Regional Ocean Observing and Forecasting System for Integrated Management of Ocean and Coastal Environment and Natural Disasters in Africa (ROOFS-AFRICA) Angola Benin Cameroon Congo UNESCO Côte d’Ivoire Comoros Gabon Egypt Gambia Kenya Ghana Madagascar Guinea Mauritius Mauritania Mozambique Morocco Seychelles Namibia Tanzania Nigeria Tunisia Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Togo The original ROOFS-AFRICA project has been formally endorsed by the Heads of States Partnership Conference of the African Process during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Mauritius Johannesburg, South Africa 30 August 2002. The project had been updated in line with the NEPAD Environment Action Plan and Development Goals and the with Implementation Plan of the WSSD Mauritius during the African Stakeholders and Resources Mobilisation Workshop organised by UNESCO and its IOC in partnership with the NEPAD Secretariat in Johannesburg, 27-30 October 2003. Mauritius Mauritius Table of Contents 1. Synopsis……………………………………………….…………………………….. 4 Overall Objective……………………………….……………………………. 4 Primary Goal………………………………….………………………………. 4 Benefits……………………………………………………………………… 4 Beneficiaries…………………………………………………………………. 5 Participating countries and national endorsements…………………………… 5 Executing Agencies…………………………………………………………… 5 Partnerships……………………………………………………………………. 5 Duration……………………………………………………………………… 6 Budget…………………………………………………………………………. 6 2. Project Background…………………………………………………………………. 7 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………. 7 The African Response………………………………………………………….. 8 Capacity Building as a critical tool to address Environmental crisis and Development issues in Africa………………………………………………… 9 Relevance to Socio-economic Goals……………………………………………12 Relevance to the NEPAD Goals……………………………………12 Relevance to the WSSD Goals……………………………………… 12 Relevance to Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)…………… 13. Relevance to Health and Wealth Creation………………………… 14 3. Project Description………………………………………………………………… 15 4. Project Outcomes………………………………………………………………… 16 5. Project Strategies and Arrangements…………………………………………… 17 Project work packages: Crosscutting Approach for the project implementation………………………………………………… 17 Work package 1: The African network of in situ ocean observing and monitoring systems including sea level records for monitoring coastal zones and impacts of global change in Africa……………………………… 18 5.1.2 Work Package 2: Remote Sensing and Satellite Applications to Marine and Coastal Environment………………………………………………… 21 5.1.3 Work Package 3: Modelling and Forecasting based on In situ and Satellite data………………………………………………………… 27 5.1.4 Work Package 4: Effective Involvement of Different Stakeholders at different stage of Project Implementation and Development of End-User Interactive Communication and Information Delivery System…… 30 5.1.5 Work Package 5: Industry and Business Partnerships towards reinforcing a Regional Ocean Forecasting System for Africa…………………… 33 5.1.6 Work Package 6: Project Management, Integration and Co-ordination 40 6. Linkages to national, regional (transboundary) and international projects … 42 6.1 National Programmes……………………………………………………… 42 6.2 Regional Programmes………………………………………………………… 42. 6.3 International Programmes and Conventions……………………………………. 42 2 7. Risks and Sustainability………………………………………………………… 43 Annexes I Budget Tables……………………………………………………………………… 45 II List of Acronyms………………………………………………………………… 56 Project Title: Regional Ocean Observing and Forecasting System for Integrated Management of Ocean and Coastal Environment and Natural Disasters in Africa (ROOFS-AFRICA) 1. SYNOPSIS: 1.1 Overall objective: To contribute to better environmental management and hence wealth creation and the concomitant reduction of poverty, by establishing a Regional Ocean Observing and Forecasting System for Africa (ROOFS-AFRICA) to improve forecasts of environmental change and disasters management. The project contributes to several of: NEPAD Development goals and to the enhancement of national capabilities. Objectives specified in the WSSD Implementation Plan. Millennium Development Goals and Goals of international Conventions and Agreements such as the Convention on Biodiversity, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and major global programmes including the Global Ocean Observing System and the Global Climate Observing System. 1.2 Primary Goal: To use ROOFS-AFRICA to contribute to the sustainable use and protection of the marine and coastal environment, and improved long term planning and management of the impacts of changing ocean behaviour, including its effects on weather and climate change on the coastal zone and land-locked countries. The project will improve the monitoring of the state of the ocean and marine weather, and forecast their effects on the marine environment and on the weather and climate of the adjacent coastal zone, by applying four main technical tools in an integrated way: (i) an improved African network of in-situ ocean measurements; (ii) improved access to remote sensing data and information from satellites; (iii) computer-based numerical modelling and forecasting, and (iv) the development and dissemination of products tailored to the requirements of a wide variety of user communities. 