.354 2.08 2.73 3.35 3.95 4.54 5.13 5.71 6.26 6.85 7.39 7.97 8.52 9.09 9.65 10.21 20°C 0.438 .575 .937 1.210 1.773 2.27 2.74 3.19 3.63 4.06 4.48 4.88 5.29 5.71 6.12 6.52 6.90 7.29 7.69 8.46 9.27 10.84 13.23 17.07 21.0 30°C 0.424 .553 .873 1.106 1.573 1.966 2.34 2.69 3.03 3.35 3.69 3.98 4.30 4.60 4.91 5.21 5.50 5.80 6.08 6.68 7.27 8.42 10.14 13.02 15.84 18.73 21.7 24.7 27.7 30.8 40°C 0.412 .532 .821 1.025 1.424 1.754 2.05 2.34 2.61 2.86 3.11 3.36 3.61 3.84 4.08 4.32 4.54 4.77 4.99 5.44 5.89 6.81 8.05 10.22 12.32 14.47 16.62 18.84 20.7 23.3 50°C 0.398 .512 .781 .962 1.313 1.599 1.856 2.09 2.31 2.53 2.74 2.94 3.14 3.33 3.52 3.71 3.89 4.07 4.27 4.62 4.97 5.67 6.70 8.38 10.03 11.70 13.38 15.04 16.75 18.46 TABLE 2-131 100°C 0.326 .415 .627 .747 .987 1.174 1.333 1.480 1.610 1.736 1.854 1.972 2.08 2.19 2.29 2.41 2.50 2.60 2.69 2.89 3.07 3.43 3.95 4.78 5.59 6.38 7.16 7.94 8.72 9.48 110°C 0.316 .402 .598 .722 .950 1.137 1.276 1.413 1.542 1.661 1.773 1.880 1.986 2.09 2.19 2.28 2.37 2.47 2.56 2.74 2.91 3.25 3.74 4.49 5.25 5.97 6.72 7.42 8.13 8.84 TABLE 2-133 t, °C 10−4 × H t, °C 10−4 × H 0 5.79 40 7.51 Hydrogen (H2)—Temperature 5 6.08 45 7.60 10 6.36 50 7.65 15 6.61 60 7.65 20 6.83 70 7.61 25 7.07 80 7.55 30 7.29 90 7.51 35 7.42 100 7.45 t, °C 10−3 × H 0 5.52 Ethylene (C2H4) 5 6.53 10 7.68 15 8.95 20 10.2 25 11.4 30 12.7 TABLE 2-129 Vol % of ClO2 in gas phase 1 3 5 7 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) Weight of ClO2, grams per liter of solution 0°C 2.00 6.00 10.0 14.0 20.0 5°C 1.50 4.7 7.8 10.9 15.5 17.0 18.6 20.3 10°C 1.25 3.85 6.30 8.95 12.8 14.0 15.3 16.6 18.0 19.2 20.3 15°C 1.00 3.20 5.25 7.35 10.5 11.7 12.8 13.8 14.9 16.0 17.0 20°C 0.90 2.70 4.30 6.15 8.80 9.70 10.55 11.5 12.3 13.2 14.2 30°C 0.60 1.95 3.20 4.40 6.30 7.00 7.50 8.20 8.80 9.50 10.1 40°C 0.46 1.30 2.25 3.20 4.50 5.00 5.45 5.85 6.35 6.80 7.20

TABLE 2-128 Partial pressure of Cl2, mm Hg 5 10 30 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 1200 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Partial pressure of Cl2, mm Hg 5 10 30 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 1200 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

Ishi, Chem. Eng. (Japan), 22, 153 (1958).

TABLE 2-130 t, °C 10−4 × H t, °C 10−4 × H 0 1.26 40 4.23

Ethane (C2H6) 5 1.55 45 4.63 10 1.89 50 5.00 15 2.26 60 5.65 20 2.63 70 6.23 25 3.02 80 6.61 30 3.42 90 6.87 35 3.83 100 6.92

Cl2.8H2O2 separates

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 261.

Solubility, g of Cl2 per liter 60°C 0.383 .492 .743 .912 1.228 1.482 1.706 1.914 2.10 2.28 2.47 2.64 2.80 2.97 3.13 3.29 3.44 3.59 3.75 4.04 4.36 4.92 5.76 7.14 8.48 9.83 11.22 12.54 13.88 15.26 70°C 0.369 .470 .704 .863 1.149 1.382 1.580 1.764 1.932 2.10 2.25 2.41 2.55 2.69 2.83 2.97 3.10 3.23 3.37 3.63 3.88 4.37 5.09 6.26 7.40 8.52 9.65 10.76 11.91 13.01 80°C 0.351 .447 .671 .815 1.085 1.294 1.479 1.642 1.793 1.940 2.08 2.22 2.35 2.47 2.59 2.72 2.84 2.96 3.08 3.30 3.53 3.95 4.58 5.63 6.61 7.54 8.53 9.52 10.46 11.42 90°C 0.339 .431 .642 .781 1.034 1.227 1.396 1.553 1.700 1.831 1.965 2.09 2.21 2.32 2.43 2.55 2.66 2.76 2.87 3.08 3.28 3.67 4.23 5.17 6.05 6.92 7.79 8.65 9.49 10.35

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-132 t, °C 10−4 × H

Helium (He) 0 12.9 10 12.6 20 12.5 30 12.4 40 12.1 50 11.5

See also Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952).

“International Critical Tables,” vol. 3, p. 256. See also Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952).

SOLUBILITIES
TABLE 2-134 Hydrogen (H2)—Pressure 10−4 × H 19.5°C 7.42 7.42 7.43 7.47 7.56 7.70 7.87 8.17 7.75 7.76 7.77 7.81 7.89 8.00 8.16 8.41 23°C TABLE 2-137 t, °C 10−4 × H t, °C 10−4 × H 0 2.24 40 5.20 Methane (CH4) 5 2.59 45 5.51 10 2.97 50 5.77 15 3.37 60 6.26 20 3.76 70 6.66 25 4.13 80 6.82 30 4.49 90 6.92

2-127

Partial pressure H2, mm Hg 900 1100 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8200 8250

35 4.86 100 7.01

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-138 t, °C 10−4 × H t, °C 10−4 × H 0 5.29 40 10.4

Nitrogen (N2)—Temperature* 5 5.97 45 10.9 10 6.68 50 11.3 15 7.38 60 12.0 20 8.04 70 12.5 25 8.65 80 12.6 30 9.24 90 12.6 35 9.85 100 12.6

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 256.

“International Critical Tables,” vol. 3, p. 256. See also Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich, Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952). *Atmospheric nitrogen = 98.815 vol. % N2 + 1.185 vol. % A. TABLE 2-135 Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O 78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04 Weights of HCl per 100 weights of H2O 78.6 66.7 56.3 47.0 38.9 31.6 25.0 19.05 13.64 8.70 4.17 2.04 Hydrogen Chloride (HCl) Partial pressure of HCl, mm Hg 0°C 510 130 29.0 5.7 1.0 0.175 .0316 .0056 .00099 .000118 .000018 10°C 840 233 56.4 11.8 2.27 0.43 .084 .016 .00305 .000583 .000069 .0000117 20°C 399 105.5 23.5 4.90 1.00 0.205 .0428 .0088 .00178 .00024 .000044 30°C 627 188 44.5 9.90 2.17 0.48 .106 .0234 .00515 .00077 .000151 TABLE 2-139 Nitrogen (N2)—Pressure 10−4 × H 19.4°C 8.24 8.32 8.41 8.49 8.59 8.74 8.86 9.04 24.9°C 9.08 9.15 9.25 9.38 9.49 9.62 9.75 9.91

Partial pressure of N2, mm Hg 900 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8100 8200

See also Goodman and Krase [Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 401 (1931)] for values up to 169°C and 300 atm.

Partial pressure of HCl, mm Hg 50°C 80°C 110°C TABLE 2-140 t, °C 535 141 35.7 8.9 2.21 0.55 .136 .0344 .0064 .00140 623 188 54.5 15.6 4.66 1.34 0.39 .095 .0245 10−4 × H 760 253 83 28 9.3 3.10 0.93 .280 t, °C 10−4 × H 0 2.55 40 5.35 Oxygen (O2)—Temperature 5 2.91 45 5.63 10 3.27 50 5.88 15 3.64 60 6.29 20 4.01 70 6.63 25 4.38 80 6.87 30 4.75 90 6.99 35 5.07 100 7.01

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. Pray, Schweickert, and Minnich [Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 1146 (1952)] give H = 4.46 × 10−4 at 25°C and other values up to 343°C.

Enthalpy and phase-equilibrium data for the binary system HCl-H2O are given by Van Nuys, Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Engrs., 39, 663 (1943).

TABLE 2-141

Oxygen (O2)—Pressure 10−4 × H 23°C 4.58 4.59 4.60 4.68 4.73 4.80 4.88 4.98 25.9°C 4.79 4.80 4.83 4.88 4.92 4.98 5.05 5.16

Partial pressure of O2, mm Hg 800 900 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8150 8200

TABLE 2-136 t, °C 10−2 × H t, °C 10 × H
−2

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) 5 3.15 45 8.14 10 3.67 50 8.84 15 4.23 60 10.3 20 4.83 70 11.9 25 5.45 80 13.5 30 6.09 90 14.4 35 6.76 100 14.8

0 2.68 40 7.45

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 259.

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257. See also Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., 76, 69 (1954) for solubility of O2 for 100°F < T < 650°F, 300 < P < 2000 lb/in2.

2-128

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Ozone (O3) 5 2.18 10 2.48 15 2.88 20 3.76 25 4.57 30 5.98 35 8.18 40 50 12.0 27.4 TABLE 2-143 t, °C 10−3 × H Propylene (C3H6) 2 3.04 6 3.84 10 4.46 14 5.06 18 5.69

TABLE 2-142 t, °C 0 10−3 × H 1.94

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 257.

International Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 260.

TABLE 2-144 Partial Vapor Pressure of Sulfur Dioxide over Water, mm Hg g SO2 / 100 g H2O 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.40 0.50 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 8.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 Temperature, °C 0 0.02 0.38 1.15 2.10 3.17 4.34 5.57 8.17 10.9 25.8 58.6 93.2 129 165 202 275 351 542 735 10 0.04 0.66 1.91 3.44 5.13 6.93 8.84 12.8 17.0 39.5 88.5 139 192 245 299 407 517 796 20 0.07 1.07 3.03 5.37 7.93 10.6 13.5 19.4 25.6 58.4 129 202 277 353 430 585 741 30 0.12 1.68 4.62 8.07 11.8 15.7 19.8 28.3 37.1 83.7 183 285 389 496 602 818 40 0.19 2.53 6.80 11.7 17.0 22.5 28.2 40.1 52.3 117 253 393 535 679 824 50 0.29 3.69 9.71 16.5 23.8 31.4 39.2 55.3 72.0 159 342 530 720 60 0.43 5.24 13.5 22.7 32.6 42.8 53.3 74.7 96.8 212 453 700 90 1.21 12.9 31.7 52.2 73.7 95.8 118 164 211 454 955 120 2.82 27.0 63.9 104 145 186 229 316 404 856

Condensed from Rabe, A. E. and Harris, J. F., J. Chem. Eng. Data, 8 (3), 333–336, 1963. Copyright © American Chemical Society and reproduced by permission of the copyright owner.

THERMAL EXPANSION
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversion is applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. THERMAL EXPANSION OF GASES ADDITIONAL REFERENCES The tables given under this subject are reprinted by permission from the Smithsonian Tables. For more detailed data on thermal expansion, see International Critical Tables: tabular index, vol. 3, p. 1; abrasives, vol. 2, p. 87; alloys, vol. 2, p. 463; building stones, vol. 2, p. 54; carbons, vol. 2, p. 303; elements, vol. 1, p. 102; enamels, vol. 2, p. 115; glass, vol. No tables of the coefficients of thermal expansion of gases are given in this edition. The coefficient at constant pressure, 1/υ(∂υ/∂T)p, for an ideal gas is merely the reciprocal of the absolute temperature. For a real gas or liquid, both it and the coefficient at constant volume, 1/p (∂p/∂T)v, should be calculated either from the equation of state or from tabulated PVT data. 2, p. 93; metals, vol. 2, p. 459; petroleums, vol. 2, p. 145; porcelains, vol. 2, pp. 70, 78; refractory materials, vol. 2, p. 83; solid insulators, vol. 2, p. 310.

THERMAL EXPANSION
TABLE 2-145 Linear Expansion of the Solid Elements*

2-129

C is the true expansion coefficient at the given temperature; M is the mean coefficient between given temperatures; where one temperature is given, the true coefficient at that temperature is indicated; α and β are coefficients in formula lt = l0(1 + αt + βt2); l0 is length at 0°C (unless otherwise indicated, when, if x is the reference temperature, lt = lx[1 + α(t − tx) + β(t − tx)2]; lt is length at t°C). Element Aluminum Aluminum Antimony Arsenic Bismuth Cadmium Cadmium Carbon, diamond graphite Chromium Cobalt Copper Copper Gold Gold Indium Iodine Iridium Iridium Iron, soft cast wrought steel Lead (99.9) Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum† Nickel Osmium Palladium Platinum Potassium Rhodium Ruthenium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Steel, 36.4Ni Tantalum† Tellurium Thallium Tin Tungsten† Zinc 20 20 40 20 20 27 20‡ 20‡ 20 0.065 0.016 0.302 0.214 0.305 0.0444 0.643 0.125⊥ 0.358 Temp. °C 20 300 20 20 20 0 0 50 50 20 20 200 20 40 20 40 20 20 20 100 280 20 20 20 20 40 20 20 20 40 40 0 40 20 20 C × 104 0.224 0.284 0.136 0.05 0.014 0.54 0.20⊥ 0.012 0.06 0.123 0.162 0.170 0.140 0.417 0.065 0.1210 0.118 0.119 0.114 0.291 0.343 0.254 0.233 0.053 0.126 0.066 0.1173 0.0887 0.0893 0.0850 0.0963 0.439 0.0763 0.1846 0.195 0, 6, 50 21 0.83 0.0876 0.660 0.0249 0.197 0.622 0.031 0.055 0.059 0.0655 0.272⊥ 0.154⊥ 0.045 0.656 0.639 0.141⊥ 0, 100 0.11 0, 0, 0, 100, + 20, 750 750 750 240 500 0.1158 0.1170 0.1118 0.269 0.2480 0.216 0.0515 0.0501 0.1308 0.1236 0.1346 0.1152 0.1167 0.0875 0.0890 0.0887 0.0746 0.0182 0.1827 0.1939 0.72 0.144 0.136 0.0646 0.0053 0.0053 0.0053 0.011 0.0096 0.0121 0.0057 0.0014 0.0166 0.0066 0.0033 0.00517 0.0022 0.00314 0.00121 0.00132 Temp. range, °C 100 500 20 20 −180, −140 −180, −140 20, 100 100 300 17, 100 −191, 17 −190, 17 M × 104 0.235 0.311 0.080⊥ 0.103⊥ 0.59 0.117⊥ 0.068 0.166 0.175 0.143 0.132 0.837 0, 80 1070, 1720 0.0636 0.0679 0.0032 0.0011 Temp. range, °C 0, 500 α × 104 0.22 β × 106 0.009

20, 20, 20, 6, 0, 0,

100 100 500 121 625 520

0.526 0.214⊥ 0.086 0.121 0.161 0.142

0.0064 0.0040 0.0022

20, 100 20, 200 −100, 20, 0, −190, 0, 25, 25, 0, + 20 100 100 0 100 100 500 100

0.291 0.300 0.240 0.260 0.228 0.159 0.052 0.049 0.055 0.130

20, 300 −142, 19 19, +305 −190, + 20 + 20, +300 500, 1000 −190, 0, −190, 0, 0, +100 1000 −100 + 80 1000

−75, −112 −75, −67 0, 875 20, 500 0, 50 260, 500 340, 500 20, 400

0, 100 −3, +18 0, 100 −190, 20, 20, −78, 0, −17 260 340 0 100 20 20 100 −100 100 100

0.00479 0.00295

0.0009

8, 0, −140, +20, +20,

95

0.2033 0.0428 0.354

0.0263 0.00058 0.010

−105, +502 + 0, 400

*Smithsonian Tables. For more complete tabulations see Table 142, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed., 1954; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2239–2245. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.; Goldsmith, and Waterman, WADC-TR-58-476, 1959; Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960, etc. †Molybdenum, 300° to 2500°C; lt = l300[1 + 5.00 × 10−6(t − 300) + 10.5 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Tantalum, 300° to 2800°C; lt = l300[1 + 6.60 × 10−6(t − 300) + 5.2 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Tungsten, 300° to 2700°C; lt = l300[1 + 4.44 × 10−6(t − 300) + 4.5 × 10−10(t − 300)2] Beryllium, 20° to 100°C; 12.3 × 10−6 per °C. Columbium, 0° to 100°C; 7.2 × 10−6 per °C. Tantalum, 20° to 100°C; 6.6 × 10−6 per °C. ‡Two errors in the data of zinc have been corrected. These values were taken from Grüneisen and Goens, Z. Physik., 29, 141 (1924).

2-130

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Linear Expansion of Miscellaneous Substances*

TABLE 2-146

The coefficient of cubical expansion may be taken as three times the linear coefficient. In the following table, t is the temperature or range of temperature, and C, the coefficient of expansion. Substance Amber t°C 0−30 0−09 20−60 C × 104 0.50 0.61 0.22 0.1875 0.1930 0.1783 to 0.193 0.1859 0.1906 0.1844 0.2116 0.1737 0.1782 0.1713 0.1708 0.657 to 0.686 0.770 1.00 0.1523 0.23 0.25 0.842 0.1950 0.1836 0.1523 0.1552 0.0833 0.0828 0.0891 0.0897 0.0954 0.0788 0.081 Substance Jena thermometer 59III Jena thermometer 59III Gutta percha Ice Iceland spar: Parallel to axis Perpendicular to axis Lead tin (solder) 2 Pb + 1 Sn Limestone Magnalium Manganin Marble Monel metal Paraffin Paraffin Paraffin Platinum-iridium, 10 Pt + 1 Ir Platinum-silver, 1 Pt + 2 Ag Porcelain Porcelain Bayeux Quartz: Parallel to axis Parallel to axis Perpend. to axis Quartz glass Quartz glass Quartz glass Rock salt Rubber, hard Rubber, hard Speculum metal Steel, 0.14 C, 34.5 Ni t°C 0−100 −191 to +16 20 −20 to −1 0−80 0−80 0−100 25−100 12−39 15−100 25−100 25−600 0−16 16−38 38−49 40 0−100 20−790 1000−1400 0−80 −190 to + 16 0−80 −190 to + 16 16 to 500 16 to 1000 40 0 −160 0−100 25−100 25−600 C × 104 0.058 0.424 1.983 0.51 0.2631 0.0544 0.2508 0.09 0.238 0.181 0.117 0.14 0.16 1.0662 1.3030 4.7707 0.0884 0.1523 0.0413 0.0553 0.0797 0.0521 0.1337 −0.0026 0.0057 0.0058 0.4040 0.691 0.300 0.1933 0.037 0.136 Substance t°C C × 104 Topas: Parallel to lesser horizontal axis 0−100 Parallel to greater horizontal axis 0−100 Parallel to vertical axis 0−100 Tourmaline: Parallel to longitudinal axis 0−100 Parallel to horizontal axis 0−100 Type metal 16.6−254 Vulcanite 0−18 Wedgwood ware 0−100 Wood: Parallel to fiber: Ash 0−100 Beech 2.34 Chestnut 2.34 Elm 2.34 Mahogany 2.34 Maple 2.34 Oak 2.34 Pine 2.34 Walnut 2.34 Across the fiber: Beech 2.34 Chestnut 2.34 Elm 2.34 Mahogany 2.34 Maple 2.34 Oak 2.34 Pine 2.34 Walnut 2.34 Wax white 10−26 Wax white 26−31 Wax white 31−43 Wax white 43−57

Bakelite, bleached Brass: Cast 0−100 Wire 0−100 Wire 0−100 71.5 Cu + 27.7 Zn + 0.3 Sn + 0.5 Pb 40 71 Cu + 29 Zn 0−100 Bronze: 3 Cu + 1 Sn 16.6−100 3 Cu + 1 Sn 16.6−350 3 Cu + 1 Sn 16.6−957 86.3 Cu + 9.7 Sn + 4 Zn 40 97.6 Cu + hard 0−80 2.2 Sn + soft 0−80 0.2 P Caoutchouc Caoutchouc 16.7−25.3 Celluloid 20−70 Constantan 4−29 Duralumin, 94Al 20−100 20−300 Ebonite 25.3−35.4 Fluorspar, CaF2 0−100 German silver 0−100 Gold-platinum, 2 Au + 1 Pt 0−100 Gold-copper, 2 Au + 1 Cu 0−100 Glass: Tube 0−100 Tube 0−100 Plate 0−100 Crown (mean) 0−100 Crown (mean) 50−60 Flint 50−60 III Jena ther- 16 0−100 mometer normal

0.0832 0.0836 0.0472 0.0937 0.0773 0.1952 0.6360 0.0890 0.0951 0.0257 0.0649 0.0565 0.0361 0.0638 0.0492 0.0541 0.0658 0.614 0.325 0.443 0.404 0.484 0.544 0.341 0.484 2.300 3.120 4.860 15.227

{

}

*Smithsonian Tables. For a more complete tabulation see Tables 143, 144. Smithsonian Physical Tables. 9th ed., 1954, also reprinted in American Institute of Physics Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957; Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 40th ed., pp. 2239–2245, Chemical Rubber Publishing Co. For data on many solids prior to 1926, see Gruneisen, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 10, pp. 1–52, 1926, translation available as N.A.S.A. RE 2-18-59W, 1959. For eight plastic solids below 300 K, see Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, p. 331, Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1959. For 11 other materials to 300 K, see Scott, loc. cit., p. 333. For quartz and silica, see Cook, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 7, 285 (1956).

THERMAL EXPANSION
TABLE 2-147 Cubical Expansion of Liquids* TABLE 2-148 Cubical Expansion of Solids*

2-131

If V0 is the volume at 0°, then at t° the expansion formula is Vt = V0(1 + αt + βt2 + γt3). The table gives values of α, β, and γ, and of C, the true coefficient of cubical expansion at 20° for some liquids and solutions. The temperature range of the observation is ∆t. Values for the coefficient of cubical expansion of liquids can be derived from the tables of specific volumes of the saturated liquid given as a function of temperature later in this section. Liquid Acetic acid Acetone Alcohol: Amyl Ethyl, 30% by volume Ethyl, 50% by volume Ethyl, 99.3% by volume Ethyl, 500 atm. pressure Ethyl, 3000 atm. pressure Methyl Benzene Bromine Calcium chloride: 5.8% solution 40.9% solution Carbon disulfide 500 atm. pressure 3000 atm. pressure Carbon tetrachloride Chloroform Ether Glycerin Hydrochloric acid, 33.2% solution Mercury Olive oil Pentane Potassium chloride, 24.3% solution Phenol Petroleum, 0.8467 density Sodium chloride, 20.6% solution Sodium sulfate, 24% solution Sulfuric acid: 10.9% solution 100.0% Turpentine Water Range 16−107 0−54 − 15−80 18−39 0−39 27−46 0−40 0−40 0−61 11−81 0−59 18−25 17−24 −34−60 0−50 0−50 0−76 0−63 −15−38 0−33 0−100 0−33 16−25 36−157 24−120 0−29 11−40 α × 103 1.0630 1.3240 0.9001 0.2928 0.7450 1.012 0.866 0.524 1.1342 1.17626 1.06218 0.07878 0.42383 1.13980 0.940 0.581 1.18384 1.10715 1.51324 0.4853 0.4460 0.18182 0.6821 1.4646 0.2695 0.8340 0.8994 0.3640 0.3599 1.3635 1.27776 1.87714 4.2742 0.8571 1.37065 0.89881 4.66473 2.35918 0.4895 0.215 0.0078 1.1405 3.09319 2.080 0.10732 1.396 1.237 1.258 0.8741 1.199 0.80648 1.237 −0.30854 1.132 0.250 0.458 1.91225 1.218 1.35135 1.236 − 1.74328 1.273 4.00512 1.656 0.505 0.455 0.18186 0.721 1.608 0.353 1.090 0.955 0.414 0.410 0.387 0.558 − 0.44998 0.973 − 6.7900 0.207 β × 106 0.12636 3.8090 0.6573 10.790 1.85 2.20 γ × 108 C × 108 at 20°

If v2 and v1 are the volumes at t2 and t1, respectively, then v2 = v1(1 + C∆t), C being the coefficient of cubical expansion and ∆t the temperature interval. Where only a single temperature is stated, C represents the true coefficient of cubical expansion at that temperature. Substance Antimony Beryl Bismuth Copper† Diamond Emerald Galena Glass, common tube hard Jena, borosilicate 59 III pure silica Gold Ice Iron Lead† Paraffin Platinum Porcelain, Berlin chloride nitrate sulfate Quartz Rock salt Rubber Silver Sodium Stearic acid Sulfur, native Tin Zinc† t or ∆t 0−100 0−100 0−100 0−100 40 40 0−100 0−100 0−100 20−100 0−80 0−100 −20 to −1 0−100 0−100 20 0−100 20 0−100 0−100 20 0−100 50−60 20 0−100 20 33.8−45.4 13.2−50.3 0−100 0−100 C × 104 0.3167 0.0105 0.3948 0.4998 0.0354 0.0168 0.558 0.276 0.214 0.156 0.0129 0.4411 1.1250 0.3550 0.8399 5.88 0.265 0.0814 1.094 1.967 1.0754 0.3840 1.2120 4.87 0.5831 2.13 8.1 2.23 0.6889 0.8928

1.0876 1.071 − 0.87983 1.487 1.18458 0.902 −11.87 0.730 1.12

− 0.539 1.6084 0.4446

0−30 0.2835 2.580 0−30 0.5758 −0.432 − 9−106 0.9003 1.9595 0−33 −0.06427 8.5053

*Smithsonian Tables, Table 269. For a detailed discussion of mercury data, see Cook, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 7, 285 (1956). For data on nitrogen and argon, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. Bromoform1 7.7 − 50°C. Vt = 0.34204[1 + 0.00090411(t − 7.7) + 0.0000006766(t − 7.7)2] 0.34204 in the specific volume of bromoform at 7.7°C. Glycerin2 −62 to 0°C. Vt = V0(1 + 4.83 × 10−4t − 0.49 × 10−6t2) 0 − 80°C. Vt = V0(1 + 4.83 × 10−4t + 0.49 × 10−6t2) 3 Mercury 0 − 300°C. Vt − V0[1 + 10−8(18153.8t + 0.7548t2 + 0.001533t2 + 0.00000536t4)]
1 Sherman and Sherman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 50, 1119 (1928). (An obvious error in their equation has been corrected.) 2 Samsoen, Ann. phys., (10) 9, 91 (1928). 3 Harlow, Phil. Mag., (7) 7, 674 (1929).

*Smithsonian Tables, Table 268. †See additional data below. Aluminum1 100 − 530°C. V = V0(1 + 2.16 × 10−5t + 0.95 × 10−8t2) 1 Cadmium 130 − 270°C. V = V0(1 + 8.04 × 10−5t + 5.9 × 10−8t2) 1 Copper 110 − 300°C. V = V0(1 + 1.62 × 10−5t + 0.20 × 10−8t2) Colophony2 0 − 34°C. V = V0(1 + 2.21 × 10−4t + 0.31 × 10−6t2) 34 − 150°C. V = V34[1 + 7.40 × 10−4(t − 34) + 5.91 × 10−6(t − 34)2] 1 Lead 100 − 280°C. V = V0(1 + 1.60 × 10−5t + 3.2 × 10−8t2) 2 Shellac 0 − 46°C. V = V0(1 + 2.73 × 10−4t + 0.39 × 10−6t2) 46 − 100°C. V = V46[1 + 13.10 × 10−4(t − 46) + 0.62 × 10−6(t − 46)2] Silica (vitreous)3 0 − 300°C. Vt = V0[1 + 10−8(93.6t + 0.7776t2 − 0.003315t2 + 0.000005244t4) Sugar (cane, amorphous)2 0 − 67°C. Vt = V0(1 + 2.34 × 10−4t + 0.14 × 10−6t2) 67 − 160°C. Vt = V67[1 + 5.02 × 10−4(t − 67) + 0.43 × 10−6(t − 67)2] Zinc1 120 − 360°C. Vt = V0(1 + 8.50 × 10−5t + 3.9 × 10−8t2)
1 2 3

Uffelmann, Phil. Mag., (7) 10, 633 (1930). Samsoen, Ann. phys., (10) 9, 83 (1928). Harlow, Phil. Mag., (7) 7, 674 (1929).

2-132

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: To convert the Joule-Thomson coefficient, µ, in degrees Celsius per atmosphere to degrees Fahrenheit per atmosphere, multiply by 1.8. °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32; °R = 9⁄ 5 K To convert bars to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 14.504; to convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

TABLE 2-149 Additional References Available for the Joule-Thomson Coefficient Pressure range, atm Gas Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Butane Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Deuterium Dowtherm A Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Mixtures Natural gas Nitrogen Nitrous oxide Pentane Propane Steam 0–10 12, 15, 16 19, 35 28 39 31 26 7, 8, 28 37 17 46 45 1, 38 24, 30 10–50 12, 15, 19 35 39 31 26 7, 8, 37 17 22, 24, 25 1* 46 45 1, 38 22, 24, 25 30 6 13, 40 34 43 29, 42, 47 50–200 15, 19, 35 39 31 7, 8, 37 1,* 22, 24 25 >200 <0 19, 35 39 7, 8, 37 17 1,* 22, 24, 25 Temp. range, °C 0–300 12, 15, 16 19, 35 28 39 31 26 7, 8, 9, 10 37 17 46 45 9, 10 38 24 6 9, 11 33 9, 10, 13 28, 40 9, 10 26, 34, 44 43 28, 29, 42 45 >300 Unclassified 3, 4, 18 2, 3 31

46 48

38 24, 30 6 33 13, 40 34 42, 47 33 13

1, 38 22, 24, 25 30 33 13, 40

13, 28, 40 26, 34, 44 41 28, 29, 42

13

19

29, 42, 47

29, 47

*See also 14 (generalized chart); 18 (review, to 1919); 20–22; 23 (review, to 1948); 27 (review, to 1905); 32, 36, 41, 50. REFERENCES: 1. Baehr. Z. Elektrochem., 60, 515 (1956). 2. Beattie, J. Math. Phys., 9, 11 (1930). 3. Beattie, Phys. Rev., 35, 643 (1930). 4. Bradley and Hale, Phys. Rev., 29, 258 (1909). 5. Brown and Dean, Bur. Stand. J. Res., 60, 161 (1958). 6. Budenholzer, Sage, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 29, 658 (1937). 7. Burnett, Phys. Rev., 22, 590 (1923). 8. Burnett, Univ. Wisconsin Bull. 9(6), 1926. 9. Charnley, Ph.D. thesis. University of Manchester, 1952. 10. Charnley, Isles, et al., Proc. R. Soc. (London), A217, 133 (1953). 11. Charnley, Rowlinson, et al., Proc. R. Soc. (London), A230, 354 (1955). 12. Dalton, Commun. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, no. 109c, 1909. 13. Deming and Deming, Phys. Rev., 48, 448 (1935). 14. Edmister, Pet. Refiner, 28, 128 (1949). 15. Eucken, Clusius, et al., Z. Tech. Phys., 13, 267 (1932). 16. Eumorfopoulos and Rai, Phil. Mag., 7, 961 (1926). 17. Huang, Lin, et al., Z. Phys., 100, 594 (1936). 18. Hoxton, Phys. Rev., 13, 438 (1919). 19. Ishkin and Kaganev, J. Tech. Phys. U.S.S.R., 26, 2323 (1956). 20. Isles, Ph.D. thesis, Leeds University. 21. Jenkin and Pye, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. (London), A213, 67 (1914); A215, 353 (1915). 22. Johnston, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2362 (1946). 23. Johnston, Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 70, 651 (1948). 24. Johnston, Bezman, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2367 (1946). 25. Johnston, Swanson, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 68, 2373 (1946). 26. Kennedy, Sage, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 718 (1936). 27. Kester, Phys. Rev., 21, 260 (1905). 28. Keyes and Collins, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 18, 328 (1932). 29. Kleinschmidt, Mech. Eng., 45, 165 (1923); 48, 155 (1926). 30. Koeppe, Kältetechnik, 8, 275 (1956). 31. Lindsay and Brown, Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 817 (1935). 32. Noell, dissertation, Munich, 1914, Forschungsdienst, 184, p. 1, 1916. 33. Palienko, Tr. Inst. Ispol’ z. Gaza, Akad. Nauk Ukr. SSR, no. 4, p. 87, 1956. 34. Pattee and Brown, Ind. Eng. Chem., 26, 511, (1934). 35. Roebuck, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 60, 537 (1925); 64, 287 (1930). 36. Roebuck, see 49 below, 37. Roebuck and Murrell, Phys. Rev., 55, 240 (1939). 38. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 37, 110 (1931); 43, 60 (1933). 39. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 46, 785 (1934). 40. Roebuck and Osterberg, Phys. Rev., 48, 450 (1935). 41. Roebuck, Murrell, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 64, 400 (1942). 42. Sage, unpublished data, California Institute of Technology, 1959. 43. Sage and Lacy, Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 1484 (1934). 44. Sage, Kennedy, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 28, 601 (1936). 45. Sage, Webster, et al., Ind. Eng. Chem., 29, 658 (1937). 46. Ullock, Gaffert, et al., Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., 32, 73 (1936). 47. Yang, Ind. Eng. Chem., 45, 786 (1953). 48. Zelmanov, J. Phys. U.S.S.R., 3, 43 (1940). 49. Roebuck, recalculated data. 50. Michels et al., van der Waals laboratory publications. Gunn, Cheuh, and Prausnitz, Cryogenics, 6, 324 (1966), review equations relating the inversion temperatures and pressures. The ability of various equations of state to relate these was also discussed by Miller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9, 585 (1970); and Juris and Wenzel, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 18, 684 (1972). Perhaps the most detailed review is that of Hendricks, Peller, and Baron. NASA Tech. Note D 6807, 1972.

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT
TABLE 2-150 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus in Reduced Coordinates (Tr = T/Tc; Pr = P/Pc)* Pr TrL TrU Pr TrL TrU 0 0.782 4.984 5 1.01 4.23 0.5 0.800 4.916 6 1.08 4.06 1 0.818 4.847 7 1.16 3.88 1.5 0.838 4.777 8 1.25 3.68 2 0.859 4.706 9 1.35 3.45 2.5 0.880 4.633 10 1.50 3.18 3 0.903 4.550 11 1.73 2.86 4 0.953 4.401 11.79 2.24 2.24

2-133

*Calculated from the best three-constant equation recommended by Miller, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9, 585 (1970). TrL refers to the lower curve, and TrU, to the upper curve.

TABLE 2-151 P, atm 1 20 60 100 140 180 200 −150

Joule-Thomson Data for Air* t, °C −100 0.5895 .5700 .4820 .2775 .1360 .0655 .0440 −75 0.4795 .4555 .3835 .2880 .1855 .1136 .0855 −50 0.3910 .3690 .3195 .2505 .1825 .1270 .1065 −25 0.3225 .3010 .2610 .2130 .1650 .1240 .1090 0 0.2745 .2580 .2200 .1820 .1450 .1100 .0950 25 0.2320 .2173 .1852 .1550 .1249 .0959 50 0.1956 .1830 .1571 .1310 .1070 .0829 75 0.1614 .1508 .1293 .1087 .0889 .0707 100 0.1355 .1258 .1062 .0884 .0726 .0580 150 0.0961 .0883 .0732 .0600 .0482 .0376 200 0.0645 .0580 .0453 .0343 .0250 .0174 250 0.0409 .0356 .0254 .0165 .0092 .0027

0.0450 .0185 − .0070 − .0255 − .0330

*Free of water and CO2. Extracted from Table 261, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from earlier publications. µ in °C/atm.

TABLE 2-152 P, bar TL, K TU, K P, bar TL, K TU, K 0

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Air 25 114 641 275 164 509 50 117 629 300 173 491 75 120 617 325 184 470 100 124 606 350 197 445 125 128 594 375 212 417 150 132 582 400 230 386 175 137 568 425 265 345 200 143 555 432 300 300 225 149 541

(112)* 653 250 156 526

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

TABLE 2-153 t, °C −150 −125 −100 −75 −50 −25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 1 1.812 1.112 0.8605 .7100 .5960 .5045 .4307 .3720 .3220 .2695 .2413 .2105 .1845 .1377 .0980 .0643

Joule-Thomson Data for Argon* Pressure, atm 20 1.102 0.8485 .6895 .5720 .4805 .4080 .3490 .3015 .2557 .2277 .1980 .1720 .1280 .0910 .0607 60 −0.0025 .1250 .6900 .5910 .4963 .4210 .3600 .3077 .2650 .2285 .1975 .1707 .1485 .1102 .0785 .0530 100 −0.0277 .0415 .2820 .4225 .3970 .3460 .3010 .2628 .2297 .1993 .1715 .1480 .1285 .0950 .0665 .0445 140 −0.0403 .0090 .1137 .2480 .2840 .2763 .2505 .2213 .1947 .1710 .1490 .1300 .1123 .0823 .0555 .0370 180 −0.0595 −.0100 .0560 .1537 .2037 .2140 .2050 .1890 .1700 .1505 .1320 .1153 .0998 .0715 .0485 .0370 200 −0.0640 − .0165 .0395 .1215 .1860 .1950 .1883 .1745 .1580 .1415 .1255 .1100 .0945 .0675 .0468 .0276

*Extracted from Table 263, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from an earlier publication. µ in °C/atm.

2-134

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-154 P, bar TL, K TU, K P, bar TL, K TU, K 0 94 765 250 141 657 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Argon 25 97 755 275 148 643 50 101 744 300 158 627 75 105 736 325 170 610 100 109 726 350 183 591 125 113 716 375 201 569 150 118 705 400 222 544 175 123 694 425 248 515 200 128 683 450 288 478 225 134 671 475 375 375

TABLE 2-155 t, °C −75 −50 0 50 100 125 150 200 250 300

Joule-Thomson Data for Carbon Dioxide* Pressure, atm 1 2.4130 1.2900 0.8950 .6490 .5600 .4890 .3770 .3075 .2650 20 −0.0200 − .0140 1.4020 .8950 .6375 .5450 .4695 .3575 .2885 .2425 60 −0.0200 − .0150 .0370 .8800 .6080 .5160 .4430 .3400 .2625 .2080 73 −0.0232 − .0165 .0310 .8225 .5920 .5068 .4380 .3325 .2565 .2002 100 −0.0228 − .0160 .0215 .5570 .5405 .4750 .4155 .3150 .2420 .1872 140 −0.0240 − .0183 .0115 .1720 .4320 .4130 .3760 .2890 .2235 .1700 180 −0.0250 − .0228 .0085 .1025 .3000 .3230 .3102 .2600 .2045 .1540 200 −0.0290 − .0248 .0045 .0930 .2555 .2915 .2910 .2455 .1975 .1505

*Extracted from Table 266, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from an earlier publication. µ in °C/atm.

TABLE 2-156 P, bar TL, K TU, K P, bar TL, K TU, K 50 243 1290 500 325 1015

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Carbon Dioxide* 100 251 1261 550 338 983 150 258 1233 600 351 950 200 266 1205 650 365 914 250 272 1175 700 383 878 300 283 1146 750 403 840 350 293 1111 800 441 796 400 302 1076 850 496 739 450 312 1045 884 608 608

*Interpolated from Vukalovich and Altunin’s interpolation of data of Price, Ind. Eng. Chem., 47, 1691 (1955). TL = lower inversion temperature, and TU = upper inversion temperature.

TABLE 2-157 P, bar TL, K TU, K 0 (31)* 216

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Deuterium 25 34 202 50 38 189 75 43 178 100 49 168 125 56 157 150 65 146 175 77 131 194 108 108

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

TABLE 2-158 P, bar TL, K P, bar TL, K P, bar TL, K 250 315 500 453 0

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Ethane 25 249 275 325 525 477 50 255 300 335 550 505 75 262 325 345 575 545 100 269 350 357 600 626 125 275 375 370 150 282 400 383 175 290 425 398 200 297 450 415 225 306 475 432

JOULE-THOMSON EFFECT
TABLE 2-159 T, K µ T, K µ T, K µ Joule-Thomson Data for Helium* 160 −0.0574 320 −0.0629 480 −0.0640 180 −0.0587 340 −0.0634 500 −0.0636 200 −0.0594 360 −0.0637 520 −0.0630 220 −0.0601 380 −0.0640 540 −0.0622 240 −0.0608 400 −0.0643 560 −0.0611 260 −0.0614 420 −0.0645 580 −0.0587 280 −0.0619 440 −0.0645 600 −0.0540 300

2-135

−0.0625 460 −0.0643

*Interpolated and converted from data in Table 262, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from those in an earlier publication. µ is in °C/atm. Below about 200 atm, little change in the coefficient with pressure occurs.

TABLE 2-160 P, bar TL, K TU, K 0

Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Normal Hydrogen 25 32 193 50 38 183 75 44 171 100 52 157 125 61 141 150 73 119 164 92 92

(28)* 202

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

TABLE 2-161 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Methane P, bar TL, K P, bar TL, K TU, K 325 234 25 50 161 350 243 75 166 375 254 100 172 400 265 125 176 425 277 150 182 450 292 175 189 475 309 505 200 195 500 331 474 225 202 525 365 437 250 209 534 400 400 275 217 300 225

TABLE 2-162 t, °C −150 −125 −100 −75 −50 −25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 1 1.2659 0.8557 .6490 .5033 .3968 .3224 .2656 .2217 .1855 .1555 .1292 .1070 .0868 .0558 .0331 .0140

Joule-Thomson Data for Nitrogen* Pressure, atm 20 1.1246 0.7948 .5958 .4671 .3734 .3013 .2494 .2060 .1709 .1421 .1173 .0973 .0776 .0472 .0256 .0096 33.5 0.1704 .7025 .5494 .4318 .3467 .2854 .2377 .1961 .1621 .1336 .1100 .0904 .0734 .0430 .0230 .0050 60 0.0601 .4940 .4506 .3712 .3059 .2528 .2088 .1729 .1449 .1191 .0975 .0786 .0628 .0372 .0160 −.0013 100 0.0202 .1314 .2754 .2682 .2332 .2001 .1679 .1400 .1164 .0941 .0768 .0621 .0482 .0262 .0071 −.0075 140 −0.0056 .0498 .1373 .1735 .1676 .1506 .1316 .1105 .0915 .0740 .0582 .0459 .0348 .0168 .0009 −.0129 180 −0.0211 .0167 .0765 .1026 .1120 .1101 .1015 .0874 .0732 .0583 .0462 .0347 .0248 .0094 −.0037 −.0160 200 −0.0284 .0032 .0587 .0800 .0906 .0932 .0891 .0779 .0666 .0543 .0419 .0326 .0228 .0070 −.0058 −.0171

*Extracted from Table 264, Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed., Washington, DC, 1954. These data are corrected from an earlier publication. µ in °C/atm.

TABLE 2-163 Approximate Inversion-Curve Locus for Propane P, bar TL, K P, bar TL, K 0 (296)* 300 418 25 303 325 435 50 311 350 452 75 318 375 473 100 327 400 495 125 336 425 521 150 345 450 551 175 355 475 586 200 365 500 628 225 374 525 686 250 389 541 780 275 403

*Hypothetical low-pressure limit.

2-136

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

CRITICAL CONSTANTS
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Other data and estimation techniques for the elements are contained in Gates and Thodos, Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J., 6 (1960):50–54; and Ohse and von Tippelskirch, High Temperatures—High Pressures, 9
TABLE 2-164 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56

(1977):367–385. For inorganic substances see Mathews, Chem. Rev., 72 (1972):71–100; for organics see Kudchaker, Alani, and Zwolinski, Chem. Rev., 68 (1968):659–735; and for fluorocarbons see Advances in Fluorine Chemistry, App. B, Butterworth. Washington, 1963, pp. 173–175.

Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds Name Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4 CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 693027 764352 928494 628717 629050 689974 Mol. wt. 16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285 156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553 58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231 28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188 112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119 26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119 82.145 82.145 82.145 96.172 110.199 52.076 Tc, K 190.564 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7 639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768 408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96 282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29 566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484 308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519 516.2 549 544 559 585 454 Pc × 1E-06 Pa 4.59 4.85 4.21 3.77 3.36 3.04 2.72 2.47 2.31 2.09 1.95 1.82 1.68 1.57 1.47 1.41 1.34 1.26 1.21 1.17 3.62 3.37 3.13 3.02 2.88 2.81 2.56 5.03 4.63 4.04 4.24 4.08 3.56 3.14 2.82 2.57 2.33 2.21 3.98 3.45 3.38 4.36 4.30 3.85 6.15 5.62 4.87 4.20 4.17 4.02 3.64 3.53 3.54 3.13 2.82 4.89 Vc, m3/Kmol 0.099 0.146 0.200 0.255 0.315 0.373 0.428 0.486 0.540 0.601 0.658 0.718 0.779 0.830 0.888 0.943 0.998 1.059 1.119 1.169 0.261 0.304 0.358 0.366 0.396 0.455 0.465 0.132 0.188 0.241 0.233 0.237 0.295 0.354 0.413 0.460 0.528 0.584 0.238 0.292 0.292 0.220 0.220 0.277 0.113 0.164 0.221 0.275 0.277 0.276 0.322 0.331 0.334 0.386 0.441 0.205 Zc 0.286 0.279 0.273 0.272 0.271 0.269 0.259 0.254 0.252 0.245 0.242 0.239 0.233 0.226 0.222 0.221 0.219 0.214 0.215 0.215 0.278 0.268 0.269 0.267 0.255 0.268 0.264 0.283 0.286 0.279 0.273 0.272 0.271 0.265 0.261 0.251 0.249 0.252 0.272 0.261 0.252 0.255 0.268 0.265 0.271 0.276 0.274 0.300 0.289 0.257 0.273 0.256 0.261 0.260 0.256 0.265 Acentric factor 0.011 0.098 0.149 0.197 0.251 0.304 0.346 0.396 0.446 0.488 0.530 0.577 0.617 0.643 0.685 0.721 0.771 0.806 0.851 0.912 0.177 0.226 0.246 0.279 0.292 0.289 0.301 0.086 0.137 0.190 0.204 0.216 0.236 0.280 0.330 0.377 0.417 0.478 0.192 0.237 0.272 0.166 0.192 0.158 0.188 0.216 0.239 0.308 0.290 0.174 0.335 0.221 0.219 0.272 0.323 0.109

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene

CRITICAL CONSTANTS
TABLE 2-164 Cmpd. no. 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Name Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Formula C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O CAS no. 287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556 108952 95487 108394 106445 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 Mol. wt. 70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145 78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194 120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309 32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095 94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211 30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268 Tc, K 511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4 562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 638.32 649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85 512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21 586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626 694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65 400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1 466.7 500.23 489 645.6 766.8 408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2 Pc × 1E-06 Pa 4.50 3.78 3.40 4.10 3.48 2.94 3.04 4.81 4.13 4.39 4.88 4.10 3.74 3.53 3.50 3.60 3.20 3.25 3.18 3.11 2.80 3.99 3.86 3.82 3.53 8.14 6.12 5.12 4.34 4.20 4.79 3.99 3.87 3.87 3.90 3.46 3.18 4.25 7.71 6.04 6.06 5.06 4.52 5.15 5.27 4.47 3.77 3.89 3.31 3.41 3.41 3.64 3.37 3.41 4.27 3.10 6.59 5.57 4.92 4.32 3.97 3.46 3.18 2.97 2.74 2.60 Vc, m3/Kmol 0.257 0.319 0.374 0.308 0.368 0.450 0.430 0.245 0.303 0.291 0.261 0.314 0.374 0.377 0.381 0.375 0.440 0.430 0.429 0.433 0.497 0.413 0.502 0.352 0.768 0.117 0.168 0.220 0.276 0.270 0.221 0.276 0.327 0.327 0.327 0.381 0.435 0.322 0.191 0.239 0.229 0.282 0.312 0.277 0.171 0.221 0.276 0.276 0.329 0.331 0.329 0.281 0.336 0.329 0.337 0.503 0.115 0.154 0.204 0.258 0.313 0.369 0.421 0.474 0.527 0.580 Zc 0.272 0.272 0.269 0.274 0.269 0.269 0.258 0.279 0.278 0.274 0.273 0.262 0.267 0.259 0.260 0.263 0.265 0.259 0.260 0.254 0.256 0.265 0.295 0.254 0.352 0.224 0.240 0.252 0.256 0.254 0.250 0.262 0.260 0.270 0.266 0.259 0.263 0.253 0.246 0.277 0.240 0.246 0.240 0.244 0.271 0.271 0.263 0.278 0.257 0.273 0.272 0.264 0.273 0.276 0.268 0.244 0.223 0.221 0.239 0.250 0.264 0.260 0.261 0.265 0.264 0.269

2-137

Acentric factor 0.196 0.230 0.271 0.212 0.236 0.233 0.246 0.196 0.232 0.216 0.209 0.262 0.311 0.325 0.320 0.301 0.344 0.380 0.322 0.397 0.366 0.296 0.367 0.295 0.561 0.566 0.643 0.617 0.585 0.574 0.670 0.613 0.592 0.678 0.586 0.572 0.592 0.371 0.487 1.102 0.438 0.438 0.444 0.507 0.192 0.229 0.264 0.280 0.335 0.310 0.264 0.281 0.347 0.306 0.353 0.441 0.282 0.292 0.256 0.278 0.347 0.387 0.427 0.474 0.514 0.582

2-138

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Name Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Formula C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CAS no. 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 Mol. wt. 58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151 46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090 60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133 116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090 31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 73.138 101.192 59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182 44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101 45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123 48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189 Tc, K 508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5 588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606 487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546 571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13 430.05 437.2 433.25 456.15 496.6 535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15 469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95 771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35 469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15 Pc × 1E-06 Pa 4.71 4.12 3.71 3.84 3.31 3.27 3.32 3.70 3.34 3.06 4.01 3.85 5.81 5.74 4.61 4.07 3.68 4.47 3.97 5.98 4.69 4.03 3.48 4.71 3.85 3.34 2.94 4.03 3.37 3.11 3.59 3.22 3.93 7.41 5.26 4.10 5.59 3.67 3.04 4.74 3.11 4.54 3.20 5.35 5.19 3.63 7.26 5.55 5.71 5.64 7.75 4.37 6.57 5.00 4.85 4.19 3.79 4.21 7.23 5.49 4.63 3.97 4.06 4.06 5.53 4.26 3.96 Vc, m3/Kmol 0.210 0.267 0.301 0.313 0.369 0.369 0.371 0.336 0.369 0.416 0.311 0.386 0.125 0.179 0.232 0.291 0.291 0.347 0.290 0.173 0.229 0.284 0.340 0.231 0.287 0.345 0.403 0.286 0.349 0.389 0.436 0.489 0.270 0.154 0.180 0.254 0.202 0.301 0.389 0.260 0.401 0.221 0.417 0.270 0.373 0.465 0.142 0.218 0.219 0.254 0.163 0.262 0.215 0.267 0.173 0.229 0.278 0.339 0.145 0.206 0.254 0.307 0.307 0.307 0.200 0.254 0.320 Zc 0.234 0.247 0.239 0.261 0.250 0.254 0.259 0.267 0.262 0.266 0.230 0.252 0.148 0.208 0.214 0.231 0.213 0.248 0.229 0.255 0.256 0.259 0.257 0.257 0.254 0.254 0.249 0.257 0.257 0.251 0.272 0.271 0.246 0.319 0.260 0.289 0.298 0.268 0.266 0.298 0.273 0.256 0.307 0.248 0.332 0.295 0.264 0.297 0.260 0.278 0.197 0.212 0.223 0.224 0.185 0.205 0.217 0.245 0.268 0.273 0.263 0.257 0.268 0.271 0.264 0.244 0.273 Acentric factor 0.307 0.320 0.345 0.349 0.395 0.389 0.386 0.340 0.394 0.411 0.308 0.365 0.317 0.463 0.574 0.682 0.612 0.603 0.450 0.254 0.326 0.349 0.378 0.282 0.363 0.391 0.399 0.310 0.390 0.410 0.421 0.477 0.348 0.279 0.293 0.210 0.283 0.300 0.316 0.280 0.446 0.276 0.388 0.381 0.480 0.403 0.201 0.205 0.195 0.239 0.410 0.312 0.419 0.437 0.340 0.325 0.371 0.352 0.158 0.188 0.232 0.272 0.253 0.251 0.194 0.209 0.294

TABLE 2-164 Cmpd. no. 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189

CRITICAL CONSTANTS
TABLE 2-164 Cmpd. no. 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 Critical Constants and Acentric Factors of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Name Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air Hydrogen Helium-4 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water Formula CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O CAS no. 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185 Mol. wt. 34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966 78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010 28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015 Tc, K 317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8 503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15 132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15 309.57 180.15 400.15 132.92 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13 Pc × 1E-06 Pa 5.88 6.69 5.55 4.54 8.00 5.01 5.46 6.29 4.58 4.51 4.24 4.23 5.75 4.54 4.53 4.52 3.79 1.32 0.23 2.67 4.90 5.17 7.79 10.28 5.02 3.39 11.30 14.73 7.28 6.52 5.94 3.49 7.39 8.04 6.49 8.36 8.46 5.35 9.00 7.86 8.19 21.94 Vc, m3/Kmol 0.113 0.142 0.238 0.274 0.156 0.164 0.155 0.215 0.247 0.247 0.292 0.291 0.179 0.269 0.308 0.324 0.092 0.064 0.058 0.042 0.075 0.067 0.124 0.135 0.074 0.089 0.072 0.158 0.098 0.058 0.195 0.095 0.095 0.160 0.069 0.082 0.100 0.139 0.099 0.123 0.127 0.056 Zc 0.252 0.275 0.296 0.270 0.321 0.263 0.221 0.323 0.270 0.274 0.266 0.259 0.287 0.262 0.265 0.263 0.318 0.307 0.305 0.300 0.292 0.287 0.279 0.286 0.287 0.288 0.241 0.429 0.277 0.252 0.348 0.300 0.277 0.280 0.117 0.253 0.280 0.195 0.287 0.269 0.255 0.228

2-139

Acentric factor 0.198 0.154 0.228 0.191 0.192 0.218 0.206 0.259 0.228 0.196 0.253 0.256 0.106 0.247 0.251 0.251 0.000 −0.215 −0.388 −0.038 0.000 0.053 0.073 0.128 0.020 0.037 0.253 0.315 0.143 0.585 0.276 0.048 0.224 0.118 0.383 0.134 0.069 0.407 0.096 0.244 0.423 0.343

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Ambrose, D. “Vapour-Liquid Critical Properties”, Report Chem 107, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, October, 1979. In order to ensure thermodynamic consistency, in almost all cases these properties are calculated from Tc and the vapor pressure and liquid density correlation coefficients listed in those tables. This means that there will be slight differences between the values listed here and those in the DIPPR tables. Most of the differences are less than 1%, and almost all the rest are less than the estimated accuracy of the quantity in question. The atomic weights used, taken from J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 22(6), 1993, are C = 12.011, H = 1.00794, O = 15.9994, N = 14.00674, S = 32.066, F = 18.9984, Cl = 35.4527, Br = 79.904, and I = 126.90447. The value of the gas constant, R, used here is 8314.51 J/(kmol·K), as given by E. R. Cohen and B. N. Taylor in J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 17, 1988. K − 273.15 = °C; 1.8 × K − 459.67 = °F; Pa × 9.869233E-06 = atm; Pa × 1.450377E-04 = psia j; m3/kmol × (1E + 03/mol. wt.) = cm3/g; m3/kmol × (1.601846E + 01/mol wt) = ft3/lb.

2-140

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

COMPRESSIBILITIES
INTRODUCTION The increasing ranges of pressure and temperature of interest to technology for an ever-increasing number of substances would necessitate additional tables in this subsection as well as in the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.” Space restrictions preclude this. Hence, in the present revision, an attempt was made to update the fluidcompressibility tables for selected fluids and to omit tables for other fluids. The reader is thus referred to the fourth edition for tables on miscellaneous gases at 0°C, acetylene, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures, and methyl chloride. The reader is also reminded that compressibilities can be calculated from the pressure—volume (or density)—temperature tables of the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.” UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °R = 9⁄5 K. To convert bars to pounds-force per cubic inch, multiply by 14.504. To convert bars to kilopascals, multiply by 1 × 102.

TABLE 2-165 Temp., K 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000 1

Compressibility Factors for Air* Pressure, bar 5 0.0260 0.0250 0.0236 0.8872 0.9373 0.9614 0.9748 0.9832 0.9886 0.9957 0.9987 1.0002 1.0012 1.0016 1.0020 1.0022 1.0020 1.0018 10 0.0519 0.0499 0.0471 0.0453 0.8660 0.9205 0.9489 0.9660 0.9767 0.9911 0.9974 1.0004 1.0025 1.0034 1.0034 1.0039 1.0038 1.0037 20 0.1036 0.0995 0.0940 0.0900 0.6730 0.8297 0.8954 0.9314 0.9539 0.9822 0.9950 1.0014 1.0046 1.0063 1.0074 1.0081 1.0077 1.0068 40 0.2063 0.1981 0.1866 0.1782 0.1778 0.5856 0.7803 0.8625 0.9100 0.9671 0.9917 1.0038 1.0100 1.0133 1.0151 1.0164 1.0157 1.0142 60 0.3082 0.2958 0.2781 0.2635 0.2557 0.3313 0.6603 0.7977 0.8701 0.9549 0.9901 1.0075 1.0159 1.0210 1.0234 1.0253 1.0240 1.0215 80 0.4094 0.3927 0.3686 0.3498 0.3371 0.3737 0.5696 0.7432 0.8374 0.9463 0.9903 1.0121 1.0229 1.0287 1.0323 1.0340 1.0321 1.0290 100 0.5099 0.4887 0.4581 0.4337 0.4132 0.4340 0.5489 0.7084 0.8142 0.9411 0.9930 1.0183 1.0312 1.0374 1.0410 1.0434 1.0408 1.0365 150 0.7581 0.7258 0.6779 0.6386 0.5964 0.5909 0.6340 0.7180 0.8061 0.9450 1.0074 1.0377 1.0533 1.0614 1.0650 1.0678 1.0621 1.0556 200 1.0025 0.9588 0.8929 0.8377 0.7720 0.7699 0.7564 0.7986 0.8549 0.9713 1.0326 1.0635 1.0795 1.0913 1.0913 1.0920 1.0844 1.0744 250 1.1931 1.1098 1.0395 0.9530 0.9114 0.8840 0.9000 0.9311 1.0152 1.0669 1.0947 1.1087 1.1183 1.1183 1.1172 1.1061 1.0948 300 1.4139 1.3110 1.2227 1.1076 1.0393 1.0105 1.0068 1.0185 1.0702 1.1089 1.1303 1.1411 1.1463 1.1463 1.1427 1.1283 1.1131 400 500

0.0052 0.9764 0.9797 0.9880 0.9927 0.9951 0.9967 0.9978 0.9992 0.9999 1.0000 1.0002 1.0003 1.0003 1.0004 1.0004 1.0004

1.7161 1.5937 1.5091 1.3202 1.2585 1.2232 1.2054 1.1990 1.2073 1.2116 1.2117 1.2090 1.2051 1.1947 1.1720 1.1515

2.1105 1.9536 1.7366 1.5903 1.4970 1.4361 1.3944 1.3392 1.3163 1.3015 1.2890 1.2778 1.2667 1.2475 1.2150 1.1889

*Calculated from values of pressure, volume (or density), and temperature in Vasserman, Kazavchinskii, and Rabinovich, Thermophysical Properties of Air and Air Components, Moscow, Nauka, 1966, and NBS-NSF Trans. TT 70-50095, 1971; and Vasserman and Rabinovich, Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Air and Its Components, Moscow, 1968, and NBS-NSF Trans. 69-55092, 1970.

TABLE 2-166 Temp., K 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 800 1000

Compressibility Factors for Argon* Pressure, bar 1 0.9773 0.9932 0.9972 0.9988 0.9995 1.0001 1.0002 1.0003 1.0003 1.0002 5 0.0183 0.9647 0.9857 0.9935 0.9969 0.9997 1.0007 1.0012 1.0012 1.0013 10 0.0366 0.9273 0.9713 0.9869 0.9941 0.9998 1.0012 1.0025 1.0023 1.0022 20 0.0729 0.8447 0.9419 0.9741 0.9884 0.9999 1.0034 1.0046 1.0050 1.0050 40 0.1449 0.6101 0.8810 0.9494 0.9777 1.0004 1.0071 1.0094 1.0102 1.0096 60 0.2162 0.2249 0.8208 0.9263 0.9686 1.0018 1.0113 1.0143 1.0151 1.0142 80 0.2867 0.2781 0.7624 0.9056 0.9611 1.0031 1.0154 1.0198 1.0205 1.0193 100 0.3567 0.3324 0.7121 0.8877 0.9552 1.0056 1.0205 1.0250 1.0258 1.0239 200 0.6975 0.5934 0.6870 0.8590 0.9533 1.0280 1.0501 1.0553 1.0532 1.0484 300 1.0267 0.8387 0.8360 0.9207 0.9950 1.0656 1.0874 1.0904 1.0830 1.0736 400 1.3470 1.0732 1.0051 1.0262 1.0673 1.1157 1.1301 1.1291 1.1147 1.0999 500 1.6932 1.2995 1.1982 1.1479 1.1786 1.1976 1.1997 1.1933 1.1707 1.1497

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standard Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

COMPRESSIBILITIES
TABLE 2-167 Temp., °C 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Compressibility Factors for Carbon Dioxide* Pressure, bar 1 0.9933 0.9964 0.9977 0.9985 0.9991 0.9994 0.9996 0.9998 0.9999 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0003 1.0002 1.0002 1.0002 5 0.9658 0.9805 0.9883 0.9927 0.9953 0.9971 0.9982 0.9991 0.9997 1.0000 1.0004 1.0007 1.0010 1.0009 1.0009 1.0009 10 0.9294 0.9607 0.9764 0.9853 0.9908 0.9943 0.9967 0.9983 0.9994 1.0003 1.0008 1.0013 1.0017 1.0019 1.0020 1.0021 20 0.8496 0.9195 0.9524 0.9705 0.9818 0.9886 0.9936 0.9964 0.9989 1.0005 1.0015 1.0030 1.0036 1.0040 1.0041 1.0042 40 0.8300 0.9034 0.9416 0.9640 0.9783 0.9875 0.9938 0.9982 1.0013 1.0035 1.0062 1.0073 1.0082 1.0083 1.0084 60 0.7264 0.8533 0.9131 0.9473 0.9684 0.9822 0.9914 0.9979 1.0023 1.0056 1.0093 1.0161 1.0122 1.0128 1.0128 80 0.5981 0.8022 0.8854 0.9313 0.9593 0.9773 0.9896 0.9979 1.0038 1.0079 1.0129 1.0155 1.0168 1.0171 1.0172 100 0.4239 0.7514 0.8590 0.9170 0.9511 0.9733 0.9882 0.9984 1.0056 1.0107 1.0168 1.0198 1.0212 1.0221 1.0218 200 300 400

2-141

500

0.5891 0.7651 0.8649 0.9253 0.9640 0.9895 1.0073 1.0070 1.0282 1.0386 1.0436 1.0458 1.0463 1.0460

0.6420 0.7623 0.8619 0.9294 0.9746 1.0053 1.0266 1.0412 1.0522 1.0648 1.0707 1.0731 1.0726 1.0725

0.8235 0.8995 0.9508 1.0030 1.0340 1.0559 1.0709 1.0820 1.0948 1.1000 1.1016 1.1012 1.0725

0.9098 0.9621 1.0096 1.0464 1.0734 1.0928 1.1067 1.1165 1.1277 1.1318 1.1324 1.1303 1.1274

*Calculated from density-pressure-temperature data in Vukalovitch and Altunin, Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide, Atomizdat, Moscow, 1965, and Collet’s, London, 1968, translation.

TABLE 2-168 Temp., K 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

Compressibility Factors for Carbon Monoxide* Pressure, atm 1 0.9973 0.9989 0.9997 1.0000 1.0002 1.0003 1.0004 1.0005 1.0005 1.0004 1.0004 1.0004 1.0003 1.0002 1.0002 1.0002 4 0.9893 0.9957 0.9987 1.0002 1.0010 1.0014 1.0016 1.0018 1.0018 1.0017 1.0017 1.0016 1.0012 1.0009 1.0007 1.0006 7 0.9813 0.9926 0.9977 1.0003 1.0017 1.0025 1.0029 1.0032 1.0032 1.0030 1.0029 1.0027 1.0021 1.0016 1.0013 1.0010 10 0.9734 0.9896 0.9968 1.0005 1.0025 1.0035 1.0041 1.0045 1.0045 1.0044 1.0041 1.0039 1.0029 1.0022 1.0018 1.0015 40 0.9632 0.9907 1.0042 1.0042 1.0152 1.0172 1.0186 1.0183 1.0175 1.0166 1.0156 1.0115 1.0088 1.0071 1.0059 70 100

0.9896 1.0112 1.0112 1.0285 1.0314 1.0332 1.0325 1.0309 1.0291 1.0273 1.0200 1.0155 1.0124 1.0104

0.9935 1.0216 1.0216 1.0433 1.0469 1.0485 1.0470 1.0445 1.0418 1.0391 1.0286 1.0221 1.0178 1.0148

*From Hilsenrath et al., N.B.S. Circ. 564, 1955. Some of the above values have been rounded to four decimal places. Values at 10-K increments below 1000 K and at 50 K increments for higher temperatures appear in the original, also for pressures below atmospheric.

TABLE 2-169 Compressibility Factors for Ethanol Pressure, bar Temp., K 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800 900 1000 0.1 0.0022 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.5 0.0023 0.993 0.997 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.013 0.0024 0.986 0.991 0.994 0.997 0.999 0.999 1.000 1.000 10 0.0229 0.0215 0.0204 0.908 0.941 0.972 0.985 0.992 0.996 0.998 20 0.0458 0.0411 0.0408 0.874 0.943 0.971 0.984 0.992 0.997 50 0.114 0.107 0.101 0.101 0.122 0.948 0.973 0.988 0.993 100 0.228 0.208 0.201 0.198 0.214 0.672 0.902 0.953 0.981 0.990 250 0.565 0.509 0.490 0.472 0.473 0.470 0.760 0.890 0.962 1.002 500 1.11 1.03 0.95 0.898 0.868 0.868 0.921 0.988 1.04 1.08

Rounded and interpolated from Thermodynamics Research Center tables, Texas A&M University.

2-142

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-170 Compressibility Factors for Ethylene Pressure, bar 1 5 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 Temperature, K 110 0.0047 0.0237 0.0472 0.0710 0.0946 0.1418 0.1889 0.2831 0.3767 0.4702 0.7030 0.9337 1.1636 1.3917 1.8441 solid 150 0.0038 0.0189 0.0378 0.0566 0.0754 0.1129 0.1504 0.2251 0.2994 0.3734 0.5567 0.7382 0.9179 1.0960 1.4475 1.7934 200 0.9808 0.0162 0.0323 0.0484 0.0644 0.0963 0.1280 0.1910 0.2533 0.3150 0.4671 0.6161 0.7630 0.9075 1.1910 1.4679 250 0.9902 0.9495 0.8946 0.8320 0.7578 0.0950 0.1251 0.1838 0.2410 0.2968 0.4324 0.5630 0.6904 0.8148 1.0565 1.2908 300 0.9944 0.9717 0.9425 0.9121 0.8804 0.8122 0.7342 0.5235 0.3302 0.3480 0.4528 0.5641 0.6740 0.7816 0.9909 1.1932 350 0.9966 0.9828 0.9659 0.9479 0.9299 0.8936 0.8560 0.7791 0.7023 0.6359 0.5842 0.6347 0.7110 0.7969 0.9726 1.1468 400 0.9979 0.9894 0.9785 0.9679 0.9574 0.9357 0.9144 0.8730 0.9056 0.9220 0.7483 0.7499 0.7895 0.8479 0.9849 1.1304 450 0.9986 0.9935 0.9867 0.9749 0.9734 0.9603 0.9477 0.9231 0.9009 0.8825 0.8523 0.8494 0.8710 0.9095 1.0142 1.1341 500 0.9991 0.9959 0.9919 0.9876 0.9833 0.9754 0.9677 0.9541 0.9428 0.9321 0.9167 0.9184 0.9343 0.9631 1.0450 1.1436

Calculated from Jacobsen, R.T., M. Jahangiri, et al., Ethylene, Blackwell Sci. Publs., Oxford, 1988 (299 pp.).

TABLE 2-171 Temp., K 20 40 60 80 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 2000

Compressibility Factors for Normal Hydrogen* Pressure, bar 1 0.0169 0.9848 0.9955 0.9986 0.9998 1.0007 1.0005 1.0004 1.0004 1.0003 1.0002 1.0002 1.0009 10 0.1680 0.8340 0.9562 0.9776 0.9979 1.0066 1.0059 1.0048 1.0040 1.0034 1.0026 1.0021 1.0013 20 0.3302 0.6311 0.9169 0.9763 0.9976 1.0134 1.0117 1.0096 1.0080 1.0068 1.0052 1.0042 1.0023 40 0.6430 0.5240 0.8608 0.9655 1.0022 1.0275 1.0236 1.0192 1.0160 1.0136 1.0104 1.0084 1.0044 60 0.9434 0.6627 0.8498 0.9676 1.0133 1.0422 1.0357 1.0289 1.0240 1.0204 1.0156 1.0126 1.0065 80 1.2346 0.8118 0.8832 0.9842 1.0280 1.0575 1.0479 1.0386 1.0320 1.0272 1.0208 1.0168 1.0086 100 1.5166 0.9590 0.9432 1.0138 1.0528 1.0734 1.0603 1.0484 1.0400 1.0340 1.0259 1.0209 1.0107 200 2.844 1.650 1.347 1.257 1.225 1.163 1.124 1.098 1.080 1.068 1.051 1.041 1.021 400 2.878 2.158 1.834 1.659 1.355 1.253 1.196 1.159 1.133 1.100 1.080 1.040 600 3.993 2.902 2.389 2.095 1.555 1.383 1.293 1.236 1.197 1.147 1.117 1.057 800 5.034 3.598 2.907 2.512 1.753 1.510 1.388 1.311 1.259 1.193 1.153 1.073 1000 6.019 4.263 3.404 2.902 1.936 1.636 1.481 1.385 1.320 1.237 1.187 1.088

*Calculated from PVT tables of McCarty, Hord, and Roder, NBS Monogr. 168, 1981.

TABLE 2-172 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 60 Pressure, bar Temp., K 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Zsat Tsat 1 0.9687 0.9780 0.9803 0.9824 0.9848 0.9867 0.9872 0.9884 0.9894 0.9905 0.9920 0.9712 234.0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Zsat 0.9494 0.9315 0.9098 0.8839 0.8538 0.8459 0.8637 0.8790 0.8908 0.9026 0.9139 0.8361 295.0 0.7800 0.8066 0.8299 0.8488 0.8663 0.7777 309.5 0.8175 0.7756 0.7261 0.6666 0.6305 0.6908 0.6118 337.6 Psat 2.08 3.11 4.49 6.30 8.62 11.55 15.19 19.66 25.10

0.9099 0.9199 0.9284 0.9359 0.9425 0.9484 0.9537 0.9582 0.9022 273.1

0.7577 0.7888 0.8145 0.7224 320.7

0.6700 0.7184 0.7570 0.6677 329.8

Converted and interpolated from “Thermodynamic Properties of KLEA 60,” British units, © ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993 (20 pp.). Reproduced by permission. KLEA 60 is R32/125/134a (20/40/40 wt %).

COMPRESSIBILITIES
TABLE 2-173 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 61 Pressure, bar Temp., K 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Zsat Tsat 1 0.9746 0.9773 0.9798 0.9787 0.9838 0.9854 0.9868 0.9881 0.9892 0.9903 0.9917 0.9686 230.0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Zsat 0.9381 0.9172 0.8920 0.8622 0.8272 0.8431 0.8615 0.8772 0.8909 0.9027 0.9131 0.8237 290.9 0.7755 0.8042 0.8280 0.8484 0.8653 0.7602 305.5 0.7868 0.7377 0.6801 0.6087 0.6312 0.6916 0.5780 333.7 Psat 2.46 3.63 5.18 7.19 9.75 12.21 16.88 21.68 27.50

2-143

0.9067 0.9185 0.9270 0.9348 0.9416 0.9481 0.9529 0.9577 0.8944 269.0

0.7148 0.7518 0.7934 0.8134 0.7003 316.7

0.6659 0.7174 0.7565 0.6399 325.9

Converted and interpolated from “Thermodynamic Properties of KLEA 61,” British units, © ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993 (23 pp.). Reproduced by permission. KLEA 61 is R32/125/134a (10/70/20 wt %).

TABLE 2-174 Compressibility Factors for KLEA 66 Pressure, bar Temp., K 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Zsat Tsat 1 0.974 0.9772 0.9796 0.9838 0.9858 0.9872 0.9883 0.9896 0.9907 0.9917 0.9926 0.9719 236.1 5 10 15 20 25 30 Zsat 0.9541 0.9374 0.9172 0.8931 0.8645 0.8461 0.8663 0.8786 0.8910 0.9035 0.9137 0.8397 297.6 0.8328 0.7920 0.7462 0.6918 0.6255 0.6843 0.6220 340.4 Psat 1.89 2.84 4.12 5.81 7.98 10.73 14.15 18.37 23.50 29.73

0.9089 0.9209 0.9287 0.9359 0.9431 0.9490 0.9540 0.9588 0.9044 275.5

0.8056 0.8292 0.8492 0.8659 0.7827 312.1

0.7551 0.7878 0.8127 0.7289 323.5

0.7147 0.7542 0.6759 332.6

Converted and interpolated from “Thermodynamic properties of KLEA 66,” British units, © ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993 (20 pp.). Reproduced by permission. KLEA 66 is R32/125/134a (23/25/52 wt %).

TABLE 2-175 Temp., K 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000

Compressibility Factors for Krypton* Pressure, bar 1 0.9837 0.9933 0.9966 0.9982 0.9989 0.9993 0.9998 0.9998 1.0000 1.0002 1.0002 5 0.9155 0.9648 0.9841 0.9899 0.9949 0.9967 0.9985 0.9992 1.0003 1.0010 1.0013 10 0.0310 0.9278 0.9635 0.9800 0.9897 0.9933 0.9969 0.9984 1.0005 1.0020 1.0023 20 0.0618 0.8459 0.9265 0.9595 0.9793 0.9867 0.9939 0.9970 1.0012 1.0041 1.0045 40 0.1227 0.6039 0.8468 0.9197 0.9522 0.9746 0.9886 0.9942 1.0025 1.0079 1.0091 60 0.1829 0.1870 0.7605 0.8807 0.9415 0.9635 0.9838 0.9921 1.0043 1.0122 1.0135 80 0.2423 0.2393 0.6680 0.8437 0.9250 0.9539 0.9800 0.9910 1.0064 1.0170 1.0184 100 0.3012 0.2903 0.5810 0.8097 0.9110 0.9459 0.9774 0.9906 1.0091 1.0214 1.0230 200 0.5875 0.5313 0.5785 0.7337 0.8774 0.9323 0.9663 1.0019 1.0301 1.0475 1.0486 300 0.8636 0.7568 0.7461 0.7954 0.8992 0.9570 1.0011 1.0311 1.0618 1.0779 1.0767 400 1.1315 0.9730 0.9197 0.9302 0.9799 1.0150 1.0543 1.0732 1.1000 1.1112 1.1063 500 1.3932 1.1820 1.0891 1.0627 1.0664 1.0910 1.1142 1.1258 1.1431 1.1147 1.1369

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standards Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

2-144

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Compressibility Factors for Methane (R50)* Pressure, bar 1 0.9854 0.9936 0.9965 0.9983 0.9991 0.9995 0.9997 0.9999 1.0000 1.0003 1.0004 5 0.9225 0.9676 0.9838 0.9915 0.9954 0.9977 0.9989 0.9997 1.0009 1.0017 1.0014 10 0.8275 0.9339 0.9680 0.9830 0.9911 0.9953 0.9979 0.9995 1.0020 1.0034 1.0035 20 0.0714 0.8599 0.9352 0.9667 0.9825 0.9912 0.9963 0.9995 1.0039 1.0068 1.0071 40 0.1411 0.6784 0.8682 0.9343 0.9662 0.9835 0.9935 0.9996 1.0081 1.0130 1.0141 60 0.2093 0.3559 0.8020 0.9047 0.9520 0.9772 0.9917 1.0005 1.0125 1.0197 1.0207 80 0.2763 0.3172 0.7386 0.8783 0.9401 0.9726 0.9911 1.0022 1.0171 1.0263 1.0274 100 0.3423 0.3618 0.6854 0.8556 0.9306 0.9696 0.9916 1.0048 1.0217 1.0330 1.0342 200 0.6599 0.6141 0.6899 0.8280 0.9227 0.9779 1.0098 1.0285 1.0540 1.0678 1.0678 300 0.9623 0.8568 0.8554 0.9154 0.9800 1.0245 1.0528 1.0699 1.0969 1.1068 1.1033 400 1.2537 1.0887 1.0359 1.0432 1.0723 1.0986 1.1152 1.1248 1.1470 1.1496 1.1400 500 1.5363 1.3122 1.2155 1.1829 1.1804 1.1859 1.1899 1.1899 1.2019 1.1951 1.1790

TABLE 2-176 Temp., K 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Goodwin, NBS Tech. Note 653, 1974, for temperatures up to 500 K, and from PVT values tabulated in Zhuravlev. Thermophysical Properties of Gaseous and Liquid Methane, Standartov, Moscow, 1969, and NBS-NSF transl. TT 70-50097, 1970.

TABLE 2-177 Temp., K 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 700 800

Compressibility Factors for Methanol Pressure, bar 0.1 0.5 0.0011 0.0009 0.0008 0.9713 0.9795 0.9835 0.9859 0.9889 0.9907 0.9920 1.0133 0.0022 0.0019 0.0017 0.9551 0.9722 0.9792 0.9828 0.9867 0.9889 0.9904 10 0.0219 0.0185 0.0164 0.0150 0.0142 0.9145 0.9525 0.9756 0.9816 0.9838 20 0.0438 0.0370 0.0327 0.0298 0.0283 0.7989 0.9081 0.9643 0.9778 0.9818 50 0.1091 0.0923 0.0813 0.0742 0.0702 0.0701 0.6799 0.9042 0.9541 0.9711 100 0.2174 0.1837 0.1617 0.1473 0.1386 0.1366 0.1505 0.7629 0.8932 0.9411 150 0.3250 0.2743 0.2413 0.2193 0.2056 0.2007 0.2110 0.6275 0.8392 0.9156 200 0.4319 0.3643 0.3201 0.2904 0.2714 0.2629 0.2699 0.5255 0.8027 0.9025 250 0.5381 0.4535 0.3981 0.3606 0.3362 0.3238 0.3271 0.4921 0.7797 0.8994 300 0.6437 0.5422 0.4755 0.4301 0.4000 0.3834 0.3829 0.5010 0.7675 0.9026 400 0.8531 0.7176 0.6284 0.5671 0.5253 0.4997 0.4912 0.5606 0.7713 0.9205 500 1.6030 0.8909 0.7791 0.7016 0.6478 0.6128 0.5959 0.6358 0.7993 0.9485

0.0002 0.0002 0.9792 0.9844 0.9872 0.9890 0.9903 0.9922 0.9934 0.9964

Goodwin, R.D., J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16 (4), 799, 1987.

TABLE 2-178 Temp., K 50 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 800 1000

Compressibility Factors for Neon* Pressure, bar 1 0.9913 0.9993 1.0002 1.0003 1.0001 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 5 0.9472 0.9970 1.0017 1.0023 1.0022 1.0020 1.0017 1.0014 1.0012 1.0009 1.0007 10 0.9083 0.9949 1.0036 1.0049 1.0045 1.0041 1.0036 1.0029 1.0024 1.0018 1.0014 20 0.8013 0.9913 1.0078 1.0100 1.0097 1.0091 1.0074 1.0058 1.0049 1.0043 1.0034 40 0.3810 0.9854 1.0162 1.0204 1.0198 1.0181 1.0151 1.0124 1.0107 1.0081 1.0068 60 0.4398 0.9245 1.0262 1.0318 1.0295 1.0277 1.0216 1.0188 1.0160 1.0123 1.0098 80 0.4984 0.9864 1.0375 1.0427 1.0403 1.0369 1.0301 1.0252 1.0214 1.0163 1.0132 100 0.5850 0.9930 1.0497 1.0551 1.0502 1.0469 1.0376 1.0316 1.0267 1.0206 1.0165 200 0.9864 1.0796 1.1236 1.1191 1.1057 1.0961 1.0771 1.0641 1.0542 1.0413 1.0330 300 1.3659 1.2197 1.2131 1.1909 1.1633 1.1476 1.1172 1.0963 1.0814 1.0622 1.0500 400 1.7289 1.3796 1.3113 1.2655 1.2223 1.1997 1.1575 1.1291 1.1091 1.0829 1.0670 500 2.0794 1.5473 1.4150 1.3422 1.2822 1.2520 1.1981 1.1621 1.1369 1.1039 1.0836

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standards Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

COMPRESSIBILITIES
TABLE 2-179 Temp., K 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000 Compressibility Factors for Nitrogen* Pressure, bar 1 0.0057 0.9593 0.9722 0.9798 0.9883 0.9927 0.9952 0.9967 0.9978 0.9992 0.9998 1.0001 1.0002 1.0003 1.0004 1.0004 1.0004 1.0003 5 0.0287 0.0264 0.0251 0.8910 0.9397 0.9635 0.9766 0.9846 0.9897 0.9960 0.9990 1.0007 1.0011 1.0018 1.0020 1.0021 1.0017 1.0015 10 0.0573 0.0528 0.0500 0.0487 0.8732 0.9253 0.9529 0.9690 0.9791 0.9924 0.9983 1.0011 1.0024 1.0033 1.0040 1.0040 1.0036 1.0034 20 0.1143 0.1053 0.0996 0.0966 0.7059 0.8433 0.9042 0.9381 0.9592 0.9857 0.9971 1.0029 1.0057 1.0073 1.0081 1.0084 1.0074 1.0067 40 0.2277 0.2093 0.1975 0.1905 0.1975 0.6376 0.8031 0.8782 0.9212 0.9741 0.9964 1.0069 1.0125 1.0153 1.0167 1.0173 1.0157 1.0136 60 0.3400 0.3122 0.2938 0.2823 0.2822 0.4251 0.7017 0.8125 0.8882 0.9655 0.9973 1.0125 1.0199 1.0238 1.0257 1.0263 1.0237 1.0205 80 0.4516 0.4140 0.3888 0.3720 0.3641 0.4278 0.6304 0.7784 0.8621 0.9604 1.0000 1.0189 1.0283 1.0332 1.0350 1.0355 1.0320 1.0275 100 0.5623 0.5148 0.4826 0.4605 0.4438 0.4799 0.6134 0.7530 0.8455 0.9589 1.0052 1.0271 1.0377 1.0430 1.0451 1.0450 1.0402 1.0347 200 1.1044 1.0061 0.9362 0.8840 0.8188 0.7942 0.8107 0.8550 0.9067 1.0048 1.0559 1.0810 1.0926 1.0973 1.0984 1.0951 1.0832 1.0714 300 1.6308 1.4797 1.3700 1.2852 1.1684 1.0996 1.0708 1.0669 1.0760 1.1143 1.1422 1.1560 1.1609 1.1606 1.1575 1.1540 1.1264 1.1078 400 Solid 1.9396 1.7890 1.6707 1.5015 1.3920 1.3275 1.2893 1.2683 1.2501 1.2480 1.2445 1.2382 1.2303 1.2213 1.2028 1.1701 1.1449

2-145

500 Solid 2.3879 2.1962 2.0441 1.8223 1.6726 1.5762 1.5105 1.4631 1.3962 1.3629 1.3405 1.3216 1.3043 1.2881 1.2657 1.2140 1.1814

*Computed from pressure-volume-temperature tables in the Vasserman monographs referenced under Table 2-165. TABLE 2-180 Temp., K 75 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000 Compressibility Factors for Oxygen* Pressure, bar 1 0.0043 0.0041 0.0038 0.9757 0.9855 0.9911 0.9939 0.9960 0.9970 0.9987 0.9994 0.9998 1.0000 1.0002 1.0002 1.0003 1.0003 1.0003 5 0.0213 0.0203 0.0188 0.0177 0.9246 0.9535 0.9697 0.9793 0.9853 0.9938 0.9968 0.9990 1.0000 1.0007 1.0011 1.0014 1.0014 1.0013 10 0.0425 0.0406 0.0376 0.0354 0.8367 0.9034 0.9379 0.9579 0.9705 0.9870 0.9941 0.9979 1.0000 1.0015 1.0022 1.0024 1.0026 1.0026 20 0.0849 0.0811 0.0750 0.0705 0.0660 0.7852 0.8689 0.9134 0.9399 0.9736 0.9884 0.9961 1.0000 1.0024 1.0038 1.0052 1.0055 1.0053 40 0.1693 0.1616 0.1494 0.1404 0.1302 0.1334 0.6991 0.8167 0.8768 0.9477 0.9771 0.9919 1.0003 1.0048 1.0075 1.0102 1.0109 1.0101 60 0.2533 0.2418 0.2233 0.2096 0.1935 0.1940 0.3725 0.7696 0.8140 0.9237 0.9676 0.9890 1.0011 1.0074 1.0115 1.0153 1.0164 1.0149 80 0.3368 0.3214 0.2966 0.2783 0.2558 0.2527 0.2969 0.5954 0.7534 0.9030 0.9597 0.9870 1.0022 1.0106 1.0161 1.0207 1.0219 1.0198 100 0.4200 0.4007 0.3696 0.3464 0.3173 0.3099 0.3378 0.5106 0.6997 0.8858 0.9542 0.9870 1.0045 1.0152 1.0207 1.0266 1.0271 1.0253 200 0.8301 0.7912 0.7281 0.6798 0.6148 0.5815 0.5766 0.6043 0.6720 0.8563 0.9560 1.0049 1.0305 1.0445 1.0523 1.0582 1.0565 1.0507 300 1.2322 1.1738 1.0780 1.0040 0.8999 0.8374 0.8058 0.8025 0.8204 0.9172 0.9972 1.0451 1.0718 1.0859 1.0927 1.0961 1.0888 1.0783 400 1.6278 1.5495 1.4211 1.3206 1.1762 1.0832 1.0249 0.9990 0.9907 1.0222 1.0689 1.1023 1.1227 1.1334 1.1380 1.1374 1.1231 1.1072 500 2.0175 1.9196 1.7580 1.6309 1.4456 1.3214 1.2364 1.1888 1.1623 1.1431 1.1572 1.1722 1.1816 1.1859 1.1866 1.1803 1.1582 1.1369

*Calculated from pressure-volume-temperature tables in the Vasserman monographs listed under Table 2-165. TABLE 2-181 Temp., K 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 Zsat Tsat Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 32* Pressure, bar 1 0.9656 0.9711 0.9755 0.9791 0.9819 0.9844 0.9864 0.9880 0.9894 0.9904 0.9914 0.9923 0.9932 0.9595 221.2 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 Zsat 0.9453 0.9278 0.9062 0.8811 0.8522 0.8210 0.8476 0.8686 0.8358 0.8998 0.9118 0.9203 0.9296 0.8202 279.8 0.8194 0.7822 0.7401 0.6922 0.6370 0.6851 0.7316 0.7671 0.6303 321.1 0.6021 0.6675 0.5427 333.9 0.5719 0.4905 0.3702 Psat 1.54 2.40 3.60 5.22 7.34 10.07 13.51 17.76 22.95 29.21 36.72 45.66 56.35

0.8865 0.9036 0.9180 0.9285 0.9376 0.9453 0.9518 0.9573 0.9619 0.9655 0.8843 258.8

0.7899 0.8197 0.8436 0.8628 0.8790 0.8932 0.7670 293.8

0.7439 0.7812 0.8102 0.8338 0.8534 0.7191 304.6

0.7089 0.7518 0.7846 0.8115 0.6722 313.5

0.5312 0.4467 344.3

*Converted and interpolated from British units shown in Thermodynamic properties of KLEA 32, ICI Chemicals and Polymers, 1993. Reproduced by permission.

