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					English Made Easy-in 20 minutes a Day!                   Speak English-Define Future        1
                                 TENSES

                       Comparative Study of Tenses



TENSE     SIMPLE/           SIMPLE/          CONTINUOUS        PERFECT     PERFECT
          INDEFINITE        INDEFINITE                                     CONTINUOUS


          do/does           (s/es/ies)       am/is/are         has/have    has been/
                            For III person                                 have been
PRESENT                     singulars
          MV- I form                         MV- ing form      MV- III     MV- ing form
                            MV- I form                         form

          did               -------          was/were          Had         had been

PAST

          MV- I form        MV- II form      MV- ing form      MV- III     MV- ing form
                                                               form

          shall/will                         shall be/         shall       shall have
                                             will be           have/       been/
FUTURE                                                         will have   will have been

          MV- I form                         MV- ing
                                                               MV- III     MV- ing form
                                                               form




PERSON    SINGULAR      PLURAL


FIRST           I         We

                          You
SECOND      You


            He
THIRD       She          They
             It




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                                                   PERSONS          DEFINITE       INDEFINITE

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                                                   I                   Shall                Will
                                                   WE

                                                   YOU
TENSES – AT A GLANCE                               HE, SHE, IT          Will             Shall
                                                   THEY


                                                        TIME
TENSE
                       PAST                  PRESENT                           FUTURE

                                          I want a coffee.               I leave tomorrow.
PRESENT SIMPLE
                              She                       likes                     coffee.

                                                                     I am taking my exam next
                                        I am having dinner.
PRESENT                                                                       month.
CONTINUOUS
                       They            are              living           in             London.


PRESENT PERFECT
                  I have seen ET.         I have finished.
SIMPLE


                    I have been
PRESENT PERFECT    playing tennis.
CONTINUOUS
                     We have been working for four hours.

                   I finished one     If she loved you now, she   If you came tomorrow, you would
PAST SIMPLE
                      hour ago.            would marry you.                   see her.

                  I was working at
PAST CONTINUOUS
                  2am this morning.

PAST PERFECT      I had not eaten
SIMPLE              for 24 hours.

                   We had been         If I had been working
PAST PERFECT                                                      If I had been working tomorrow,
                   working for 3      now, I would have missed
CONTINUOUS                                                              I could not have agreed.
                      hours.                     you.

FUTURE SIMPLE                          Hold on. I'll do it now.        I'll see you tomorrow.

FUTURE
                                                                  I will be working at 9pm tonight.
CONTINUOUS

                                                                    I will have finished by 9pm
FUTURE PERFECT                                                                tonight.
SIMPLE
                                We will have been married for ten years next month.

                                                                     They may be tired when you
FUTURE PERFECT
                                                                    arrive because they will have
CONTINUOUS
                                                                            been working.

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                         In 30 minutes, we will have been working for four hours.




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1. Simple Present Tense
How do we make the Simple Present
                                                  +   I              am                  French.
Tense?
                                                      You, we,       are                 French.
subject + auxiliary verb       + main verb            they
                     do                base
                                                      He, she, it    is                  French.
There are three important exceptions:
                                                  -   I              am            not   old.
    1. For positive sentences, we do not
                                                      You, we,       are           not   old.
       normally use the auxiliary.
                                                      they
    2. For the 3rd person singular (he, she,
       it), we add s to the main verb or es to
                                                      He, she, it    is            not   old.
       the auxiliary.
    3. For the verb to be, we do not use an       ?   Am             I                   late?
       auxiliary, even for questions and
       negatives.                                     Are            you, we,            late?
                                                                     they
Look at these examples with the main
verb like:                                            Is             he, she, it         late?


    subjec    auxiliar         mai                How do we use the Simple Present
    t         y verb           n                  Tense?
                               verb
                                                  We use the Simple Present when we talk
+   I, you,                    like     coffee.   about something which happens repeatedly.
    we,
    they

    He,                        likes    coffee.
    she, it

-   I, you,   do          no   like     coffee.
    we,                   t
    they

    He,       does        no   like     coffee.   We use the Simple Present to describe a
    she, it               t                       series of actions in the present.

?   Do        I, you,          like     coffee
              we, they                  ?

    Does      he, she,         like     coffee
              it                        ?