1.3 Benefits: The project will supply data and information essential for: (i) the sustainable use of living marine resources in the coastal zone and coastal seas; (ii) the management of key habitats and ecosystems in those areas; (iii) coastal and offshore engineering in support of industry and coastal protection; (iv) ocean trade and the management of ports; (v) safeguarding the security and safety of sea-goers; (vi) coastal recreation and tourism; (vii) the tracking and management of coastal pollution including oil spills; (viii) the forecasting of droughts and floods; (ix) enhancing preparedness for and dealing with natural disasters such as tropical cyclones and storm surges; (x) enhancing the preparedness of health carers for climate induced disease outbreaks. Capacity building: The project will contribute to building the human, technological and institutional capacity of national institutions, to enable them to benefit from recent and ongoing advances in ocean monitoring and the numerical modelling required for forecasting. The project aims to establish a monitoring and forecasting system that can be sustained for the long term, and that will contribute not only to African requirements but to enhancing the knowledge of ocean and climate required for understanding and dealing with global change. 4 1.4 Beneficiaries: (i) Government agencies including Ministries responsible for Environmental Affairs, Fisheries, Health, Tourism, Industry and Mining, Maritime Infrastructures and Transport, Research and Development, and Higher Education and Training in Science and Technology; (ii) Managers responsible for environmental protection, wildlife protection, coastal amenities and coastal protection (beaches, reefs etc); (iii) Operating agencies responsible for offshore and coastal services, safety, navigation, ports, pilotage, search and rescue; (iv) Small-scale companies involved in aquaculture, fishing, the hotel and recreation businesses, etc; (v) Large companies and industries involved in offshore oil and gas, offshore surveys, shipping, fishing, dredging, construction, agriculture (food supply), water supply, energy supply, etc; (vi) Single users such as tourists, fishermen, divers, yachtsmen etc; (vii) Public and private scientific institutions; (viii) Local communities and NGOs. 1.5 Participating countries and national Endorsements: The countries associated with the development of the Global Ocean Observing System for Africa (GOOS-AFRICA) include: Angola, Benin, Cameroon, Comoros, Congo, Côte d‟Ivoire, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, United Republic of Tanzania, Togo, and Tunisia. The project is open to all African countries in the framework of the NEPAD Environment Initiative and Development Programmes. 1.6 Executing Agencies: Primarily national oceanographic/fisheries and meteorological agencies working in partnership with the NEPAD Steering Committee and supporting United Nations and donor agencies. 1.7 Partnerships: (i) African Institutions: African Union, NEPAD, ECOWAS, SADC, STRC/OAU (AU), COMESA, UEMOA, ADB, BOAD, ACMAD, AGRHYMET, IGAD AARSE, Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) RASCOM, WIOMSA (See list of Acronyms). (ii) United Nations Agencies: UNESCO, IOC/UNESCO, FAO, The WORLD BANK, UNDP, UNEP, ECA, WMO, IMO, UNIDO, UNDP, and the World Bank. (iii) Bilateral Partners: France, Finland, UK, Spain, USA, Netherlands, Portugal, Canada, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, India, Belgium, Norway, Italy and Germany. (iv) International Development Agencies: USAID, JICA, European Commission, ACP/EU, DANIDA, SIDA/SAREC, World Space Foundation, and Volunteers for International Technical Assistance (VITA). (v) Specialised Agencies: Regional Centres in Remote sensing, satellite applications and Mapping of Resources for Development in Africa, ICSU, EUMETSAT, ESA, NOAA, NASA, UK Met Office, Indian Space Agency, ITC, METEO-FRANCE, MEDIA-FRANCE, CNES, IFREMER, IRD, GTZ, CNRS, Brazilian National Space Agency; European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting; International Maritime Satellite Organization, International Research Institute for Climate Prediction. (vi) National partners: All governmental and non governmental organisations and service providers operating in the coastal zone and in the coastal ocean including: meteorological offices and their weather and forecasting services; oceanographic, marine environmental and fisheries agencies; coastal zone management organisations; offshore and onshore industries; maritime and onshore transportation; energy, water and food supply organisations and NGOs representing coastal communities‟ interests. *Many of the listed partners have already committed to the ROOFS-AFRICA project through their participation in its development, financial contribution for the organisation of the project workshops and equipment donation, e.g. ACMAD, ADB, South African Weather Service, Centre for Scientific and Industrial Research and its Satellite Applications Centre, France, USA, Netherlands, Finland, Spain, UK, AARSE, EUMETSAT, ESA, NOAA, ONR, IOC/UNESCO, UNIDO, and