2-146

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 123 Pressure, bar 1 0.9639 0.9682 0.9717 0.9745 0.9766 0.9804 0.9839 0.9861 0.9886 0.9908 0.9924 0.9938 0.9954 0.9575 27.5 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 Zsat 0.9427 0.9294 0.9134 0.8950 0.8727 0.9197 0.9146 0.9282 0.9406 0.9518 0.9602 0.9692 0.9 0.9730 80.8 0.8355 0.8667 0.8915 0.9077 0.9254 0.9388 0.9526 0.9651 0.8292 97.9 0.8140 0.8503 0.8747 0.8970 0.9174 0.9378 0.9528 0.7947 111.1 0.8262 0.7640 0.6890 0.5820 0.3926 — — — — — Psat 1.54 2.13 2.96 3.78 4.90 7.87 12.01 17.59 24.92 34.54 — — — — —

TABLE 2-182 Temp., °C 40 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 Zsat T

0.9248 0.9327 0.9401 0.9501 0.9591 0.9650 0.9714 0.9762 0.9806 0.9846 0.9885 0.9210 55.4

0.8023 0.8398 0.8709 0.8931 0.9170 0.9382 0.7654 122.0

0.7479 0.8026 0.8402 0.8688 0.8972 0.9229 0.7229 131.4

0.6916 0.7600 0.8072 0.8422 0.8800 0.9101 0.7110 139.7

0.7134 0.7712 0.8163 0.8566 0.8930 0.6564 147.2

0.6553 0.7346 0.7882 0.8401 0.8771 0.6206 154.0

0.6841 0.7539 0.8157 0.8581 0.5821 160.2

Dashes indicate inaccessible states; blanks indicate no available data. TABLE 2-183 Temp., °C −20 −10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 Zsat T 0.9468 −12.4 0.9071 11.9 0.8605 34.0 Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 124 Pressure, bar 1 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 Zsat 0.9562 0.9431 0.9284 0.9243 0.8920 0.9313 0.9396 0.9473 0.9534 0.9633 0.9700 0.9749 0.9794 0.9825 0.8728 0.8889 0.9017 0.9226 0.9370 0.9478 0.9575 0.9645 0.9690 0.8828 0.8427 0.8151 0.7803 0.7024 0.7463 0.8022 0.8391 0.8644 0.8857 0.9042 0.9223 0.9412 0.6825 85.0 0.6950 0.7682 0.8105 0.8489 0.8634 0.8951 0.9160 0.9333 0.6484 91.4 0.6380 0.7285 0.7896 0.8285 0.8574 0.8783 0.9040 0.9252 0.6279 96.3 0.6878 0.7647 0.7868 0.8379 0.8647 0.8947 0.9174 0.5788 102.6 0.5955 0.3912 Psat 0.72 1.10 1.63 2.34 3.27 4.45 5.93 7.75 9.96 15.74 23.75 34.70

0.9573 0.9641 0.9693 0.9736 0.9675 0.9798 0.9820 0.9854 0.9880 0.9899 0.9917

0.8229 0.8462 0.8820 0.9040 0.9206 0.9357 0.9464 0.9536 0.9601

0.8366 0.8710 0.8935 0.9138 0.9247 0.9382 0.9471 0.9589 0.9650 0.7830 60.2 0.8314 0.8634 0.8884 0.9061 0.9213 0.9338 0.9488 0.9573 0.7488 69.6

0.7251 0.7918 0.8329 0.8641 0.8868 0.9056 0.9211 0.9391 0.9443 0.7157 77.8

0.8185 48.7

Dashes indicate inaccessible states; blanks indicate no available data. TABLE 2-184 Temp., °C −10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 satn. sat. T Compressibility Factors for Refrigerant 134a Pressure, bar 1 0.9622 0.9710 0.9752 0.9778 0.9817 0.9839 0.9857 0.9872 0.9886 0.9897 0.9908 0.9916 0.9920 0.9924 0.9927 0.9929 0.9931 0.9567 −26.37 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 Zsat 0.9316 0.9119 0.8888 0.8621 0.8314 0.7963 0.7560 0.7098 0.6562 0.5911 0.5054 0.3462 — — — — — — — Psat 2.005 2.926 4.144 5.716 7.701 10.17 13.18 16.82 21.17 26.38 32.45 39.72 — — — — — — —

0.8819 0.8973 0.9098 0.9206 0.9296 0.9376 0.9442 0.9495 0.9543 0.9592 0.9638 0.9673 0.9691 0.9727 0.8741 15.74

0.8005 0.8280 0.8449 0.8678 0.8828 0.8954 0.9062 0.9151 0.9235 0.9308 0.9370 0.9428 0.7989 39.39

0.7361 0.7917 0.8137 0.8390 0.8555 0.8630 0.8802 0.8949 0.9040 0.8877 0.7017 55.23

0.6853 0.7327 0.7682 0.7965 0.8144 0.8386 0.8553 0.8694 0.8817 0.6704 67.49

0.6290 0.6860 0.7335 0.7630 0.7915 0.8165 0.8350 0.8495 0.6094 77.57

0.5832 0.6557 0.7046 0.7418 0.7716 0.7964 0.8173 0.5415 86.20

0.5732 0.6249 0.6771 0.7169 0.7489 0.4442 100.35

0.4530 0.4885 0.5645 0.6303 0.6783 — —

Dashes indicate inaccessible states; blanks indicate no available data.

TABLE 2-185 Compressibility Factors for Water Substance (fps units)* Pressure, lb/in2 abs. 10 15 20 40 60 80 100 150 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,500 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 Temp., °F 400 0.9965 0.9943 0.9930 0.9861 0.9788 0.9714 0.9469 0.9435 0.9216 600 0.9989 0.9972 0.9970 0.9940 0.9910 0.9878 0.9848 0.9770 0.9690 0.9356 0.8989 0.8586 0.8138 0.6702 800 0.9992 0.9986 0.9981 0.9967 0.9951 0.9935 0.9919 0.9879 0.9839 0.9675 0.9509 0.9336 0.9162 0.8695 0.8188 0.5608 1000 0.9995 0.9993 0.9991 0.9981 0.9973 0.9963 0.9954 0.9931 0.9908 0.9817 0.9725 0.9633 0.9540 0.9305 0.9067 0.8060 0.7042 0.6185 0.5699 1200 0.9999 0.9997 0.9995 0.9990 0.9984 0.9979 0.9974 0.9960 0.9947 0.9893 0.9839 0.9790 0.9733 0.9600 0.9468 0.8942 0.8442 0.8003 0.7657 1400 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9994 0.9991 0.9987 0.9985 9.9976 0.9968 0.9935 0.9904 0.9872 0.9841 0.9764 0.9687 0.9392 0.9121 0.8883 0.8693 1600 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9996 0.9994 0.9992 0.9990 0.9985 0.9980 0.9960 0.9942 0.9925 0.9905 0.9859 0.9813 0.9647 0.9497 0.9371 0.9274 1800 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9995 0.9993 0.9991 0.9982 0.9973 0.9964 0.9955 0.9932 0.9900 0.9836 0.9771 0.9714 0.9668 2000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9992 0.9988 0.9985 0.9981 0.9971 0.9958 0.9930 0.9907 0.9895 0.9890 2200 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9999 0.9998 0.9998 0.9998 0.9997 0.9996 0.9994 0.9992 0.9990 0.9989 0.9991 1.0004 1.0025 2400 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0001 1.0002 1.0002 1.0003 1.0004 1.0007 1.0010 1.0024 1.0048 1.0075 1.0105 2600 1.0006 1.0004 1.0003 1.0003 1.0003 1.0003 1.0004 1.0004 1.0005 1.0007 1.0008 1.0010 1.0012 1.0017 1.0023 1.0050 1.0081 1.0118 1.0158 2800 1.0012 1.0012 1.0011 1.0010 1.0009 1.0008 1.0007 1.0006 1.0007 1.0011 1.0014 1.0016 1.0019 1.0026 1.0034 1.0069 1.0110 1.0152 1.0196 3000 1.0024 1.0022 1.0020 1.0018 1.0018 1.0016 1.0015 1.0014 1.0015 1.0017 1.0019 1.0022 1.0025 1.0033 1.0042 1.0082 1.0128 1.0172 1.0220 3200 1.0053 1.0042 1.0036 1.0028 1.0024 1.0023 1.0022 1.0021 1.0021 1.0023 1.0026 1.0029 1.0032 1.0040 1.0049 1.0093 1.0139 1.0188 1.0240 3400 1.0084 1.0072 1.0065 1.0054 1.0048 1.0044 1.0042 1.0039 1.0037 1.0033 1.0034 1.0036 1.0039 1.0048 1.0058 1.0106 1.0152 1.0204 1.0258 3600 1.0145 1.0124 1.0112 1.0090 1.0080 1.0073 1.0067 1.0059 1.0055 1.0049 1.0048 1.0049 1.0052 1.0059 1.0068 1.0118 1.0165 1.0216 1.0271 3800 1.0211 1.0188 1.0173 1.0139 1.0120 1.0108 1.0099 1.0087 1.0080 1.0070 1.0066 1.0065 1.0066 1.0072 1.0082 1.0132 1.0179 1.0229 1.0284 4000 1.0332 1.0295 1.0269 1.0214 1.0186 1.0170 1.0157 1.0137 1.0126 1.0105 1.0097 1.0094 1.0092 1.0096 1.0104 1.0149 1.0195 1.0242 1.0298

*Calculated by P. E. Liley from various steam tables for the lower temperatures and from Paper B-11 by P. H. Kesselman and Yu. I. Blank, 7th. Int. Conf. Properties of Steam, Tokyo, 1968, for the higher temperatures.

2-147

TABLE 2-186 Temperature, K 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

Compressibility Factors of Water Substance (SI units)* Pressure, bar 1 0.990 0.993 0.996 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.003 5 0.003 0.003 0.980 0.985 0.990 0.992 0.994 0.996 0.997 0.997 0.998 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.002 10 0.006 0.006 0.958 0.969 0.979 0.984 0.988 0.991 0.993 0.995 0.997 0.997 0.998 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.001 1.002 15 0.009 0.009 0.930 0.956 0.970 0.977 0.984 0.988 0.991 0.992 0.993 0.994 0.995 0.998 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002 20 0.012 0.012 0.901 0.939 0.961 0.968 0.976 0.981 0.985 0.989 0.992 0.994 0.995 0.998 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002 25 0.014 0.014 0.878 0.922 0.948 0.959 0.967 0.975 0.982 0.984 0.989 0.993 0.994 0.997 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002 30 0.017 0.016 0.016 0.904 0.935 0.958 0.966 0.971 0.976 0.981 0.986 0.991 0.993 0.997 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.002 40 0.023 0.022 0.021 0.865 0.910 0.937 0.952 0.961 0.970 0.977 0.982 0.985 0.990 0.995 0.999 1.000 1.000 1.002 50 0.029 0.027 0.026 0.822 0.885 0.919 0.941 0.955 0.966 0.973 0.979 0.983 0.987 0.994 0.998 1.000 1.000 1.002 60 0.035 0.033 0.031 0.773 0.858 0.902 0.929 0.945 0.957 0.967 0.974 0.980 0.985 0.994 0.998 1.000 1.001 1.003 80 0.046 0.043 0.042 0.042 0.798 0.864 0.900 0.927 0.945 0.957 0.965 0.973 0.978 0.992 0.998 1.000 1.002 1.003 100 0.058 0.054 0.052 0.052 0.726 0.824 0.876 0.907 0.929 0.946 0.958 0.967 0.973 0.990 0.997 1.000 1.003 1.004 150 0.086 0.080 0.077 0.077 0.082 0.702 0.800 0.856 0.892 0.917 0.936 0.950 0.960 0.986 0.996 1.001 1.003 1.004 200 0.114 0.107 0.102 0.102 0.107 0.514 0.716 0.801 0.853 0.889 0.915 0.933 0.948 0.982 0.995 1.002 1.004 1.006 250 0.143 0.134 0.127 0.126 0.131 0.177 0.618 0.743 0.813 0.860 0.893 0.916 0.935 0.975 0.995 1.002 1.005 1.008 300 0.171 0.159 0.152 0.150 0.155 0.183 0.503 0.682 0.773 0.831 0.872 0.901 0.923 0.968 0.994 1.004 1.008 1.011 400 0.227 0.206 0.201 0.181 0.201 0.221 0.326 0.557 0.693 0.775 0.830 0.867 0.900 0.961 0.993 1.006 1.011 1.014 500 0.282 0.255 0.249 0.198 0.246 0.260 0.316 0.465 0.620 0.715 0.792 0.839 0.878 0.957 0.992 1.009 1.014 1.018 600 0.336 0.304 0.297 0.289 0.290 0.303 0.340 0.435 0.568 0.679 0.760 0.816 0.859 0.949 0.994 1.012 1.017 1.021 800 0.445 0.402 0.390 0.378 0.375 0.383 0.406 0.456 0.538 0.631 0.714 0.780 0.831 0.942 0.996 1.015 1.021 1.032 1000 0.552 0.498 0.482 0.464 0.457 0.460 0.476 0.509 0.561 0.629 0.700 0.761 0.816 0.937 0.998 1.020 1.031 1.043

*Calculated by P. E. Liley from various steam tables for the lower temperatures and from Pap. B-11 by P. H. Kesselman and Yu. I. Blank, 7th Internal Conference on the Properties of Steam, Tokyo, 1968, for the higher temperatures.

2-148

COMPRESSIBILITIES
TABLE 2-187 Temperature, K 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000 Compressibility Factors for Xenon* Pressure, bar 1 0.9831 0.9911 0.9949 0.9967 0.9977 0.9989 0.9982 0.9996 1.0000 1.0000 5 0.9088 0.9545 0.9736 0.9834 0.9892 0.9928 0.9951 0.9979 0.9998 1.0004 10 0.0293 0.9052 0.9465 0.9669 0.9183 0.9856 0.9902 0.9957 1.0002 1.0015 20 0.0584 0.7887 0.8885 0.9322 0.9562 0.9714 0.9810 0.9917 1.0004 1.0031 40 0.1162 0.1114 0.7517 0.8473 0.9128 0.9429 0.9623 0.9841 1.0012 1.0144 60 0.1733 0.1642 0.5492 0.7840 0.8696 0.9163 0.9452 0.9772 1.0020 1.0101 80 0.2300 0.2158 0.2794 0.7039 0.8278 0.8911 0.9293 0.9715 1.0034 1.0133 100 0.2861 0.2663 0.3016 0.6249 0.7888 0.8679 0.9156 0.9667 1.0054 1.0172 200 0.5601 0.5074 0.5021 0.5645 0.6916 0.7335 0.8774 0.9596 1.0213 1.0394 300 0.8253 0.7355 0.6997 0.7124 0.7642 0.8331 0.8953 0.9791 1.0476 1.0669 400 1.0833 0.9546 0.8886 0.8706 0.8850 0.9187 0.9572 1.0211 1.0818 1.0979

2-149

500 1.3356 1.1670 1.0707 1.0269 1.0148 1.0224 1.0412 1.0799 1.1222 1.1331

*Calculated from PVT values tabulated in Rabinovich (ed.), Thermophysical Properties of Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon, Standards Press, Moscow, 1976. This book was published in English translation by Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (604 pp.).

TABLE 2-188

Compressibilities of Liquids*

At the constant temperature T, the compressibility β = (1/V0)(dV/dP). In general as P increases, β decreases rapidly at first and then slowly; the change of β with T is large at low pressures but very small at pressures above 1000 to 2000 megabars. 1 megabar = 0.987 atm. = 106 dynes/cm2 based upon the older usage, 1 bar = 1 dyne/cm2. The use of the bar as a pressure unit is not encouraged. Pressure, megabars 23 500 1,000 12,000 23 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 12,000 5 200 400 200 400 8 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 21 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 200 400 1,000 2,000 23 200 Compressibility per megabar β × 106 111 61 52 9 88 84 70 61 46 8 8 89 77 67 56 51 97 81 64 56 46 8 86 57 48 6 86 73 83 70 34 24 103 90 Pressure, megabars 400 23 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 23 500 1,000 12,000 23 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 300 5 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 300 500 1,000 12,000 Compressibility per megabar β × 106 75 100 63 54 8 100 82 70 54 8 151 102 66 8 188 84 61 10 81 69 64 50 8 3.97 22 117 91 55 45 8 3.95 3.97 3.91 2.37 Pressure, megabars 23 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 17 5 5 5 5 250 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 13 200 400 500 500 1,000 12,000 200 400 Compressibility per megabar β × 106 103 95 80 65 54 8 32 53 46 51 55 59 71 63 47 8 77 67 65 47 7 74 64 74 49 43 41 39 38 33 9 69 60

Substance Acetone Acetone Acetone Acetone Amyl alcohol alcohol, iso. alcohol, iso. alcohol, n alcohol, n alcohol, n alcohol, n Benzene Benzene Benzene Bromine Bromine Butyl alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso alcohol, iso Carbon bisulfide bisulfide bisulfide bisulfide tetrachloride tetrachloride Chloroform Chloroform Dichloroethylsulfide Dichloroethylsulfide Ethyl acetate acetate

Temp., °C 14 20 20 40 14 20 20 20 20 20 40 17 20 20 20 20 18 20 20 20 20 20 16 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 32 32 13 20

Substance Ethyl acetate alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol bromide bromide bromide bromide bromide chloride chloride chloride chloride ether ether ether ether iodide iodide iodide iodide iodide Gallium Glycerol Hexane Hexane Kerosene Kerosene Kerosene Mercury Mercury Mercury Mercury

Temp., °C 20 14 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 15 20 20 20 25 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22

Substance Methyl alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol alcohol Nitric acid Oils: Almond Castor Linseed Olive Rapeseed Phosphorus trichloride trichloride trichloride trichloride Propyl alcohol (n) alcohol (n) alcohol (n?) alcohol (n?) alcohol (n?) Toluene Toluene Turpentine Water Water Water Water Water Water Water Xylene, meta meta

Temp., °C 15 20 20 20 20 20 0 15 15 15 15 20 10 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 40 40 40 20 20

* Smithsonian Tables, Table 106. Scott (Cryogenic Engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton, NJ, 1959) gives data for liquid nitrogen (p. 283), oxygen (p. 276), and hydrogen (p. 303). For a convenient index to the high-pressure work of Bridgman, see American Institute of Physics Handbook, p. 2-163, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1957.

2-150

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-189 Compressibilities of Solids Many data on the compressibility of solids obtained prior to 1926 are contained in Gruneisen, Handbuch der Physik, vol. 10, Springer, Berlin, 1926, pp. 1–52; also available as translation, NASA RE 2-18-59W, 1959. See also Tables 271, 273, 276, 278, and other material in Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th ed., 1954. For a review of high-pressure work to 1946, see Bridgman, Rev. Mod. Phys., 18, 1 (1946).

LATENT HEATS
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32. To convert calories per gram-mole to British thermal units per pound-mole, multiply by 1.799; to convert calories per gram to British thermal units per pound, multiply by 1.799. To convert millimeters of mercury to pounds-force per square inch, multiply by 1.934 × 10−2.

LATENT HEATS
TABLE 2-190 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds*

2-151

Unless stated otherwise, the values have been taken from the compilations by K. K. Kelley on “Heats of Fusion of Inorganic Compounds,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 393 (1936), and “The Free Energies of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures of Inorganic Substances,” U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 383 (1935). Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole 2,550 5,420 16,960 16,380 7,960 (26,000) 4,770 3,510 3,030 2,400 (27,000) 11,200 290 (6,620) 2,810 2,420 2,800 8,000 (1,400)e 6,000 5,370 3,000 (5,980) 18,600 9,700 2,500e 2,505 2,600 6,800 8,900 1420 461 441 18,020 17,350 bp at 1 atm, °C 2057 256.4 180.2c 385.5 3000 1440 219 172d 1425 −185.8 610c 122 −52.8 457.2 1638 Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole 61,020 10,920 26,750c 15,360 46,670 10,360 11,570 17,820 1,590 31,000c 7,570 4,980 14,300 35,670 Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole bp at 1 atm, °C −72.8 141 −191.5 −78.4c −50.2 8.0 Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole 5,780c 13,980c 1,444 6,030 c, r 4,423 k 5,990

Substance Aluminum Al Al2Br6 Al2Cl6 AlF3·3NaF Al2I6 Al2O3 Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 Sb4O6 Sb4S6 Argon A Arsenic As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF5 As4O6 Barium Ba BaBr2 BaCl2 BaF2 Ba(NO3)2 Ba3(PO4)2 BaSO4 Beryllium Be Bismuth Bi BiBr3 BiCl3 Bi2O3 Bi2S5 Boron BBr3 BCl3 BF3 B2H6 B3H10 B5H9 B5H11 B10H14 B2H5Br B3N3H6 Bromine Br2 BrF5 Cadmium Cd CdBr2 CdCl2 CdF2 CdI2 CdO CdSO4 Calcium Ca CaBr2 CaCO3 CaCl2 CaF2 Ca(NO3)2 CaO CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2 CaO·MgO·2SiO2 CaO·SiO2 CaSO4 Carbon C (graphite) CBr4 CCl4 CF4 CH4 C2N2 CNBr CNCl

mp, °C 660.0 97.5 192.5 1000 191.0 2045 630.5 97 73.4 4 655 546 −189.3 814 31 −16 −80.7 313 704 847 960 1287 595 1730 1350 1280 271.3 224 817 747

Substance Carbon (Cont.) CNF CNI CO CO2 COS COCl2 CS2 Cerium Ce Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI CsNO3 Chlorine Cl2 ClF ClF3 Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 Chromium Cr CrO2Cl2 Cobalt Co CoCl2 Copper Cu Cu2Br2 Cu2Cl2 CuI Cu2(CN)2 Cu2O CuO Cu2S Fluorine F2 F2O Gallium Ga Germanium Ge GeH4 Ge2H6 Ge3H8 GeHCl3 GeBr4 GeCl4 Ge(CH3)4 Gold Au Helium He Hydrogen H2 HBr HCl HCN HF (HF)6 HI H2O H22O (= D2O) H2O2 HNO3 H3PO2 H3PO3 H3PO4 H4P2O6 H2S H2S2 H2SO4 H2Se H2SeO4 H2Te Indium In

mp, °C

−205.0 −57.5 −138.8 −112.0 775 28.4 642 715 407 −101.0

200 1,900 1,129 k 1,049 l 2,120 500 3,600 (2,450) 3,250 1,531m

690 1300 1300 1251 1280 −34.1 −101 11.3 2.0 10.9 79 2475 117 1050 2595 1355 1490 1336

16,320 35,990 35,690 34,330 35,930 4,878 m 5,890 6,280 7,100 8,480 8,250 27,170 72,810 16,310 11,920 15,940

1550 1490 727 1083.0 430 473 1230 1447 1127 −223 29.8 959 −165 −109 −105.6 −71 26.1 −49.5 −88 1063.0 −271.4 −259.2 −86.9 −114.2 −13.2 −83.0 −50.8 0.0 3.8 −2 −47 17.4 74 42.4 55 −85.5 −87.6 10.5 58 −48.9 156.4

3,930 3,660 7,390 3,110 4,890 (5,400) (13,400) 2,820 5,500

−128 −165.5 −119.8 −46.9 99.7 −104 −58 −7.2 −61.3 320.9 568 568 1110 387 1000 851 730 1282 782 1392 561 2707 1550 1392 1512 1297 3600 90 −24.0 −182.5 −27.8 52 −5

480

7,800

91.3 12.5 −100.9 −92.4 16 58 67 f 16 50.4 58.0 40.4 765 967 796 1559c 1487

7,300 5,680 4,620 3,685 6,470 7,700 8,500 11,600 6,230 7,670 7,420 7,470 23,870 29,860 25,400 53,820c 36,580

−188.2 −144.8 1,336 (8,300) 2071 −89.1 31.4 110.6 75g 189 84 44 2966 −268.4 28 575 476 2,009i 1,094 686 1,436 1,501s 2,520c 600 2,310 3,070 2,520 8,300 568t 1,805 2,360 3,450 1,670 781 −252.7 −66.7 −85.0 25.7 33.3 51.2 100.0 101.4 158

1,640 2,650

2,580 1,355 1,460 (5,000) 5,300 (5,400) 3,660 4,790 2,230 4,180 (12,700) 6,100 4,100 5,120 (12,240) 29,400 (18,200) 13,400 6,700 11,000e 1,050 644 224 1,938u 2,240

3,580 5,900 7,550 8,000 8,560 7,030 6,460 81,800 22 216 4,210 3,860 6,027i 7,460 5,020 9,729 h,q 9,945 r,q 10,270

3,030

−60.3 −41.3 −2.2

4,463 t 4,880 5,650

77 −127.9 −161.4 −21.1 13

7,280 3,110 2,040 5,576u 11,010c 6,300

*See also subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.”

2-152

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued )
mp, °C 113.0 17.2 13.9 1530 677 304 −21 1380 1195 −157 327.4 488 498 824 412 1065 890 1114 1087 1123 179 845 552 614 847 440 462 705 1177 1249 857 742 650 711 712 1221 2642 1184 1524 1127 589 1220 650 1274 1404 −38.9 241 277 250 850 2622 17 745 −248.5 1455 645 790 −210.0 −77.7 146 169.6 −90.8 −163.6 −13 Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole 3,650 2,660 2,270 3,560 7,800 20,590 3,250 (7,700) 5,000 360e 1,224 4,290 5,650 1,860 5,970 (25,800) 2,820 4,150 9,600 (15,200) 1,100 (5,570) 2,900 3,200 (2,360) (1,420) 2,480 4,200 7,210 7,430 3,040 (6,700) 2,160 8,300 8,100 5,900 18,500 (11,300) 14,700 3,500 (8,270) 3,450 7,340 (8,200) (7,960) 557 3,960 4,150 4,500 (1,440) (6,660) 2,500 (2,500) 77 4,200 (2,980) 5,800 172 1,352n (4,700) 1,460 1,563 550 5,540 −195.8 −129.0 −33.4 −88.5 −151.7 30 32.4 −6.4 47.4 130 −183.0 −111 1,336 3,000 5,581n 3,950 3,307 7,040 13,800c 6,140 6,840 9,450 1,629 2,880 1107 1418 32,520 32,690 bp at 1 atm, °C 183 4c 2735 1026 319 105 Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole 10,390 7,460c 84,600 30,210 12,040 9,000 Substance Palladium Pd Phosphorus P4 (yellow) P4 (violet) P4 (black) PCl3 PH3 P4O6 P4O10(α) P4O10(β) POCl3 P2S3 Platinum Pt Potassium K KBO2 KBr KCl KCN KCNS K2CO3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF KI K2MoO4 KNO3 KOH KPO3 K3PO4 K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2TiO3 K2WO4 Praseodymium Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Re2O7 Re2O8 Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl RbF RbI RbNO3 Selenium Se2 Se6 SeF6 SeO2 SeOCl2 Silicon Si SiCl4 Si2Cl6 Si3Cl8 (SiCl3)2O SiF4 Si2F6 SiF3Cl SiF2Cl2 SiH4 Si2H6 Si3H8 Si4H10 SiH3Br SiH2Br2 SiHCl3 (SiH3)3N (SiH3)2O SiO2 (quartz) SiO2 (cristobalite) Silver Ag AgBr AgCl AgCN AgI AgNO3 Ag2S Ag2SO4 Sodium Na NaBO2 mp, °C 1554 44.2 Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole 4,120 615 280 417c 453c 74.2 −87.7 174 591 358c 105.1 508 (4400) 776 1383 1407 12,520 25,600c 33,100 7,280 3,489 o 10,380 20,670 8,380 (107,000) 18,920 37,060 38,840 bp at 1 atm, °C Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole

TABLE 2-190

Substance Iodine I2 ICl(α) ICl(β) IF7 Iron Fe FeCl2 Fe2Cl6 Fe(CO)5 FeO FeS Krypton Kr Lead Pb PbBr2 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 PbO PbS PbSO4 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBO2 LiBr LiCl LiF LiI LiOH Li2MoO4 LiNO3 Li2SiO3 Li4SiO4 Li2SO4 Li2WO4 Magnesium Mg MgBr2 MgCl2 MgF2 MgO Mg3(PO4)2 MgSiO3 MgSO4 MgZn2 Manganese Mn MnCl2 MnSiO3 MnTiO3 Mercury Hg HgBr2 HgCl2 HgI2 HgSO4 Molybdenum Mo MoF6 MoO3 Neon Ne Nickel Ni NiCl2 Ni(CO)4 Ni2S Ni3S2 Nitrogen N2 NF3 NH3 NH4CNS NH4NO3 N2O NO N2O4 N2O5 NOCl Osmium OsF8 OsO4 (yellow) OsO4 (white) Oxygen O2 O3

−133.8 23.8 569 1.1 1773.5 63.5 947 742 770 623 179 897 984 398 857 682 922 338 360 817 1340 1092 1074 810 927 932 −71 (3000) 296 147 39.1 677 717 833 638 305 217

270o 3,360 17,080 3,110 4,700 574 (5,700) 5,000 6,410 (3,500) 2,250 7,800 6,920 8,770 6,500 4,100 (4,000) 2,840 (2,000) 2,110 8,900 14,000 8,100 (10,600) (4,400) 2,700

152.9 1744 914 954 1293 872 1472 1281

2,310e 42,060 27,700 29,600 38,300 24,850 51,310 (50,000)

1372 1310 1382 1681 1171

32,250 35,420 35,960 50,970 40,770

1324 1327

34,690 30,850

−61.8 15,340 3,800 525 3,700 4,400 4,130 2,990 1,340 1,220 362.4 679 1352 1381 1408 1304 753 736 −45.8c 317c 168 2290 56.8 139 211.4 135.6 −94.8c −18.9c −70.1 −31.5 −111.6 −14.3 53.1 100 2.4 70.5 31.8 48.7 −15.4 2230 2212 1564 1506

4,010 18,060 18,110 37,120 36,920 39,510 35,960 25,490 20,600 6,350c 20,900

2152 1190

55,150 29,630

361 319 304 354 (4800) 36 1151 −246.0 2730 987c 42.5

13,980 14,080 14,080 14,260 (128,000) 6,000 440e 87,300 48,360c 7,000

10 1427 −67.6 −1 −33 −18.5 −138 −144 −185 −132.5 −117 −93.5 −93.8 −70.0 −126.5 −105.6 −144 1470 1700 960.5 430 455 350 557 209 842 657 97.7 966

1,010 9,470 1,845

6,860 12,340 8,820 6,130c 10,400c 4,460 5,080 2,960 5,110 6,780 8,890 5,650 6,840 6,360 6,850 5,350

3,900

3,400 2,100 2,700 2,180 3,155 2,750 2,250 2,755 3,360 (4,300) 630 8,660

60,720 42,520 34,450

56 42 −218.9

4,060 2,340 106

914

23,120

LATENT HEATS
TABLE 2-190 Heats of Fusion and Vaporization of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded )
mp, °C 747 800 255 562 323 854 992 662 687 310 322 1107 988 970 920 1087 884 884 702 757 643 872 1400 1770 112.8 119.2 −75.5 17 32.4 62.2 1,769p 2,060 2,890 6,310 Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole 6,140 7,220 5,290 (4,400) 4,450 7,000 7,000 5,240 3,600 3,760 2,000 13,150 (5,000) (13,700) (1,200) 10,300 8,460 5,830 5,800 2,190 4,780 4,100 4,260 18,500 bp at 1 atm, °C 1392 1465 1500 1704 Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole 37,950 40,810 37,280 53,260 Substance Thallium Tl TlBr TlCl Tl2CO3 TlI TlNO3 Tl2S Tl2SO4 Tin Sn4 SnBr2 SnBr4 SnCl2 SnCl4 Sn(CH3)4 SnH4 SnI4 Titanium TiBr4 TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WF6 Uranium UF6 Xenon Xe Zinc Zn ZnCl2 Zn(C2H5)2 ZnO ZnS Zirconium ZrBr4 ZrCl4 ZrI4 ZrO2 mp, °C 302.5 460 427 273 440 207 449 632 231.8 232 30 247 −33.2 −149.8 143.5 38.2 −23 1825 3390 −0.4 Heat of fusion,a,b cal/mole 1,030 5,990 4,260 4,400 3,125 2,290 3,000 5,500 1,720 (1,700) 3,000 3,050 2,190 (4,300) (2,060) 2,240 (11,400) (8,400) 1,800 136 (5900) 17.3 55.1c −111.5 419.5 283 1975 1645 740 1,595 (5,500) 4,470 (9,000) 357c 311c 431c 2715 20,800 −108.0 907 732 118 bp at 1 atm, °C 1457 819 807 823

2-153

Substance Sodium (Cont.) NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCN NaCNS Na2CO3 NaF NaI Na2MoO4 NaNO3 NaOH aNa2O·aAl2O3·3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2S Na2SiO3 Na2Si2O5 Na2SO4 Na2WO4 Strontium Sr SrBr2 SrCl2 SrF2 Sr3(PO4)2 Sulfur S (rhombic) S (monoclinic) S2Cl2 SF6 SO2 SO3(α) SO3(β) SO3(γ) SOBr2 SOCl2 SO2Cl2 Tellurium Te TeCl4 TeF6
a c b

Heat of vaporization,a,b cal/mole 38,810 23,800 24,420 25,030

2270 623 113 78.3 −52.3

68,000 20,740 8,330 7,320 4,420

1378

8,350 (176,000) 6,350 9,990c 3,110 27,430 28,710 8,960

1384

33,610

444.6 138 −63.5c −5.0 44.8 139.5 75.4 69.2

2,200 8,720 5,600c 5,960p 10,190 9,920 7,600 7,760 16,830 6,700c

25,800c 25,290c 29,030c

453

3,230

1090 392 −38.6c

Values in parentheses are uncertain. For the freezing point or the normal boiling point unless otherwise stated. Sublimation. d Decomposes at about 75°C; value obtained by extrapolation. e Bichowsky and Rossini, “Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances,” Reinhold, New York (1936). f Decomposes before the normal boiling point is reached. g Decomposes at about 40°C; value obtained by extrapolation. h See also pp. 2-304 through 2-307 on steam table. i Giauque and Ruehrwein, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2626. j Giauque and Egan, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 45.

k l

Kemp and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 79. Brown and Manov, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 59 (1937): 500. Giauque and Powell, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 61 (1939): 1970. n Overstreet and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc 59 (1937): 254. o Stephenson and Giauque, J. Chem. Phys., 5 (1937): 149. p Giauque and Stephenson, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 60 (1938): 1389. q Osborne, Stimson, and Ginnings, Bur. Standards J. Research, 23, 197 (1939): 261. r Miles and Menzies, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1067. s Long and Kemp, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 1829. t Giauque and Blue, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 58 (1936): 831. u Ruehrwein and Giauque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 61 (1939): 2940.
m

TABLE 2-191

Heats of Fusion of Miscellaneous Materials mp, °C 183 179 177.5 176.5 236 98.8 75.5 Heat of fusion, cal/g 17 15.5 11.6 9.54 28 6.85 8.4 100 100 83 100 94 100 130 85 37.0 42.3

Material Alloys 30.5 Pb + 69.5 Sn 36.9 Pb + 63.1 Sn 63.7 Pb + 36.3 Sn 77.8 Pb + 22.2 Sn 1 Pb + 9 Sn 24 Pb + 27.3 Sn + 48.7 Bi 25.8 Pb + 14.7 Sn + 52.4 Bi + 7 Cd Silicates Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) Orthoclase (KAlSi2O8) Microcline (KAlSi3O8) Wollastonite (CaSiO8) Malacolite (Ca8MgSi4O12) Diopside (CaMgSi2O4) Olivine (Mg2SiO4) Fayalite (Fe2SiO4) Spermaceti Wax (bees’)

43.9 61.8

2-154

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds

TABLE 2-192

The values for the hydrocarbons are from the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards, with some from Parks and Huffman, Ind. Eng. Chem., 23, 1138 (1931). The values for the nonhydrocarbon compounds were recalculated from data in International Critical Tables, vol. 5. Hydrocarbon compounds Paraffins Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane 2-Methylpropane n-Pentane 2-Methylbutane 2,2-Dimethylpropane n-Hexane 2-Methylpentane 2,2-Dimethylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane n-Heptane 2-Methylhexane 3-Ethylpentane 2,2-Dimethylpentane 2,4-Dimethylpentane 3,3-Dimethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylbutane n-Octane 2-Methylheptane 3-Methylpentane 4-Methylheptane 2,2-Dimethylhexane 2,5-Dimethylhexane 3,3-Dimethylhexane 2-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 3-Methyl-3-ethylpentane 2,2,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,3,4-Trimethylpentane 2,2,3,3-Tetramethylbutane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane Eicosane Pentacosane Tritriacontane Aromatics Benzene Methylbenzene (Toluene) Ethylbenzene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene n-Propylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1-Methyl-2-ethylbenzene Nonhydrocarbon compounds Acetic acid Acetone Acrylic acid Allo-cinnamic acid Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Amyl alcohol Anethole Aniline Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene Azoxybenzene Benzil Benzoic acid Benzophenone Benzylaniline Bromocamphor Bromochlorbenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromol hydrate Bromophenol (p-) Bromotoluene (p-) Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C4H10 C5H12 C5H12 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C20H42 C25H52 C33H68 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 Formula C2H4O2 C3H6O C3H4O2 C9H8O2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C5H12O C10H12O C6H5NH2 C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2 C12H10N2O C14H10O2 C7H8O2 C13H10O C13H13N C10H15BrO C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C2H3Br3O2 C6H5BrO C7H7Br mp, °C −182.48 −183.23 −187.65 −138.33 −159.60 −129.723 −159.890 −16.6 −95.320 −153.680 −99.73 −128.41 −90.595 −118.270 −118.593 −123.790 −119.230 −134.46 −24.96 −56.798 −109.04 −120.50 −120.955 −121.18 −91.200 −126.10 −114.960 −90.870 −112.27 −107.365 −100.70 −109.210 +100.69 −53.9 −30.0 −25.9 −9.6 +36.4 +53.3 +71.1 +5.533 −94.991 −94.950 −25.187 −47.872 +13.263 −99.500 −96.028 −80.833 mp, °C 16.7 −95.5 12.3 68 145 179.5 188.5 −78.9 22.5 −6.3 284.8 29.5 67.1 36 95.2 122.45 47.85 32.37 78 −12.6 −21.2 64.6 21 9.3 90.1 46 63.5 28 Heat of fusion, cal/g 14.03 22.712 19.100 19.167 18.668 27.874 17.076 10.786 36.138 17.407 1.607 2.251 33.513 21.158 22.555 13.982 15.968 16.856 5.250 43.169 21.458 23.795 22.692 24.226 26.903 14.9 23.690 22.657 18.061 19.278 3.204 19.392 14.900 41.2 48.3 34.1 51.3 52.0 53.6 54.0 30.100 17.171 20.629 30.614 26.045 38.526 16.97 19.22 21.13 Heat of fusion, cal/g 46.68 23.42 37.03 27.35 35.48 38.03 36.46 26.65 25.80 27.09 37.48 25.80 28.91 21.62 22.15 33.90 23.53 21.86 41.57 15.41 15.29 23.41 12.18 10.27 16.60 16.90 20.50 20.86 Hydrocarbon compounds Aromatics—(Cont.) 1-Methyl-3-ethylbenzene 1-Methyl-4-ethylbenzene 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene Naphthalene Camphene Durene Isodurene Prehnitene p-Cymene n-Butyl benzene tert-Butyl benzene β-Methyl naphthalene Diphenyl Hexamethyl benzene Diphenyl methane Anthracene Phenanthrene Tolane Stilbene Dibenzil Triphenyl methane Alkyl cyclohexanes Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Alkyl cyclopentanes Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane 1,1-Dimethylcyclopentane cis-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,2-Dimethylcyclopentane trans-1,3-Dimethylcyclopentane Monoolefins Ethene (Ethylene) Propene (Propylene) 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 2-Methylpropene (isobutene) 1-Pentene cis-2-pentene trans-2-pentene 2-Methyl-1-butene 3-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene Acetylenes Acetylene 2-Butyne (dimethylacetylene) Nonhydrocarbon compounds Butyl alcohol (n-) (t-) Butyric acid (n-) Capric acid (n-) Caprylic acid (n-) Carbazole Carbon tetrachloride Carvoxime (d-) (l-) (dl-) Cetyl alcohol Chloracetic acid (α-) (β-) Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroaniline (p-) Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Chloronitrobenzene (m-) (p-) Cinnamic acid anhydride Cresol (p-) Crotonic acid (α-) (cis-) Cyanamide Cyclohexanol Formula C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H8 C10H12 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C10H14 C11H10 C12H10 C12H18 C13H12 C14H10 C14H10 C14H10 C14H12 C14H14 C19H16 C6H12 C7H14 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C7H14 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C5H10 C2H2 C4H6 Formula C4H10O C4H10O C4H8O2 C10H20O2 C8H16O2 C12H9N CCl4 C10H15NO C10H15NO C10H15NO C16H34O C2H3ClO2 C2H3ClO2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C6H6ClN C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4ClNO2 C6H4ClNO2 C9H8O2 C18H14O3 C7H8O C4H6O2 C4H6O2 CH2N2 C6H12O mp, °C −95.55 −62.350 −25.375 −43.80 −44.720 +80.0 +51 +79.3 −24.0 −7.7 −68.9 −88.5 −58.1 +34.1 +68.6 +165.5 +25.2 +216.5 +96.3 +60 +124 +51.4 +92.1 +6.67 −126.58 −93.80 −142.445 −138.435 −69.73 −53.85 −117.57 −133.680 −169.15 −185.25 −185.35 −138.91 −105.55 −140.35 −165.27 −151.363 −140.235 −137.560 −168.500 −133.780 −81.5 −132.23 mp, °C −89.2 25.4 −5.7 31.99 16.3 243 −22.8 71.5 71 91 49.27 61.2 56 9 47.4 71 140.2 154.25 239.7 44.4 83.5 133 48 34.6 72 71.2 44 25.46 Heat of fusion, cal/g 15.14 25.29 16.64 24.54 18.97 36.0 57 37.4 23.0 20.0 17.1 19.5 14.9 20.1 28.8 30.4 26.4 38.7 25.0 28.7 40.0 30.7 21.1 7.569 16.429 2.068 19.68 11.10 3.36 3.87 15.68 17.93 28.547 17.054 16.393 31.135 41.564 25.265 16.82 24.239 26.536 26.879 18.009 25.738 23.04 40.808 Heat of fusion, cal/g 29.93 21.88 30.04 38.87 35.40 42.05 41.57 23.29 23.41 24.61 33.80 31.06 35.12 24.03 33.18 37.15 39.30 36.41 49.21 29.38 31.51 36.50 28.14 26.28 25.32 34.90 49.81 4.19

