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									                                MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
                                    TRAINING OUTLINE

        The goal of this session is to familiarize the participants with some of the basic
        tools used in creating (and understanding) Medical Terminology.
        The following areas will be covered
            A. Prefix-Root-Suffix
            B. Common Abbreviations
            C. “Jargon”

   I.       PREFIX – ROOT – SUFFIX
        Many terms rely on the use of PREFIX – ROOT – SUFFIX construction. These
        are sometimes the easiest terms to interpret. They are very common in lab
        report related diagnosis on the BPS.
        (note: this is NOT a comprehensive list)
            A. The PREFIX is often a description of amount
                    1. HYPER (too much\too high)
                    2. HYPO (too little\too low)
                    3. ISO (the same\equality)
            B. The ROOT describes the thing being measured
                    4. CALC (for the element Calcium)
                    5. TONIC (refers to salt content of the blood plasma)
                    6. GLYCEM (refers to the level of blood sugar)
                    7. LIPID (refers to fats & cholesterol)
            C. The SUFFIX often tells you either where the levels of certain chemicals
               are or the problem with an organ or system process.
                    8. -EMIA (in the blood EX: hypoglycemia)
                    9. -ITIS (an inflammation of… EX: appendicitis)
                    10. –PATHY (a breakdown\failure of… EX: neuropathy)
               (Examples to focus on = Diabetic Neuropathy or Retinopathy)
                    11. –PARESIS (loss of function … EX: hemiparesis)
                    12. – PLEGIA … EX: Quadriplegia)
                                                                     Medical Terminology

   II.      Common Abbreviations
         Many times, medical\health professionals will abbreviate terms to simplify written
         and/or oral communication. There are far too many to cover in one list but some
         are fairly common to those often seen in BPS or Physicians’ Wellness Plan
            A. Common Abbreviations
                     1. QD = once a day
                     2. BID = twice a day (from the Latin bis in diem)
                     3. TID = three times a day (Latin for tres in diem)
                     4. QID = four times a day (Latin for quadra in diem)
                     5. q4h = every four hours
                     6. Dx = diagnosis
                     7. Rx = prescription (from Latin for “take thou”)
                     8. Tx = treatment or therapy
                     9. C/O = complaint of
                     10. H/O = history of
                     11. R/O = rule out
                     12. D/O = disorder
                     13. FBS = fasting blood sugar
                     14. RBS = random blood sugar
(Again, this is a very short representative list. A comprehensive source is to go to which has an extremely comprehensive list)
            B. Some abbreviations for diseases are as follows
                     1. DM = diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes)
                     2. HTN = hypertension (high blood pressure)
                     3. HbA1c = Hemoglobin A1c [a measure of the sugar level over 90
                     4. FS = finger stick
                     5. ASA = acetylsalicylic acid (ASPIRIN)
                     6. APAP = acetaminophen (TYLENOL)
                     7. TB = tuberculosis
                     8. Fx = a fracture of a bone
                                                                   Medical Terminology

                   9. C & S = culture and sensitivity
                   10. MI = myocardial infarction (heart attack)
       (the terms myo=muscle cardial=of the heart infarction=damage to giving us the
       actual meaning of “damage to the heart muscle)
                   11. CVA = cardio-vascular accident (stroke)
                   12. MVA = motor vehicle accident
          C. Anatomically related terms – the names of the systems and/or parts of the
             body are often in Latin or Greek. Knowing the base terms can help you
             decipher a term.
                   1. Renal = related to the kidneys
                   2. Pneumo = related to the lungs
                   3. Cardio = related to the heart
                   4. Hepatic = related to the liver
                   5. CNS = the central nervous system
                        a. the brain
                        b. the spinal cord
                   6. Ophthalmic = related to the eyes
                   7. Otic = related to the ears
                   8. Pharyngeal = related to the throat
                   9. Endocrine = related to any glands releasing hormones
       (this includes the thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, testes, pancreas, among
                   10. Derma = related to the skin
III.      Jargon
          A term to describe terms not decipherable by any of the above techniques.
          The terms are named after the discovering scientist(s) in general or famous
          victims of the disease
          A. Graves’ disease = a thyroid condition
          B. Islets of Langerhans’ = special cells in the pancreas which release the
             hormones controlling sugar levels (Insulin and Glucagon)
          C. Lou Gehrig’s Disease (amyotropic lateral sclerosis or ALS) = a
             degenerative nerve disease which is always fatal)
IV.       Misc. Terms of possible interest
                                                           Medical Terminology

     A. Decubitus Ulcer = severe pressure or bed sores which can lead to
        gangrene infection and loss of tissue and/or limb
     B. Herniated Discs = when the disc between to spinal vertebrae are
        damaged causing pain or disrupting normal function.
     C. Radiculopathy = is the term used to describe when a nerve root is
        “pinched” causing decreased function and pain.
V.   Medical Specialists
     One of the most commonly occurring areas of confusion involves what each
     medical specialist treats. Below is a basic list of some of the most common
     A. Endocrinologist = systems of glands and hormones (diabetes, thyroid)
     B. Psychiatrist = mental/emotional conditions
     C. “Physiatrist” also know as PM&R (physical medicine and rehabilitation)
        they treat an assortment of painful conditions caused by injury and/or
        disease. In the case of WC clients, they often can be compared to an
        orthopedic surgeon who doesn’t operate. They use non-surgical
        modalities including Physical Therapy (PT), and medications to control
        pain and increase function.
     D. Gastroenterologist (GI) = disorders of any part of the alimentary canal
        from the esophagus thru the stomach, intestines, & bowels as well as the
     E. Podiatrist (DPM) = a foot specialist
     F. Optometrist (OD) = a specialist measuring vision and treating minor eye
        d/o’s **
     G. Ophthalmologist = a MD specializing in diseases of the eye
     H. Orthopedist = bones and joints
     I. Neurologist = brain and nerves
     J. Neurosurgeon = performs surgery on the nerves, spine and brain
     K. Nurse Practitioner (NP) = a RN with advanced educational training to
        provide primary care. There are MANY specialties within the field. The
        most common seen at Arbor are Psychiatric NP’s and NMV (midwives) **
     L. Physician Assistants (PA) = Work as an extension under the supervision
        of a physician **
     M. Oncologists = treat cancer
     N. Hematology = disorders of the blood

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