UNDP. 1.8 Duration: First cycle of 5 years beginning in 2004. First Phase: Capacity building: 2004-2005 Second phase: Consolidation: 2006-2008 1.9 Budget (US$): (i) International and bilateral sources: 20,000,000 (ii) Governments: 10,000,000 (iii) Total Project Cost: 30,000,000 6 2. PROJECT BACKGROUND 2.1 Statement of the Problem: Addressing Marine and Coastal issues in Africa Africa is surrounded by ocean. The ocean exerts a considerable effect on the lives of African populations and the economies of African countries. The ocean‟s waves, tides, and currents directly affect ships, offshore platforms, coasts and harbours, the supply of fish for food, and the use of the ocean for trade and recreation. Much less well known by the general public is the ocean‟s very large but indirect effect on weather and climate. Paradoxically, these indirect effects may have the largest impact on lives, property, infrastructure and the economy, through droughts, floods, tropical cyclones and storm surges. Both the direct and indirect impacts of the ocean on humans are becoming more serious because of the steady migration of people to the coast, and the growth of coastal megacities (in 2015, Lagos is expected to be the third largest city in the world with a population approaching 25 million). Marine economic activities worldwide account on average for some 5% of Gross Domestic Product. For many countries in Africa, this percentage is much larger, because of large and growing reliance on: coastal and marine living resources; offshore and coastal oil and gas and minerals; shipping and trade; and coastal tourism. To this should be added the substantial indirect effects of the ocean on the economy, through its control of rainfall combined with the dependence of agriculture and energy on water supply. Forecasting Floods and Droughts to save life of people and to protect infrastructures Rainfall in much of southern Africa is influenced strongly by the El Niño events originating in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. During El Niño years, droughts prevail in much of southern Africa, causing widespread economic hardship. Fluctuations in the Tropical Atlantic Dipole in the equatorial Atlantic bring warm surface waters north as far as Mauritania feeding the rains that water the Sahel every decade or so. Fluctuations in the Indian Ocean Dipole bring warm surface waters to the coasts of Kenya and Somalia feeding the rains that drench east Africa every decade or so. Dry conditions are typical in the intervening period when the surface waters in those areas cool. The southern end of Africa experiences wet conditions when the area is under the influence of the warm waters carried east in the Circum Antarctic Current by the Circum Antarctic Wave every 9 years or so; between these times cool waters bring drier conditions. The northern margins of Africa lie under the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which brings wet conditions during its negative phase, and dry conditions in its positive phase. Capturing information about changing sea surface temperatures around Africa therefore provides an important aid in forecasting future changes associated with these external forces. Oceans support not only marine life but also life on land through rainfall. Rainfall on land supports hydroelectric power and the growth of crops, and when in excess can damage infrastructure such as roads and bridges, making the distribution of food difficult. Excess rain and drought also affect human health, not least through effects on disease vectors such as malaria. The tropical regions of the Indian Ocean generate tropical cyclones that can create havoc when they make landfall on the east African coast. The cyclones derive their energy from the ocean. As they strengthen when passing over patches of warm water, or weaken over cool water, ocean information is essential in forecasting their strength and likely damage. When storms at sea or cyclones make landfall, their potential for damage is greatly heightened by coincidence with high tides, which create massive storm surges to flood low lying coastal areas. Tropical cyclones kill people and cause damage amounting to tens or hundreds of millions of dollars. On average there are about 10 cyclones per year during the cyclone season between November and May. Cyclones and lesser storms are the chief agents of coastal erosion. Impact of Ocean Dynamics on the economies of coastal and land-locked countries Large ocean currents are important to African economies. The Canary Current in the northwest, the Somali Current in the northeast, the Guinea Current in the West and the Benguela Current in the southwest are all associated with upwelling processes that stimulate high marine productivity and support considerable fisheries. The Agulhas Current is a southern equivalent of the Gulf Stream, transporting massive amounts of heat away from the equator, and, indeed, feeding some into the Atlantic whence it can ultimately affect the climate of northwest Europe. The oceans become polluted from time to time by land runoff and by oil discharged accidentally or deliberately at sea or from wrecks. Pollution arising from one source