LATENT HEATS
TABLE 2-192 Heats of Fusion of Organic Compounds (Concluded )
Formula C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2O C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H10O6 C6H10O6 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C7H6N2O4 C4H8O2 C12H11N C18H34O2 C4H8O2 C2H6O C2H4Br2 C4H10O CH2O2 C6H8O4 C3H8O3 C2H6O2 C12H12N2 C9H10O2 C8H9NO2 C7H7I C3H8O C6H14O C12H24O2 C5H8O3 C10H20O CH4O C14H28O2 C10H10O2 C6H8O4 C4H6O4 C10H8O2 C6H10O4 mp, °C 1.8 −6.9 86 12 −4(?) −16.7 −24.8 53.13 104.3 109.65 172.3 23.4 34.2 129 87 49 132 116.93 89.7 173.5 70.14 11.0 52.98 44.4 83.8 −114.4 10.012 −116.3 8.40 97.5 18.07 −11.5 134 48 91.3 34 −88.5 −86.8 43.22 33 43.5 −97.8 53.86 36 102 54.35 18 19.5 Heat of fusion, cal/g 12.78 13.38 20.55 13.97 14.21 21.02 20.55 29.67 49.40 46.20 58.77 10.15 11.54 16.20 35.12 21.50 56.14 32.25 24.70 39.99 26.40 34.85 25.23 52.08 28.43 25.76 13.52 23.54 58.89 37.39 47.49 43.26 22.89 28.14 33.59 18.75 21.08 25.79 43.72 18.97 18.63 23.7 47.49 26.53 57.93 42.64 22.86 35.72 Nonhydrocarbon compounds Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzene Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene Nitrophenol (o-) Palmitic acid Paraldehyde Pelargic acid (n-) (β-) Pelargonic acid (n-) (α-) Phenol Phenylacetic acid Phenylhydrazine Propyl ether (n) Quinone Stearic acid Succinic anhydride Succinonitrile Tetrachloroxylene (o-) (p-) Thiophene Thiosinamine Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-) Tribromophenol (2, 4, 6-) Trichloroacetic acid Trinitroglycerol Trinitrotoluene (2, 4, 6-) Tristearin Undecylic acid (α-) (n-) (β-) (n-) Urethane Veratrol Xylene dibromide (o-) (m-) dichloride (o-) (m-) (p-) Formula C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H5NO2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2 C6H5NO3 C16H32O2 C6H12O3 C9H18O2 C9H18O2 C6H6O C8H8O2 C6H8N2 C6H14O C6H4O2 C18H30O2 C4H4O3 C4H4N2 C8H6Cl4 C8H6Cl4 C4H4S C4H8N2S C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N C6H3Br3O C2HCl3O2 C3H5N3O9 C7H5N3O6 C57H110O6 C11H22O2 C11H22O2 C3H7NO2 C8H10O2 C8H8Br2 C8H8Br2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 C8H8Cl2 mp, °C 95.0 120.6 50 71.2 114.0 147.3 5.85 145.8 141.1 239.2 56.7 45.13 61.82 10.5 12.35 40.92 76.7 19.6 −126.1 115.7 68.82 119 54.5 86 95 −39.4 77 51.5 103.7 108.75 179.6 43.3 93 57.5 12.3 80.83 70.8, 54.5 28.25 48.7 22.5 95 77 55 34 100

2-155

Nonhydrocarbon compounds Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dibromophenol (2, 4-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl tartrate (dl-) (d-) pyrone Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dinitrotoluene (2, 4-) Dioxane Diphenyl amine Elaidic acid Ethyl acetate alcohol Ethylene dibromide Ethyl ether Formic acid Glutaric acid Glycerol Glycol, ethylene Hydrazo benzene Hydrocinnamic acid Hydroxyacetanilide Iodotoluene (p-) Isopropyl alcohol ether Lauric acid (n-) Levulinic acid Menthol (l-) (α) Methyl alcohol Myristic acid Methyl cinnamate fumarate oxalate phenylpropiolate succinate

Heat of fusion, cal/g 38.94 31.30 22.34 27.88 40.97 36.46 22.52 40.06 27.59 52.80 25.44 26.76 39.18 25.02 39.04 30.63 29.03 25.44 36.31 20.66 40.85 47.54 48.74 11.71 21.02 22.10 14.11 33.45 27.47 35.40 27.59 39.90 39.90 13.38 8.60 23.02 22.34 45.63 32.20 42.91 40.85 27.45 24.25 21.45 29.03 26.64 32.73

TABLE 2-193 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 2-156

Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds Name Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 693027 764352 Mol wt 16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285 156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553 58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231 28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188 112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119 26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119 82.145 82.145 C1 × 1E−07 1.0194 2.1091 2.9209 3.6238 3.9109 4.4544 5.0014 5.5180 6.0370 6.6126 7.2284 7.7337 8.4339 9.0539 9.6741 10.1560 10.4730 10.9690 11.6740 12.8600 3.1667 3.7700 4.1404 4.2780 4.6536 4.9910 4.7721 2.8694 3.2300 3.4190 3.3320 3.7740 4.3236 4.8120 5.3980 5.9940 6.4898 3.2720 3.9091 3.9121 3.5220 3.2580 3.9310 2.3795 3.2775 3.8560 3.7920 3.9540 4.4158 4.5740 4.9110 C2 0.26087 0.60646 0.78237 0.8337 0.38681 0.39002 0.38795 0.38467 0.38522 0.39797 0.40607 0.40681 0.4257 0.44467 0.45399 0.45726 0.4374 0.44327 0.45865 0.50351 0.3855 0.3952 0.38124 0.384 0.37579 0.383 0.37992 0.3746 0.8375 0.3747 0.3754 0.3736 0.37647 0.3788 0.3685 0.3835 0.3953 0.39187 0.383 0.39866 0.3634 0.395 0.373 0.425 0.375 0.3997 0.3737 0.3565 0.3512 0.44347 0.3698 0.4392 C3 −0.14694 −0.55492 −0.77319 −0.82274 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.32986 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.9216 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C4 0.22154 0.32799 0.39246 0.39613 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.42184 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5012 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tmin, K 90.69 90.35 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51 247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58 113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 160 172.22 165.78 104 87.89 87.8 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27 171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 164.25 127.27 192.4 170.45 240.91 183.45 167.45 163.83 141.25 183.65 ∆Hv at Tmin × 1E−07 0.8724 1.7879 2.4787 2.8684 3.3968 3.7647 4.2619 4.5898 5.0545 5.4168 5.9240 6.2802 6.8015 7.2002 7.6728 8.0225 8.3699 8.7246 9.2185 9.5933 2.7927 3.3720 3.6328 3.8495 4.0747 4.3530 4.1565 1.6025 2.4031 2.9582 2.9773 2.7684 3.4166 3.8483 4.2478 4.7013 5.1366 5.5289 2.8262 3.4072 3.4437 3.0540 2.7155 3.4529 1.6488 2.6297 2.9557 3.1681 3.4025 3.7321 4.0640 4.1067 Tmax, K 190.56 305.32 369.83 425.12 469.7 507.6 540.2 568.7 594.6 617.7 639 658 675 693 708 723 736 747 758 768 408.14 460.43 499.98 497.5 537.35 573.5 543.96 282.34 365.57 419.95 435.58 428.63 464.78 504.03 537.29 566.65 593.25 616.4 417.9 465 471 452 425.17 484 308.32 402.39 473.2 463.2 481.2 519 516.2 549 ∆Hv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne

53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene1 Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether

C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O

928494 628717 629050 689974 287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556 108952 95487 108394 106445 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044

82.145 96.172 110.199 52.076 70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145 78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194 120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309 32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095 94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150

4.8080 5.0514 5.6306 3.6490 3.8900 4.3600 4.8288 4.4940 4.7534 5.0402 5.3832 3.8107 4.3541 4.4405 4.7500 5.0144 5.5330 5.4600 5.3740 5.4640 5.7663 5.9126 5.7950 6.0380 6.3314 7.0510 7.5736 5.7260 10.1230 5.2390 5.6900 6.3300 6.7390 7.2560 6.3080 7.7320 8.3100 7.7839 8.0815 8.5980 9.6900 9.2440 8.2900 8.0700 7.3060 7.1979 8.0082 8.4942 2.9940 3.5300 3.9795 3.9305 4.5328 4.2678 4.2024

0.436 0.41163 0.4148 0.4 0.361 0.38531 0.37809 0.3974 0.39461 0.4036 0.41763 0.3543 0.36805 0.37479 0.45238 0.3859 0.377 0.3726 0.3656 0.392 0.3956 0.35632 0.3956 0.37999 0.40289 0.4612 0.3975 0.4055 0.3767 0.3682 0.3359 0.3575 0.173 0.4774 0.3921 0.5645 0.511 0.45313 0.50185 0.513 0.572 0.64825 0.4266 0.295 0.4246 0.40317 0.45314 0.50234 0.3505 0.376 0.3729 0.3711 0.3824 0.37995 0.37826

0 0 0 0.043 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0534 0 0 0 0 0 −8.9129E−03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2915 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.1181 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

170.05 192.22 193.55 173.15 179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66 161.84 138.13 146.62 169.67 278.68 178.18 247.98 225.3 286.41 178.15 215.03 229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 353.43 342.2 242.54 360 175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.97 195.56 203 155.95 228.55 239.15 296.6 260.15 213.15 314.06 304.19 285.39 307.93 131.65 160 133.97 127.93 157.48 150 164.55

4.0831 4.2470 4.7663 2.9876 3.3292 3.9118 4.3604 3.3977 4.2295 4.0862 4.7318 3.4046 3.8769 3.8791 3.4909 4.3670 4.5826 4.6097 4.2761 4.7811 5.0574 5.0621 5.0869 5.1010 5.4387 5.2508 6.0420 4.7128 8.4070 4.4900 5.0245 5.6460 6.0575 6.1383 5.2807 4.6703 6.7533 6.3619 6.8999 6.7623 7.3822 6.2273 6.8461 7.1374 5.6577 5.7135 6.3326 6.3649 2.6032 2.9751 3.5184 3.4876 3.9358 3.7232 3.6096

544 559 585 454 511.76 532.79 569.52 553.58 572.19 591.15 609.15 507 542 560.4 562.16 591.8 630.33 617.05 616.23 617.2 574.54 649.13 631.1 637.36 653.15 748.35 789.26 636 924.85 512.64 513.92 536.78 563.05 536.05 508.3 506.21 586.15 565 577.2 611.35 631.9 650 719.7 626 694.25 697.55 705.85 704.65 400.1 437.8 476.3 464.5 510 497 497.1

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4695E+07 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2-157

TABLE 2-193 Cmpd. no. 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 2-158

Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Name Formula C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N CAS no. 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 Mol wt 74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211 30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268 58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151 46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090 60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133 116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090 31.057 45.084 59.111 C1 × 1E−07 4.0600 5.4380 4.2580 5.8662 6.8243 3.0760 4.6070 4.1492 4.6403 5.1478 5.6661 6.1299 6.8347 7.3363 7.9073 4.2150 4.6220 5.1740 5.1400 5.6770 5.4000 5.1130 5.2359 5.3880 5.5980 5.5500 6.6104 2.3700 2.0265 2.7290 7.4996 4.4967 10.1900 6.3520 4.1030 4.4920 5.0080 5.3781 4.5909 4.9330 5.3325 5.6419 4.9687 5.4327 5.7800 6.9650 6.3400 4.7700 3.8580 4.0900 3.3050 C2 0.3868 0.60624 0.37221 0.37127 0.30877 0.2954 0.62 0.36751 0.3849 0.37541 0.38533 0.37999 0.41039 0.41735 0.4129 0.3397 0.355 0.39422 0.3858 0.3817 0.383 0.3395 0.40465 0.40616 0.3774 0.3538 0.37425 1.999 0.11911 0.06954 2.333 1.1615 0.478 0.3986 0.3825 0.3685 0.3959 0.39523 0.4123 0.3847 0.401 0.37985 0.4025 0.407 0.3935 0.4061 0.2911 0.3765 0.404 0.42005 0.354 C3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −5.1503 −1.3487 −1.0423 −3.8644 −2.4573 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.331 1.4227 1.1152 2.016 1.5823 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tmin, K 156.85 145.65 140 235.65 300.03 181.15 150.15 170 176.75 182 217.15 229.8 246 255.15 267.15 178.45 186.48 196.29 250 217.35 189.15 167.15 234.18 200 204.81 242 292.81 281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 227.15 395.45 200.15 174.15 175.15 185.65 187.35 193.55 189.6 199.25 175.15 180.25 178.15 199.65 260.75 238.45 180.35 179.69 180.96 156.08 ∆Hv at Tmin × 1E−07 3.4651 4.4140 3.7556 4.9560 5.8546 2.5863 3.6199 3.5675 3.9797 4.4502 4.7495 5.1353 5.5966 5.9779 6.4201 3.6390 3.9704 4.3663 4.0753 4.7584 4.6294 4.5480 4.2075 4.5154 4.7426 4.7114 5.4166 1.9532 2.3185 2.9964 4.1566 3.6179 7.1277 5.4139 3.4644 3.8418 4.2231 4.5694 3.7679 4.1490 4.4449 4.9090 4.2162 4.6322 4.8943 5.7500 5.6137 4.0619 3.1006 3.2678 2.8216 Tmax, K 466.7 500.23 489 645.6 766.8 408 466 504.4 537.2 566.1 591 617 638.1 658 674.2 508.2 535.5 561.08 553 587.05 571.4 573 560.95 567 576 653 709.5 588 591.95 600.81 615.7 605 751 606 487.2 506.55 530.6 554.5 508.4 523.3 546 571 538 549.73 579.15 693 698 519.13 430.05 437.2 433.25 ∆Hv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid2 Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine

159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213

Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide3 N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air Hydrogen Helium-4 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine

C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2

75047 109897 121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956

45.084 73.138 101.192 59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182 44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101 45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123 48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189 34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966 78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010 28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808

4.2750 4.6133 4.6640 4.4488 5.4280 4.4041 5.0070 7.1950 6.3860 6.7900 3.6652 4.0050 4.5793 5.1740 7.3580 5.9217 8.1070 7.3402 4.3511 4.9348 5.2200 6.2615 3.4448 3.8440 4.4782 4.9702 4.7420 4.6432 3.8690 4.4740 4.7182 2.4708 2.9745 4.1860 4.3252 3.1690 2.7617 3.5240 3.9004 3.9890 3.8871 4.7740 4.6750 3.4125 4.5820 5.1480 5.5520 0.8474 0.1013 0.0125 0.2389 0.8731 0.8876 3.0680 4.0000

0.5857 0.42628 0.3663 0.39494 0.3665 0.43325 0.4362 0.458 0.3104 0.4053 0.37878 0.3995 0.38557 0.38865 0.3564 0.37996 0.42 0.38974 0.34765 0.41873 0.165 0.35427 0.37427 0.37534 0.41073 0.41199 0.40535 0.399 0.3694 0.4097 0.3643 0.37014 0.353 0.3584 0.37688 0.3015 0.32162 0.3652 0.38012 0.37956 0.38043 0.39204 0.36529 0.4513 0.3717 0.36614 0.37694 0.3822 0.698 1.3038 0.3494 0.3526 0.34072 0.8458 0.351

−0.332 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6692 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −1.817 −2.6954 0 0 0 −0.9001 0

0.169 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.539 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.447 1.7098 0 0 0 0.453 0

192.15 223.35 158.45 188.36 210.15 177.95 176.85 267.13 216.15 275.6 160.65 196.29 234.94 231.51 275.7 212.72 353.15 301.15 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.4 150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 169.2 131.35 175.43 209.63 250.33 179.47 129.95 134.8 154.55 150.35 155.97 200 172.71 119.36 230.94 227.95 242.43 59.15 13.95 2.2 24.56 83.78 53.48 172.12 265.85

3.2955 3.5761 4.1011 3.6857 4.5500 3.5874 4.1823 5.7710 5.6961 5.5162 3.1271 3.2647 3.7472 4.3144 6.2844 5.0931 6.2386 5.9384 3.5996 4.2005 4.7223 5.3091 2.9825 3.4489 3.8723 4.3505 4.2664 4.1614 3.3042 3.8344 4.1353 2.0276 2.4520 3.5047 3.4528 2.7379 2.4089 3.1052 3.3933 3.4862 3.3586 4.0147 4.0997 2.9491 3.7605 4.3707 4.6875 0.6759 0.0913 0.0097 0.1803 0.6561 0.7578 2.2878 3.2323

456.15 496.6 535.15 496.95 550 471.85 523.1 699 701.55 687.15 469.15 490.15 579.35 619.95 771 649.6 761 718 545.5 564.4 582.25 699.35 469.95 499.15 536.6 570.1 559 554 503.04 533 557.15 317.42 416.25 536.4 556.35 467 375.31 460.35 503.8 503.15 489 560 572 432 560.09 632.35 670.15 132.45 33.19 5.2 44.4 150.86 144.12 417.15 584.15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2-159

TABLE 2-193 Cmpd. no. 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Heats of Vaporization of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Name Formula O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O CAS no. 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185 Mol wt 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015 C1 × 1E−07 0.9008 0.7491 3.1523 5.9794 2.3215 2.1310 3.3840 0.8585 2.1730 3.4960 13.4510 2.2093 2.4850 3.3490 2.5676 3.6760 7.3370 5.2053 C2 0.4542 0.40406 0.3914 0.9424 0.384 0.4056 0.3707 0.4921 0.382 0.2986 13.36 0.3466 0.39 0.2053 0.37358 0.4 0.5647 0.3199 C3 −0.4096 −0.317 −0.2289 −1.398 0 0 0 −0.326 −0.4339 0 −23.383 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.212 C4 0.3183 0.27343 0.2309 0.8862 0 0 0 0.2231 0.42213 0 10.785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.25795 Tmin, K 54.36 63.15 195.41 274.69 182.3 109.5 245.25 68.13 216.58 161.11 277.56 158.97 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 289.95 273.16 ∆Hv at Tmin × 1E−07 0.7742 0.6024 2.5298 4.5238 1.6502 1.4578 2.3803 0.6517 1.5202 3.1537 0.7104 1.7498 1.8817 2.8176 1.9782 2.8753 4.4303 4.4733 Tmax, K 154.58 126.2 405.65 653.15 309.57 180.15 400.15 132.5 304.21 552 461.15 324.65 363.15 456.65 373.53 430.75 490.85 647.13 ∆Hv at Tmax 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 915280 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide2 Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are expressed in kelvins; heats of vaporization, in J/ kmol. J/ kmol × 2.390E−04 = cal/gmol; J/ kmol × 4.302106E−04 = Btu/ lbmol. The heat of vaporization equation used is ∆Hv = C1 × (1 − Tr)C2 + C3 × Tr + C4 × Tr × Tr. Tr is the reduced temperature, T/Tc. 1 Coefficients are hypothetical; compound decomposes violently on heating. 2 For the monomer. 3 Equation coefficients are hypothetical above the decomposition temperature. 2-160

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS

2-161

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄ 5 °C + 32 °F = 1.8 K To convert calories per gram-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0; to convert calories per grammole-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-mole-degree Rankine, multiply by 1.0. To convert kilojoules per kilogram-kelvin to British thermal units per pound-degree Rankine, multiply by 0.2388. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Additional data are contained in the subsection “Thermodynamic Properties.” Data on water are also contained in that subsection. Additional tables for water are found in Eng. Sci. Data Item 68008, 251 Regent Street, London, England, which contains about 5000 values from 1 to 1000 bar, 0 to 1500°C.

TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds* Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 4.80 + 0.00322T 7.00 18.74 + 0.01866T 29.5 13.25 + 0.02800T 31.2 76 19.3 50.5 38.63 + 0.04760T − 449200/T 2 142 16.88 + 0.02266T 28.8 22.08 + 0.008971T − 522500/T 2 40.79 + 0.004763T − 992800/T 2 41.81 + 0.005283T − 1211000/T 2 43.96 + 0.001923T − 1086000/T 2 59.65 + 0.0670T 113.2 + 0.0652T 63.5 235 5.51 + 0.00178T 7.15 17.2 + 0.0293T 10.3 + 0.0511T 19.1 + 0.0171T 22.6 + 0.0162T 24.2 + 0.0132T 4.97 5.17 + 0.00234T 31.9 8.37 + 0.0486T 25.8 17.0 + 0.00334T 28.2 37.3 51 17.26 + 0.0131T 30.0 34 39.8 21.35 + 0.0141T 4.698 + 0.001555T − 121000/T 2 8.69 + 0.00365T − 313000/T 2 25.4 20.8 Range of temperature, K 273–931 931–1273 273–370 370–407 273–465 465–504 288–327 288–326 288–326 273–1273 1273–1373 273–464 464–480 273–1973 273–1573 273–1673 273–1573 273–576 273–575 273–373 288–325 273–903 903–1273 273–370 273–346 273–929 273–1198 273–821 All 273–1168 286–371 273–548 293–373 273–1198 273–307 273–307 289–320 273–1083 1083–1255 273–297 285–371 273–1323 273–1173 273–1175 273–373 273–373 Uncertainty, % 1 5 3 5 3 3 ? ? ? 2 ? 3 5 3 3 2 3 5 3 ? ? 2 5 ? ? ? ? ? 0 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 15 ? ? 5 1 5 ? ?

Substance Aluminum1 Al AlBr3 AlCl3 AlCl3·6H2O AlF3 AlF3·3aH2O AlF3·3NaF AlI3 Al2O3 Al2O3·SiO2 3Al2O3·2SiO2 4Al2O3·3SiO2 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·18H2O Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2S3 Argon2 A Arsenic As AsCl3 As2O3 As2S3 Barium BaCl2 BaCl2·H2O BaCl2·2H2O Ba(ClO3)2·H2O BaCO3 BaMoO4 Ba(NO3)2 BaSO4 Beryllium3,4 Be BeO BeO·Al2O3 BeSO4

State† c l c l c l c c c c l c l c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c c c l c c c c c g c l c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c c c c

*From Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 371, 1934. For a revision see Kelley, U.S. Bur. Mines Bull. 477, 1948. Data for many elements and compounds are given by Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960, for cryogenic temperatures. Tabulated data for gases can be obtained from many of the references cited in the “Thermodynamic Properties” subsection and other tables in this section. Thinh, Duran, et al., Hydrocarbon Process., 50, 98 (January 1971), review previous equation fits and give newer fits for 408 hydrocarbons and related compounds. Later publications include Duran, Thinh, et al., Hydrocarbon Process., 55, 153 (August 1976); Thompson, J. Chem. Eng. Data, 22(4), 431 (1977); and Passut and Danner, Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev., 11, 543 (1972); 13, 193 (1974). † The symbols in this column have the following meaning; c, crystal; l, liquid; g, gas; gls, glass.

TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 5.38 + 0.00260T 7.60 23.27 + 0.01105T 30.4 1.54 + 0.00440T 5.14 + 0.0320T 30.4 1.61 + 0.00400T 9.00 5.46 + 0.002466T 7.13 9.65 + 0.00208T 12.9 + 0.00090T 51.3 5.31 + 0.00333T 6.29 + 0.00140T 16.9 + 0.00386T 19.68 + 0.01189T − 307600/T 2 14.7 + 0.00380T 40.1 33 10.00 + 0.00484T − 108000/T 2 21.4 63.13 + 0.01500T − 1537000/T 2 67.41 + 0.01048T − 1874000/T 2 54.46 + 0.005746T − 1500000/T 2 51.68 + 0.009724T − 1308000/T 2 27.95 + 0.002056T − 745600/T 2 25.48 + 0.004132T − 488100/T 2 23.16 + 0.009672T − 487100/T 2 39.5 18.52 + 0.02197T − 156800/T 2 46.8 27.9 2.673 + 0.002617T − 116900/T 2 2.162 + 0.003059T − 130300/T 2 5.34 + 0.0115T 6.60 + 0.00120T 10.34 + 0.00274T − 195500/T 2 18.4 5.88 + 0.00123T 15.1 96 66.4 131.6 1.96 + 0.0182T 8.00 4.97 12.6 + 0.00259T 11.7 + 0.00309T 11.3 + 0.00285T 11.6 + 0.00268T 8.28 + 0.00056T 4.84 + 0.00295T 9.70 23 26.0 + 0.00400T 12.3 + 0.00120T 19.2 + 0.00184T 67.4 5.12 + 0.00333T 8.40 32.9 11.7 + 0.00156T 15.83 + 0.00950T 10.6 + 0.00251T 96 Range of temperature, K 273–544 544–1273 273–777 284–372 273–1174 273–513 513–623 273–1173 300–2000 273–594 594–973 273–2086 273–1273 293 273–673 673–873 273–1055 273–1033 273–1651 299–372 273–297 273–1173 276–373 273–1673 273–973 273–1573 273–973 273–1573 273–1673 273–973 287–371 273–1373 282–373 292–322 273–1373 273–1313 273–1200 273–2500 273–1200 293 273–908 273–373 273–297 273–373 273–319 273–301 302 All 273–909 273–752 273–957 273–894 273–2000 273–1823 1823–1923 286–319 273–2263 273–1383 273–949 273–373 273–1763 1763–1873 283–373 273–1464 273–903 273–1373 286–303 Uncertainty, % 3 3 2 ? 5 3 3 5 5 1 5 ? ? ? 2 2 ? 3 ? ? ? 2 ? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ? 5 ? ? 2 3 2 1a 1a ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 3 0 ? ? ? ? 1a 5 10 ? ? ? ? ? 5 5 ? ? 2 ? ?

Substance Bismuth4 Bi Bi2O3 Bi2S3 Boron B B2O3 BN Bromine Br2 Cadmium Cd CdO CdS CdSO4·8/3H2O Calcium Ca CaCl2 CaCO3 CaF2 CaMg(CO3)2 CaMoO4 CaO Ca(OH)2 CaO·Al2O3·2SiO2 CaO·MgO·2SiO2 CaO·SiO2 CaP2O6 CaSO4 CaSO4·2H2O CaWO4 Carbon5 C CH4 CO6 CO2 CS2 Cerium Ce CeO2 Ce2(MoO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3 Ce2(SO4)3·5H2O Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl CsF CsI Chlorine Cl2 Chromium4 Cr CrCl3 Cr2O3 CrSb CrSb2 Cr2(SO4)3 Cobalt4 Co CoAs2·CoS2 CoSb Co2Sn CoS CoSO4·7H2O 2-162 c l c c c gls gls c g c l c c c

State†

c c c c c c c c c c, anorthite gls c, diopside gls c, wollastonite c, pseudowollastonite gls c c c c c, graphite c, diamond g g g l c c c c c c l g c c c c g c l c c c c c c l c c c c c

TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 5.44 + 0.001462T 7.50 9.88 + 0.00500T 16.78 + 0.00366T 19.61 + 0.01054T 12.1 + 0.00286T 20.1 10.87 + 0.003576T − 150600/T 2 29 10.6 + 0.00264T 9.38 + 0.0312T 20.9 24 13.73 + 0.01350T 21.79 + 0.00900T 20.85 20.35 20.3 + 0.00587T 24.1 31.3 49.0 67.2 6.50 + 0.00100T 18.2 + 0.0252T 62.4 Range of temperature, K 273–1357 1357–1573 273–733 273–773 273–775 273–675 274–328 273–810 293–323 273–1273 273–376 376–1173 292–321 273–573 273–693 273–383 383–488 273–1135 282 282 282 282 300–3000 273–923 273–373 Uncertainty, % 1 3 2 2 2 ? ? 2 ? ? 3 2 ? 2 2 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? 5 ? ?

Substance Copper7 Cu CuAl CuAl2 Cu3Al CuI CuI2 CuO CuO·SiO2·H2O CuS Cu2S CuS·FeS Cu2Sb Cu2Sb Cu2Se Cu3Si CuSO4 CuSO4·H2O CuSO4·3H2O CuSO4·5H2O Fluorine8 F2 Gallium Ga2O3 Ga2(SO4)3 Germanium4 Ge Gold Au AuSb2 Helium9 He Hydrogen10 H H2 HBr HCl HI H2O H2S H2S2O7 Indium In Iodine I2 Iridium Ir Iron4 Fe c l c c c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c, α c, β c c c c c g c c c c l c, α c, βγ g g g g g g l g g c l c g c c, α c, β c, γ c, δ l c c c c c c c c, α c, β c c c c c c c g

State†

5.61 + 0.00144T 7.00 17.12 + 0.00465T 11.47 + 0.01756T 4.97 4.97 6.62 + 0.00081T 6.80 + 0.00084T 6.70 + 0.00084T 6.93 + 0.00083T See Tables 2-355 through 2-357 8.22 + 0.00015T + 0.00000134T 2 7.20 + 0.00360T 27 58

273–1336 1336–1573 273–628 628–713 All All 273–2500 273–2000 273–2000 273–2000 300–2500 300–600 281 308

2 5 1 ? 0 0 2 2 1a 2 ? 8 ? ?

9.00 5.50 + 0.00148T 4.13 + 0.00638T 6.12 + 0.00336T 8.40 10.0 8.15 17.8 25.17 + 0.00223T 22.7 12.62 + 0.001492T − 76200/T 2 24.72 + 0.01604T − 423400/T 2 41.17 + 0.01882T − 979500/T 2 47.8 2.03 + 0.0390T 12.05 + 0.00273T 10.7 + 0.01336T 10.54 + 0.00458T 33.57 + 0.01907T − 879700/T 2 22 66.2 63.6 96 4.97

300–2000 273–1873 273–1041 1041–1179 1179–1674 1674–1803 1803–1873 283–373 273–1173 293–368 273–1173 273–1097 273–1065 286–373 273–411 411–1468 273–773 273–903 273–1161 293–373 273–373 282 291–319 All

5 1 3 3 5 5 5 ? 10 ? 2 2 2 ? 5 3 ? 2 2 ? ? ? ? 0 2-163

FeAs2 Fe3C FeCO3 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe2O3·3H2O FeS FeS2 FeSi Fe2SiO4 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 FeSO4·4H2O FeSO4·7H2O Krypton Kr

2-164

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 5.91 + 0.00100T 22.6 + 0.00544T 86 66.9 152 5.77 + 0.00202T 6.8 65.5 26.5 41.4 18.13 + 0.00310T 27.4 15.88 + 0.00835T 27.2 53.1 21.1 29.1 16.5 + 0.00412T 18.66 + 0.00293T 32.3 30.4 36.4 10.33 + 0.00318T 12.7 + 0.00780T 48.3 10.63 + 0.00401T 26.4 29 35 0.68 + 0.0180T 4.97 11.5 + 0.00302T 22.6 11.0 + 0.00339T 23.6 8.20 + 0.00520T 12.5 + 0.00208T 23.6 32.9 43.2 9.17 + 0.0360T 26.8 6.20 + 0.00133T − 67800/T 2 7.4 10.58 + 0.00412T 34.4 + 0.0198T 11.3 + 0.00189T 16.2 + 0.00451T 21.2 + 0.00614T 17.3 + 0.00377T 77.1 16.9 14.96 + 0.00776T 15.5 + 0.00652T 15.87 + 0.00692T 10.86 + 0.001197T − 208700/T 2 28 25.60 + 0.004380T − 674200/T 2 23.35 + 0.008062T − 558800/T 2 23.30 + 0.007734T − 542000/T 2 58.7 + 0.408T 107.2 + 0.2876T 18.2 28.2 + 0.00560T 15.4 + 0.00415T 26.7 33 80 89 Range of temperature, K 273–1009 273–2273 273–307 273–373 273–319 273–600 600–1273 286–370 288–371 289–371 273–761 761–860 273–771 771–851 293 286–320 292–323 273–1091 273–648 648–776 292–322 286–320 273–544 273–? 284–371 273–873 293–372 293–373 273–297 273–459 All 273–825 278–318 273–887 279–360 273–1117 273–723 277–359 277–345 277–347 273–523 523–575 273–923 923–1048 273–905 273–736 273–1433 273–1073 273–1103 273–991 292–342 290 273–903 273–843 273–903 273–2073 288–319 273–1373 273–773 273–973 273–538 538–623 292–323 273–1234 273–1343 296–372 282 282 291–319 Uncertainty, % ? ? ? ? ? 2 5 ? ? ? 2 10 2 10 ? ? ? ? 2 20 ? ? 2 ? ? 3 ? ? ? 10 0 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 5 1 10 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 ? 2 2 ? 1 1 1 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Substance Lanthanum La La2O3 La2(MoO4)3 La2(SO4)3 La2(SO4)3·9H2O Lead4 Pb Pb3(AsO4)2 PbB2O4 PbB4O7 PbBr2 PbCl2 2PbCl2·NH4Cl PbCO3 PbCrO4 PbF2 PbI2 PbMoO4 Pb(NO3)2 PbO PbO2 Pb2P2O7 PbS PbSO4 PbS2O3 PbWO4 Lithium Li LiBr LiBr·H2O LiCl LiCl·H2O LiF LiI LiI·H2O LiI·2H2O LiI·3H2O LiNO3 Magnesium4 Mg MgAg Mg4Al3 MgAu Mg2Au Mg3Au MgCl2 MgCl2·6H2O MgCO3 MgCu2 Mg2Cu MgNi2 MgO MgO·Al2O3 MgO·SiO2 6MgO·MgCl2·8B2O3 Mg(OH)2 Mg3Sb2 Mg2Si MgSO4 MgSO4·H2O MgSO4·6H2O MgSO4·7H2O c c c c c c l c c c c l c l c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c c g c c c c c c c c c c l

State†

c l c c c c c c c c c c c c c c, amphibole c, pyroxene gls c, α c, β c c c c c c c

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 3.76 + 0.00747T 5.06 + 0.00395T 4.80 + 0.00422T 11.0 16.2 + 0.00520T 7.79 + 0.0421T + 0.0000090T 2 7.43 + 0.01038T − 0.00000362T 2 10.33 + 0.0530T − 0.0000257T 2 19.25 + 0.0538T − 0.0000209T 2 1.92 + 0.0471T − 0.0000297T 2 31 10.21 + 0.00656T − 0.00000242T 2 27.5 78 6.61 4.97 9.00 11.05 + 0.00370T 15.3 + 0.0103T 25 11.4 + 0.00461T 17.4 + 0.004001T 20.2 11.5 10.9 + 0.00365T 31.0 5.69 + 0.00188T − 50300/T 2 15.1 + 0.0121T 19.7 + 0.00315T 4.97 4.26 + 0.00640T 6.99 + 0.000905T 8.55 11.3 + 0.00215T 9.25 + 0.00640T 15.8 + 0.00329T 10.0 + 0.00312T 20.78 + 0.0102T 33.4 82 11.00 + 0.00433T 6.50 + 0.00100T 6.70 + 0.00630T 22.8 9.80 + 0.0368T 5.0 + 0.0340T 17.8 31.8 51.6 8.05 + 0.000233T − 156300/T 2 5.686 + 0.000875T 8.27 + 0.000258T − 187700/T 5.41 + 0.00184T 5.50 0.21 + 0.0180T 6.6 28.7 15.72 + 0.1092T 73.6 5.92 + 0.00116T 5.24 + 0.00555T 7.7
2

2-165

Substance Manganese Mn c, α c, β c, γ l c c c c c c c c c c l g g c c c c c, α c, β c c c c c c g c, α c, β l c c c c c c c c g g c c, α c, β c c c g c g c

State†

Range of temperature, K 273–1108 1108–1317 1317–1493 1493–1673 273–923 273–773 273–1923 273–1173 273–1773 273–773 291–322 273–1883 293–373 290–319 273–630 All 300–2000 273–798 273–553 285–319 273–563 273–403 403–523 278–371 273–853 273–307 273–1773 273–1068 273–729 All 273–626 626–1725 1725–1903 273–1273 273–597 273–1582 273–1273 273–904 293–373 291–325 273–700 300–3000 300–800 274–328 273–457 457–523 273–328 273–293 275–328 300–5000 273–1877 300–5000 273–1822 273–317 273–472 317–373 284–371 273–631 631–1371 273–1873 273–336 336–373

Uncertainty, % 5 5 5 10 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 0 5 ? ? ? ? 3 3 ? ? ? 5 ? ? 0 2 5 10 ? 3 ? ? 2 ? ? 2 3 1a ? 5 5 ? ? ? 2 1 1 2 5 10 10 ? 2 3 1 5 5

MnCl2 MnCO3 MnO Mn2O3 Mn3O4 MnO2 Mn2O3·H2O MnS MnSO4 MnSO4·5H2O Mercury11 Hg Hg2 HgCl HgCl2 Hg(CN)2 HgI HgI2 HgO HgS Hg2SO4 Molybdenum Mo MoO3 MoS2 Neon12 Ne Nickel4 Ni NiO NiS Ni2Si NiSi Ni3Sn NiSO4 NiSO4·6H2O NiTe Nitrogen13 N2 NH3 NH4Br NH4Cl NH4I NH4NO3 (NH4)2SO4 NO Osmium Os Oxygen14 O2 Palladium Pd Phosphorus P PCl3 P4O10 Platinum4 Pt Potassium K

c, yellow c, red l l c g c c l

2-166

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 4.97 9.00 25.3 12.6 + 0.0126T 51.3 11.49 + 0.00360T 10.93 + 0.00376T 25.7 26.3 63 55 54.5 43.4 57.4 29.9 35.9 42.80 + 0.0410T 96.9 10.8 + 0.00284T 80.1 114.5 32 28.3 30 28 6.42 + 0.0530T 28.8 29.5 69.26 + 0.00821T − 2331000/T 2 69.81 + 0.01053 − 2403000/T 2 65.65 + 0.01102T − 1748000/T 2 64.83 + 0.01438T − 1641000/T 2 63.1 33.1 37 352 324 106 107 120 Range of temperature, K All 300–2000 290–372 273–1220 290–372 273–543 273–1043 289–371 287–318 292–323 286–319 292–323 279–319 277–319 296–372 289–371 273–671 671–757 273–1129 273–319 273–310 289–319 290–320 292–324 287–318 273–401 401–611 611–683 273–1373 273–1373 273–1373 273–1373 290–371 287–371 293–373 292–322 292–324 292–323 289–319 293–317 Uncertainty, % 0 5 ? ? ? 2 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 10 5 10 1a 1a 1a 1a ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Substance Potassium—(Cont.) K K2 KAsO3 KBO2 K2B4O7 KBr KCl KClO3 KClO4 2KCl·CuCl2.2H2O 2KCl·PtCl4 2KCl·SnCl4 2KCl·ZnCl2 2KCN·Zn(CN)2 K2CO3 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF K4Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O KH2AsO4 KH2PO4 KHSO4 KMnO4 KNO3 K2O·Al2O3·3SiO2

State† g g c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c l c, orthoclase gls, orthoclase c, microcline gls, microcline c c c c c c c c c g c c c l c c c c c c c c l c c l c, quartz, α c, quartz, β c, cristobalite, α c, cristobalite, β gls c l

K4P2O7 K2SO4 K2S2O3 K2SO4·Al2(SO4)3·24H2O K2SO4·Cr2(SO4)3·24H2O K2SO4·MgSO4·6H2O K2SO4·NiSO4·6H2O K2SO4·ZnSO4·6H2O Prometheum Pr Radon Rn Rhenium Re Rhodium Rh Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCl Rb2CO3 RbF RbI Scandium Sc2O3 Sc2(SO4)3 Selenium Se Silicon Si SiC SiCl4 SiO2

4.97 6.30 + 0.00053T 5.40 + 0.00219T 3.27 + 0.0131T 7.85 11.6 + 0.00255T 11.5 + 0.00249T 28.4 11.3 + 0.00256T 11.6 + 0.00263T 21.1 62.0 4.53 + 0.00550T 8.35 5.74 + 0.000617T − 101000/T 2 8.89 + 0.00291T − 284000/T 2 32.4 10.87 + 0.008712T − 241200/T 2 10.95 + 0.00550T 3.65 + 0.0240T 17.09 + 0.000454T − 897200/T 2 12.80 + 0.00447T − 302000/T 2 5.60 + 0.00150T 8.2

All 273–2273 273–1877 273–312 312–373 273–954 273–987 291–320 273–1048 273–913 273–373 273–373 273–490 490–570 273–1174 273–1629 293–373 273–848 848–1873 273–523 523–1973 273–1973 273–1234 1234–1573

0 ? 2 2 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 2 3 2 2 ? 1 3a 2a 2 3a 1 3

Silver4 Ag

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 22.56 + 0.00570T 16.85 + 0.00450T 58.62 + 0.0575T 8.58 + 0.0141T 14.9 9.60 + 0.00929T 14.05 18.7 8.58 + 0.0141T 18.83 + 0.0160T 25.7 30.2 37.5 18.8 21.8 19.53 + 0.0160T 20.2 20.4 5.01 + 0.00536T 7.50 4.97 10.4 + 0.0199T 47.9 147 11.74 + 0.00233T 10.79 + 0.00420T 15.9 9.48 + 0.0468T 31.8 13.1 28.9 10.4 + 0.00289T 86.6 133.4 12.5 + 0.00162T 4.56 + 0.0580T 37.2 63.78 + 0.01171T − 1678000/T 2 61.25 + 0.01768T − 1545000/T 2 22.1 60.7 32.8 34.9 86.2 18.1 + 0.00311T 28.9 82.1 18.2 + 0.00244T 28.7 38.3 21.8 18.6 + 0.00304T 28.5 39.1 84.9 37 38.3 26.2 3.63 + 0.00640T 4.38 + 0.00440T 8.58 + 0.00030T 27.5 7.70 + 0.00530T − 0.00000083T 2 5.91 + 0.00099T 5.19 + 0.00250T 5.32 + 0.00385T 8.12 Range of temperature, K 273–902 273–903 273–768 273–703 703–836 273–728 728–806 273–353 273–423 273–433 433–482 482–541 293–325 273–448 448–597 273–694 273–406 406–460 273–371 371–451 All 273–1239 289–371 292–323 273–543 273–1074 1073–1205 273–528 528–572 273–353 288–371 273–1261 275–307 275–307 273–936 273–583 583–703 273–1373 273–1173 290–319 290–371 289–371 273–307 273–307 273–923 277–370 276–327 273–1143 276–365 277–366 281–371 273–783 276–363 275–336 275–333 273–297 290–320 293–369 273–368 368–392 300–2500 273–332 300–2500 273–1173 273–600 273–500 500–576 Uncertainty, % 2 2 5 6 5 2 5 ? 6 2 5 5 ? 5 5 5 5 5 1a 2 0 ? ? ? 2 2 3 3 5 ? ? ? ? ? ? 5 10 1 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3 3 5 ? 2a 2 3 1 1

2-167

Substance Silver—(Cont.) Ag3Al Ag2Al AgAl12 AgBr AgCl AgCNO AgI AgNO3 Ag3PO4 Ag2S Ag3Sb Ag2Se Sodium15 Na NaBO2 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7·10H2O NaBr NaCl NaClO3 NaCNO Na2CO3 NaF Na2HPO4·7H2O Na2HPO4·12H2O NaI NaNO3 Na2O·Al2O3·3SiO2 NaPO3 Na4P2O7 Na2SO4 Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3·5H2O Sodium-potassium alloys15 Strontium SrBr2 SrBr2·H2O SrBr2·6H2O SrCl2 SrCl2·H2O SrCl2·2H2O SrCO3 SrI2 SrI2·H2O SrI2·2H2O SrI2·6H2O SrMoO4 Sr(NO3)2 SrSO4 Sulfur16 S S2 S2Cl2 SO2 Tantalum Ta Tellurium Te Thallium Tl c c c c l c l c c, α c, α c, β l c c, α c, β c c, α c, β

State†

c l g c c c c c l c l c c c c c c c l c, albite gls c c c c c l c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c, rhombic c, monoclinic g l g c c c, α c, β

2-168

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-194 Heat Capacities of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds (Concluded ) Heat capacity at constant pressure (T = K; 0°C = 273.1 K), cal/deg mol 7.12 12.53 + 0.00100T 16.0 12.56 + 0.00088T 14.2 6.40 14.6 + 0.00507T 41.2 5.05 + 0.00480T 6.6 11.79 + 0.00233T 16.2 + 0.00926T 38.4 9.40 + 0.00362T 13.94 + 0.00565T − 252000/T 2 11.49 + 0.00190T 12.1 + 0.00165T 20.5 + 0.00400T 8.91 + 0.00114T − 433000/T 2 35.7 11.81 + 0.00754T − 41900/T 2 5.65 + 0.00866 16.0 + 0.00774T 6.64 59.8 5.57 + 0.00097T 4.97 5.25 + 0.00270T 7.59 + 0.00055T 15.9 + 0.00800T 11.40 + 0.00145T − 182400/T 2 12.81 + 0.00095T − 194600/T 2 11.5 + 0.00313T 28 34.7 80.8 100.2 11.62 + 0.01046T − 177700/T 2 26.7 Range of temperature, K 576–773 273–733 733–800 273–700 700–803 273–373 273–1273 273–373 273–504 504–1273 273–581 273–520 286–371 273–1273 273–1373 273–1318 273–1153 273–873 273–713 285–372 273–713 273–2073 273–1550 273–372 276–314 273–1993 All 273–692 692–1122 273–638 273–1573 273–1173 273–810 293–373 282 282 273–307 273–1673 297–372 Uncertainty, % 3 10 10 5 10 ? ? ? 2 10 1 ? ? ? ? 1 ? ? 3 ? 3 1 ? ? ? ? 0 1 3 ? 1 5 ? ? ? ? ? 5 ?