Look at these examples with the main
                                                  Simple present is also called present simple.
verb be. Notice that there is no auxiliary:

                                                  When to use Simple Present?
    subject        main verb
                                                  We use the simple present tense when:

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      the action is general
                                                     The situation is general. Past, present and
      the action happens all the time, or
                                                                        future.
       habitually, in the past, present and
       future
      the action is not only happening now
      the statement is always true              English Made Easy: Tips
                                                 This page shows the use of the simple
              John drives a taxi.                present tense to talk about general events.
                                                 Note that there are some other uses for
    past           present           future      the simple present tense, for example in
                                                 conditional or if sentences, or to talk about
                                                 the future. You will learn about those
                                                 later.
  It is John's job to drive a taxi. He does it
     every day. Past, present and future.

                                                 The simple present expresses an action in the
Look at these examples:
                                                 present taking place once, never or several times. It

      I live in New York.                       is also used for actions that take place one after
      The Moon goes round the Earth.            another and for actions that are set by a timetable or
      John drives a taxi.
                                                 schedule. The simple present also expresses facts in
      He does not drive a bus.
      We do not work at night.                  the present.
      Do you play football?

Note that with the verb to be, we can also
use the simple present tense for situations      be
that are not general. We can use the simple
present tense to talk about now. Look at         Use:
these examples of the verb "to be" in the
simple present tense - some of them                      am with the personal pronoun II
are general, some of them are now:
                                                         is with the personal pronouns he, she
                                                          or it (or with the singular form of
                 Am I right?                              nouns)
             Tara is not at home.
                                                         are with the personal pronouns we,
               You are happy.
                                                          you or they (or with the plural form of
    past           present           future               nouns)

                                                         example: I am hungry.

             The situation is now.
                                                                   affirmati      negativ questio
                                                                       ve            e      n
                 I am not fat.
           Why are you so beautiful?
                  Ram is tall.                   I                I am.           I am        Am I?
                                                                                  not.
    past           present           future

                                                 he/she/it        He is.          He is       Is he?


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                             not.                               the infinite verb (play) with the
                                                            personal pronouns I, you, we and they (or
                                                            with the plural form of nouns)
you/we/th         You are.   You are      Are
                                                               the verb + s (plays) with the personal
ey                           not.         you?
                                                            pronouns he, she, it (or with the singular
                                                            form of nouns)
have

Use:                                                                     affirmativ    negativ    questio
                                                                              e           e         n
      have with the personal pronouns I,
       you, we und they (or with the plural
       form of nouns)                                     I/you/we       I play.       I do not   Do I
                                                          / they                       play.      play?
      has with the personal pronouns he,
       she, it (or with the singular form of
       nouns)                                             he/she/it      He plays.     He does Does he
                                                                                       not play. play?
      example: I have a dog. / I have got a
       dog.
                                                          Tips on how to form negative sentences
      'have got' is mainly used in British               and questions
       English. You can also use 'have' on its
                                                          Negative sentences and questions are formed
       own (especially in American English).
                                                          with the auxiliary verb 'do'.
       In this case, however, you must form
       negative sentences and questions with              The 3rd person singular of 'do' is 'does'. This

       the auxiliary verb 'do' (see 'All other            means that in negative sentences and

       verbs').                                           questions the 's' of the main verb is placed
                                                          behind 'do'.

                   positive negative question
                                                          Use

                                                          1) repeated actions
I/you/            I have     I have       Have I
                  got. / I   not got. /   got? / Do
                                                          My friend often draws nice posters.
we/they           have.      I do not     I have?
                             have.

                                                          2) things in general
he/she/it         He has    He has        Has he
                                                          The sun rises in the East.
                  got. / He not got. /    got? /
                  has.      He does       Does he
                            not have.     have?
                                                          3) fixed arrangements, scheduled events

All other verbs                                           The plane flies to London every Monday.

Use:
                                                          4) actions in the present - one follows
                                                          after the other

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    First I get up, then I have breakfast.         My friend               likes computers.
                                                   My mum         doesn't like       computers at all.
    5) instructions
                                                   Questions:
    Open your books at page 34.
                                                   Use the auxiliary do.
                                                   Do you play football?
    6) with special verbs                          Does he play football?