Substance Thallium—(Cont.) Tl TlBr TlCl Thorium Th ThO2 Th(SO4)2 Tin4 Sn SnAu SnCl2 SnCl4 SnO SnO2 SnPt SnS SnS2 Titanium Ti TiCl4 TiO2 Tungsten W WO3 Uranium U U3O8 Vanadium V Xenon Xe Zinc4 Zn ZnCl2 ZnO ZnS ZnSb ZnSO4 ZnSO4·H2O ZnSO4·6H2O ZnSO4·7H2O Zirconium ZrO2 ZrO2·SiO2
1 2

State† l c l c l c c c c l c c l c c c c c c l c c c c c c g c l c c c c c c c c c c

See also Table 2-195. Data to 298 K are also given by Scott, Cryogenic Engineering, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1959. For liquid and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 3 Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1957 (Fig. 5), gives data from 400 to 2600°R. 4 See also Table 2-195. 5 For data from 400 to 5500°R see Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1975 (Fig. 4). 6 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 7 For data from 400 to 2350°R see Stalder, NACA Tech. Note 4141, 1957. 8 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 9 For liquid and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 10 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-60-56, 1960. 11 See also Table 2-195; Douglas, Ball, et al., Bur. Stand. J. Res., 46 (1951): 334; Busey and Giaque, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75 (1953): 806; Sheldon, ASME Pap. 49-A-30, 1949. 12 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. 13 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. 14 For solid, liquid, and gas data, see Johnson (ed.), WADD-TR-56-60, 1960. Ozone: For liquid see Brabets and Waterman, J. Chem. Phys., 28 (1958): 1212. 15 For data on liquid Na-K alloys to 1500°F and for liquid Na to 1460°F, see Lubarsky and Kaufman, NACA Rep. 1270, 1956. 16 See also Evans and Wagman, Bur. Stand. J. Res. 49 (1952): 141; Gratch, OTS PB 124957, 1950; Guthrie, Scott, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 76 (1954): 1488.

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2-195 Symbol Al Be Bi Cr Co Cu Ge Au Ir Fe Pb Mg Hg Mo Ni Pt Ag Sn Zn 4 0.00026 0.00008 0.00054 0.00016 0.00036 0.00011 0.00018 0.00038 0.00075 0.00034 0.00417 0.00011 0.00054 0.00019 0.00016 0.00024 0.00011 Specific Heat [kJ/(kg·K)] of Selected Elements Temperature, K 6 0.00050 0.00220 0.00029 0.00059 0.00024 0.00047 0.00061 0.00242 0.00080 0.01420 0.00019 0.00086 0.00028 0.00035 0.00127 0.00029 8 0.00088 0.00541 0.00050 0.00085 0.00048 0.00037 0.00126 0.00090 0.00747 0.00155 0.01820 0.00032 0.00121 0.00067 0.00093 0.00423 0.00096 10 0.00140 0.00028 0.01040 0.00081 0.00121 0.00086 0.00081 0.00255 0.00032 0.00127 0.01350 0.00172 0.02250 0.00050 0.00178 0.00112 0.00186 0.00776 0.00250 20 0.0089 0.0014 0.0340 0.0021 0.0048 0.0076 0.0129 0.0163 0.0021 0.0039 0.0531 0.0148 0.0515 0.0029 0.0058 0.0077 0.0159 0.0400 0.0269 40 0.0775 0.0729 0.0107 0.0404 0.059 0.0619 0.0569 0.0276 0.0944 0.138 0.0895 0.0236 0.0380 0.0382 0.0778 0.108 0.123 60 0.214 0.092 0.059 0.110 0.137 0.108 0.084 0.086 0.108 0.336 0.107 0.061 0.103 0.069 0.133 0.149 0.205 80 0.357 0.102 0.127 0.184 0.203 0.153 0.100 0.154 0.114 0.513 0.116 0.105 0.173 0.088 0.166 0.173 0.258 100 0.481 0.195 0.109 0.190 0.234 0.254 0.192 0.109 0.090 0.216 0.118 0.648 0.121 0.140 0.232 0.101 0.187 0.189 0.295 200 0.797 1.109 0.120 0.382 0.376 0.357 0.286 0.124 0.122 0.384 0.125 0.929 0.136 0.223 0.383 0.127 0.225 0.214 0.366 250 0.859 1.537 0.121 0.424 0.406 0.377 0.305 0.127 0.128 0.422 0.127 0.985 0.141 0.241 0.416 0.132 0.232 0.220 0.380 300 0.902 1.840 0.122 0.450 0.426 0.386 0.323 0.129 0.131 0.450 1.129 1.005 0.139 0.248 0.444 0.134 0.236 0.222 0.389 400 0.949 2.191 0.123 0.501 0.451 0.396 0.343 0.131 0.133 0.491 0.132 1.082 0.136 0.261 0.490 0.136 0.240 0.245 0.404 600 1.042 2.605 0.142 0.565 0.509 0.431 0.364 0.136 0.140 0.555 0.142 1.177 0.135 0.280 0.590 0.140 0.251 0.257 0.435

2-169

800 1.134 2.823 0.136 0.611 0.543 0.448 0.377 0.141 0.146 0.692 1.263 0.104 0.292 0.530 0.146 0.264 0.257 0.479

TABLE 2-196 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids Name Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 Mol wt 16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285 156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553 58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231 28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188 112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119 26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119 C1 6.5708E+01 4.4009E+01 6.2983E+01 6.4730E+01 1.5908E+05 1.7212E+05 6.1260E+01 2.2483E+05 3.8308E+05 2.7862E+05 2.9398E+05 5.0821E+05 3.5018E+05 3.5314E+05 3.4691E+05 3.7035E+05 3.7697E+05 3.9943E+05 3.4257E+05 3.5272E+05 1.7237E+05 1.0830E+05 1.2945E+05 1.4222E+05 1.4642E+05 3.8862E+05 9.5275E+04 2.4739E+05 1.1720E+05 1.3589E+05 1.2668E+05 1.1276E+05 1.5467E+05 1.9263E+05 1.8997E+05 3.7930E+05 2.5875E+05 3.1950E+05 8.7680E+04 1.4951E+05 1.5160E+05 1.3515E+05 1.2886E+05 1.4148E+05 2.0011E+05 7.9791E+04 8.8153E+04 1.0520E+05 8.6200E+04 6.8671E+04 C2 3.8883E+04 8.9718E+04 1.1363E+05 1.6184E+05 −2.7050E+02 −1.8378E+02 3.1441E+05 −1.8663E+02 −1.1398E+03 −1.9791E+02 −1.1498E+02 −1.3687E+03 −1.0470E+02 2.9130E+01 2.1954E+02 2.3147E+02 3.4782E+02 3.7464E+02 7.6208E+02 8.0732E+02 −1.7839E+03 1.4600E+02 1.8500E+01 −4.7830E+01 5.9200E+01 −1.4395E+03 6.9670E+02 −4.4280E+03 −3.8632E+02 −4.7739E+02 −6.5470E+01 −1.0470E+02 −4.2600E+02 −5.7116E+02 −1.5670E+02 −2.1175E+03 −3.5450E+02 −5.7621E+02 2.1710E+02 −2.4763E+02 −2.6672E+02 −3.1114E+02 −3.2310E+02 −2.8870E+02 −1.1988E+03 8.9490E+01 1.2416E+02 1.9110E+02 2.5660E+02 2.4666E+02 C3 −2.5795E+02 9.1877E+02 6.3321E+02 9.8341E+02 9.9537E−01 8.8734E−01 1.8246E+03 9.5891E−01 2.7101E+00 1.0737E+00 9.6936E−01 3.1015E+00 1.0022E+00 8.6116E−01 6.5632E−01 6.8632E−01 5.7895E−01 5.8156E−01 2.0481E−01 2.1220E−01 1.4759E+01 −2.9200E−01 6.0800E−01 7.3900E−01 6.0400E−01 3.2187E+00 −1.3765E+00 4.0936E+01 1.2348E+00 2.1835E+00 −6.4000E−01 5.2140E−01 1.9640E+00 2.4004E+00 3.4300E−01 8.2362E+00 1.3126E+00 1.7087E+00 −9.1530E−01 9.1849E−01 9.0847E−01 9.7007E−01 1.0150E+00 1.0910E+00 3.0027E+00 0 0 0 0 0 C4 6.1407E+02 −1.8860E+03 −8.7346E+02 −1.4315E+03 0 0 −2.5479E+03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −4.7909E−02 1.5100E−03 0 0 0 0 2.1734E−03 −1.6970E−01 0 −2.2230E−03 2.9120E−03 0 −1.8038E−03 −1.9758E−03 1.5222E−03 −9.0093E−03 0 0 2.2660E−03 0 0 −1.5230E−04 3.2000E−05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.8050E−05 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.6816E−04 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tmin, K 90.69 92 85.47 134.86 143.42 177.83 182.57 216.38 219.66 243.51 247.57 263.57 267.76 279.01 283.07 291.31 295.13 301.31 305.04 309.58 113.54 113.25 145.19 119.55 90 280 165.78 103.97 87.89 87.8 134.26 167.62 107.93 133.39 154.27 171.45 191.78 206.89 132.81 135.58 139.39 136.95 165 130.32 192.4 200 240.91 200 200 200 Cp at Tmin × 1E−05 0.5361 0.6855 0.8488 1.1380 1.4076 1.6750 1.9989 2.2934 2.6348 2.9409 3.2493 3.6292 3.9400 4.2831 4.6165 4.9602 5.3005 5.6511 5.9409 6.2299 0.9961 1.2328 1.4495 1.4706 1.5664 2.3791 1.8285 0.7013 0.9279 1.0930 1.1340 1.0986 1.2930 1.5446 1.7955 2.1295 2.3904 2.7343 1.0568 1.3282 1.3207 1.1034 1.0333 1.2239 0.8061 0.9769 1.1806 1.4342 1.3752 1.1800 Tmax, K 190 290 360 420 390 460 520 460 325 460 433.42 330 508.62 526.73 543.84 560.01 575.3 589.86 603.05 616.93 380 310 331.13 333.41 380 320 520 252.7 298.15 300 350 274.03 310 336.63 330 315 420.02 443.75 343.15 304.31 311.71 290 350 307.2 250 249.94 300.13 299.49 313.33 329.27 Cp at Tmax × 1E−05 14.9780 1.2444 2.6079 5.0822 2.0498 2.7534 4.0657 3.4189 2.9890 4.1478 4.2624 3.9429 5.5619 6.0741 6.6042 7.1521 7.6869 8.2276 8.7663 9.3154 2.0725 1.7048 2.0224 2.0842 2.5613 2.5757 3.9095 0.9758 1.1178 1.2917 1.5022 1.2322 1.5761 1.9700 2.3032 2.4793 3.4142 4.0027 1.4596 1.5921 1.5673 1.2279 1.4148 1.5575 0.8808 1.0216 1.2542 1.6243 1.6660 1.4989

Methane (eqn. 2) Ethane (eqn. 2) Propane (eqn. 2) n-Butane (eqn. 2) n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane (eqn. 2) n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane1 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene2 2-Methyl-2-butene2 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne

2-170

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene3 Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol

C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O

693027 764352 928494 628717 629050 689974 287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556 108952 95487 108394 106445

82.145 82.145 82.145 96.172 110.199 52.076 70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145 78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194 120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309 32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095 94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140

9.3000E+04 9.4860E+04 8.2795E+04 8.5122E+04 9.1748E+04 6.8720E+04 1.2253E+05 1.5592E+05 1.7852E+05 −2.2060E+05 1.3134E+05 1.3450E+05 1.3236E+05 1.2538E+05 5.3271E+04 1.0585E+05 1.2944E+05 1.4014E+05 3.6500E+04 1.7555E+05 −3.5500E+04 1.3316E+05 2.3477E+05 1.7880E+05 1.8290E+05 1.4805E+05 1.4560E+05 2.9800E+04 1.2177E+05 1.1334E+05 1.9567E+05 1.0580E+05 1.0264E+05 1.5876E+05 1.9120E+05 2.0670E+05 7.2355E+05 −9.2546E+05 2.0120E+05 8.2937E+04 −5.3777E+04 4.8466E+05 4.3790E+05 −4.0000E+04 3.5540E+04 5.8080E+04 1.0172E+05 −1.8515E+05 −2.4670E+05 2.5998E+05

3.2600E+02 2.5415E+02 2.8340E+02 4.0247E+02 4.7140E+02 1.3500E+02 −4.0380E+02 −4.9000E+02 −5.1835E+02 3.1183E+03 −6.3100E+01 8.7650E+00 7.2740E+01 −3.4970E+02 3.2792E+02 −6.0000E+01 −1.6950E+02 −1.5230E+02 1.0175E+03 −2.9950E+02 1.2872E+03 4.4507E+01 −8.0022E+02 −1.2847E+02 −1.7400E+02 1.9700E+01 2.4870E+02 5.2750E+02 4.2930E+02 2.9020E+02 5.9407E+02 −3.6223E+02 −1.3963E+02 −6,3500E+02 −7.3040E+02 −1.0204E+03 −8.0950E+03 7.8949E+03 −6.5130E+02 4.5998E+02 8.8342E+02 −2.7613E+03 −2.0947E+03 8.5300E+02 4.3678E+02 4.4520E+02 3.1761E+02 3.1480E+03 3.2568E+03 −1.1123E+03

0 0 0 0 0 0 1.7344E+00 2.1383E+00 2.3255E+00 −9.4216E+00 8.1250E−01 8.1151E−01 6.4738E−01 1.1430E+00 0 6.8000E−01 6.4781E−01 6.9500E−01 −2.6300E+00 1.0880E+00 −2.5990E+00 3.9645E−01 3.4037 8.3741E−01 9.1200E−01 6.2260E−01 1.8700E−01 0 0 −6.0510E−01 0 9.3790E−01 −3.0341E−02 1.9690E+00 2.2998E+00 3.2900E+00 3.6662E+01 −1.7661E+01 2.2750E+00 0.0000E+00 0 6.5555E+00 5.2090E+00 0 −1.8486E−01 0 0 −8.0367E+00 −7.4202E+00 4.9427E+00

0 0 0 0 0 0 −1.0975E−03 −1.5585E−03 −1.6818E−03 1.0687E−02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.0200E−03 0 2.4260E−03 0 −3.1739E−03 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.3567E−03 0 0 2.0386E−03 0 0 0 −6.6395E−02 1.3617E−02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7.2540E−03 6.0467E−03 −5.4367E−03

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.4064E−05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

200 300 300 192.22 193.55 200 179.28 130.73 134.71 279.69 146.58 239.66 161.84 138.13 200 169.67 278.68 178.18 248 225.3 286.41 178.15 173.59 229.33 177.14 228.42 205.25 353.43 342.2 242.54 360 175.47 159.05 146.95 184.51 158.45 185.28 298.96 200.14 250 295.52 228.55 239.15 296.6 260.15 213.15 314.06 304.2 285.39 307.93

1.5820 1.7110 1.6781 1.6248 1.8299 0.9572 0.9956 1.2492 1.4678 1.4836 1.3955 1.8321 1.6109 0.9888 1.1885 1.1525 1.3251 1.3507 1.7315 1.6330 1.7697 1.5367 1.8182 1.9338 1.8069 1.8503 2.0452 2.1623 2.6868 1.6749 4.0954 0.7112 0.8787 1.0797 1.3473 1.2762 1.1189 2.2016 1.6198 1.9793 2.0729 1.9599 2.3487 2.1300 1.3666 1.5297 2.0147 2.3297 2.1895 2.2740

344.48 357.67 354.35 372.93 399.35 278.25 322.4 366.48 301.82 400 320 392.7 404.95 317.38 348.64 356.12 353.24 500 415 360 600 409.35 370 350 500 350 450.28 491.14 533.37 418.31 650 400 390 400 390.81 372.7 480 460 389.15 401.85 350 320 370 434 493.15 460.75 425 400 400 400

2.0530 1.8576 1.8322 2.3522 2.8000 1.0628 1.3584 1.8682 1.8767 2.0323 1.9435 2.6309 2.6798 1.2953 1.6760 1.7072 1.5040 2.3774 2.2166 2.0873 3.2520 2.1781 2.4389 2.3642 3.2390 2.3121 2.9550 2.8888 3.5075 2.2816 5.8182 1.1097 1.6450 2.1980 2.5701 2.8340 2.8122 2.9455 2.9227 2.6778 2.5542 2.7233 3.7597 3.3020 2.0598 2.6321 2.3670 2.5243 2.5578 2.5794

2-171

TABLE 2-196 Cmpd. no. 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 2-172

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Continued ) Name Formula C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 CAS no. 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 Mol wt 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211 30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268 58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151 46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090 60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133 C1 1.1010E+05 1.2977E+05 1.4411E+05 1.4344E+05 1.7785E+05 5.1380E+04 1.4012E+05 4.4400E+04 1.0368E+05 1.0625E+05 1.5094E+05 1.3416E+05 6.1900E+04 1.1510E+05 9.9306E+04 6.5682E+04 1.1205E+05 1.1770E+05 2.2236E+05 1.3065E+05 1.3682E+05 1.5046E+05 1.3560E+05 1.3230E+05 1.9459E+05 1.8361E+05 2.7249E+05 1.2492E+05 9.9815E+04 1.9302E+05 8.3630E+04 1.7927E+05 1.0980E+05 7.2692E+04 7.8060E+04 1.3964E+05 2.1366E+05 2.3770E+05 1.2754E+05 −5.4800E+03 3.6600E+04 1.3020E+05 6.1260E+04 7.1140E+04 1.0293E+05 8.0000E+04 2.2623E+05 7.6330E+04 C2 −1.5747E+02 −3.3196E+02 −1.0209E+02 −1.5407E+02 −1.7157E+02 4.5040E+02 −9.0000E+00 1.3010E+03 7.2630E+02 2.9215E+02 9.3455E+01 4.4767E+02 2.8300E+01 −4.3300E+02 1.1573E+02 1.3291E+03 2.5778E+02 3.2952E+02 −1.0517E+02 4.6361E+02 5.3129E+02 5.8663E+02 −1.7700E+02 2.0087E+02 −2.6386E+02 −2.6885E+02 −7.9070E+02 3.0410E+02 3.4672E+02 −1.7643E+02 3.9900E+02 2.8370E+01 2.6150E+02 3.3783E+02 7.1540E+01 −3.2080E+02 −7.0270E+02 −7.4640E+02 −6.5350E+01 6.4712E+02 5.1100E+02 −3.9600E+02 2.7090E+02 3.3550E+02 1.2910E+02 2.2360E+02 −6.2480E+02 4.0010E+02 C3 5.1853E−01 1.3869E+00 5.8113E−01 7.2550E−01 7.4379E−01 0 5.6300E−01 −5.5000E+00 −2.6047E+00 0 2.3602E−01 0 0 1.4250E+00 0 −7.1579E+00 0 0 6.5074E−01 0 0 0 2.8370E−01 −9.5970E−01 7.6808E−01 8.6080E−01 2.5834E+00 0 0 5.6690E−01 0 5.3750E−01 0 3.5572E−01 0 8.9850E−01 1.6605E+00 1.8290E+00 8.2867E−01 0 0 1.2100E+00 0 0 6.2516E−01 0 1.4720E+00 0 C4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.7630E−03 4.0957E−03 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2755E−02 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.8900E−04 1.9533E−03 0 0 −2.0040E−03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Tmin, K 131.65 218.9 133.97 127.93 157.48 300 164.55 156.92 145.65 298.15 298.15 300.03 204 150.15 200 176.75 200 217.15 229.8 246 255.15 267.15 178.45 186.48 196.29 181.15 220.87 298.15 298.15 234.18 298.15 204.81 290 298.2 281.45 289.81 252.45 267.95 270 395.45 250 174.15 253.4 300 277.25 254.2 189.6 298.15 Cp at Tmin × 1E−05 0.9836 1.2356 1.4086 1.3560 1.6928 1.8650 1.5388 1.4698 1.6686 1.9335 1.9978 2.6847 0.6767 0.8221 1.2245 1.4741 1.6361 1.8926 2.3256 2.4470 2.7238 3.0718 1.1696 1.4905 1.7239 1.6316 2.0228 2.1559 2.0319 1.8279 2.0259 2.0763 1.8563 2.0506 0.9820 1.2213 1.4209 1.6902 1.7031 2.5042 1.6435 1.2991 1.7179 1.8678 1.3684 1.6068 1.9562 Tmax, K 250 328.35 312.2 310 343.35 370 328.35 460 320 326.15 484.2 570 234 294 328.75 300 376.15 401.45 381.25 447.15 468.15 488.15 329.44 373.15 375.46 367.55 382.62 390 390.55 375.14 425 410 486.5 532.12 380 391.05 414.32 436.42 427.65 450 350 304.9 373.4 390 415.87 374.2 350.21 410 Cp at Tmax × 1E−05 1.0314 1.7030 1.6888 1.6540 2.0663 2.1803 1.9786 3.3202 2.0358 2.0153 2.5153 3.8933 0.6852 1.1097 1.3735 1.6459 2.0901 2.4999 2.7685 3.3795 3.8554 4.3682 1.3271 1.7511 2.0380 2.0108 2.3590 2.4352 2.3523 2.0661 2.5320 2.8126 2.3702 3.5318 1.0525 1.5159 2.0756 2.6031 2.5114 2.8572 2.1545 1.2195 1.6241 2.0198 2.6474 1.6367 1.8796 2.4037

Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl-n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether Formaldehyde4 Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl-n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate

149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Ethyl-n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide5 N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan2 Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Fluoromethane2 Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane

C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br

105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964

116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090 31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 73.138 101.192 59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182 44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101 45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123 48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189 34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966

8.2434E+04 7.5700E+04 8.3400E+04 1.1730E+05 1.1950E+05 1.2450E+05 1.3630E+05 9.2520E+04 −2.1487E+05 1.3605E+05 1.2170E+05 1.0133E+05 1.1148E+05 1.3953E+05 4.9120E+04 −3.2469E+04 9.8434E+04 1.4150E+05 1.2850E+05 4.1860E+04 1.4471E+05 1.1437E+05 8.1350E+04 1.0785E+05 6.3400E+04 1.4790E+05 1.0230E+05 6.2600E+04 9.7582E+04 1.1819E+05 1.0400E+05 7.6900E+04 1.1530E+05 1.3467E+05 1.6733E+05 2.3219E+05 1.7336E+05 1.9789E+05 1.4695E+05 1.6124E+05 2.3852E+05 7.4746E+04 9.6910E+04 1.2485E+05 −7.5270E+05 1.2973E+05 8.3303E+04 1.2790E+05 9.4364E+04

4.2245E+02 3.2610E+02 3.8410E+02 3.5220E+02 2.9400E+02 3.7060E+02 −1.0617E+02 3.7450E+01 3.7872E+03 −2.8800E+02 3.8993E+01 2.4318E+02 3.6813E+02 7.8000E+01 5.6224E+02 1.9771E+03 4.2904E+02 1.7120E+02 1.0020E+02 5.2750E+02 −7.5887E+02 −2.1569E+02 1.2980E+02 −3.4787E+01 1.5060E+02 −1.0600E+02 1.2870E+02 2.4340E+02 −1.2220E+02 −1.2098E+02 1.7400E+02 3.1420E+02 −2.6323E+02 −2.3439E+02 −3.1910E+02 −8.0435E+02 −2.1732E+02 −4.9154E+02 −3.8006E+02 −2.8861E+02 −1.0384E+03 −1.3232E+02 −2.0790E+02 −1.6634E+02 8.9661E+03 −5.9654E+02 6.5454E+01 −3.4515E+02 −1.0912E+02

2.0992E−01 0 0 0 0 0 7.5175E−01 0 −1.3781E+01 9.9130E−01 0 0 0 0 0 −7.0145E+00 0 0 3.7400E−01 0 2.8261E+00 7.2691E−01 −3.9000E−03 3.9565E−01 0 3.8400E−01 0 0 3.4085E−01 4.2075E−01 0 0 6.0412E−01 5.9656E−01 8.1270E−01 2.7063E+00 7.0933E−01 1.7219E+00 1.2035E+00 7.8179E−01 4.0587E+00 5.3772E−01 3.7456E−01 4.3209E−01 −3.0394E+01 2.1600E+00 0 9.1500E−01 4.4032E−01

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6924E−02 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.6913E−03 0 0 0 0 −3.0640E−03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −2.3017E−03 0 −1.2499E−03 −8.4787E−04 0 −4.4691E−03 0 4.8800E−04 0 3.4455E−02 −2.4234E−03 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

285.5 298.15 274.7 289.58 260.75 238.45 259.56 179.69 180.96 156.08 192.15 223.35 200 188.36 277.9 177.95 275 267.13 216.15 343.58 160.65 187.55 234.94 231.51 292 273.82 354.15 359 229.32 180.26 161.25 260.4 150.18 125.26 159.95 157.46 128.31 133.02 174.88 167.23 181.95 140 175.43 233.15 250.33 184.45 200 134.8 160

2.2015 1.7293 1.8891 2.1929 1.9616 2.1287 1.5939 0.9925 1.1947 1.1525 1.2919 1.5564 1.8511 1.5422 2.0537 1.4621 2.1642 1.8723 1.6763 2.2310 0.8303 0.9949 1.1163 1.2100 1.0738 1.4767 1.4788 1.4998 0.8748 1.1005 1.3206 1.5872 0.8939 1.1467 1.3708 1.6365 1.5715 1.6003 1.1276 1.3484 1.5703 0.6676 0.7460 1.0956 1.2763 0.7798 0.9639 0.9800 0.8818

428.25 398.15 404.7 429.58 472.65 486.55 389.35 266.82 298.15 276.02 289.73 328.6 361.92 340 407.9 320 357.05 457.15 469.02 513.58 283.85 304.5 357.31 388.41 493 466.44 571 538.5 354.75 370.5 390.75 464.15 298.15 315.25 340.87 390 361.64 370 310.48 339.8 322.08 220 373.15 366.48 388.71 276.71 281.48 340 320

3.0185 2.0554 2.3885 2.6860 2.5846 3.0482 2.0892 1.0251 1.3779 1.3208 1.3300 1.8124 2.4471 1.6605 2.7846 1.6671 2.5162 2.1976 2.5777 3.1277 0.8693 1.1609 1.2723 1.5403 1.3765 1.8200 1.7579 1.9367 0.9713 1.3112 1.7199 2.2274 0.9052 1.2007 1.5299 1.9359 1.8754 1.8844 1.1959 1.5344 1.7579 0.7166 0.9684 1.2192 1.6374 0.7870 1.0173 1.1632 1.0453

2-173

TABLE 2-196 Cmpd. no. 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Liquids (Concluded ) Name Formula C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H 2O CAS no. 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185 Mol wt 78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010 28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015 C1 9.6344E+04 6.9362E+04 7.0010E+04 1.1094E+05 −1.0320E+04 −9.9120E+05 −1.3075E+06 1.2160E+05 −2.1446E+05 6.6653E+01 3.8722E+05 1.0341E+06 1.3439E+05 −9.4585E+04 6.3936E+04 3.7570E+04 1.7543E+05 2.8197E+05 6.1289E+01 7.9815E+04 6.7556E+04 −2.9796E+06 3.1322E+06 6.5429E+01 −8.3043E+06 8.5600E+04 6.2520E+04 4.7300E+04 5.7720E+04 9.5398E+04 6.4666E+01 8.5743E+04 2.5809E+05 2.7637E+05 C2 1.1752E+02 2.1501E+02 2.6660E+02 8.3496E+00 3.2280E+02 1.1734E+04 1.5338E+04 −9.4500E+00 9.1851E+03 6.7659E+03 −4.6557E+05 −1.3877E+05 −1.9894E+03 7.5299E+03 4.6350E+01 3.2850E+02 −6.1523E+03 −1.2281E+04 8.0925E+04 5.0929E+01 5.4373E+01 7.6602E+04 −2.4320E+04 2.8723E+04 1.0437E+05 −1.2200E+02 −2.2302E+02 9.0000E+01 9.9000E+00 −1.9752E+02 4.9354E+04 5.7443E+00 0.0000E+00 −2.0901E+03 C3 0 0 0 4.7218E−01 0 −4.0669E+01 −5.3974E+01 3.5800E−01 −1.0612E+02 −1.2363E+02 2.1180E+05 7.1540E+03 1.1043E+01 −1.3960E+02 −1.6230E−01 −6.7000E−01 1.1392E+02 2.4800E+02 7.9940E+02 4.3379E−02 0 −6.5259E+02 4.8844E+01 −8.4739E+02 −4.3333E+02 5.6050E−01 6.2970E−01 0 0 3.8830E−01 2.2493E+01 0 0 8.1250E+00 C4 0 0 0 0 0 4.7333E−02 6.3483E−02 0 4.1616E−01 4.7827E+02 −4.2494E+04 −1.6255E+02 0 1.1301E+00 0 0 −9.2382E−01 −2.2182E+00 −2.6510E+03 0 0 1.8879E+00 0 1.9596E+03 6.0052E−01 −1.4520E−03 0 0 0 0 −1.6230E+03 0 0 −1.4116E−02 C5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2129E+03 1.3841E+00 0 −3.3241E−03 0 0 2.7963E−03 7.4902E−03 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.0080E−06 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.3701E−06 Tmin, K 230 200 280 286 200 239.99 227.95 293.15 75 13.95 2.2 24.56 83.78 58 172.12 265.9 54.36 63.15 203.15 274.69 182.3 109.5 245.25 68.15 220 161.11 189.79 165 185.15 259.83 187.68 197.67 303.15 273.16 Cp at Tmin × 1E−05 1.2337 1.1236 1.4466 1.5195 0.5424 1.3675 1.3617 1.4960 0.5307 0.1262 0.1087 0.3666 0.4523 0.5541 0.6711 0.7755 0.5365 0.5593 0.7575 0.9708 0.7747 0.6229 1.0557 0.5912 0.7827 0.7577 0.4288 0.6215 0.5955 0.7029 0.6733 0.8688 2.5809 0.7615 Tmax, K 319.67 308.85 420 429 400 319.99 360 495.08 115 32 4.6 40 135 98 239.12 305.37 142 112 401.15 653.15 200 150 300 132 290 552 292.67 185 206.45 298.85 370 350 303.15 533.15 Cp at Tmax × 1E−05 1.3391 1.3577 1.8198 2.0142 1.1880 1.5018 1.8101 2.0467 0.7132 1.3122 0.2965 0.6980 0.6708 0.5966 0.6574 0.7541 0.9066 0.7960 4.1847 1.3158 0.7843 1.9909 2.3216 6.4799 1.6603 1.3125 0.5119 0.6395 0.5976 0.7105 4.9183 0.8775 2.5809 0.8939

1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air Hydrogen (eqn. 2) Helium-46 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia (eqn. 2) Hydrazine Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide (eqn. 2) Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide (eqn. 2) Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are expressed in kelvins; liquid heat capacities are in J/ kmol-K. J/(kmol·K) × 2.390E−04 = cal/(gmol·°C); J/(kmol·K) × 2.390059E−04 = Btu/(lbmol·°F). Equation 1, heat capacity = C1 + C2 × T + C3 × T 2 + C4 × T 3 + C5 × T 4, should be used except as otherwise specified. Equation 2 is heat capacity = C12/t + C2 − (2 × C1 × C3)t − (C1 × C4)t2 − (C32/3)t3 − (C3 × C4/2)t4 − (C42/5)t5. t = (1 − Tr) and Tr is the reduced temperature, T/Tc. 1 Coefficients are for the monomer and are hypothetical above 473 K. 2 For the saturated heat capacity. 3 Coefficients are hypothetical; compound decomposes violently on heating. 4 Coefficients are hypothetical and are based on predicted data. 5 Coefficients are hypothetical. 6 Exhibits superfluid properties below 2.2 K. 2-174

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2-197 Specific Heats of Organic Solids Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Formula C2H4O2 C3H6O C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C7H7NO2 C6H7N C14H10 C14H8O2 C12H14O4 C12H10N2 C6H6 Temperature, °C −200 to +25 −210 to −80 85 to mp 120 to mp 128 to mp 50 100 150 0 to 270 10 28 −250 −225 −200 −150 −100 −50 0 20 to mp −150 −100 −50 0 +20 −150 −100 0 +50 −50 to 0 −75 to −15 −40 to 50 41 32 35 8 −2 −240 −200 −160 −120 −80 −40 15 78 32 60 80 to mp 94 to mp 180 to mp −34 −52 −40 38 to 70 40 20 40 0 to 90 −250 −200 −100 0 20 28 −36 −25 −50 to +50 −48.5 −52 −50 to +53 0 to 204 sp ht, cal/g °C 0.330 + 0.00080t 0.540 + 0.0156t 0.254 + 0.00136t 0.253 + 0.00122t 0.287 + 0.00088t 0.741 0.308 0.350 0.382 0.258 + 0.00069t 0.299 0.330 0.0399 0.0908 0.124 0.170 0.227 0.299 0.375 0.287 + 0.00050t 0.115 0.172 0.220 0.275 0.303 0.129 0.167 0.248 0.308 0.143 + 0.00025t 0.143 0.116 + 0.00032t 0.260 0.263 0.380 0.695 0.628 0.013 0.081 0.131 0.162 0.182 0.201 0.387 0.509 0.213 0.363 0.228 + 0.00084t 0.232 + 0.00073t 0.242 + 0.00055t 0.192 0.150 0.150 0.520 + 0.00020t 0.263 0.547 0.318 0.291 + 0.00096t 0.016 0.077 0.160 0.277 0.300 0.363 0.248 0.134 0.139 + 0.00038t 0.406 0.185 0.186 0.219 + 0.0021t 0.456

2-175

Compound Acetic acid Acetone Aminobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Aniline Anthracene Anthraquinone Apiol Azobenzene Benzene

Benzoic acid Benzophenone

C7H6O2 C13H10O

Betol

C17H12O3

Bromoiodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Bromonaphthalene (β-) Bromophenol Camphene Capric acid Caprylic acid Carbon tetrachloride

C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C6H4BrI C10H7Br C6H5BrO C10H16 C10H20O2 C8H16O2 CCl4

Cerotic acid Chloral alcoholate hydrate Chloroacetic acid Chlorobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Chlorobromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Crotonic acid Cyamelide Cyanamide Cyanuric acid Dextrin Dextrose

C27H54O2 C4H7Cl3O2 C2H3Cl3O2 C2H3ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C7H5ClO2 C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C6H4BrCl C4H6O2 C3H3N3O3 CH2N2 C3H3N3O3 (C6H10O5)x C6H12O6

Dibenzyl Dibromobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dichloroacetic acid Dichlorobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dicyandiamide

C14H14 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C6H4Br2 C2H2Cl2O2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C6H4Cl2 C2H4N4

2-176

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-197 Specific Heats of Organic Solids (Continued ) Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Formula C6H6O2 C6H6O2 C6H6O2 Temperature, °C −163 to mp −160 to mp −250 −240 −220 −200 −150 to mp −50 to +15 −52 to −42 −50 to +80 10 to 50 50 −160 to mp −160 to mp 119 to mp 40 26 20 60 −190 −180 −160 −140 −130 −190 −180 −175 −170 −190 to −40 −22 0 20 −265 −260 −250 −220 −200 −100 0 25 41 to mp 40 −200 to −160 20 20 −30 to +40 40 20 20 20 0 to 100 40 0 to 35 −130 to mp 50 to mp 61 to mp 0 to 50 −160 to mp −160 to mp −160 to mp −163 to mp 66 to mp −160 to mp 0 to 55 sp ht, cal/g °C 0.278 + 0.00098t 0.269 + 0.00118t 0.025 0.038 0.061 0.081 0.268 + 0.00093t 0.109 + 0.00026t 0.100 + 0.00026t 0.101 + 0.00026t 0.212 + 0.0044t 0.368 0.252 + 0.00083t 0.248 + 0.00077t 0.259 + 0.00057t 0.385 0.337 0.282 0.351 0.232 0.248 0.282 0.318 0.376 0.260 0.296 0.380 0.399 0.366 + 0.00110t 0.387 0.430 0.299 0.009 0.022 0.047 0.085 0.115 0.217 0.330 0.174 0.495 0.249 + 0.00154t 0.191 0.051 + 0.00165t 0.287 0.299 0.430 + 0.000027t 0.607 0.275 0.275 0.320 0.313 + 0.00025t 0.351 0.381 + 0.00545t 0.281 + 0.00111t 0.240 + 0.00147t 0.252 + 0.00128t 0.270 + 0.0031t 0.269 + 0.000920t 0.275 + 0.000946t 0.276 + 0.001000t 0.256 + 0.00085t 0.258 + 0.00091t 0.247 + 0.00077t 0.236 + 0.00215t

Compound Dihydroxybenzene (o-) (m-) (p-)

Di-iodobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Dimethyl oxalate Dimethylpyrene Dinitrobenzene (o-) (m-) (p-) Diphenyl Diphenylamine Dulcitol Erythritol Ethyl alcohol

C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C6H4I2 C4H6O4 C7H8O2 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C6H4N2O4 C12H10 C12H11N C6H14O6 C4H10O4 C2H6O (crystalline)

(vitreous)

Ethylene glycol Formic acid Glutaric acid Glycerol

C2H6O2 CH2O2 C5H8O4 C3H8O3

Hexachloroethane Hexadecane Hydroxyacetanilide Iodobenzene Isopropyl alcohol Lactose Lauric acid Levoglucosane Levulose Malonic acid Maltose Mannitol Melamine Myristic acid Naphthalene Naphthol (α-) (β-) Naphthylamine (α-) Nitroaniline (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitrobenzoic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Nitronaphthalene

C2Cl6 C16H34 C8H9NO2 C6H5I C3H8O C12H22O11 C12H22O11·H2O C12H24O2 C6H10O5 C6H12O6 C3H4O4 C12H22O11 C6H14O6 C3H6N6 C14H28O2 C10H8 C10H8O C10H8O C10H9N C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C6H6N2O2 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C7H5NO4 C10H7NO2

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2-197 Specific Heats of Organic Solids (Concluded ) Recalculated from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 101–105 Formula C2H2O4 C2H2O4.2H2O Temperature, °C −200 to +50 −200 −100 0 +50 100 −180 −140 −100 −50 0 +20 14 to 26 20 −100 0 +50 100 120 −33 −200 −175 −150 −130 20 −250 −225 −200 −100 0 −250 −225 −200 −150 to mp 32 15 0 to 160 20 22 to 51 36 −150 −100 −50 0 +50 −40 to 0 −100 −50 0 +100 −100 to +100 −100 0 +50 0 to 49 54 to mp 54 to mp 130 to mp 0 20 40 solid −4 −100 −50 0 +100 −185 to +23 20 to 50 0 to 91 20 sp ht, cal/g °C 0.259 + 0.00076t 0.117 0.239 0.338 0.385 0.416 0.167 0.208 0.251 0.306 0.382 0.430 0.561 0.232 0.165 0.240 0.263 0.297 0.332 0.726 0.170 0.363 0.471 0.497 0.301 0.017 0.061 0.098 0.191 0.256 0.031 0.082 0.113 0.282 + 0.00083t 0.289 0.399 0.248 + 0.00153t 0.299 0.301 0.287 0.112 0.170 0.231 0.308 0.366 0.198 + 0.00018t 0.182 0.199 0.212 0.236 0.253 + 0.00072t 0.172 0.280 0.325 0.315 + 0.0031t 0.277 + 0.00120t 0.239 + 0.00195t 0.271 + 0.00106t 0.337 0.387 0.440 0.459 0.559 0.170 0.253 0.311 0.385 0.241 0.423 0.189 + 0.0027t 0.320

2-177

Compound Oxalic acid

Palmitic acid

C16H32O2

Phenol Phthalic acid Picric acid

C6H6O C8H6O4 C6H3N3O7

Propionic acid Propyl alcohol (n-)

C3H6O2 C3H8O

Pyrotartaric acid Quinhydrone

C6H8O4 C12H10O4

Quinone

C6H4O2

Salol Stearic acid Succinic acid Sucrose Sugar (cane) Tartaric acid Tartaric acid

C13H10O3 C18H36O2 C4H6O4 C12H22O11 C12H22O11 C4H6O6 C4H6O6·H2O

Tetrachloroethylene Tetryl

C2Cl4 C7H5N5O8

1 Tetryl + 1 picric acid 1 Tetryl + 2 TNT Thymol Toluic acid (o-) (m-) (p-) Toluidine (p-) Trichloroacetic acid Trimethyl carbinol Trinitrotoluene

C13H8N8O15 C21H15N11O20 C10H14O C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C8H8O2 C7H9N C2HCl3O2 C4H10O C7H5N3O6

Trinitroxylene Triphenylmethane Urea

C8H7N3O6 C19H16 CH4N2O

TABLE 2-198 Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 2-178

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State Name Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 693027 764352 928494 628717 Mol wt. 16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285 156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553 58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231 28.054 42.081 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188 112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119 26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119 82.145 82.145 82.145 96.172 C1 × 1E−05 0.3330 0.4033 0.5192 0.7134 0.8805 1.0440 1.2015 1.3554 1.5175 1.6720 1.9529 2.1295 2.1496 2.3082 2.4679 2.6283 2.7878 2.9502 3.1062 3.2481 0.6549 0.7460 0.7772 0.9030 0.8544 0.9820 1.1390 0.3338 0.4339 0.5998 0.5765 0.6592 0.7595 0.9180 1.0775 1.2355 1.3950 1.7573 0.6125 0.8703 0.8192 0.5750 0.5095 0.6527 0.3199 0.4478 0.6534 0.8274 0.7530 0.7074 0.9129 1.0360 0.9376 1.0712 C2 × 1E−05 0.7993 1.3422 1.9245 2.4300 3.0110 3.5230 4.0010 4.4310 4.9150 5.3530 6.0998 6.6330 7.3045 7.8678 8.4212 8.9733 9.5247 10.0340 10.5750 11.0900 2.4776 3.2650 4.0320 3.8010 4.5772 5.4020 5.2860 0.9479 1.5200 2.0846 2.1150 2.0700 2.5525 3.0220 3.4900 3.9570 4.4255 5.1710 2.0660 2.5556 2.6038 1.6476 1.7050 2.2993 0.5424 1.0917 1.6179 2.1377 2.0905 2.2229 2.5577 3.0090 3.0150 3.0258 C3 × 1E−03 2.0869 1.6555 1.6265 1.6300 1.6502 1.6946 1.6766 1.6356 1.6448 1.6141 1.7087 1.7155 1.6695 1.6823 1.6865 1.6912 1.6935 0.7711 0.7679 1.6360 1.5870 1.5450 1.5440 1.6020 1.5181 1.5310 1.5940 1.5960 1.4250 1.5884 1.6299 1.6733 1.5820 1.5742 1.5705 1.5640 1.5624 1.7664 1.5450 1.7757 1.7593 1.5270 1.5324 1.4943 1.5940 1.5508 1.7837 1.7550 1.5307 1.5570 1.5290 2.1160 1.9057 1.5273 C4 × 1E−05 0.4160 0.7322 1.1680 1.5033 1.8920 2.3690 2.7400 3.0540 3.4700 3.7820 4.1302 4.5161 4.9998 5.4486 5.8537 6.2640 6.6651 −4.3012 −4.5661 7.4500 1.5750 1.9230 2.5080 2.4530 2.9740 3.4930 3.3510 0.5510 0.7860 1.2940 1.2872 1.2510 1.6660 2.0320 2.4030 2.7669 3.1370 3.6210 1.2057 1.7636 1.7195 0.9900 1.3370 1.5164 0.4325 0.6750 1.0242 1.5149 1.3780 1.3125 1.7370 2.1060 1.9860 2.0975 C5 991.96 752.87 723.6 730.42 747.6 761.6 756.4 746.4 749.6 742 775.4 777.5 741.02 743.1 743.6 744.41 744.57 916.73 −912.03 −726.27 −706.99 666.7 −649.95 −691.6 641.01 639.9 677.94 740.8 623.9 707.3 739.1 742.2 713 715 717.4 718.17 719.6 803.02 676 807.82 800.93 677.3 685.6 −647.15 607.1 658.2 821.4 782 672.8 690.78 683 902.4 817 689.62 Tmin, K 50 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 60 130 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 200 Cp at Tmin × 1E−05 0.3330 0.4256 0.5632 0.7673 0.9404 1.1117 1.2828 1.4529 1.6257 1.7967 2.0594 2.2442 2.3156 2.4864 2.6586 2.8312 3.0034 3.1800 3.3533 3.5235 0.7218 0.8546 0.9363 1.0192 1.0550 1.2194 1.3139 0.3338 0.4388 0.6547 0.6199 0.7004 0.8273 0.9995 1.1723 1.3440 1.5168 1.8333 0.6763 0.9060 0.8559 0.6269 0.5756 0.7508 0.3566 0.4882 0.6721 0.8646 0.8276 0.7700 1.0004 1.2215 1.1909 1.1721 Tmax, K 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 Cp at Tmax × 1E−05 0.8890 1.4562 2.0556 2.6602 3.2927 3.8620 4.4283 4.9764 5.5407 6.0932 6.8342 7.4325 8.0251 8.6225 9.2209 9.8182 10.4160 11.0160 11.6130 12.2110 2.6656 3.3792 4.0353 3.9617 4.5983 5.3754 5.3769 1.0987 1.6836 2.2853 2.2715 2.2904 2.8467 3.4088 3.9706 4.5322 5.0938 5.8682 2.2814 2.8923 2.8709 1.9202 1.9555 2.5571 0.7575 1.3293 1.9148 2.5255 2.4754 2.5052 3.0371 3.1894 3.1889 3.5985

Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne

55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

1-Octyne Vinylacetylene Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene (eqn. 3) 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl-n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl-n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether

C8H14 C4H4 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2 C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O

629050 689974 287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556 108952 95487 108394 106445 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445

110.199 52.076 70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145 78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194 120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309 32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095 94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150

1.2307 0.5598 0.4160 0.6646 0.8205 0.4320 0.9227 1.0776 1.1059 0.4807 0.6941 0.5817 0.4442 0.5814 0.8521 0.7568 0.7512 0.7844 −21.4827 1.0106 1.0810 0.9154 1.3186 0.6805 0.9060 0.8930 1.6397 0.3925 0.4920 0.6190 0.7454 0.8202 0.5723 0.7704 0.9060 1.0890 1.1060 1.0625 1.2215 0.9043 0.8200 2.0114 0.4340 0.7988 0.7515 0.7384 0.5148 0.6868 0.9215 0.8923 0.8205 0.7284

3.4942 1.2141 3.0140 3.5070 4.0342 3.7350 4.1150 4.6718 4.6306 2.5159 3.0209 3.1717 2.3205 2.8630 3.2954 3.3924 3.3970 3.3990 3.8070 3.8314 3.7932 3.9270 4.3036 3.5494 4.2634 2.1503 6.0125 0.8790 1.4577 2.0213 2.5907 2.5220 1.9100 2.5390 3.0620 2.1850 2.2100 3.5210 3.9910 2.5771 1.2780 0.8082 2.4450 2.8530 2.0900 2.9080 1.4420 1.9959 2.3943 2.4765 3.0869 3.1713

1.5280 1.6102 1.4617 1.5892 1.5670 1.1920 1.6504 1.6540 1.6628 1.5803 1.6903 1.5435 1.4946 1.4406 1.4944 1.4960 1.4928 1.5590 54701 1.5010 1.7505 1.4980 1.7734 1.4262 1.4553 0.7720 1.6902 1.9165 1.6628 1.6293 1.6073 1.6010 1.4210 1.5502 1.6054 0.8530 0.8760 1.5835 1.5800 0.7882 1.6980 1.8656 1.1520 1.4765 0.6666 1.4559 1.6034 1.5534 1.6936 1.6960 1.3864 1.3520

2.4617 0.8908 1.8095 2.3526 2.6697 1.6350 2.9006 3.3397 3.2990 1.7454 2.1209 2.1273 1.7213 1.8980 2.1150 2.2470 2.2470 2.4260 −0.001713 2.3950 3.0027 2.5090 3.2570 2.5984 3.1550 0.9990 5.1314 0.5365 0.9390 1.2956 1.7320 1.5864 1.2155 1.6690 2.1150 1.4000 1.2200 2.4620 2.8350 1.3068 0.9290 −2.4404 1.5120 2.0420 1.2120 2.0910 0.7747 1.1168 1.4896 1.5598 1.7886 1.8948

694.81 −710.4 −668.8 727.13 715.52 −530.1 779.48 792.5 781.1 718.37 781.56 701.62 −678.15 −650.43 -675.8 −675.9 −675.1 −702 0 678.3 794.8 676.9 811.9 650.1 661.2 2442 757.5 896.7 744.7 727.4 712.4 −704.15 626 −679.3 −717.97 2906 2940 715.75 717.7 1952.2 −754 279.98 −507 −664.7 2214 −650.42 725.4 692.04 797.79 791.4 613.87 585.14

200 200 100 200 200 100 200 200 200 150 200 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 100 298.15 200 200 200 200 200 150 200 200 298.15 298.15 200 200 200 200 298.15 100 200 200 200 200 200 298 200 300 300

1.3448 0.5967 0.4165 0.7510 0.9272 0.4366 0.9953 1.1535 1.1875 0.4918 0.7464 0.5978 0.5340 0.7016 0.9643 0.8759 0.8710 0.8912 1.0802 1.1354 1.1480 1.0474 1.3825 0.8454 1.0913 0.8931 2.4618 0.3980 0.5224 0.6665 0.8162 0.8890 0.5924 0.8567 0.9890 1.3247 1.3213 1.1607 1.3330 0.9648 0.8481 1.0218 0.4401 0.9158 0.8701 0.8707 0.5436 0.7396 1.1251 0.9280 1.3300 1.3200

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500.1 1200.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1000.15 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500 1200 1200

4.1604 1.5590 2.9298 3.5495 4.1472 3.6516 4.3180 4.9543 4.9184 2.5619 3.1496 3.2132 2.4169 3.0029 3.5965 3.5920 3.5923 3.6147 4.1537 4.1854 4.1808 4.1807 4.7952 3.7359 4.5581 3.2416 6.6678 1.0533 1.6576 2.2458 2.8509 2.8513 2.1792 2.8508 3.4133 3.4718 3.1770 3.9726 4.5346 3.8251 1.8521 2.1175 2.6045 3.2163 3.2075 3.2102 1.6581 2.2931 2.6391 2.8696 3.1994 3.1987 2-179

TABLE 2-198 Cmpd. no. 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 2-180

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State (Continued ) Name Formula C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N CAS no. 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 75047 Mol wt. 88.150 74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211 30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268 58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151 46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090 60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133 116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090 31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 C1 × 1E−05 0.9933 0.8621 1.1320 1.0953 0.7637 1.0985 0.3327 0.4451 0.7174 0.8966 1.0743 1.2320 1.4040 1.6088 1.7347 1.9641 0.5704 0.7840 0.9005 1.5914 1.0940 1.2270 1.0028 0.9690 1.2400 1.0869 0.5776 0.8540 0.3381 0.4020 0.6959 1.4880 0.7469 0.7759 0.7130 0.5060 0.5550 0.7765 0.8940 0.5370 0.9981 0.9370 1.1150 0.8710 1.7994 1.1684 0.9396 1.0944 0.5360 0.4100 0.5565 0.7107 0.5940 C2 × 1E−05 3.0667 2.5510 2.9400 3.0032 2.9377 4.3412 0.4954 1.0687 1.9140 2.3731 2.8363 2.2146 2.5907 4.2180 4.5115 5.1412 1.6320 2.1032 2.7085 1.7640 1.8070 2.1950 3.3169 2.4907 3.2000 4.0540 3.3535 2.3340 0.7593 1.3675 1.7778 1.3522 2.4356 2.6455 2.2220 1.2190 1.7820 2.4420 2.9100 1.8860 2.0931 2.8290 3.3910 2.4470 1.7530 3.7690 2.5590 4.1794 2.1190 1.0578 1.6384 1.5051 1.6180 C3 × 1E−03 1.7426 1.5413 1.8270 1.7988 1.6051 1.6222 1.8666 1.6141 2.0144 1.9754 1.9549 0.8400 0.8315 1.9126 1.7120 1.8989 1.6070 1.5488 1.6592 1.2076 0.6890 0.8420 1.6900 1.4177 1.9670 1.7802 1.2202 0.8310 1.1925 1.2620 1.7098 1.1460 1.7150 1.7925 1.6203 1.6370 1.2600 1.7140 1.5700 1.2070 2.0226 1.6480 1.6705 1.9254 1.1960 1.9560 0.8250 0.8838 1.1980 1.7080 1.7341 0.7966 1.8120 C4 × 1E−05 2.0764 1.4370 2.0550 2.1311 2.1700 3.6455 0.2808 0.6135 1.1708 1.5866 2.0146 1.2190 1.3120 3.2780 3.3256 4.1278 0.9680 1.1855 1.8012 −407.4000 1.4740 1.1910 2.3000 1.3010 2.3460 2.9786 1.5700 0.7730 0.3180 0.7003 1.2654 −678.0000 1.8484 2.2382 1.6760 0.8940 0.8530 1.8180 2.0730 0.8640 1.8030 2.1550 2.5180 1.8880 −4.1200 2.8180 1.3600 −1.6090 1.1470 0.6836 1.0899 0.8454 1.0780 C5 795.59 −688.9 −852 817.35 751.2 743.62 934.9 737.8 930.6 904.13 890.44 2205 2201 869 810.96 862.51 731.5 693 743.96 10.503 1772 2460 770.7 646.7 896 791.6 586.92 2227 550 569.7 −763.78 6.98 757.75 835.9 746.5 743 562 716 678.3 496 928.05 724.7 733.6 −821.3 108.2 811.2 3000 −1183.1 510 735 793.04 2187.6 820 Tmin, K 200 200 298.15 298.15 300 300 50 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 300 200 298.15 300 200 298.15 300 200 298.15 50 50 298.15 298.15 298.15 200 200 250 298 300 298 100 200 300 298 298.15 298.15 300 300 300 100 150 200 200 200 Cp at Tmin × 1E−05 1.0394 0.9316 1.3538 1.3620 1.1302 1.7298 0.3327 0.4660 0.7266 0.9119 1.0960 1.2672 1.4479 1.6504 1.8005 2.0192 0.6049 0.8397 0.9591 1.1291 1.1815 1.4755 1.3604 1.0536 1.4479 1.5102 0.7321 1.1313 0.3381 0.4020 0.8938 1.1533 1.0427 0.8126 0.7665 0.5888 0.8489 1.1242 1.3461 0.5412 1.0126 1.3377 1.5583 1.1022 1.3594 1.5358 1.2586 1.4598 0.5404 0.4136 0.5812 0.7439 0.6139 Tmax, K 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1500.15 1200 1500 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200.1 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1200 1200 1500 1500 1200 1200 1500 1500 1200 1200 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 Cp at Tmax × 1E−05 3.4321 2.9244 3.4535 3.2289 3.0226 4.5143 0.7113 1.2994 2.1149 2.6775 3.2404 3.7314 4.2863 4.9286 5.4439 6.0539 1.8820 2.4816 3.0797 2.9991 3.3207 3.6532 3.4275 3.0358 3.4234 4.3093 3.4870 3.2797 0.9933 1.5756 2.1248 2.4716 2.5383 2.9712 2.5675 1.5109 2.0754 2.5276 3.0766 2.1485 2.6594 3.0569 3.6213 2.7484 3.2024 3.6724 3.3569 4.2540 2.3750 1.2388 1.8585 2.4322 1.8528

Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid1 Acetic acid2 Propionic acid2 n-Butyric acid2 Isobutyric acid2 Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine

160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211

Diethylamine Triethylamine n-Propylamine di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air Hydrogen3 Helium-4 (eqn 2) Neon Argon Fluorine

C4H11N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2

109897 121448 107108 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414

73.138 101.192 59.111 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182 44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101 45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123 48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189 34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966 78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010 28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997

0.9102 1.2766 0.7608 1.2114 0.6855 1.1384 0.6533 0.7796 0.8742 0.3346 0.3727 0.4040 0.4413 0.3822 0.7220 0.3420 0.6116 0.4191 0.5357 0.6906 0.7186 0.4146 0.5576 0.7474 0.9248 0.9142 0.9237 0.6037 0.7508 0.9429 0.3329 0.3409 0.3942 0.3758 0.3377 0.4437 0.4568 0.4719 0.6210 0.6181 0.7145 0.7866 0.4236 0.6265 0.8011 0.7210 0.2896 0.2762 0.2079 0.2079 0.2079 0.2912

2.6740 2.5559 2.1049 2.6127 2.1876 2.5747 2.5192 3.0280 2.7204 1.2116 1.6606 1.6270 2.0830 0.9300 1.7830 1.2940 2.0290 0.8876 1.4617 1.9996 2.2700 0.8307 1.3617 1.9523 2.7795 2.4513 2.5166 1.3747 1.9577 2.6863 0.7399 0.7246 0.6573 0.7054 0.7150 1.3119 1.2967 1.2787 1.8430 1.8023 1.7344 1.7429 0.8735 2.1646 2.3100 2.0640 0.0939 0.0956 0 0 0 0.1013

1.7190 0.8094 1.7256 0.7896 1.5831 0.7384 1.4608 1.5203 0.7242 1.6084 1.5112 1.4564 1.4783 1.8450 1.5320 1.0750 1.7683 1.5818 1.5530 1.5494 1.4669 1.5890 1.5221 1.6310 1.6837 1.6265 1.6109 1.6410 1.6424 1.7624 1.8639 1.7230 0.9280 0.5121 1.5780 1.6422 1.5992 1.5957 1.6290 1.5438 1.5240 1.7157 1.6492 1.5640 2.1570 1.6504 3.0120 2.4660 0 0 0 1.4530

1.7926 1.4829 1.3936 1.6903 1.3855 1.6200 1.8870 2.3280 1.1300 0.8241 1.3145 1.3212 1.5330 0.6900 1.3100 0.6400 1.3302 0.5032 0.9120 1.3146 1.6930 0.4612 0.8073 1.2112 1.5974 1.6157 1.5641 0.7988 1.1949 1.6752 0.4608 0.4480 0.4930 0.4850 0.4175 0.8544 0.8590 0.8517 1.2337 1.1893 1.2230 1.2627 0.6556 1.7278 2.0460 1.6870 0.0758 0.0376 0 0 0 0.0941

794.94 2231.7 789.03 2394.4 691.76 2143 −653.1 699.8 1949 737.3 686 649 676.8 850 762 502 835.5 699.8 678.2 675 −680.77 716.7 687.5 750.92 758.68 745.8 739.2 −743.5 749.19 −798.3 891.16 780.5 399.6 236.1 691.4 738.77 708.8 703.87 724 685.93 674.2 765.1 739.07 −724.29 −897.6 765.3 1484 567.6 0 0 0 662.91

200 200 200 300 200 300 200 300 300 50 200 200 200 150 200 100 300 100 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 273.16 200 50 150 100 100 100 200 100 200 200 200 150 200 200 200 200 200 50 250 100 100 100 50

0.9502 1.3278 0.7933 1.5900 0.7510 1.5995 0.7705 1.2602 1.3903 0.0000 0.3346 0.4376 0.4884 0.5220 0.3833 0.7594 0.3448 0.7698 0.4192 0.5832 0.7607 0.8053 0.4329 0.5970 0.7848 0.9714 0.9660 0.9763 0.6298 0.9004 0.9794 0.3329 0.3424 0.4048 0.4730 0.3378 0.4726 0.4569 0.5089 0.6674 0.6768 0.7268 0.8217 0.4457 0.6914 0.8219 0.7679 0.2896 0.2843 0.2079 0.2079 0.2079 0.2912

1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500

3.0519 4.2046 2.4353 4.2484 2.4540 4.1941 2.8047 3.3641 3.8844 1.3297 1.7940 1.8097 2.2194 1.1203 2.2596 1.4997 2.2209 1.1285 1.7235 2.3273 2.6706 1.0781 1.6729 2.3216 3.1008 2.9095 2.9615 1.6949 2.3178 3.0338 0.9024 0.9097 1.0063 1.0662 0.9107 1.5008 1.5112 1.5121 2.1126 2.1023 2.1609 2.1894 1.1423 2.4736 2.5327 2.4628 0.3496 0.3225 0.2079 0.2079 0.2079 0.3812 2-181

TABLE 2-198 Cmpd. no. 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231

Heat Capacities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds in the Ideal Gas State (Concluded ) Name Formula Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN H2S SO2 SO3 H2O CAS no. 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185 Mol wt. 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015 C1 × 1E−05 0.2914 0.3011 0.2910 0.2911 0.3343 0.3871 0.2934 0.3498 0.3545 0.2911 0.2937 0.3010 0.2913 0.2916 0.2912 0.3013 0.3329 0.3338 0.3341 0.3336 C2 × 1E−05 0.0918 0.0801 0.1004 0.0861 0.4898 0.8576 0.3236 −3.5320E−04 0.5015 0.0877 0.3454 0.3338 0.0933 0.0905 0.0953 0.3171 0.2609 0.2586 0.4968 0.2679 C3 × 1E−03 0.9490 0.7514 2.5265 1.7016 2.0360 1.7228 1.1238 7.7290E−05 1.0570 3.0851 1.4280 0.8960 2.9050 2.0938 2.1420 1.6102 0.9134 0.9328 0.8732 2.6105 C4 × 1E−05 0.1003 0.1078 0.0936 0.0010 0.2256 0.5664 0.2177 −5.7357E−10 0.4520 0.0846 0.2640 0.2893 0.0020 −0.0011 0.0157 0.2179 −0.1798 0.1088 0.2856 0.0890 C5 425 314.6 1153.8 909.79 882 733.53 479.4 1.4526E−08 −396 1538.2 588 374.7 1326 120 1400 626 949.4 423.7 393.74 1169 Tmin, K 50 100 50 50 100 200 100 100 100 60 50 100 50 50 50 100 100 100 100 100 Cp at Tmin × 1E−05 0.2914 0.3090 0.2910 0.2911 0.3343 0.4070 0.2948 0.3217 0.3648 0.2911 0.2937 0.3100 0.2913 0.2914 0.2912 0.3014 0.3329 0.3354 0.3408 0.3336 Tmax, K 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 5000 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 1500 2273.15 Cp at Tmax × 1E−05 0.3793 0.3794 0.3653 0.3484 0.6647 1.0571 0.5828 0.3586 0.8100 0.3521 0.6335 0.6148 0.3224 0.3406 0.3479 0.5522 0.5143 0.5695 0.7967 0.5276

Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide (eqn 2) Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). Temperatures are expressed in kelvins; heat capacities, in J/ kmol-K. J/(kmol·K) × 2.390E−04 = cal/(gmol·°C); J/(kmol·K) × 2.390059E−04 = Btu/(lbmol·°F). Use heat capacity = C1 + C2 C3 C3 sinh T T
2

+ C4
2

C5 C5 cosh T T
3

2

unless otherwise specified.
4

Equation 2 is heat capacity = C1 + C2 × T + C3 × T + C4 × T + C5 × T . Equation 3 is heat capacity = C1 + C2 × ln T + C3/T + C4 × T. 1 For the monomer. Monomer and dimer are in equilibrium below 600 K. 2 For the monomer. 3 For equilibrium mixture of ortho and para hydrogen. 2-182

SPECIFIC HEATS OF PURE COMPOUNDS
TABLE 2-199 Cp /Cv : Ratios of Specific Heats of Gases at 1-atm Pressure* Temperature, °C 30 136 15 −71 925 17 −78 −118 15 15 −180 0–100 90 20–350 15 −75 100 15 −180 15 100 15 80 25 100 15 −82 90 35 80 100 15 −91 −180 80 15 −76 −181 20 15 100 65 140 210 Ratio of specific heats, (γ) = Cp /Cv 1.14 1.15 1.26 1.31 1.36 1.403 1.408 1.415 1.310 1.668 1.76 (?) 1.67 1.10 1.32 1.304 1.37 1.21 1.404 1.41 1.355 1.15 1.256 1.08 1.139 Nitrogen Ethane Ethyl alcohol ether Ethylene C2H6 C2H6O C4H10O C2H4 1.19 1.22 1.28 1.13 1.08 1.086 1.18 1.255 1.35 1.660 1.08 1.410 1.453 1.597 1.42 1.41 1.40 1.31 1.28 1.24 Nitrous oxide N2 N2O Methyl acetate alcohol ether Methylal Neon Nitric oxide C3H6O2 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O2 Ne NO Temperature, °C 20–100 15 −45 −57 185 15 19 360 600 300 15 −80 −115 15 77 6–30 13 40 19 15 −45 −80 15 −181 100 15 −30 −70 15 −76 −181 86 300 850 750–920 15 19

2-183

Compound Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetylene Air

Formula C2H4O C2H4O2 C2H2

Compound Hydrogen (Cont.) iodide sulfide

Formula HI H2S

Ratio of specific heats, (γ) = Cp /Cv 1.40 1.32 1.30 1.29 1.30 1.11 1.68 1.67 1.113 1.16 1.31 1.34 1.41 1.14 1.203 1.11 1.06 1.09 1.64 1.400 1.39 1.38 1.404 1.47 1.28 1.303 1.31 1.34 1.401 1.415 1.45 1.086 1.17 1.77 1.68 1.29 1.66

Iodine Isobutane Krypton Mercury Methane

I2 C4H10 Kr Hg CH4

Ammonia Argon

NH3 A

Benzene Bromine Carbon dioxide disulfide monoxide Chlorine Chloroform Cyanogen Cyclohexane Dichlorodifluormethane

C6H6 Br2 CO2 CS2 CO Cl2 CHCl3 (CN)2 C6H12 CCl2F2

Oxygen

O2

Helium Hexane (n-) Hydrogen bromide chloride cyanide

He C6H14 H2 HBr HCl HCN

Pentane (n-) Phosphorus Potassium Sodium Sulfur dioxide Xenon

C5H12 P K Na SO2 Xe

*From International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 80–82.

TABLE 2-200 Temperature, K 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 600 800 1000

Specific Heat Ratio, Cp /Cv , for Air Pressure, bar 1 1.410 1.406 1.403 1.402 1.399 1.395 1.392 1.387 1.377 1.353 1.336 10 1.510 1.452 1.429 1.418 1.411 1.404 1.397 1.391 1.378 1.355 1.337 20 1.668 1.505 1.457 1.436 1.422 1.412 1.404 1.395 1.382 1.357 1.338 40 2.333 1.630 1.517 1.470 1.446 1.429 1.416 1.406 1.386 1.359 1.339 60 4.120 1.781 1.577 1.505 1.467 1.444 1.428 1.414 1.392 1.361 1.342 80 3.973 1.943 1.640 1.537 1.488 1.460 1.438 1.421 1.398 1.365 1.343 100 3.202 2.093 1.699 1.570 1.509 1.472 1.449 1.430 1.403 1.366 1.343 150 2.507 2.274 1.816 1.640 1.553 1.505 1.471 1.448 1.413 1.372 1.345 200 2.243 2.236 1.877 1.687 1.589 1.529 1.490 1.463 1.423 1.375 1.348 250 2.091 2.140 1.896 1.716 1.612 1.548 1.505 1.474 1.432 1.381 1.350 300 1.988 2.050 1.885 1.730 1.627 1.563 1.518 1.484 1.439 1.384 1.354 400 1.851 1.920 1.836 1.727 1.640 1.579 1.533 1.499 1.448 1.392 1.358 500 1.768 1.832 1.782 1.707 1.638 1.584 1.541 1.507 1.457 1.397 1.361 600 1.712 1.771 1.743 1.683 1.629 1.580 1.542 1.510 1.461 1.401 1.365 800 1.654 1.682 1.681 1.645 1.605 1.567 1.537 1.510 1.465 1.406 1.368 1000 1.639 1.619 1.636 1.619 1.585 1.555 1.528 1.504 1.466 1.409 1.372

Calculated from Cp, Cv values of Sychev, V. V., A. A. Vasserman, et al., “Thermodynamic Properties of Air,” Standartov, Moscow, 1978 and Hemisphere, New York, 1988 (276 pp.).

2-184

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
UNITS CONVERSIONS For this subsection, the following units conversions are applicable: °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32. To convert calories per gram-degree Celsius to British thermal units per pound-degree Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.0.
TABLE 2-201 Acetic Acid (at 38°C) 0 1.0 6.98 0.911 30.9 0.73 54.5 0.631 100 0.535

ADDITIONAL REFERENCES For additional data, see International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 115–116, 122–125.

TABLE 2-208

Methyl Alcohol Specific heat, cal/g °C 5°C 1.02 0.975 .877 .776 .681 .576 20°C 1.0 0.982 .917 .811 .708 .60 40°C 0.995 .98 .92 .83 .726 .617

Mole % acetic acid Cal/g °C

Mole % CH3OH 5.88 12.3 27.3 45.8 69.6 100

TABLE 2-202 Mole % NH3 0 10.5 20.9 31.2 41.4 TABLE 2-203 Mol % aniline Cal/g °C

Ammonia Specific heat, cal/g °C 2.4°C 1.01 0.98 .96 .956 .985 Aniline (at 20°C) 100 0.497 95 0.52 90.5 0.53 82.3 0.56 75.2 0.581 20.6°C 1.0 0.995 .99 1.0 41°C 0.995 1.06 1.03 61°C 1.0 1.02

TABLE 2-209 % HNO3 by Weight 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Nitric Acid Specific Heat at 20°C, cal/g °C 1.000 0.900 .810 .730 .675 .650 .640 .615 .575 .515

TABLE 2-204

Copper Sulfate Temperature 12° to 15°C 12° to 14°C 13° to 17°C Specific heat, cal/g °C 0.848 .951 .975

Composition CuSO4 + 50H2O CuSO4 + 200H2O CuSO4 + 400H2O TABLE 2-205

Ethyl Alcohol Specific heat, cal/g °C 3°C 1.05 1.02 0.805 .67 .54 Glycerol Specific heat, cal/g °C 15°C 0.961 .929 .851 .765 .67 .555 32°C 0.960 .924 .841 .758 .672 .576 23°C 1.02 1.03 0.86 .727 .577 41°C 1.02 1.03 0.875 .748 .621

Mole % C2H5OH 4.16 11.5 37.0 61.0 100.0 TABLE 2-206

TABLE 2-210 %H2PO4 2.50 3.80 5.33 8.81 10.27 14.39 16.23 19.99 22.10 24.56 25.98 28.15 29.96 32.09 33.95 36.26 38.10 40.10 42.08 44.11 46.22 48.16 49.79

Phosphoric Acid* Cp at 21.3°C cal/g °C 0.9903 .9970 .9669 .9389 .9293 .8958 .8796 .8489 .8300 .8125 .8004 .7856 .7735 .7590 .7432 .7270 .7160 .7024 .6877 .6748 .6607 .6475 .6370 %H3PO4 50.00 52.19 53.72 56.04 58.06 60.23 62.10 64.14 66.13 68.14 69.97 69.50 71.88 73.71 75.79 77.69 79.54 80.00 82.00 84.00 85.98 88.01 89.72 Cp at 21.3°C cal/g °C 0.6350 .6220 .6113 .5972 .5831 .5704 .5603 .5460 .5349 .5242 .5157 .5160 .5046 .4940 .4847 .4786 .4680 .4686 .4593 .4500 .4419 .4359 .4206

Mole % C3H5(OH)3 2.12 4.66 11.5 22.7 43.9 100.0

TABLE 2-207 Mole % HCl 0.0 9.09 16.7 20.0 25.9

Hydrochloric Acid Specific heat, cal/g °C 0°C 1.00 0.72 .61 .58 .55 10°C 0.72 .605 .575 20°C 0.74 .631 .591 40°C 0.75 .645 .615 60°C 0.78 .67 .638 .61

*Z. Physik. Chem., A167, 42 (1933).

SPECIFIC HEATS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS
TABLE 2-211 Mole % KCl 0.99 3.85 5.66 7.41 Potassium Chloride Specific heat, cal/g °C 6°C 0.945 .828 .77 20°C 0.947 .831 .775 .727 33°C 0.947 .835 .778 40°C 0.947 .837 .775 Mole % NaCl 0.249 .99 2.44 9.09 6°C 0.96 .91 .805 TABLE 2-215 Sodium Chloride Specific heat, cal/g °C 20°C 0.99 .97 .915 .81 33°C 0.97 .915 .81

2-185

57°C

0.923 .82

TABLE 2-212 Mole % KOH Cal/g °C

Potassium Hydroxide (at 19°C) 0 1.0 0.497 0.975 1.64 0.93 4.76 0.814 9.09 0.75

TABLE 2-216 Mole % NaOH Cal/g °C

Sodium Hydroxide (at 20°C) 0 1.0 0.5 0.985 1.0 0.97 9.09 0.835 16.7 0.80 28.6 0.784 37.5 0.782

TABLE 2-213

Normal Propyl Alcohol Specific heat, cal/g °C 5°C 1.03 1.07 1.035 0.877 .75 .612 .534 20°C 1.02 1.06 1.032 0.90 .78 .645 .57 40°C 1.01 1.03 0.99 .91 .815 .708 .621

TABLE 2-217 %H2SO4 0.34 0.68 1.34 2.65 3.50 5.16 9.82 15.36 21.40 22.27 23.22 24.25 25.39 26.63 28.00 29.52 30.34 31.20 33.11

Sulfuric Acid* Cp at 20°C, cal/g °C 0.9968 .9937 .9877 .9762 .9688 .9549 .9177 .8767 .8339 .8275 .8205 .8127 .8041 .7945 .7837 .7717 .7647 .7579 .7422 %H2SO4 35.25 37.69 40.49 43.75 47.57 52.13 57.65 64.47 73.13 77.91 81.33 82.49 84.48 85.48 89.36 91.81 94.82 97.44 100.00 Cp at 20°C, cal/g °C 0.7238 .7023 .6770 .6476 .6153 .5801 .5420 .5012 .4628 .4518 .4481 .4467 .4408 .4346 .4016 .3787 .3554 .3404 .3352

Mole % C3H7OH 1.55 5.03 11.4 23.1 41.2 73.0 100.0

TABLE 2-214 % Na2CO3 by weight 0.000 1.498 2.000 2.901 4.000 5.000 6.000 8.000 10.000 13.790 13.840 20.000 25.000

Sodium Carbonate* Temperature, °C 17.6 0.9992 .9807 .9597 .9594 .9428 .9392 .9183 .9086 .8924 .8881 .8631 .9452 0.9761 30.0 0.9986 .9786 76.6 1.0098 98.0 1.0084

*Vinal and Craig, Bur. Standards J. Research, 24, 475 (1940).

TABLE 2-218 .8936 .8615 Composition 0.8911

Zinc Sulfate Temperature 20° to 52°C 20° to 52°C Specific heat, cal/g °C 0.842 .952

*J. Chem. Soc. 3062–3079 (1931).

ZnSO4 + 50H2O ZnSO4 + 200H2O

2-186

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

SPECIFIC HEATS OF MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS
TABLE 2-219 and Solids Alumina Alundum Asbestos Asphalt Bakelite Brickwork Carbon (gas retort) (see under Graphite) Cellulose Cement, Portland Clinker Charcoal (wood) Chrome brick Clay Coal tar oils Coal tars Coke Concrete Cryolite Diamond Fireclay brick Fluorspar Gasoline Glass (crown) (flint) (pyrex) (silicate) wool Granite Graphite Gypsum Kerosene Limestone Litharge Magnesia Magnesite brick Marble Porcelain, fired Berlin Porcelain, green Berlin Porcelain, fired earthenware Porcelain, green earthenware Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids Specific heat, cal/g °C 0.2 (100°C); 0.274 (1500°C) 0.186 (100°C) 0.25 0.22 0.3 to 0.4 About 0.2 0.168 (26° to 76°C) 0.314 (40° to 892°C) 0.387 (56° to 1450°C) 0.204 0.32 0.186 0.242 0.17 0.224 0.26 to 0.37 0.34 (15° to 90°C) 0.35 (40°C); 0.45 (200°C) 0.265 (21° to 400°C) 0.359 (21° to 800°C) 0.403 (21° to 1300°C) 0.156 (70° to 312°F); 0.219 (72° to 1472°F) 0.253 (16° to 55°C) 0.147 0.198 (100°C); 0.298 (1500°C) 0.21 (30°C) 0.53 0.16 to 0.20 0.117 0.20 0.188 to 0.204 (0 to 100°C) 0.24 to 0.26 (0 to 700°C) 0.157 0.20 (20° to 100°C) 0.165 (26° to 76°C); 0.390 (56° to 1450°C) 0.259 (16° to 46°C) 0.47 0.217 0.055 0.234 (100°C); 0.188 (1500°C) 0.222 (100°C); 0.195 (1500°C) 0.21 (18°C) 0.189 (60°C) 0.185 (60°C) 0.186 (60°C) 0.181 (60°C) TABLE 2-219 Specific Heats of Miscellaneous Liquids and Solids (Concluded ) Material Pyrex glass Pyrites (copper) Pyrites (iron) Pyroxylin plastics Quartz Rubber (vulcanized) Sand Silica Silica brick Silicon carbide brick Silk Steel Stone Stoneware (common) Turpentine Wood (Oak) Woods, miscellaneous Wool Zirconium oxide Specific heat, cal/g °C 0.20 0.131 (30°C) 0.136 (30°C) 0.34 to 0.38 0.17 (0°C); 0.28 (350°C) 0.415 0.191 0.316 0.202 (100°C); 0.195 (1500°C) 0.202 (100°C) 0.33 0.12 about 0.2 0.188 (60°C) 0.42 (18°C) 0.570 0.45 to 0.65 0.325 0.11 (100°C); 0.179 (1500°C)

Material

TABLE 2-219a Oils (Animal, Vegetable, Mineral Oils)

Cp[cal/(g ⋅ °C) = A/ d415 + B(t − 15) where d = density, g/cm3. °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32; to convert calories per gram-degree Celsius to British thermal units per pound-degree Fahrenheit, multiply by 1.0; to convert grams per cubic centimeter to pounds per cubic foot, multiply by 62.43.
Oils Castor Citron Fatty drying non-drying semidrying oils (except castor) Naphthene base Olive Paraffin base Petroleum oils A 0.500 B

0.0007 (0.438 at 54°C) 0.440 0.0007 0.450 0.0007 0.445 0.0007 0.450 0.0007 0.405 0.0009 (0.47 at 7°C) 0.425 0.0009 0.415 0.0009

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION
UNITS CONVERSIONS °F = 9⁄5 °C + 32; to convert kilocalories per gram-mole to British thermal units per pound-mole, multiply by 1.799 × 10−3.

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION
TABLE 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds

2-187

The values given in the following table for the heats and free energies of formation of inorganic compounds are derived from (a) Bichowsky and Rossini, “Thermochemistry of the Chemical Substances,” Reinhold, New York, 1936; (b) Latimer, “Oxidation States of the Elements and Their Potentials in Aqueous Solution,” PrenticeHall, New York, 1938; (c) the tables of the American Petroleum Institute Research Project 44 at the National Bureau of Standards; and (d) the tables of Selected Values of Chemical Thermodynamic Properties of the National Bureau of Standards. The reader is referred to the preceding books and tables for additional details as to methods of calculation, standard states, and so on. Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 −123.4 −209.5 −30.8 −163.8 −243.9 −329 −360.8 −72.8 −163.4 −57.7 −561.19 −1419.36 −680.89 −897.59 −399.09 −304.8 −648.7 −642.4 −642.0 −1874 −121.6 −820.99 −893.9 −1268.15 −2120 0.00 −59.9 −91.3 −104.8 −216.6 −22.8 −165.4 −166.6 −213.0 −230.0 −38.2 0.00 −45.9 −80.2 −223.76 43.6 −13.6 −154.1 −217.9 −20 −34.76 0.00 −180.38 −185.67 −205.25 −207.92 −176.6 −170.0 −210.2 −48 −212.1 −63.6 −284.2 −342.2 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 −189.2 −29.0 −209.5 −312.6 −152.5 −50.4 −486.17 −1179.26 −526.32 −376.87 −272.9 Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −287.9 −284.6 −40.8 −459 −144.6 −155.17 −264.5 −237.50 −370 −90.7 −184.5 −179.05 −236.99 −227.74 −133.0 −225.9 −237.76 −363 −992 −284.9 −111.2 −282.5 −340.2 −402 0.00 −79.4 −142 −112.6 −163.9 −39.4 −112 −134.5 −145.3 −215.6 −56.1 −281 0.00 −90.5 −101.6 −24 −27 −49.5 −137.1 −171.1 −43.9 −607.1 0.00 −52.7 −44.6 −94.5 −265.2 7.5 −32.1 −302.0 −297.6 −260.0 −56.6 0.00 7.47 3.06 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −265.3 −31.5 −414.4 −158.52 −198.35

Compound Aluminum Al AlBr3 Al4C3 AlCl3 AlF3 AlI3 AlN Al(NH4)(SO4)2 Al(NH4)(SO4)2·12H2O Al(NO3)3·6H2O Al(NO3)3·9H2O Al2O3 Al(OH)3 Al2O3·SiO2 Al2O3·SiO2 Al2O3·SiO2 3Al2O3·2SiO2 Al2S3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·6H2O Al2(SO4)3·18H2O Antimony Sb SbBr3 SbCl3 SbCl5 SbF3 SbI3 Sb2O3 Sb2O4 Sb2O5 Sb2S3 Arsenic As AsBr3 AsCl3 AsF3 AsH3 AsI3 As2O3 As2O5 As2S3 Barium Ba BaBr2 BaCl2 Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO4)2 Ba(CN)2 Ba(CNO)2 BaCN2 BaCO3 BaCrO4

State† c c aq c c aq, 600 c aq c aq c c c c c c, corundum c c, sillimanite c, disthene c, andalusite c, mullite c c aq c c c c c l c c c, I, orthorhombic c, II, octahedral c c c, black c c l l g c c c c amorphous c c aq, 400 c aq, 300 c aq, 1600 c aq, 800 c c aq c c, witherite c

Compound Barium (Cont.) BaF2 BaH2 Ba(HCO3)2 BaI2 Ba(IO3)2 BaMoO4 Ba3N2 Ba(NO2)2 Ba(NO3)2 BaO Ba(OH)2 BaO·SiO2 Ba3(PO4)2 BaPtCl6 BaS BaSO3 BaSO4 BaWO4 Beryllium Be BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2

State† c aq, 1600 c aq c aq, 400 c aq c c c aq c aq, 600 c c aq, 400 c c c c c c c c c aq c aq c aq c c c c c aq c c aq c aq c c c c c c l g g g g c c gls c c l g g

−150.75 −189.94

−209.02

−739.53 −759.3 −1103.39 0.00 −77.8

−313.4 0.00 −127.9 −141.4 −103.4 −122.4 −138.3

−146.0 −186.6 −196.1 −36.9 0.00 −70.5 −212.27 37.7 −134.8 −183.9 −20 0.00 −183.0 −196.5 −134.4 −155.3 −180.7 −271.4

Be3N2 BeO Be(OH)2 BeS BeSO4 Bismuth Bi BiCl3 BiI3 BiO Bi2O3 Bi(OH)3 Bi2S3 Bi2(SO4)3 Boron B BBr3 BCl3 BF3 B2H6 BN B2O3 B(OH)3 B2S3 Bromine Br2 BrCl

−254.8 0.00 −76.4

−43.2 −117.9 −39.1 0.00 −50.9 −90.8 −261.0 19.9 −27.2 −282.9 −280.3 −229.4 0.00 0.931 −0.63

*For footnotes see end of table.

2-188

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 −75.8 −76.6 −92.149 −96.44 36.2 −178.2 −48.40 −47.46 39.8 −115.67 −62.35 −135.0 −34.5 −222.23 −232.635 0.00 −162.20 −187.19 −14.8 −190.6 −209.15 −85 −43.3 −289.5 −289.54 −558.8 −332.2 −356.3 −364.1 −290.2 −286.5 −46 −128.49 −156.63 −103.2 −224.05 −228.29 −367.95 −439.05 −509.43 −151.7 −235.58 −239.2 −377.9 −376.6 −114.3 −338.73 −336.58 −335.52 −376.13 −479.33 −387 0.00 0.453 −26.416 −94.052 0.00 −78.2 0.00 −97.64 −91.39 −106.31 −102.01 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 −70.7 −67.6 −81.889 −81.2 −163.2 −43.22 −71.05 −55.28 −113.7 −33.6 −194.65 0.00 −181.86 −16.0 −179.8 −195.36 −54.0 −270.8 −270.57 Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −271.88 −131.67 −140.48 −12 −230.6 −226.6 −83.91 −75.74 −28.2 −121.14 −111.54 −82.1 −100.2 −117.0 −87 −344.86 −340.12 0.00 −25.7 33 24.7 37 18.20 63 0.00 −21.008 −16.378 −103.1 −152 −231 −63.7 −139.3 −268.8 0.00 −55.0 −73.61 9.49 −76.9 −95.58 −172.39 −172.98 −24.2 −43.15 −102.8 −114.9 −57.5 −196.5 −131.5 −177.0 −22.3 −40.0 −216.6 0.00 −462.96 0.00 −26.7 −34.0 −42.4 −31.4 −48.83 −64.7 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole

TABLE 2-220

Compound Cadmium Cd CdBr2 CdCl2 Cd(CN)2 CdCO3 CdI2 Cd3N2 Cd(NO3)2 CdO Cd(OH)2 CdS CdSO4 Calcium Ca CaBr2 CaC2 CaCl2 CaCN2 Ca(CN)2 CaCO3 CaCO3·MgCO3 CaC2O4 Ca(C2H3O2)2 CaF2 CaH2 CaI2 Ca3N2 Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2·2H2O Ca(NO3)2·3H2O Ca(NO3)2·4H2O CaO Ca(OH)2 CaO·SiO2 CaS CaSO4 CaSO4·aH2O CaSO4·2H2O CaWO4 Carbon C CO CO2 Cerium Ce CeN Cesium Cs CsBr CsCl

State† c c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c c c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c c c c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c aq c c aq c, calcite c, aragonite c c c aq c aq c c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c c c c aq, 800 c, II, wollastonite c, I, pseudowollastonite c c, insoluble form c, soluble form α c, soluble form β c c c c, graphite c, diamond g g c c c c aq, 500 c aq, 400

Compound Cesium (Cont.) Cs2CO3 CsF CsH CsHCO3 CsI CsNH2 CsNO3 Cs2O CsOH Cs2S Cs2SO4 Chlorine Cl2 ClF ClO ClO2 ClO3 Cl2O Cl2O7 Chromium Cr CrBr3 Cr3C2 Cr4C CrCl2 CrF2 CrF3 CrI2 CrO3 Cr2O3 Cr2(SO4)3 Cobalt Co CoBr2 Co3C CoCl2 CoCO3 CoF2 CoI2 Co(NO3)2 CoO Co3O4 Co(OH)2 Co(OH)3 CoS Co2S3 CoSO4 Columbium Cb Cb2O5 Copper Cu CuBr CuBr2 CuCl CuCl2

State† c c aq, 400 c c aq, 2000 c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c aq, 200 c c aq g g g g g g g c aq c c c aq c c c aq c c aq c c aq c c aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq c c c c c c c aq, 400 c c c c c aq c c aq, 400

−135.98 −7.30 −210.56 −82.61 −96.53 −107.87 −316.66 0.00 29.5 22.40 0.00 −122.7 −21.20 −16.74 −93.8 −102.1

−311.3 −264.1 −35.7 −157.37 −88.2 −177.38 −293.57 −351.58 −409.32 −144.3 −213.9 −207.9 −357.5 −356.6 −113.1 −311.9 −309.8 −308.8 −425.47 0.00 0.685 −32.808 −94.260 0.00 −70.8 0.00 −94.86 −101.61

−64.1 −249.3 −626.3 0.00 −61.96 7.08 −66.6 −75.46 −155.36 −144.2 −37.4 −65.3 −108.9 −142.0 −19.8 −188.9 0.00 0.00 −23.8 −33.25 −24.13

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION
TABLE 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −28.3 −17.8 −4.8 −11.9 17.78 −73.1 −83.6 −38.5 −43.00 −108.9 −11.6 −18.97 −184.7 −200.78 −179.6 0.00 −326.8 0.00 5.5 0.00 −92.4 −125.4 −26.2 −84.3 −259.9 0.00 −15.7 −128.6 0.00 −3.4 −14.5 −11.0 −8.3 −28.3 −32.96 0.2 11.0 −100.6 0.00 −271.1 −175.6 −214.9 −214.8 −8.66 −28.80 −25.4 −11.51 −22.063 −39.85 31.1 24.2 −28.18 −23.4 −31.4 −116.2 −116.74 −196.7 −194.6 −97.8 −98.0 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 1.34 15.4 −5.5 −16.66 −8.76 −36.6 −31.9 −38.13 −85.5 −11.69 −20.56 −158.3 −160.19 −152.0 0.00 H3PO3 0.00 9.7 0.00 H2S2 H2SO3 H2SO4 H2Se 0.00 H2SeO3 H2SeO4 0.00 24.47 4.21 −0.76 18.71 0.00 −258.2 −153.04 −183.93 −12.72 −24.58 −19.90 5.00 −22.778 −31.330 27.94 26.55 −19.11 −0.25 −10.70 −93.56 −96.8 −165.64 −82.7 −85.1 H2SiO3 H4SiO4 H2Te H2TeO3 H2TeO4 Indium In InBr3 InCl3 c c aq c aq g aq, 400 aq aq g aq, 400 g aq, 100 aq, 400 aq aq, 660 l aq, 400 c aq, 300 l aq, 200 InI3 InN In2O3 Iodine I2 IBr ICl ICl3 I2O5 Iridium Ir IrCl IrCl2 IrCl3 IrF6 IrO2 Iron Fe FeBr2 H3PO4 H2S c c c c c c c c c c c c aq c c aq c c c Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −167.19 −64.2 −75.75 6.27 −13.47 −38 −56.77 −54.8 70.3 −31.99 −41.35 −49.210 −112.91 −252.15 −57.7979 −68.3174 −45.16 −45.80 −145.5 −145.6 −232.2 −232.2 −306.2 −309.32 −4.77 −9.38 −3.6 −146.88 −193.69 −212.03 20.5 18.1 −126.5 −122.4 −130.23 −143.4 −267.8 −340.6 36.9 −145.0 −145.0 −165.6 0.00 −97.2 −112.9 −128.5 −145.6 −56.5 −67.2 −4.8 −222.47 0.00 14.88 10.05 4.20 −21.8 −42.5 0.00 −20.5 −40.6 −60.5 −130 −40.14 0.00 −57.15 −78.7

2-189

Compound Copper (Cont.) CuClO4 Cu(ClO3)2 Cu(ClO4)2 CuI CuI2 Cu3N Cu(NO3)2 CuO Cu2O Cu(OH)2 CuS Cu2S CuSO4 Cu2SO4 Erbium Er Er(OH)3 Fluorine F2 F2O Gallium Ga GaBr3 GaCl3 GaN Ga2O Ga2O3 Germanium Ge Ge3N4 GeO2 Gold Au AuBr AuBr3 AuCl AuCl3 AuI Au2O3 Au(OH)3 Hafnium Hf HfO2 Hydrogen H3AsO3 H3AsO4 HBr HBrO HBrO3 HCl HCN HClO HClO3 HClO4 HC2H3O2 H2C2O4 HCOOH

State† aq aq, 400 aq c c aq c c aq, 200 c c c c c c aq, 800 c aq c c g g

Compound Hydrogen (Cont.) H2CO3 HF HI HIO HIO3 HN3 HNO3 HNO3·H2O HNO3·3H2O H2O H2O2 H3PO2

State† aq g aq, 200 g aq, 400 aq c aq g g l aq, 400 l l g l l aq, 200 c aq c aq c aq, 400 g aq, 2000 l aq, 200 l aq, 400 g aq c aq c aq, 400 c c g c aq aq c c aq c aq c aq c c c g g g c c c c c c l c c, α c aq, 540

Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −149.0 −64.7 0.365 −12.35 −23.33 −32.25 78.50 −17.57 −19.05 −78.36 −193.70 −54.6351 −56.6899 −28.23 −31.47 −120.0 −204.0 −270.0 −7.85 −128.54 17.0 18.4 −101.36 −247.9 33.1 −115.7

0.00 −97.2 −117.5 −60.5

0.00 4.63 1.24 −1.32 −6.05 0.00 −16.9 −32.0 −46.5

0.00 −69.47

2-190

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −95.5 5.69 −187.6 −172.4 −81.9 −100.0 −96.4 −128.5 −177.2 −24.2 −47.7 −49.7 −2.55 −118.9 −156.5 −64.62 −198.5 −266.9 −135.9 −197.3 −273.5 −13 −19.0 −22.64 −38.62 −33.0 −221.3 −236.2 −653.3 −295.51 0.00 −253.1 −284.7 −160 −72.0 −539 −148.3 −351.4 −972 0.00 −66.24 −56.4 −167.6 −232.6 −234.2 −205.3 −85.68 −82.5 −159.5 −41.77 −106.88 −99.46 −51.72 −50.86 −65.0 −172.4 −123.0 −22.38 −218.5 0.00 −83.75 −95.40 −77.9 −13.0 −31.4 −101.2 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −76.26 4.24 −154.8 −72.6 −83.0 −96.5 −151.7 −45 −39.5 0.862 −72.8 −81.3 −59.38 −179.1 −242.3 −115.7 −166.3 Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −183.9 −289.7 −293.1 −97.63 −106.45 −87.5 −106.3 −145.57 −144.85 −22.9 −231.1 −65.07 −80.09 −121.3 −47.45 −115.350 −115.88 −142.3 −151.9 −159 −116.58 −121.47 −188.92 −374 −84.9 −95.5 −340.23 −347.02 −411.57 0.00 −731.3 −749 −123.9 −167.33 −39.7 −61 −344.6 −261.7 −153.220 −189.76 −230.970 −305.810 −453.820 −597.240 −263.8 −86.8 −136.79 −329.9 −115.2 −188.770 −209.927 −336.625 −624.48 −143.84 −347.5 −221.90 −223.9 −84.2 −108 −304.94 −325.4 −25 −345.2 0.00 −91 −106 1.1 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −160.00 −269.8 −267.58 −102.03 −70.95 −81.4 −136.40 −210.98 −83.03 −102.95 −37.33 −96.95 −138.0 −106.44 −108.29

TABLE 2-220

Compound Iron (Cont.) FeBr3 Fe3C Fe(CO)5 FeCO3 FeCl2 FeCl3 FeF2 FeI2 FeI3 Fe4N Fe(NO3)2 Fe(NO3)3 FeO Fe2O3 Fe3O4 Fe(OH)2 Fe(OH)3 FeO·SiO2 Fe2P FeSi FeS FeS2 FeSO4 Fe2(SO4)3 FeTiO3 Lanthanum La LaCl3 La3H8 LaN La2O3 LaS2 La2S3 La2(SO4)3 Lead Pb PbBr2 PbCO3 Pb(C2H3O2)2 PbC2O4 PbCl2 PbF2 PbI2 Pb(NO3)2 PbO PbO2 Pb3O4 Pb(OH)2 PbS PbSO4 Lithium Li LiBr LiBrO3 Li2C2 LiCN LiCNO

State† aq c l c, siderite c aq c aq, 2000 aq, 1200 c aq aq c aq aq, 800 c c c c c c c c c c, pyrites c, marcasite c aq, 400 aq, 400 c, ilmenite c c aq c c c c c aq c c aq c, cerussite c aq, 400 c c aq c c c aq, 400 c, red c, yellow c c c c c c c aq, 400 aq c aq aq

Compound Lithium (Cont.) LiC2H3O2 Li2CO3 LiCl LiClO3 LiClO4 LiF LiH LiHCO3 LiI LiIO3 Li3N LiNO3 Li2O Li2O2 LiOH

State† aq c aq, 1900 c aq, 278 aq aq c aq, 400 c aq, 2000 c aq, 400 aq c c aq, 400 c c aq c aq, 400 c gls c aq c aq, 400 c c c aq c aq, 400 aq c aq c c aq, 400 c c c c c c aq, 400 c c c aq, 400 c c c c c, ppt. c, brucite c aq c aq, 400 c c c, α c aq c

−23.23 −35.93 −195.5 −196.4 −533.4 −277.06 0.00

LiOH·H2O Li2O·SiO2 Li2Se Li2SO4 Li2SO4·H2O Magnesium Mg Mg(AsO4)2 MgBr2

−105.64 −314.66 −375.07 0.00 −630.14 −156.94 −29.08 −286.38 −241.7 −143.77 −205.93 −267.20 −387.98 −505.45 −132.45 −100.8 −140.66 −160.28 −496.03 −136.17 −326.7 −200.17 −193.3 −277.7 −283.88

−64.6

Mg(CN)2 MgCN2 Mg(C2H3O2)2 MgCO3 MgCl2 MgCl2·H2O MgCl2·2H2O MgCl2·4H2O MgCl2·6H2O MgF2 MgI2 MgMoO4 Mg3N2 Mg(NO3)2 Mg(NO3)2·2H2O Mg(NO3)2·6H2O MgO MgO·SiO2 Mg(OH)2 MgS MgSO4 MgTe MgWO4 Manganese Mn MnBr2 Mn3C

0.00 −62.06 −54.97 −150.0 −184.40 −75.04 −68.47 −148.1 −41.47 −58.3 −45.53 −43.88 −52.0 −142.2 −102.2 −21.98 −192.9 0.00 −95.28 −65.70 −31.35 −94.12

0.00 −97.8 1.26

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION
TABLE 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −270.3 −282.7 −211 −240.9 −112.0 −128.9 −206.1 −49.8 −76.2 −57.77 −134.9 −148.0 −557.07 −92.04 −124.58 −229.5 −331.65 −301.3 −163.4 −221 −736 −26.3 −47.0 −254.18 −265.2 −635 −657 0.00 23 −40.68 −38.4 −196.3 −192.5 −53.4 −50.3 19 −63.13 62.8 66.25 −159.3 57.1 −25.3 33 −28.88 −56.8 −58.5 −21.6 −20.8 −21.6 −10.7 −166.6 −177.34 0.00 4.36 −8.3 −130 −180.39 −56.27 −61.48 0.00 −53.4 −72.6 9.2 −249.6 230.9 −75.0 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −94.34 −157.5 −171.6 −22.4 −42.0 −101.5 −113.5 −58.4 −129.8 −163.2 −20.4 −216 −231.3 0.00 −27 −10.96 −19.27 −64.57 −60.27 −148.1 −148.58 −0.7 3.6 −17.8 −12.3 −223.4 −266.3 −260.6 −75.23 −71.20 −69.4 −63.2 −276.9 −271.3 −111.6 −110.2 −48.43 −44.97 −87.40 −80.89 −87.59 −55.21 −281.74 −279.33 12.06 −57.96 −232.2 19.55 21.600 7.96 2.23 −10.0 11.6 12.8 0.00 −93.6 −80.1 0.00 33.88 0.00 −20.40 0.00 −4.22 150.35

2-191

Compound Manganese (Cont.) Mn(C2H3O2)2 MnCO3 MnC2O4 MnCl2 MnF2 MnI2 Mn5N2 Mn(NO3)2 Mn(NO3)2.6H2O MnO MnO2 Mn2O3 Mn3O4 MnO.SiO2 Mn(OH)2 Mn(OH)3 Mn3(PO4)2 MnSe MnS MnSO4 Mn2(SO4)3 Mercury Hg HgBr HgBr2 Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgCl2 HgCl Hg2Cl2 Hg(CN)2 HgC2O4 HgH HgI2 HgI Hg2I2 Hg(NO3)2 Hg2(NO3)2 HgO Hg2O HgS HgSO4 Hg2SO4 Molybdenum Mo Mo2C Mo2N MoO2 MoO3 MoS2 MoS3 Nickel Ni NiBr2 Ni3C Ni(C2H3O2)2 Ni(CN)2 NiCl2

State† c aq c c c aq, 400 aq, 1200 c aq c c aq, 400 c c c c c c c c c c c, green c aq, 400 c aq l g c aq c aq c aq g c c aq, 1110 c g c, red g c aq aq c, red c, yellow ppt. c c, black c c c c c c c c c c c aq c aq aq c

Compound Nickel (Cont.)

State† aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq, 200 c c c c c aq, 200 g g g aq, 200 c aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq aq c aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq c aq c aq, 500 aq aq, 400 c aq, 400 l l c g g g g c l g c c g g g c c c, white (“yellow”) c, red (“violet”) g

Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −74.19 −142.9 −36.2 −64.0 −51.7 −105.6

−227.2 −192.5 −102.2 −180.0 −73.3 −46.49 −101.1 −441.2 −86.77 −111.49 −209.9 −306.22 −282.1 −143.1 −190 −27.5 −48.0 −228.41

NiF2 NiI2 Ni(NO3)2 NiO Ni(OH)2 Ni(OH)3 NiS NiSO4 Nitrogen N2 NF3 NH3 NH4Br NH4C2H3O2 NH4CN NH4CNS (NH4)2CO3 (NH4)2C2O4 NH4Cl NH4ClO4 (NH4)2CrO4 NH4F NH4I NH4NO3

−187.6 0.00 −3.903 −43.54 −108.26 20.4 4.4 −164.1 −196.2 −48.59 −21.1 −209.3 −84.7 −31.3

0.00 18 −38.8 −9.74 −139.2 −42.2 −23.25 14

52.25 −24.0 23 −26.53 −13.09 −15.65 −13.94 −12.80 −8.80 −149.12 0.00 2.91 −118.0 −162.01 −54.19 −57.38 0.00 −60.7 8.88 −190.1 66.3

NH4OH (NH4)2S (NH4)2SO4 N2H4 N2H4·H2O N2H4·H2SO4 N2O NO NO2 N2O4 N2O5 NOBr NOCl Osmium Os OsO4 Oxygen O2 O3 Palladium Pd PdO Phosphorus P P

−14.50 −215.06 −214.02

24.82 20.719 12.26 23.41 19.26 16.1 0.00 −70.9 −68.1 0.00 38.86 0.00 0.00 −1.80 141.88

2-192

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 33.82 13.2 −45 −60.6 −70.0 −76.8 −91.0 2.21 −10.9 −360.0 −138.4 0.00 −40.6 −50.7 −34 −62.6 −82.3 −18 −87.5 −20.18 −26.64 0.00 −323.0 −390.3 −271.2 −94.06 −89.19 −81.58 −71.68 −173.80 −177.38 −104.348 −100.164 −93.5 −81.34 −103.8 −101.14 −28.1 −25.3 −99.6 −94.5 −47.0 −41.07 −274.01 −280.90 −319.9 −315.5 −333.4 −328.2 −488.5 −472.1 −134.50 −138.36 −48.4 −34.5 −131.8 −119.9 −10 −229.8 −224.85 −78.88 −73.95 −121.69 −115.18 −98.1 −192.9 −182.5 −364.2 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 24.60 5.89 −65.2 −63.3 −73.2 −1.45 −127.2 0.00 Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −28.25 −86.0 −118.08 −109.79 −86.2 −1379.6 −1368.2 −1784.5 −1784.5 −1747 −102.02 −114.96 −397.5 −478.7 −362.7 −254.7 −242.6 −299.5 −286.1 −74.4 −83.4 −267.1 −121.5 −110.75 −267.7 −269.7 −342.65 −336.48 −1178.38 −2895.44 −418.62 0.00 −274 0.00 −21.7 −22.7 −68.3 0.00 −95.82 −45.0 −90.54 −25.9 −273.22 −282.61 −105.06 −53.6 −101.06 −133.23 −139.31 −230.01 −225.59 −81.04 −31.2 −74.57 −27.74 −119.22 −110.52 −82.9 −107 −101.3 −115.8 0.00 −46.99 0.00 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole

TABLE 2-220

Compound Phosphorus (Cont.) P2 P4 PBr3 PBr5 PCl3 PCl5 PH3 PI3 P2O5 POCl3 Platinum Pt PtBr4 PtCl2 PtCl4 PtI4 Pt(OH)2 PtS PtS2 Potassium K K3AsO3 K3AsO4 KH2AsO4 KBr KBrO3 KC2H3O2 KCl KClO3 KClO4 KCN KCNO KCNS K2CO3 K2C2O4 K2CrO4 K2Cr2O7 KF K3Fe(CN)6 K4Fe(CN)6 KH KHCO3 KI KIO3 KIO4 KMnO4 K2MoO4 g g l c g l g g c c g c c aq c c aq c c c c

State†

Compound Potassium (Cont.) KNH2 KNO2 KNO3 K2O K2O·Al2O3·SiO2 K2O·Al2O3·SiO2 KOH K3PO3 K3PO4 KH2PO4 K2PtCl4 K2PtCl6

State† c aq c aq, 400 c c, leucite gls c, adularia c, microcline gls c aq, 400 aq aq c c aq c aq, 9400 c aq aq c aq, 400 c aq c aq, 400 c c c c g c c c c c c g aq, 500 aq c aq, 220 c g aq, ∞ c aq, 400 c aq, 2000 c g aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c c c aq, 200 c c c, I, hexagonal

−75.9 −94.29 −93.68

−105.0 −443.3 −326.1 −226.5 −263.6 −99.10 −240.0 −111.44 −251.3 −314.62 −310.96 −1068.48 −2455.68 0.00 0.00

−67.9 −18.55 −24.28 0.00 −355.7 −236.7 −90.8 −92.0 −60.30 −156.73 −97.76 −98.76 −69.30 −72.86 −28.08 −90.85 −44.08 −264.04 −293.1 −306.3 −440.9 −133.13

K2Se K2SeO4 K2S K2SO3 K2SO4 K2SO4·Al2(SO4)3 K2SO4·Al2(SO4)3· 24H2O K2S2O6 Rhenium Re ReF6 Rhodium Rh RhO Rh2O Rh2O3 Rubidium Rb RbBr RbCN Rb2CO3 RbCl RbF RbHCO3 RbI RbNH2 RbNO3 Rb2O Rb2O2 RbOH Ruthenium Ru RuS2 Selenium Se

c aq aq c c aq, 400 c aq, 1667 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 180 c aq c aq c c aq, 2000 c aq, 500 c aq, 400 aq c aq, 400 aq, 880

0.00 −52.50 −93.38 −263.78 −98.48 −57.9 −100.13 −134.5 −209.07 −40.5 −81.13 −95.05

−5.3 −207.71 −77.37 −79.76 −101.87 −99.68 −169.1 −168.0 −342.9

−106.39 0.00 −44.11 0.00

HEATS AND FREE ENERGIES OF FORMATION
TABLE 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.2 −22.06 −246 −56.33 0.00 −93.0 −28 −150.0 −142.5 −370 −14.8 −29.8 −179.25 −202.62 −202.46 −203.35 −203.23 0.00 −23.90 84.5 −95.9 −91.7 33.8 −119.5 −158.7 −30.11 −48.7 −53.1 −15.14 −42.02 −11.6 −2.9 −29.4 −24.02 −6.95 −5.5 −170.1 −165.8 0.00 −314.61 −366 −381.97 −86.72 −86.33 −78.9 −68.89 −170.45 −175.450 −22.47 −22.29 −96.3 −91.7 −39.94 −38.23 −269.46 −275.13 −142.17 −313.8 −309.92 −98.321 −97.324 −83.59 −78.42 −101.12 −190.4 0.00 −23.02 −70.86 38.70 −103.0 −25.98 −47.26 −16.17 −24.08 3.76 9.99 −7.66 −7.81 −2.23 −7.6 −146.8 −139.22 0.00 −341.17 −87.17 −57.59 −152.31 −23.24 −86.00 −39.24 −249.55 −251.36 −283.42 −91.894 −93.92 −62.84 −13.73 −222 0.00 −27.4 −133.9 −133.0 −360 −9.4 −154.74 Na2CrO4 Na2Cr2O7 NaF NaH NaHCO3 NaI NaIO3 Na2MoO4 NaNO2 NaNO3 Na2O Na2O2 Na2O·SiO2 Na2O·Al2O3·3SiO2 Na2O·Al2O3·4SiO2 NaOH Na3PO3 Na3PO4 Na2PtCl4 Na2PtCl6 Na2Se Na2SeO4 Na2S Na2SO3 Na2SO4 Na2SO4·10H2O Na2WO4 Strontium Sr SrBr2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(CN)2 SrCO3 SrCl2 SrF2 Sr(HCO3)2 SrI2 Sr3N2 Sr(NO3)2 SrO SrO·SiO2 SrO2 Sr2O Sr(OH)2 Sr3(PO4)2 SrS Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −97.66 −319.8 −323.0 −465.9 −135.94 −135.711 −14 −226.0 −222.1 −69.28 −71.10 −112.300 −364 −358.7 −86.6 −83.1 −111.71 −106.880 −99.45 −119.2 −383.91 −1180 −1366 −101.96 −112.193 −389.1 −457 −471.9 −237.2 −272.1 −280.9 −59.1 −78.1 −254 −261.5 −89.8 −105.17 −261.2 −264.1 −330.50 −330.82 −1033.85 −391 −381.5 0.00 −171.0 −187.24 −358.0 −364.4 −59.5 −290.9 −197.84 −209.20 −289.0 −459.1 −136.1 −156.70 −91.4 −233.2 −228.73 −140.8 −364 −153.3 −153.6 −228.7 −239.4 −980 −985 −113.1

2-193

Compound Selenium (Cont.) Se2Cl2 SeF6 SeO2 Silicon Si SiBr4 SiC SiCl4 SiF4 SiH4 SiI4 Si3N4 SiO2

State† c, II, red, monoclinic l g c c l c l g g g c c c, cristobalite, 1600° form c, cristobalite, 1100° form c, quartz c, tridymite c c c c aq c c c c c aq, 400 c c c aq c aq, 6500 c c c aq c aq, 500 c aq, 500 c aq, 400 aq aq, 400 c aq, 400 c aq, 200 c aq c aq, 400 c aq, 1000 c c aq, 600 c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c

Compound Sodium (Cont.)

State† aq, 476 c aq, 800 aq, 1200 c aq, 400 c c aq c aq, ∞ aq, 400 c aq c aq c aq, 400 c c c c, natrolite c c aq, 400 aq, 1000 c aq, 400 aq c aq c aq, 440 c aq, 800 c aq, 400 c aq, 800 c aq, 1100 c c aq c c aq, 400 c aq aq c c aq, 400 c aq c aq, 400 c c aq, 400 c gls c c c aq, 800 c aq c

Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −73.29 −296.58 −431.18 −129.0 −128.29 −9.30 −202.66 −202.87 −74.92 −94.84 −333.18 −71.04 −87.62 −88.84 −90.06 −105.0 −361.49 −90.60 −100.18 −428.74 −216.78

Silver Ag AgBr Ag2C2 AgC2H3O2 AgCN Ag2CO3 Ag2C2O4 AgCl AgF AgI AgIO3 AgNO2 AgNO3 Ag2O Ag2S Ag2SO4 Sodium Na Na3AsO3 Na3AsO4 NaBr NaBrO NaBrO3 NaC2H3O2 NaCN NaCNO NaCNS Na2CO3 NaCO2NH2 Na2C2O4 NaCl NaClO3 NaClO4

−89.42 −230.30 −101.76 −240.14 −241.58 −302.38 −301.28 −870.52 −345.18 0.00 −182.36 −311.80 −54.50 −271.9 −195.86 −413.76 −157.87 −76.5 −185.70 −133.7 −139.0 −208.27 −881.54

2-194

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Continued ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −120.4 −345.3 −345.0 −393 0.00 −0.071 0.257 53.25 31.02 27.78 27.090 −4 −13.7 −14.2 −24.1 −262 19.02 −70.94 −94.39 −103.03 −105.09 −105.92 −109.34 −82.04 −89.80 0.00 −51.2 −486.0 0.00 −49.3 −77.4 −315 −77.56 0.00 −41.5 −28.0 −49.37 −38.4 −82.4 −91.0 −77.6 −31.1 −12.7 −58.2 −48.4 −43.18 −120 −57.44 −53.9 −22 −222.8 −214.1 0.00 −281.5 −352.0 −45.1 −335 −392 −292.0 −309.0 −291.6 −336.1 −632 −668.1 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −109.78 −309.30 0.00 0.023 0.072 0.071 43.57 19.36 13.97 12.770 −5.90 −237 12.75 −71.68 −88.59 −88.28 −88.22 −88.34 −88.98 −74.06 −75.06 0.00 −45.11 −453.7 0.00 −57.4 −292 −64.66 0.00 −39.43 −32.34 −44.46 −39.09 −44.25 −73.46 −31.3 −20.09 −36.32 −34.01 −45.54 −45.35 −197.79 −191.62 0.00 −295.31 −322.32 −246.33 −282.3 −280.1 −549.2 Tin Sn SnBr2 SnBr4 c, rhombic c, monoclinic l, λ l, λµ equilibrium g g g g l l l l g g g g l c, α c, β c, γ g l c c c c c c g c c c aq c aq c aq aq c aq c aq c c c aq c c aq, 800 c c aq c c aq aq c c c, “soluble” c aq SnCl2 SnCl4 SnI2 SnO SnO2 Sn(OH)2 Sn(OH)4 SnS Titanium Ti TiC TiCl4 TiN TiO2 Tungsten W WO2 WO3 WS2 Uranium U UC2 UCl3 UCl4 U3N4 UO2 UO2(NO3)2·6H2O UO3 U3O8 Vanadium V VCl2 VCl3 VCl4 VN V2O2 V2O3 V2O4 V2O5 Zinc Zn ZnSb ZnBr2 Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(CN)2 ZnCO3 ZnCl2 ZnF2 ZnI2 Zn(NO3)2 ZnO ZnO·SiO2 Zn(OH)2 ZnS ZnSO4 Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 0.6 −61.4 −60.0 −94.8 −110.6 −83.6 −81.7 −127.3 −157.6 −38.9 −33.3 −67.7 −138.1 −136.2 −268.9 −18.61 0.00 −110 −181.4 −80.0 −225.0 −214.1 0.00 −130.5 −195.7 −84 0.00 −29 −213 −251 −274 −256.6 −756.8 −291.6 −845.1 0.00 −147 −187 −165 −41.43 −195 −296 −342 −373 0.00 −3.6 −77.0 −93.6 −259.4 −269.4 17.06 −192.9 −99.9 −115.44 −192.9 −50.50 −61.6 −134.9 −83.36 −282.6 −153.66 −45.3 −233.4 −252.12 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 1.1 −55.43 −97.66 −68.94 −110.4 −124.67 −30.95 −60.75 −123.6 −115.95 −226.00 0.00 −109.2 −165.5 −73.17 −211.9 −201.4 0.00 −118.3 −177.3 0.00

TABLE 2-220

Compound Strontium (Cont.) SrSO4 SrWO4 Sulfur S

State† aq c aq, 400 c

Compound

State† c, II, tetragonal c, III, “gray,” cubic c aq c aq c aq l aq c aq c c c c c c c l c c, III, rutil amorphous c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c l l c c c c c c c c aq, 400 c aq, 400 c c c aq, 400 aq c aq aq, 400 c, hexagonal c c, rhombic c, wurtzite c aq, 400

S2 S6 S8 S2Br2 SCl4 S2Cl2 S2Cl4 SF6 SO SO2 SO3

SO2Cl2 Tantalum Ta TaN Ta2O5 Tellurium Te TeBr4 TeCl4 TeF6 TeO2 Thallium Tl TlBr TlCl TlCl3 TlF TlI TlNO3 Tl2O Tl2O3 TlOH Tl2S Tl2SO4 Thorium Th ThBr4 ThC2 ThCl4 ThI4 Th3N4 ThO2 Th(OH)4 Th(SO4)2

−249.6 −242.2 −617.8

0.00

−35.08 −277 −316 −342 0.00 −3.88 −72.9 −214.4 −173.5 −88.8 −166.6 −49.93 −87.7 −76.19 −44.2 −211.28

HEATS OF COMBUSTION
TABLE 2-220 Heats and Free Energies of Formation of Inorganic Compounds (Concluded ) Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 −29.8 −268.9 −82.5 Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole 0.00 −34.6 −75.9 Heat of formation‡§ ∆H (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −258.5 −411.0 −337

2-195

Compound Zirconium Zr ZrC ZrCl4 ZrN c c c c

State†

Compound Zirconium (Cont.) ZrO2 Zr(OH)4 ZrO(OH)2

State† c, monoclinic c c

Free energy of formation ¶ ∆F (formation) at 25°C, kcal/mole −244.6 −307.6

† The physical state is indicated as follows: c, crystal (solid); l, liquid; g, gas; gls, glass or solid supercooled liquid; aq, in aqueous solution. A number following the symbol aq applies only to the values of the heats of formation (not to those of free energies of formation); and indicates the number of moles of water per mole of solute; when no number is given, the solution is understood to be dilute. For the free energy of formation of a substance in aqueous solution, the concentration is always that of the hypothetical solution of unit molality. ‡ The increment in heat content, ∆H, in the reaction of forming the given substance from its elements in their standard states. When ∆H is negative, heat is evolved in the process, and, when positive, heat is absorbed. § The heat of solution in water of a given solid, liquid, or gaseous compound is given by the difference in the value for the heat of formation of the given compound in the solid, liquid, or gaseous state and its heat of formation in aqueous solution. The following two examples serve as an illustration of the procedure: (1) For NaCl(c) and NaCl(aq, 400H2O), the values of ∆H(formation) are, respectively, −98.321 and −97.324 kg-cal per mole. Subtraction of the first value from the second gives ∆H = 0.998 kg-cal per mole for the reaction of dissolving crystalline sodium chloride in 400 moles of water. When this process occurs at a constant pressure of 1 atm, 0.998 kg-cal of energy are absorbed. (2) For HCl(g) and HCl(aq, 400H2O), the values for ∆H(formation) are, respectively, −22.06 and −39.85 kg-cal per mole. Subtraction of the first from the second gives ∆H = −17.79 kg-cal per mole for the reaction of dissolving gaseous hydrogen chloride in 400 moles of water. At a constant pressure of 1 atm, 17.79 kg-cal of energy are evolved in this process. The increment in the free energy, ∆F, in the reaction of forming the given substance in its standard state from its elements in their standard states. The standard states are: for a gas, fugacity (approximately equal to the pressure) of 1 atm; for a pure liquid or solid, the substance at a pressure of 1 atm; for a substance in aqueous solution, the hypothetical solution of unit molality, which has all the properties of the infinitely dilute solution except the property of concentration. ¶ The free energy of solution of a given substance from its normal standard state as a solid, liquid, or gas to the hypothetical one molal state in aqueous solution may be calculated in a manner similar to that described in footnote § for calculating the heat of solution.

HEATS OF COMBUSTION
TABLE 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds at 298.15 K Cmpd. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 −7.4520 −8.3820 −10.4680 −12.5790 −14.6760 −16.6940 −18.7650 −20.8750 −22.8740 −24.9460 −27.0430 −29.0720 −31.1770 −33.2440 −35.3110 −37.4170 −39.4450 −41.5120 −43.5790 −45.6460 −13.4180 −15.3700 −17.6800 −17.4550 −19.4100 −21.8450 −22.4010 5.2510 1.9710 Ideal gas Gibbs energy Ideal gas Standard net enthalpy of formation, entropy, of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-07 J/(kmol·K) × 1E-05 J/kmol × 1E-09 −5.0490 −3.1920 −2.4390 −1.6700 −0.8813 −0.0066 0.8165 1.6000 2.4980 3.3180 4.1160 4.9810 5.7710 6.5990 7.4260 8.2160 9.0830 9.9100 10.7400 11.5700 −2.0760 −1.4050 −0.3125 −0.5338 0.5717 1.8280 1.3940 6.8440 6.2150 1.8627 2.2912 2.7020 3.0991 3.4945 3.8874 4.2798 4.6723 5.0640 5.4570 5.8493 6.2415 6.6337 7.0259 7.4181 7.8102 8.2023 8.5945 8.9866 9.3787 2.9539 3.4374 3.6592 3.8089 4.1455 4.2702 4.2296 2.1920 2.6660 −0.8026 −1.4286 −2.0431 −2.6573 −3.2449 −3.8551 −4.4647 −5.0742 −5.6846 −6.2942 −6.9036 −7.5137 −8.1229 −8.7328 −9.3424 −9.9515 −10.5618 −11.1715 −11.7812 −12.3908 −2.6490 −3.2395 −3.8476 −3.8492 −4.4608 −5.0688 −5.0653 −1.3230 −1.9257

Name Methane Ethane Propane n-Butane n-Pentane n-Hexane n-Heptane n-Octane n-Nonane n-Decane n-Undecane n-Dodecane n-Tridecane n-Tetradecane n-Pentadecane n-Hexadecane n-Heptadecane n-Octadecane n-Nonadecane n-Eicosane 2-Methylpropane 2-Methylbutane 2,3-Dimethylbutane 2-Methylpentane 2,3-Dimethylpentane 2,3,3-Trimethylpentane 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane Ethylene Propylene

Formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 C11H24 C12H26 C13H28 C14H30 C15H32 C16H34 C17H36 C18H38 C19H40 C20H42 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C8H18 C2H4 C3H6

CAS no. 74828 74840 74986 106978 109660 110543 142825 111659 111842 124185 1120214 112403 629505 629594 629629 544763 629787 593453 629925 112958 75285 78784 79298 107835 565593 560214 540841 74851 115071

Mol wt 16.043 30.070 44.097 58.123 72.150 86.177 100.204 114.231 128.258 142.285 156.312 170.338 184.365 198.392 212.419 226.446 240.473 254.500 268.527 282.553 58.123 72.150 86.177 86.177 100.204 114.231 114.231 28.054 42.081

2-196

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 −0.0540 −0.7400 −1.1000 −2.1300 −4.2000 −6.2800 −8.3600 −10.4000 −12.4700 −1.7100 −3.5300 −4.1800 16.2300 10.9240 7.5730 22.8200 18.4900 14.5700 13.8000 14.4400 12.5100 12.3700 10.5000 10.6000 10.3000 8.2300 30.4600 −7.7030 −10.6200 −12.6900 −12.3300 −15.4800 −18.1000 −17.1500 3.3100 −0.3800 −0.4600 8.2880 5.0170 1.9080 1.7320 1.8030 2.9920 0.7910 −1.3800 0.4000 −1.5900 −2.9000 15.0580 18.2420 14.7400 27.6600 −20.0940 −23.4950 −25.5200 −27.4600 −29.2900 −27.2700 −31.2400 −29.8737 −30.2085 −30.2100 −31.6500 −33.6400 −28.6200 −38.7500 −42.1500 Ideal gas Gibbs energy Ideal gas Standard net enthalpy of formation, entropy, of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-07 J/(kmol·K) × 1E-05 J/kmol × 1E-09 7.0270 6.5360 6.3160 7.8450 8.7390 9.4830 10.3000 11.1500 11.9800 5.8080 6.6680 6.0450 19.8600 14.9720 14.5896 21.0680 19.3840 18.4900 20.7200 21.0300 19.0700 21.8500 19.9000 19.9000 22.7000 23.5000 30.6000 3.8850 3.6300 4.4800 3.1910 2.7330 3.5229 3.9550 11.0500 10.3800 10.7700 12.9600 12.2200 12.2000 11.8760 12.1400 13.0730 13.8090 11.7100 13.7900 11.8100 13.3520 22.4080 28.0230 21.3900 42.3000 −16.2320 −16.7850 −15.9900 −15.0300 −16.9600 −17.3470 −17.7600 −14.6022 −14.6709 −14.5000 −13.4400 −12.5300 −10.9500 −30.2600 −30.4000 3.0775 3.0120 2.9650 3.4699 3.8389 4.2549 4.6469 5.0399 5.4319 2.9309 3.3950 3.3860 2.9300 2.7889 3.1564 2.0081 2.4836 2.8330 3.1890 3.2980 3.3084 3.6940 3.7200 3.7600 4.0850 4.4780 2.7940 2.9290 3.3990 3.7830 2.9728 3.4330 3.6501 3.8260 2.9127 3.2640 3.1052 2.6930 3.2099 3.5383 3.5854 3.5223 3.6063 3.9843 3.9610 3.8600 3.8560 4.2630 3.3315 3.9367 3.4510 5.2630 2.3988 2.8064 3.2247 3.6148 3.6469 3.0920 3.2630 4.0250 3.9351 3.8770 4.4010 4.7919 3.2770 3.2350 3.5200 −2.5408 −2.5339 −2.5303 −3.1296 −3.7394 −4.3489 −4.9606 −5.5684 −6.1781 −2.5242 −3.1159 −3.1088 −2.4617 −2.4090 −2.9842 −1.2570 −1.8487 −2.4189 −3.0460 −3.0510 −3.0291 −3.6610 −3.6400 −3.6400 −4.2717 −4.8815 −2.3620 −3.0709 −3.6741 −4.2839 −3.6560 −4.2571 −4.8639 −4.8705 −2.9393 −3.5340 −3.5320 −3.1360 −3.7340 −4.3330 −4.3318 −4.3330 −4.3450 −4.9542 −4.9307 −4.9510 −4.9291 −5.5498 −4.9809 −6.0317 −4.2190 −9.0530 −0.6382 −1.2350 −1.8438 −2.4560 −2.4408 −1.8300 −2.4239 −3.0605 −3.0620 −3.0623 −3.6766 −4.2860 −3.4639 −1.0590 −1.6476

Name 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene 1-Pentene 1-Hexene 1-Heptene 1-Octene 1-Nonene 1-Decene 2-Methylpropene 2-Methyl-1-butene 2-Methyl-2-butene 1,2-Butadiene 1,3-Butadiene 2-Methyl-1,3-butadiene Acetylene Methylacetylene Dimethylacetylene 3-Methyl-1-butyne 1-Pentyne 2-Pentyne 1-Hexyne 2-Hexyne 3-Hexyne 1-Heptyne 1-Octyne Vinylacetylene Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Ethylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane 1,1-Dimethylcyclohexane Ethylcyclohexane Cyclopentene 1-Methylcyclopentene Cyclohexene Benzene Toluene o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene Isopropylbenzene 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene p-Isopropyltoluene Naphthalene Biphenyl Styrene m-Terphenyl Methanol Ethanol 1-Propanol 1-Butanol 2-Butanol 2-Propanol 2-Methyl-2-propanol 1-Pentanol 2-Methyl-1-butanol 3-Methyl-1-butanol 1-Hexanol 1-Heptanol Cyclohexanol Ethylene glycol 1,2-Propylene glycol

Formula C4H8 C4H8 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 C4H8 C5H10 C5H10 C4H6 C4H6 C5H8 C2H2 C3H4 C4H6 C5H8 C5H8 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H10 C7H12 C8H14 C4H4 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C8H16 C5H8 C6H10 C6H10 C6H6 C7H8 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C8H10 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C9H12 C10H14 C10H8 C12H10 C8H8 C18H14 CH4O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C3H8O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C6H14O C7H16O C6H12O C2H6O2 C3H8O2

CAS no. 106989 590181 624646 109671 592416 592767 111660 124118 872059 115117 563462 513359 590192 106990 78795 74862 74997 503173 598232 627190 627214 693027 764352 928494 628717 629050 689974 287923 96377 1640897 110827 108872 590669 1678917 142290 693890 110838 71432 108883 95476 108383 106423 100414 103651 95636 98828 108678 99876 91203 92524 100425 92068 67561 64175 71238 71363 78922 67630 75650 71410 137326 123513 111273 111706 108930 107211 57556

Mol wt 56.108 56.108 56.108 70.134 84.161 98.188 112.215 126.242 140.269 56.108 70.134 70.134 54.092 54.092 68.119 26.038 40.065 54.092 68.119 68.119 68.119 82.145 82.145 82.145 96.172 110.199 52.076 70.134 84.161 98.188 84.161 98.188 112.215 112.215 68.119 82.145 82.145 78.114 92.141 106.167 106.167 106.167 106.167 120.194 120.194 120.194 120.194 134.221 128.174 154.211 104.152 230.309 32.042 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 60.096 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 102.177 116.203 100.161 62.068 76.095

HEATS OF COMBUSTION
TABLE 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 −9.6399 −12.8570 −13.2300 −12.5350 −18.4100 −21.6400 −23.8200 −25.2000 −25.8100 −26.6000 −28.3500 −25.2100 −27.2200 −28.5800 −6.7900 5.2000 −10.8600 −16.6200 −18.6300 −20.7000 −22.7800 −24.8600 −26.9400 −29.0200 −31.0900 −33.1700 −21.5700 −23.9000 −25.9200 −26.2400 −27.9826 −28.8000 −28.1000 −25.7900 −28.6100 −31.1400 −22.6100 −8.6700 −37.8600 −43.2800 −45.3500 −47.5800 −48.4100 −29.4100 −57.2500 −35.2400 −41.1900 −42.7500 −45.0700 −38.8300 −44.4500 −46.3600 −48.5500 −40.7600 −46.4800 −48.5600 −28.7900 −32.6000 −31.4900 −2.2970 −1.8450 −2.4310 −4.7150 −7.1420 −9.5800 −7.0500

2-197

Name Phenol o-Cresol m-Cresol p-Cresol Dimethyl ether Methyl ethyl ether Methyl n-propyl ether Methyl isopropyl ether Methyl n-butyl ether Methyl isobutyl ether Methyl tert-butyl ether Diethyl ether Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl isopropyl ether Methyl phenyl ether Diphenyl ether Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde 1-Propanal 1-Butanal 1-Pentanal 1-Hexanal 1-Heptanal 1-Octanal 1-Nonanal 1-Decanal Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone 2-Pentanone Methyl isopropyl ketone 2-Hexanone Methyl isobutyl ketone 3-Methyl-2-pentanone 3-Pentanone Ethyl isopropyl ketone Diisopropyl ketone Cyclohexanone Methyl phenyl ketone Formic acid Acetic acid Propionic acid n-Butyric acid Isobutyric acid Benzoic acid Acetic anhydride Methyl formate Methyl acetate Methyl propionate Methyl n-butyrate Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Ethyl propionate Ethyl n-butyrate n-Propyl formate n-Propyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl benzoate Ethyl benzoate Vinyl acetate Methylamine Dimethylamine Trimethylamine Ethylamine Diethylamine Triethylamine n-Propylamine

Formula C6H6O C7H8O C7H8O C7H8O C2H6O C3H8O C4H10O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C5H12O C4H10O C5H12O C5H12O C7H8O C12H10O CH2O C2H4O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C8H16O C9H18O C10H20O C3H6O C4H8O C5H10O C5H10O C6H12O C6H12O C6H12O C5H10O C6H12O C7H14O C6H10O C8H8O CH2O2 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C4H8O2 C7H6O2 C4H6O3 C2H4O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C3H6O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C4H8O2 C5H10O2 C6H12O2 C8H8O2 C9H10O2 C4H6O2 CH5N C2H7N C3H9N C2H7N C4H11N C6H15N C3H9N

CAS no. 108952 95487 108394 106445 115106 540670 557175 598538 628284 625445 1634044 60297 628320 625547 100663 101848 50000 75070 123386 123728 110623 66251 111717 124130 124196 112312 67641 78933 107879 563804 591786 108101 565617 96220 565695 565800 108941 98862 64186 64197 79094 107926 79312 65850 108247 107313 79209 554121 623427 109944 141786 105373 105544 110747 109604 123864 93583 93890 108054 74895 124403 75503 75047 109897 121448 107108

Mol wt 94.113 108.140 108.140 108.140 46.069 60.096 74.123 74.123 88.150 88.150 88.150 74.123 88.150 88.150 108.140 170.211 30.026 44.053 58.080 72.107 86.134 100.161 114.188 128.214 142.241 156.268 58.080 72.107 86.134 86.134 100.161 100.161 100.161 86.134 100.161 114.188 98.145 120.151 46.026 60.053 74.079 88.106 88.106 122.123 102.090 60.053 74.079 88.106 102.133 74.079 88.106 102.133 116.160 88.106 102.133 116.160 136.150 150.177 86.090 31.057 45.084 59.111 45.084 73.138 101.192 59.111