    I understand English.                          Special verbs in the Simple Present


                                                   1) have as a full verb
    Signal words
                                                   affirmative         negative
    every day, often, always, sometimes, never,                                          question
                                                   sentence            sentence

    normally, seldom, usually If Clause Type I     I, we, you, they:
    (If I talk, …                                                      I do not have Do I have a
                                                   I have a book.
                                                                       a book.       book?
                                                   he, she, it:
    Form: 3rd person singular he, she, it:
                                                                                         Does he
    infinitive + -s                                                    He does not
                                                   He has a book.                        have a
                                                                       have a book.
                                                                                         book?
    Form of Simple Present
          P: He speaks.
                                                   2) be as a full verb
          N: He does not speak.
          Q: Does he speak?                       affirmative         negative
                                                                                         question
                                                   sentence            sentence

                                                   I am from           I am not from Am I from
    Examples                                       Britain.            Britain.      Britain?
                                                   he, she, it:
    Affirmative sentences:
                                                   He is from          He is not         Is he from
                                                   Britain.            from Britain.     Britain?
                            My brother reads
    I read books.
                            books.                 we, you, they:
    We sing pop songs.      She sings pop songs.   We are from         We are not        Are we from
                                                   Britain.            from Britain.     Britain?
    I play handball.        John plays handball.

                                                   We often use the short forms with this verb.
    Negative sentences:

    You must not negate a full verb in English.    3) do as a full verb
    Always use the auxiliary do for negations.
                                                   affirmative         negative
                                                                                         question
                                                   sentence            sentence
    I               like   computers.
                                                   I, we, you, they:
    I   don't       like   computers at all.
                                                   I do an            I do not do       Do I do an
                                                   exercise.          an exercise.      exercise?

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he, she, it:                                     But: A final y after a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) is
                He does not                      not modified.
He does an                       Does he do
                do an
exercise.                        an exercise?     example: play - he plays
                exercise.

                                                 Simple Present - Use
4) modal auxiliaries can, could, may,
must, need, will etc.                            facts (something is generally known to
                                                 be true)
affirmative       negative
                                  question
sentence          sentence                                    The sun never sets in the east
                                                 The sun sets or south or north, but always
every time regardless the subject (I, he, she,
                                                 in the west. in the west.
it, we, you, they):
I can play       I cannot play Can I play        action in the present taking place once,
tennis.          tennis.       tennis?           never or several times

                                                                   Colin plays football
                                                  Colin always     regularly - every Tuesday.
                                                 plays soccer on
 NOTE:                                                             In English, signal words are
                                                    Tuesdays.
 We can substitute don't (can't) for do                            often used, e.g.: always,
 not (cannot).                                                     never, seldom, often,
                                                                   regularly, every Monday.
 Modals have the same form every time
 regardless the subject. We do not add an -      actions in the present taking place one
 s to the infinitive.                            after another

                                                 She takes her bag First one action takes
                                                    and leaves.    place and then the other.

                                                 action set by a time table or schedule
Simple Present - Exceptions in Spelling
                                                             Although the action takes place
 The 3rd person singular is usually formed by     The train in the future, it takes place
 adding s. But there are a few exceptions to     leaves at 9 regularly and is set by a time
                                                     pm.     table.
 the rule:

The verbs can, may, might, must remain           verbs expressing states, possession,
the same in all forms. So don't add s.           senses, emotions and mental activity

 example: he can, she may, it must                    When you love someone, that's a
                                                   I  state, a fact or emotion, but not an
                                                 love action (like ‘running’ for example).
Verbs ending in o or a sibilant (ch, sh, s,
                                                 her. Whenever you want to express a state,
x) add es instead of s.
                                                      possession, sense or emotions, use the
 example: do - he does, wash - she washes             simple form (not the progressive). The
                                                      following words all belong to this
A final y after a consonant becomes i.e.              group:
before s.                                                    be (state)
 example: worry - he worries                                 believe (mental activity)


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                                               or several times            Tuesdays.
           belong (possession)
           hate (feeling and emotion)
           hear (senses)                      actions in the present      She takes her
                                               taking place one after      bag and leaves.
           like (feeling and emotion)         another
           love (feeling and emotion)
           mean (mental activity)
                                               facts (something is         The sun sets in
           prefer (mental activity)           generally known to be       the west.
           remain (state)                     true)
           realize (mental activity)
           see (senses)                       action set by a timetable   The train leaves
           seem (feeling and emotion)         or schedule                 at 9 pm.
           smell (senses)
           think (mental activity)            verbs of possession,        I love her.
           understand (mental activity)       senses, emotions and
                                               mental activity
           want (feeling and emotion)
           wish (feeling and emotion)

SUMMARY

          Use                   Example


action in the present        Colin always
taking place once, never     plays soccer on




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