Ideal gas Gibbs energy Ideal gas Standard net enthalpy of formation, entropy, of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-07 J/(kmol·K) × 1E-05 J/kmol × 1E-09 −3.2637 −3.5430 −4.0190 −3.1660 −11.2800 −11.7100 −11.1000 −12.1800 −10.1700 −10.7000 −11.7500 −12.2100 −11.5200 −12.6400 2.2700 17.5000 −10.2600 −13.3100 −12.4600 −11.6300 −10.7100 −10.0050 −9.1910 −8.3770 −7.5530 −6.7390 −15.1300 −14.7000 −13.8300 −13.9000 −13.0081 −13.5000 −12.9000 −13.4400 −13.3000 −13.2000 −8.6620 −0.1364 −35.1000 −37.4600 −36.6700 −36.0000 −36.2100 −21.4200 −47.3400 −29.5000 −32.4200 −31.1000 −30.5300 −30.3100 −32.8000 −31.9300 −31.2200 −29.3600 −32.0400 −31.2600 −18.1000 −19.0500 −22.7900 3.2070 6.8390 9.8990 3.6160 7.3080 11.4100 4.1700 3.1481 3.5259 3.5604 3.5075 2.6670 3.0881 3.5200 3.4160 3.9010 3.8100 3.5780 3.4230 3.8810 3.8000 3.6100 4.1300 2.1866 2.6420 3.0440 3.4365 3.8289 4.2214 4.6138 5.0063 5.3988 5.7912 2.9540 3.3940 3.7860 3.6990 4.1786 4.0700 4.1200 3.7000 4.0690 4.5700 3.2200 3.8450 2.4870 2.8250 3.2300 3.6200 3.4120 3.6900 3.8990 2.8520 3.1980 3.5960 3.9880 3.2820 3.5970 4.0250 4.4170 3.6780 4.0230 4.4250 4.1400 4.5500 3.2800 2.4330 2.7296 2.8700 2.8480 3.5220 4.0540 3.2420 −2.9210 −3.5280 −3.5278 −3.5226 −1.3284 −1.9314 −2.5174 −2.5311 −3.1282 −3.1220 −3.1049 −2.5035 −3.1200 −3.1030 −3.6072 −5.8939 −0.5268 −1.1045 −1.6857 −2.3035 −2.9100 −3.5200 −4.1360 −4.7400 −5.3500 −5.9590 −1.6590 −2.2680 −2.8796 −2.8770 −3.4900 −3.4900 −3.4900 −2.8804 −3.4860 −4.0950 −3.2990 −3.9730 −0.2115 −0.8146 −1.3950 −2.0077 −2.0004 −3.0951 −1.6750 −0.8924 −1.4610 −2.0780 −2.6860 −1.5070 −2.0610 −2.6740 −3.2840 −2.0410 −2.6720 −3.2800 −3.7720 −4.4100 −1.9500 −0.9751 −1.6146 −2.2449 −1.5874 −2.8003 −4.0405 −2.1650

2-198

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA

TABLE 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Continued ) Cmpd. no. 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 −11.6000 −8.3800 −15.0000 8.7100 8.8000 10.0500 −5.2630 −3.4800 11.5440 14.0370 −19.2200 −19.1700 −23.8300 −24.0000 7.4040 5.1800 3.4058 21.8823 −2.2900 −4.6300 −6.7500 −8.7800 −9.6900 −9.6600 −3.7240 −5.9600 −8.3470 −23.4300 −8.1960 −10.2900 −9.5810 −3.7700 −26.4400 −11.2260 −6.3600 −13.3180 −14.4770 −15.0800 −16.2800 2.8450 −11.6566 5.1090 10.5018 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.0910 0 0 −4.5898 9.5353 8.2050 9.0250 30.9072 −11.0530 −39.3510 11.6900 −27.3300 −9.2310 −3.6290 13.5143 Ideal gas Gibbs energy Ideal gas Standard net enthalpy of formation, entropy, of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-07 J/(kmol·K) × 1E-05 J/kmol × 1E-09 8.6800 3.1920 5.7900 16.6800 20.2000 24.7728 −1.3230 0.0823 12.6620 19.0490 −14.7100 −8.8400 −15.9600 −13.5000 9.1868 9.7495 10.8658 26.0872 −0.9800 −0.4814 0.2583 1.1390 0.5982 0.5120 0.7302 1.1470 1.7780 −21.0400 −5.8440 −7.0100 −5.3540 −2.8190 −21.2300 −6.0499 −2.5820 −5.2610 −6.1360 −6.5200 −8.0180 4.1950 −6.9036 9.8290 13.8532 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3140 0 0 −1.6400 15.9170 10.4160 8.6570 29.7553 −13.7150 −39.4370 6.6800 −27.5400 −9.5300 −5.3340 12.4725 4.2900 3.1240 4.1200 3.1980 3.4100 3.6600 2.4299 2.6714 2.7865 2.8278 2.4857 3.2600 2.7220 3.2000 2.4329 2.8614 3.2543 3.2104 2.5500 2.9610 3.3650 3.7520 3.6280 3.6670 2.8585 3.3320 3.6800 2.2273 2.3418 2.9560 3.0991 2.4580 2.6440 2.7578 2.8730 3.1547 3.0594 3.4480 3.5480 2.7354 3.0263 3.1403 3.2439 1.9900 1.3057 1.2604 1.4622 1.5474 2.0268 2.2297 2.4535 2.0504 1.9150 1.9266 2.3861 2.1985 2.1060 2.4146 1.9756 2.1368 2.3790 1.7367 1.8679 1.9859 2.0172 −4.0189 −2.1566 −3.9900 −3.2390 −3.9000 −4.5250 −1.2180 −1.9959 −2.4352 −2.6721 −0.5021 −1.7887 −1.0741 −1.7100 −1.1904 −1.8007 −2.4148 −3.5224 −1.1517 −1.7366 −2.3458 −2.9554 −2.9490 −2.9490 −1.7449 −2.3531 −2.9607 −0.5219 −0.6754 −0.3800 −0.2653 −0.7054 −1.1270 −1.2849 −1.2850 −1.8670 −1.8630 −1.7200 −1.7070 −1.1780 −2.8145 −2.9760 −3.0192 0 −0.2418 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 −0.3168 −5.3420 −0.0820 −0.0902 −1.0961 −0.2830 0 −1.0769 0.1524 −0.0286 −0.0690 −0.6233

Name di-n-Propylamine Isopropylamine Diisopropylamine Aniline N-Methylaniline N,N-Dimethylaniline Ethylene oxide Furan Thiophene Pyridine Formamide N,N-Dimethylformamide Acetamide N-Methylacetamide Acetonitrile Propionitrile n-Butyronitrile Benzonitrile Methyl mercaptan Ethyl mercaptan n-Propyl mercaptan n-Butyl mercaptan Isobutyl mercaptan sec-Butyl mercaptan Dimethyl sulfide Methyl ethyl sulfide Diethyl sulfide Fluoromethane Chloromethane Trichloromethane Tetrachloromethane Bromomethane Fluoroethane Chloroethane Bromoethane 1-Chloropropane 2-Chloropropane 1,1-Dichloropropane 1,2-Dichloropropane Vinyl chloride Fluorobenzene Chlorobenzene Bromobenzene Air Hydrogen Helium-4 Neon Argon Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Oxygen Nitrogen Ammonia Hydrazine Nitrous oxide Nitric oxide Cyanogen Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Hydrogen fluoride Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen bromide Hydrogen cyanide

Formula C6H15N C3H9N C6H15N C6H7N C7H9N C8H11N C2H4O C4H4O C4H4S C5H5N CH3NO C3H7NO C2H5NO C3H7NO C2H3N C3H5N C4H7N C7H5N CH4S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S C4H10S C4H10S C2H6S C3H8S C4H10S CH3F CH3Cl CHCl3 CCl4 CH3Br C2H5F C2H5Cl C2H5Br C3H7Cl C3H7Cl C3H6Cl2 C3H6Cl2 C2H3Cl C6H5F C6H5Cl C6H5Br H2 He Ne Ar F2 Cl2 Br2 O2 N2 NH3 N2H4 N2O NO C2N2 CO CO2 CS2 HF HCl HBr HCN

CAS no. 142847 75310 108189 62533 100618 121697 75218 110009 110021 110861 75127 68122 60355 79163 75058 107120 109740 100470 74931 75081 107039 109795 513440 513531 75183 624895 352932 593533 74873 67663 56235 74839 353366 75003 74964 540545 75296 78999 78875 75014 462066 108907 108861 132259100 1333740 7440597 7440019 7440371 7782414 7782505 7726956 7782447 7727379 7664417 302012 10024972 10102439 460195 630080 124389 75150 7664393 7647010 10035106 74908

Mol wt 101.192 59.111 101.192 93.128 107.155 121.182 44.053 68.075 84.142 79.101 45.041 73.095 59.068 73.095 41.053 55.079 69.106 103.123 48.109 62.136 76.163 90.189 90.189 90.189 62.136 76.163 90.189 34.033 50.488 119.377 153.822 94.939 48.060 64.514 108.966 78.541 78.541 112.986 112.986 62.499 96.104 112.558 157.010 28.951 2.016 4.003 20.180 39.948 37.997 70.905 159.808 31.999 28.014 17.031 32.045 44.013 30.006 52.036 28.010 44.010 76.143 20.006 36.461 80.912 27.026

HEATS OF COMBUSTION
TABLE 2-221 Enthalpies and Gibbs Energies of Formation, Entropies, and Net Enthalpies of Combustion of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (Concluded ) Cmpd. no. 228 229 230 231 Ideal gas enthalpy of formation, J/kmol × 1E-07 −2.0630 −29.6840 −39.5720 −24.1814

2-199

Name Hydrogen sulfide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Water

Formula H2S SO2 SO3 H2O

CAS no. 7783064 7446095 7446119 7732185

Mol wt 34.082 64.065 80.064 18.015

Ideal gas Gibbs energy Ideal gas Standard net enthalpy of formation, entropy, of combustion, J/kmol × 1E-07 J/(kmol·K) × 1E-05 J/kmol × 1E-09 −3.3440 −30.0120 −37.0950 −22.8590 2.0560 2.4810 2.5651 1.8872 −0.5180 0 0.0989 0

All substances are listed in alphabetical order in Table 2-6a. Compiled from Daubert, T. E., R. P. Danner, H. M. Sibul, and C. C. Stebbins, DIPPR Data Compilation of Pure Compound Properties, Project 801 Sponsor Release, July, 1993, Design Institute for Physical Property Data, AIChE, New York, NY; and from Thermodynamics Research Center, “Selected Values of Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds,” Thermodynamics Research Center Hydrocarbon Project, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (extant 1994). The compounds are considered to be formed from the elements in their standard states at 298.15 K and 101,325 Pa. These include C (graphite) and S (rhombic). Enthalpy of combustion is the net value for the compound in its standard state at 298.15K and 101,325 Pa. Products of combustion are taken to be CO2 (gas), H2O (gas), F2 (gas), Cl2 (gas), Br2 (gas), I2 (gas), SO2 (gas), N2 (gas), H3PO4 (solid), and SiO2 (crystobalite). J/kmol × 2.390E-04 = cal/gmol; J/kmol × 4.302106E-04 = Btu/lbmol. J/(kmol·K) × 2.390E-04 = cal/(gmol·°C); J/(kmol·K) × 2.390059E-04 = Btu/(lbmol·°F). TABLE 2-222 Temperature, K 200 240 260 280 298.15 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 Ideal Gas Sensible Enthalpies, hT - h298 (kJ/kgmol), of Combustion Products CO −2858 −1692 −1110 −529 0 54 638 1221 1805 2389 2975 3563 4153 4643 5335 5931 7428 8942 10477 12023 13592 15177 16781 18401 20031 21690 25035 28430 31868 35343 38850 42385 45945 49526 53126 56744 60376 64021 67683 71324 74985 78673 82369 86074 89786 93504 112185 130989 149895 168890 CO2 −3414 −2079 −1383 −665 0 69 823 1594 2382 3184 4003 4835 5683 6544 7416 8305 10572 12907 15303 17754 20260 22806 25398 28030 30689 33397 38884 44473 50148 55896 61705 67569 73480 79431 85419 91439 97488 103562 109660 115779 121917 128073 134246 140433 146636 152852 184109 215622 247354 279283 H −2040 −1209 −793 −377 0 38 454 870 1285 1701 2117 2532 2948 3364 3779 4196 5235 6274 7314 8353 9392 10431 11471 12510 13550 14589 16667 18746 20824 22903 24982 27060 29139 31217 33296 35375 37453 39532 41610 43689 45768 47846 49925 52004 54082 56161 66554 75947 87340 97733 OH −2976 −1756 −1150 −546 0 55 654 1251 1847 2442 3035 3627 4219 4810 5401 5992 7385 8943 10423 11902 13391 14880 16384 17888 19412 20935 24024 27160 30342 33569 36839 40151 43502 46889 50310 53762 57243 60752 64285 67841 71419 75017 78633 82267 85918 89584 108119 126939 145991 165246 H2 −2774 −1656 −1091 −522 0 53 630 1209 1791 2373 2959 3544 4131 4715 5298 5882 6760 8811 10278 11749 13223 14702 16186 17676 19175 20680 23719 26797 29918 33082 36290 39541 42835 46169 49541 52951 56397 59876 63387 66928 70498 74096 77720 81369 85043 88740 107555 126874 146660 166876 N −2040 −1209 −793 −378 0 38 454 870 1286 1701 2117 2533 2949 3364 3780 4196 5235 6274 7314 8353 9329 10431 11471 12510 13550 14589 16667 18746 20824 22903 24982 27060 29139 31218 33296 35375 37454 39534 41614 43695 45777 47860 49945 52033 54124 56218 66769 77532 88614 100111 NO −2951 −1743 −1142 −543 0 55 652 1248 1845 2442 3040 3638 4240 4844 5450 6059 7592 9144 10716 12307 13919 15548 17195 18858 20537 22229 25653 29120 32626 36164 39729 43319 46929 50557 54201 57859 61530 65212 68904 72606 76316 80034 83759 87491 91229 94973 113768 132671 151662 170730 NO2 −3495 −2104 −1392 −672 0 68 816 1571 2347 3130 3927 4735 5557 6392 7239 8099 10340 12555 14882 17250 19671 22136 24641 27179 29749 32344 37605 42946 48351 53808 59309 64846 70414 76007 81624 87259 92911 98577 104257 109947 115648 121357 127075 132799 138530 144267 173020 201859 230756 259692 N2 −2857 −1692 −1110 −528 0 54 636 1219 1802 2386 2971 3557 4143 4731 5320 5911 7395 8894 10407 11937 13481 15046 16624 18223 19834 21463 24760 28109 31503 34936 38405 41904 45429 48978 52548 56137 59742 63361 66995 70640 74296 77963 81639 85323 89015 92715 111306 130027 148850 167763 N2O −3553 −2164 −1438 −692 0 72 854 1654 2470 3302 4149 5010 5884 6771 7670 8580 10897 13295 15744 18243 20791 23383 26014 28681 31381 34110 39647 45274 50976 56740 62557 68420 74320 80254 86216 92203 98212 104240 110284 116344 122417 128501 134596 140701 146814 152935 183636 214453 245348 276299 O −2186 −1285 −840 −398 0 41 478 913 1346 1777 2207 2635 3063 3490 3918 4343 5402 6462 7515 8570 9620 10671 11718 12767 13812 14860 16950 19039 21126 23212 25296 27381 29464 31547 33630 35713 37796 39878 41962 44045 46130 48216 50303 52391 54481 56574 67079 77675 88386 99222 O2 −2868 −1703 −1118 −533 0 54 643 1234 1828 2425 3025 3629 4236 4847 5463 6084 7653 9244 10859 12499 14158 15835 17531 19241 20965 22703 26212 29761 33344 36957 40599 44266 47958 51673 55413 59175 62961 66769 70600 74453 78328 82224 86141 90079 94036 98013 118165 188705 159572 180749 SO2 −3736 −2258 −1496 −718 0 74 881 1702 2538 3387 4250 5126 6015 6917 7831 8758 11123 13544 16022 18548 21117 23721 26369 29023 31714 34428 39914 45464 51069 56718 62404 68123 73870 79642 85436 91250 97081 102929 108792 114669 120559 126462 132376 138302 144238 150184 180057 210145 240427 270893 H2O −3282 −1948 −1279 −609 0 62 735 1410 2088 2769 3452 4139 4829 5523 6222 6925 8699 10501 12321 14192 16082 18002 19954 21938 23954 26000 30191 34506 38942 43493 48151 52908 57758 62693 67706 72790 77941 83153 88421 93741 99108 104520 109973 115464 120990 126549 154768 183552 212764 242313

Converted and usually rounded off from JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971 (1141 pp.)

2-200

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Ideal Gas Entropies, s°, kJ/kgmol·K, of Combustion Products CO 186.0 191.3 193.7 195.3 197.7 197.8 199.7 201.5 203.2 204.7 206.2 207.7 209.0 210.4 211.6 212.8 215.7 218.3 220.8 223.1 225.2 227.3 229.2 231.1 232.8 234.5 237.7 240.7 243.4 246.0 248.4 250.7 252.9 254.9 256.8 258.7 260.5 262.2 263.8 265.4 266.9 268.3 269.7 271.0 272.3 273.6 279.4 284.4 288.8 292.8 CO2 200.0 206.0 208.8 211.5 213.8 214.0 216.5 218.8 221.0 223.2 225.3 227.3 229.3 231.2 233.1 234.9 239.2 243.3 247.1 250.8 255.4 257.5 260.6 263.6 266.5 269.3 274.5 279.4 283.9 288.2 292.2 296.0 299.6 303.0 306.2 309.3 312.2 315.1 317.8 320.4 322.9 325.3 327.6 329.9 332.1 334.2 343.8 352.2 359.7 366.4 H 106.4 110.1 111.8 113.3 114.7 114.8 116.2 117.4 118.6 119.7 120.8 121.8 122.8 123.7 124.6 125.5 127.5 129.3 131.0 132.5 133.9 135.2 136.4 137.7 138.8 139.9 141.9 143.7 145.3 146.9 148.3 149.6 150.9 152.1 153.2 154.3 155.3 156.3 157.2 158.1 158.9 159.7 160.5 161.3 162.0 162.7 165.9 168.7 171.1 173.3 OH 171.6 177.1 179.5 181.8 183.7 183.9 185.9 187.7 189.4 191.0 192.5 194.0 195.3 196.6 197.9 199.1 201.8 204.4 206.8 209.0 211.1 213.0 214.8 216.5 218.1 219.7 222.7 225.4 228.0 230.3 232.6 234.7 236.8 238.7 240.6 242.3 244.0 245.7 247.2 248.7 250.2 251.6 253.0 254.3 255.6 256.8 262.5 267.6 272.1 276.1 H2 119.4 124.5 126.8 129.2 130.7 130.9 132.8 134.5 136.2 137.7 139.2 140.6 141.9 143.2 144.5 145.7 148.6 151.1 153.4 155.6 157.6 159.5 161.4 163.1 164.7 166.2 169.1 171.8 174.3 176.6 178.8 180.9 182.9 184.8 186.7 188.4 190.1 191.7 193.3 194.8 196.2 197.7 199.0 200.3 201.6 202.9 208.7 213.8 218.5 222.8 N 145.0 148.7 150.4 151.9 153.3 153.4 154.8 156.0 157.2 158.3 159.4 160.4 161.4 162.3 163.1 164.0 166.0 167.8 169.4 171.0 172.5 173.8 175.1 176.3 177.4 178.5 180.4 182.2 183.9 185.4 186.9 188.2 189.5 190.7 191.8 192.9 193.9 194.8 195.8 196.7 197.5 198.3 199.1 199.9 200.6 201.3 204.6 207.4 210.1 212.5 NO 198.7 204.1 206.6 208.8 210.8 210.9 212.9 214.7 216.4 218.0 219.5 221.0 222.3 223.7 225.0 226.3 229.1 231.9 234.4 236.8 239.0 241.1 243.0 245.0 246.8 248.4 251.8 254.8 257.6 260.2 262.7 265.0 267.2 269.3 271.3 273.1 274.9 276.6 278.3 279.8 281.4 282.8 284.2 285.6 286.9 288.2 294.0 299.0 303.5 307.5 NO2 225.9 232.2 235.0 237.7 240.0 240.3 242.7 245.0 247.2 249.3 251.3 253.2 255.1 257.0 258.8 260.6 264.7 268.8 272.6 276.0 279.3 282.5 285.5 288.4 291.3 293.9 298.9 303.6 307.9 311.9 315.7 319.3 322.7 325.9 328.9 331.8 334.5 337.2 339.7 342.1 344.5 346.7 348.9 350.9 352.9 354.9 363.8 371.5 378.3 384.4 N2 180.0 185.2 187.6 189.8 191.6 191.8 193.7 195.5 197.2 198.7 200.2 201.5 202.9 204.2 205.5 206.7 209.4 212.2 214.6 216.9 219.0 221.0 223.0 224.8 226.5 228.2 231.3 234.2 236.9 239.5 241.9 244.1 246.3 248.3 250.2 252.1 253.8 255.5 257.1 258.7 260.2 261.6 263.0 264.3 265.6 266.9 272.6 277.6 282.1 286.0 N2O 205.6 211.9 214.8 217.5 220.0 220.2 222.7 225.2 227.5 229.7 231.9 234.0 236.0 238.0 239.9 241.8 246.2 250.4 254.3 258.0 261.5 264.8 268.0 271.1 274.0 276.8 282.1 287.0 291.5 295.8 299.8 303.6 307.2 310.6 313.8 316.9 319.8 322.6 325.3 327.9 330.4 332.7 335.0 337.3 339.4 341.5 350.9 359.2 366.5 373.0 O 152.2 156.2 158.0 159.7 161.1 161.2 162.6 163.9 165.2 166.3 167.4 168.4 169.4 170.4 171.3 172.2 174.2 176.1 177.7 179.3 180.7 182.1 183.4 184.6 185.7 186.8 188.8 190.6 192.3 193.8 195.3 196.6 197.9 199.1 200.2 201.3 202.3 203.2 204.2 205.0 205.9 206.7 207.5 208.3 209.0 209.7 212.9 215.8 218.3 220.6 O2 193.5 198.7 201.1 203.3 205.1 205.3 207.2 209.0 210.7 212.5 213.8 215.3 216.7 218.0 219.4 220.7 223.7 226.5 229.1 231.5 233.7 235.9 237.9 239.9 241.8 243.6 246.9 250.0 252.9 255.6 258.1 260.4 262.7 264.8 266.8 268.7 270.6 272.4 274.1 275.7 277.3 278.8 280.3 281.7 283.1 284.4 290.7 296.2 301.1 305.5 SO2 233.0 239.9 242.8 245.8 248.2 248.5 251.1 253.6 256.0 258.2 260.4 262.5 264.6 266.6 268.5 270.5 274.9 279.2 283.1 286.9 290.4 293.8 297.0 300.1 303.0 305.8 311.0 315.8 320.3 324.5 328.4 332.1 335.6 338.9 342.0 345.0 347.9 350.6 353.2 355.7 358.1 360.4 362.6 364.8 366.9 368.9 378.1 386.1 393.3 399.7 H2O 175.5 181.4 184.1 186.6 188.8 189.0 191.2 193.3 195.2 197.1 198.8 200.5 202.0 203.6 205.1 206.5 210.5 213.1 215.9 218.7 221.3 223.8 226.2 228.5 230.6 232.7 236.7 240.5 244.0 247.4 250.6 253.7 256.6 259.5 262.2 264.8 267.3 269.7 272.0 274.3 276.5 278.6 380.7 282.7 284.6 286.5 295.2 302.9 309.8 316.0

TABLE 2-223 Temperature, K 200 240 260 280 298.15 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000

Usually rounded off from JANAF Thermochemical Tables, NSRDS-NBS-37, 1971 (1141 pp.). Equilibrium constants can be calculated by combining ∆h° values f from Table 2-221, hT − h298 from Table 2-222, and s° values from the above, using the formula ln kp = −∆G/(RT), where ∆G = ∆h° + (hT − h298) − T °. f s

HEATS OF SOLUTION

2-201

HEATS OF SOLUTION
TABLE 2-224 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water Heat evolved, in kilogram-calories per gram formula weight, on solution in water at 18°C. Computed from data in Bichowsky and Rossini, Thermochemistry of Chemical Substances, Reinhold, New York, 1936. Heat, kg-cal/ g-mole +85.3 +77.9 +13.2 +31 +19.0 −1.7 +89.0 +126 +56.2 +6.7 −4.45 −3.82 −5.82 −12.9 −3.56 −6.47 −9.0 −2.75 +0.56 −1.2 −4.13 −1.7 −0.8 −0.4 −15.9 +5.3 −0.8 −3.87 −6.7 −10.6 +2.4 −2.17 −4.5 +1.5 −2.4 −4.9 −9.1 −11.3 +10.5 +2.7 +0.14 −0.58 −6.61 −10.2 −2.8 −10.5 +7.2 +62.6 +51.1 +72.6 +18.1 +13.5 +7.9 +1.1 +3 −5.4 +0.4 −7.3 +3.1 +0.6 −3.00 +4.17 −5.08 +10.69 +6.05 +2.51 +7.6 +6.5 Heat, kg-cal/ g-mole +24.86 −0.9 +4.9 +12.3 +12.5 +2.4 −4.11 +0.7 +28.0 +1.8 +4.1 +0.7 −3.2 −4.2 −7.99 −0.6 −1 +5.1 +3.6 −0.18 +18.6 +5.3 +2.0 +5.7 +18.4 −1.25 +18.5 +9.8 −2.9 +18.8 +15.0 −1.4 −3.6 +2.4 +0.5 +10.3 −2.6 −10.7 +15.9 +9.3 +3.65 −2.85 +11.6 +31.7 +21.0 +5.6 −9.1 +18.0 +17.9 +8.7 +2.7 +23.3 +14.7 +7.35 +1.4 −4.4 +1.4 −5.9 −10.1 −3.4 −6.9 −7.61 +11.54 +5.30 +2.05 −1.59 +8.66

Substance Aluminum bromide chloride fluoride iodide sulfate Ammonium bromide chloride chromate dichromate iodide nitrate perborate sulfate sulfate, acid sulfite Antimony fluoride iodide Arsenic acid Barium bromate bromide chlorate chloride cyanide iodate iodide

Dilution* aq 600 600 aq aq aq aq aq aq aq aq ∞ aq 600 aq ∞ aq ∞ 800 aq aq aq aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq aq aq aq aq aq aq aq 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 ∞ ∞

Formula AlBr3 AlCl3 AlCl3·6H2O AlF3 AlF3·aH2O AlF3·3aH2O AlI3 Al2(SO4)3 Al2(SO4)3·6H2O Al2(SO4)3·18H2O NH4Br NH4Cl (NH4)2CrO4 (NH4)2Cr2O7 NH4I NH4NO3 NH4BO3·H2O (NH4)2SO4 NH4HSO4 (NH4)2SO3 (NH4)2SO3·H2O SbF3 SbI3 H3AsO4 Ba(BrO3)2·H2O BaBr2 BaBr2·H2O BaBr2·2H2O Ba(ClO3)2 Ba(ClO3)2·H2O BaCl2 BaCl2·H2O BaCl2.2H2O Ba(CN)2 Ba(CN)2·H2O Ba(CN)2·2H2O Ba(IO3)2 Ba(IO3)2·H2O BaI2 BaI2·H2O BaI2·2H2O BaI2·2aH2O BaI2·7H2O Ba(NO3)2 Ba(ClO4)2 Ba(ClO4)2·3H2O BaS BeBr2 BeCl2 BeI2 BeSO4 BeSO4·H2O BeSO4·2H2O BeSO4·4H2O BiI3 H3BO3 CdBr2 CdBr2·4H2O CdCl2 CdCl2·H2O CdCl2·2aH2O Cd(NO3)2·H2O Cd(NO3)2·4H2O CdSO4 CdSO4·H2O CdSO4·2wH2O Ca(C2H3O2)2 Ca(C2H3O2)2·H2O

Substance Calcium—(Cont.) bromide chloride

Dilution* ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 400 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ aq aq aq aq 400 400 400 aq 400 400 400 aq aq 200 200 200 800

Formula CaBr2 CaBr2·6H2O CaCl2 CaCl2·H2O CaCl2·2H2O CaCl2·4H2O CaCl2·6H2O Ca(CHO2)2 CaI2 CaI2·8H2O Ca(NO3)2 Ca(NO3)2·H2O Ca(NO3)2·2H2O Ca(NO3)2·3H2O Ca(NO3)2·4H2O Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O CaHPO4·2H2O CaSO4 CaSO4·aH2O CaSO4·2H2O CrCl2 CrCl2·3H2O CrCl2·4H2O CrI2 CoBr2 CoBr2·6H2O CoCl2 CoCl2·2H2O CoCl2·6H2O CoI2 CoSO4 CoSO4·6H2O CoSO4·7H2O Cu(C2H3O2)2 Cu(CHO2)2 Cu(NO3)2 Cu(NO3)2·3H2O Cu(NO3)2·6H2O CuSO4 CuSO4·H2O CuSO4·3H2O CuSO4·5H2O Cu2SO4 FeCl3 FeCl3·2aH2O FeCl3·6H2O Fe(NO3)3·9H2O FeBr2 FeCl2 FeCl2·2H2O FeCl2·4H2O FeI2 FeSO4 FeSO4·H2O FeSO4·4H2O FeSO4·7H2O Pb(C2H3O2)2 Pb(C2H3O2)2·3H2O PbBr2 PbCl2 Pb(CHO2)2 Pb(NO3)2 LiBr LiBr·H2O LiBr·2H2O LiBr·3H2O LiCl

formate iodide nitrate

phosphate, monodibasic sulfate Chromous chloride iodide Cobaltous bromide chloride iodide sulfate Cupric acetate formate nitrate sulfate

Cuprous sulfate Ferric chloride nitrate Ferrous bromide chloride iodide sulfate

aq 1000 1000 1000 800 aq 400 400 400 aq 400 400 400 400 400 400 aq aq aq 400 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

nitrate perchlorate sulfide Beryllium bromide chloride iodide sulfate

Bismuth iodide Boric acid Cadmium bromide chloride nitrate sulfate Calcium acetate

Lead acetate bromide chloride formate nitrate Lithium bromide

chloride

*The numbers represent moles of water used to dissolve 1 g formula weight of substance; ∞ means “infinite dilution”; and aq means “aqueous solution of unspecified dilution.”

2-202

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water (Continued ) Heat, kg-cal/ g-mole +4.45 +1.07 −1.98 −0.74 +4.74 +4.39 +9.6 +14.92 +10.08 +6.93 +3.43 −0.17 +0.466 −7.87 +6.71 +3.77 +43.7 +35.9 +19.8 +36.3 +20.8 +10.5 +3.4 +50.2 −3.7 +10.2 +21.1 +14.0 +11.7 +4.9 +0.55 −3.18 +25.8 +12.9 −3.9 −6.2 +22 +12.2 +1.6 +15 +14.4 +16.1 +16.0 +8.2 +1.5 +4.3 −2.9 +26.2 +24.1 +22.7 +19.9 +21.2 +13.8 +11.9 −1.7 −4.0 −2.4 −3.3 −0.7 −11.5 +19.0 +0.2 +19.23 +10.4 +4.2 −1.15 +19.4 +11.8 −7.5 +15.1 −4.2 Heat, kg-cal/ g-mole +2.79 −0.1 +25.9 +4.65 +3.55 +48.5 +26.6 −10.1 −5.1 −10.13 −5.13 +6.58 +4.25 −0.43 −10.31 −4.404 −4.9 +55 +42 +33 +7 −9.5 −3.0 −17.8 +3.96 −1.85 −6.05 +0.86 +1.21 +12.91 +4.27 +3.48 +0.86 −6.93 −5.23 −8.633 −4.6 −7.5 −12.94 −10.4 +4.7 −11.0 −10.22 −6.32 −3.10 −11.0 +1.8 +1.37 −6.08 −13.0 −4.5 −5.4 −4.4 +4.085 −4.665 +15.6 −12.61 −4.1 +10.0 −16.8 −0.58 −4.57 +5.57 +2.19 −10.81 −16.22 −5.37 −1.164 +2.50 −7.52 −16.0 −0.37 −0.92

TABLE 2-224

Substance Lithium—(Cont.)

Dilution* ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ aq 400 400 400 aq aq aq aq aq aq 400 400 400 aq aq aq aq aq aq aq 400 400 400 aq aq aq aq aq aq aq 800 800 800 800 aq 200 200 200 200

Formula LiCl·H2O LiCl·2H2O LiCl·3H2O LiF LiOH LiOH·fH2O LiOH·H2O LiI LiI·aH2O LiI·H2O LiI·2H2O LiI·3H2O LiNO3 LiNO3·3H2O Li2SO4 Li2SO4·H2O MgBr2 MgBr2·H2O MgBr2·6H2O MgCl2 MgCl2·2H2O MgCl2·4H2O MgCl2·6H2O MgI2 Mg(NO3)2·6H2O Mg3(PO4)2 MgSO4 MgSO4·H2O MgSO4·2H2O MgSO4·4H2O MgSO4·6H2O MgSO4·7H2O MgS Mn(NO3)2 Mn(NO3)2·3H2O Mn(NO3)2·6H2O Mn2(SO4)3 Mn(C2H3O2)2 Mn(C2H3O2)2·4H2O MnBr2 MnBr2·H2O MnBr2·4H2O MnCl2 MnCl2·2H2O MnCl2·4H2O Mn(CHO2)2 Mn(CHO2)2·2H2O MnI2 MnI2·H2O MnI2·2H2O MnI2·4H2O MnI2·6H2O MnSO4 MnSO4·H2O MnSO4·7H2O Hg(C2H3O2)2 HgBr2 HgCl2 Hg(NO3)2·aH2O Hg2(NO3)2·2H2O NiBr2 NiBr2·3H2O NiCl2 NiCl2·2H2O NiCl2·4H2O NiCl2·6H2O NiI2 Ni(NO3)2 Ni(NO3)2·6H2O NiSO4 NiSO4·7H2O

Substance Phosphoric acid, orthopyroPotassium acetate aluminum sulfate bicarbonate bromate bromide carbonate chlorate chloride chromate chrome sulfate

Dilution* 400 400 aq aq ∞ 600 600 2000 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 2185 600

Formula H3PO4 H3PO4·aH2O H4P2O7 H4P2O7·1aH2O KC2H3O2 KAl(SO4)2 KAl(SO4)2·3H2O KAl(SO4)2·12H2O KHCO3 KBrO3 KBr K2CO3 K2CO3·aH2O K2CO3·1aH2O KClO3 KCl K2CrO4 KCr(SO4)2 KCr(SO4)2·H2O KCr(SO4)2·2H2O KCr(SO4)2·6H2O KCr(SO4)2·12H2O KCN K2Cr2O7 KF KF·2H2O KF·4H2O KHS KHS·dH2O KOH KOH·eH2O KOH·H2O KOH·7H2O KIO3 KI KNO3 K2C2O4 K2C2O4·H2O KClO4 KMnO4 KH2PO4 K2S2O5 K2S2O5·aH2O K2SO4 KHSO4 K2S K2SO3 K2SO3·H2O KCNS K2S2O6 K2S2O3 AgC2H3O2 AgNO3 NaC2H3O2 NaC2H3O2·3H2O Na3AsO4 Na3AsO4·12H2O NaHCO3 Na2B4O7 Na2B4O7·10H2O NaBr NaBr·2H2O Na2CO3 Na2CO3·H2O Na2CO3·7H2O Na2CO3·10H2O NaClO3 NaCl Na2CrO4 Na2CrO4·4H2O Na2CrO4·10H2O NaCN NaCN·aH2O

fluoride hydroxide iodide

nitrate sulfate Magnesium bromide chloride

cyanide dichromate fluoride hydrosulfide hydroxide

iodide nitrate phosphate sulfate

sulfide Manganic nitrate sulfate Manganous acetate bromide chloride formate iodide

iodate iodide nitrate oxalate perchlorate permanganate phosphate, dihydrogen pyrosulfite sulfate sulfate, acid sulfide sulfite thiocyanate thionate, dithiosulfate Silver acetate nitrate Sodium acetate arsenate bicarbonate borate, tetrabromide carbonate

200 1600 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 400 ∞ 400 aq aq aq ∞ 800 ∞ aq aq ∞ aq ∞ aq 200 ∞ ∞ 500 500 1800 900 900 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 800 800 800 200 200

sulfate Mercuric acetate bromide chloride nitrate Mercurous nitrate Nickel bromide Nickel chloride

iodide nitrate sulfate

chlorate chloride chromate cyanide

HEATS OF SOLUTION
TABLE 2-224 Heats of Solution of Inorganic Compounds in Water (Concluded ) Heat, kg-cal/ g-mole −4.41 −0.27 +4.62 −1.49 +10.18 +8.17 +7.08 +6.48 +5.17 +1.57 −3.89 +3.97 −5.05 −3.6 −4.15 +5.21 +13 −15.3 −0.82 −12.04 −23.18 +0.90 −5.29 +9.30 −4.54 +11.9 −11.7 −2.2 −14.0 +0.28 −18.74 +1.74 +0.15 +15.2 +0.09 −6.54 −16.65 +2.8 −11.1 −1.83

2-203

Substance Sodium—(Cont.) fluoride hydrosulfide Sodium hydroxide

Dilution* 200 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 600 ∞ aq ∞ 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 600 600 800 800 1600 1600 1200 1200 ∞ ∞ 800 800 ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞

Formula NaCN·2H2O NaF NaHS NaHS·2H2O NaOH NaOH·aH2O NaOH·wH2O NaOH·eH2O NaOH·H2O NaI NaI·2H2O NaPO3 NaNO3 NaNO2 NaClO4 Na2HPO4 Na3PO4 Na3PO4·12H2O Na2HPO4·2H2O Na2HPO4·7H2O Na2HPO4·12H2O NaH2PO3 NaH2PO3·2aH2O Na2HPO3 Na2HPO3·5H2O Na4P2O7 Na4P2O7·10H2O Na2H2P2O7 Na2H2P2O7·6H2O Na2SO4 Na2SO4·10H2O NaHSO4 NaHSO4·H2O Na2S Na2S·4aH2O Na2S·5H2O Na2S·9H2O Na2SO3 Na2SO3·7H2O NaCNS

Substance Sodium—(Cont.) thionate, diSodium thiosulfate Stannic bromide Stannous bromide iodide Strontium acetate bromide

Dilution* aq aq aq aq aq aq aq ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ 400 400 400 400 400 aq 400 400 400 400 400 400

Formula Na2S2O6 Na2S2O6·2H2O Na2S2O3 Na2S2O3·5H2O SnBr4 SnBr2 SnI2 Sr(C2H3O2)2 Sr(C2H3O2)2·aH2O SrBr2 SrBr2·H2O SrBr2·2H2O SrBr2·4H2O SrBr2·6H2O SrCl2 SrCl2·H2O SrCl2·2H2O SrCl2·6H2O SrI2 SrI2·H2O SrI2·2H2O SrI2·6H2O Sr(NO3)2 Sr(NO3)2·4H2O SrSO4 H2S2O7 Zn(C2H3O2)2 Zn(C2H3O2)2·H2O Zn(C2H3O2)2·2H2O ZnBr2 ZnCl2 ZnI2 Zn(NO3)2·3H2O Zn(NO3)2·6H2O ZnSO4 ZnSO4·H2O ZnSO4·6H2O ZnSO4·7H2O

Heat, kg-cal/ g-mole −5.80 −11.86 +2.0 −11.30 +15.5 −1.6 −5.8 +6.2 +5.9 +16.4 +9.25 +6.5 +0.4 −6.1 +11.54 +6.4 +2.95 −7.1 +20.7 +12.65 +10.4 −4.5 −4.8 −12.4 +0.5 −18.08 +9.8 +7.0 +3.9 +15.0 +15.72 +11.6 −5 −6.0 +18.5 +10.0 −0.8 −4.3

iodide metaphosphate nitrate nitrite perchlorate phosphate di triphosphate di diphosphite, monodipyrophosphate disulfate sulfate, acid sulfide

chloride

iodide

nitrate sulfate Sulfuric acid, pyroZinc acetate bromide chloride iodide nitrate sulfate

sulfite thiocyanate
NOTE:

To convert kilocalories per gram-mole to British thermal units per pound-mole, multiply by 1.799 × 10−3.

2-204

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA
TABLE 2-225 Heats of Solution of Organic Compounds in Water (at Infinite Dilution and Approximately Room Temperature) Recalculated and rearranged from International Critical Tables, vol. 5, pp. 148–150. (g⋅cal)/(g⋅mol) = Btu/(lb⋅mol) × 1.799. Heat of Solution, G-cal/g-mole Solute* −2,251 −641 −6,812 −4,206 −2,700 −8,700 −3,489 −2,732 −4,708 −6,501 −502 −5,401 268 −5,903 4,780 −4,161 −7,003 −4,340 −5,392 −6,350 −5,781 −3,203 −96 −3,420 −5,922 −3,705 −7,098 −13,193 14,699 −15,894 −4,441 −3,150 −4,493 −3,090 −5,260 0 6,561 −5,593 −5,306 −8,891 −5,210 −6,310 −4,493 Heat of Solution, G-cal/g-mole Solute* −2,290 −8,485 −2,605 −4,871 −7,098 −10,492 −9,106 −1,506 2,820 −5,562 −3,705 −5,019 −3,991 −9,703 −3,960 −9,799 5,270 −6,441 −1,817 −12,342 2,390 −10,994 −1,121 −5,882 7,887 −14,412 −6,405 −4,302 −1,319 −3,451 −5,330 −3,609 −8,795 −7,194 −10,803 −17,806 −5,160 −5,210 −11,496 −15,894

Solute Acetic acid (solid), C2H4O2 Acetylacetone, C5H8O2 Acetylurea, C3H6N2O2 Aconitic acid, C6H6O6 Ammonium benzoate, C7H9NO2 picrate succinate (n-) Aniline, hydrochloride, C6H8ClN Barium picrate Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 Camphoric acid, C10H16O4 Citric acid, C6H8O7 Dextrin, C12H20O10 Fumaric acid, C4H4O4 Hexamethylenetetramine, C6H12N4 Hydroxybenzamide (m-), C7H7NO2 (m-), (HCl) (o-), C7H7NO2 (p-) Hydroxybenzoic acid (o-), C7H6O3 (p-), C7H6O3 Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (o-), C7H8O2 Inulin, C36H62O31 Isosuccinic acid, C4H6O4 Itaconic acid, C5H6O4 Lactose, C12H22O11·H2O Lead picrate (2H2O) Magnesium picrate (8H2O) Maleic acid, C4H4O4 Malic acid, C4H6O5 Malonic acid, C3H4O4 Mandelic acid, C8H2O3 Mannitol, C6H14O6 Menthol, C10H20O Nicotine dihydrochloride, C10H16Cl2N2 Nitrobenzoic acid (m-), C7H5NO4 (o-), C7H5NO4 (p-), C7H5NO4 Nitrophenol (m-), C6H5NO3 (o-), C6H5NO3 (p-), C6H5NO3

Solute Oxalic acid, C2H2O4 (2H2O) Phenol (solid), C6H6O Phthalic acid, C8H6O4 Picric acid, C6H3N3O7 Piperic acid, C12H10O4 Piperonylic acid, C8H6O4 Potassium benzoate citrate tartrate (n-) (0.5 H2O) Pyrogallol, C6H6O3 Pyrotartaric acid Quinone Raffinose, C18H32O16 (5H2O) Resorcinol, C6H6O2 Silver malonate (n-) Sodium citrate (tri-) picrate potassium tartrate (4H2O) succinate (n-) (6H2O) tartrate (n-) (2H2O) Strontium picrate (6H2O) Succinic acid, C4H6O4 Succinimide, C4H5NO2 Sucrose, C12H22O11 Tartaric acid (d-) Thiourea, CH4N2S Urea, CH4N2O acetate formate nitrate oxalate Vanillic acid Vanillin Zinc picrate (8H2O)

*+ denotes heat evolved, and − denotes heat absorbed. All values are positive unless otherwise noted. The data in the International Critical Tables were calculated by E. Anderson.


				
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