often becomes the concern of many communities as it is spread far and wide by the sea. Sea-life, pollutant dispersion, and storm damage are trans-boundary issues affecting regional groups of countries, and requiring close collaboration and cooperation at regional and international levels and between both oceanographic and meteorological agencies. Under such circumstances it would be impossible for any one organization or country to establish the necessary infrastructures and make available the required human resources to meet the demand for the relevant data and services needed to deal with these issues in an efficient and cost-effective manner. The most appropriate response is regional. This is part of a global trend, which is supported through the establishment of GOOS and GCOS supported by the UNESCO and its IOC, UNEP, GEF, UNDP and the formation by WMO and the IOC of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM). 2.2 African Response to the Problem A number of projects have been funded in African coastal waters. Most recently, the development of the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) projects, funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) of the World Bank, and which focus on the development of skills for coastal and international water resources management in the Gulf of Guinea and in the Benguela Current regions. The focus of these big and useful projects is naturally ocean-directed. On land we have large projects like PUMA, the EUMETSAT and WMO project to equip meteorological offices with the ability to use data from the METEOSAT Second Generation Satellite. The African region has recognised the importance of establishing monitoring programmes to facilitate the generation of data on the Hydrology, Oceanography, Meteorology and Environment (HOME) fields. Joint initiatives have been undertaken since 1992 in the field of meteorology and its applications in development through the setting-up of the African Center for Meteorological Applications for Development (ACMAD). However, there is a lack of a credible Africa-wide data and information management system to provide decision-making support to all the stakeholders in the region. Equally, there is no development of a substantial project to demonstrate the effect of the ocean on the adjacent land and on the national economies. And indeed the presently existing projects do not constitute a sustained and integrated operating system available everywhere. There is thus a gap to be filled. To a large degree, the previously funded coastal margin projects were developed in the era preceding the very substantial advances in numerical modelling and forecasting that have been stimulated by the massive increases in computer power of recent years. Thus it has only now become possible to run ocean models at a high enough degree of resolution to provide really useful information to coastal managers. In addition, previous projects have not sought to capitalise on the integration of the massive amount of presently available ocean and atmospheric data collected by 8 remote sensing from satellites with the information available from in situ ocean instruments, and to assimilate these data into the new generation of forecasting models. Thus there is very considerable potential for launching a new project that uses these new technologies and capabilities in a way never before attempted (or attemptable). A tool for the Revitalisation of the Abidjan and Nairobi Conventions for Cooperation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment, respectively of the West and Central, and East African Regions. The development of ROOFS-AFRICA will provide a sound scientific and technical tool for the strengthening of new and existing major projects like the LME projects, and like the UNEP Regional Seas programme and its Abidjan and Nairobi Conventions. It is within this context that African Ministerial Conferences on Marine and Coastal Environment in Maputo and Cape Town in 1998 created GOOS-AFRICA to develop the application of the Global Ocean Observing System in Africa. ROOFS-AFRICA is the first GOOS-AFRICA project and its implementation plan is designed to provide: (i) Accurate descriptions of the present state of the sea and its contents including living resources and contaminants; (ii) Continuous forecasts of the future conditions of the sea and its contents for as far ahead as possible; (iii) Long-term data sets and information showing trends and changes, including the effect of the ocean on climate and climate change in coastal regions. The results of the Maputo meeting are available in the PACSICOM Proceedings No.165 and the GOOS-AFRICA Report No. 152: GOOS-AFRICA: Global Ocean Observing System for SICOM, available from the UNESCO/IOC on request. GOOS-AFRICA encourages the development of marine services and products for a wide variety of national, regional and global users. The observing systems around Africa comprise: (i) Voluntary observing ships colleting meteorological information; (ii) Ships of opportunity collecting subsurface temperature and salinity data; (iii) Surface drifting buoys collecting ocean surface and meteorological data; (iv) Fixed buoys in the equatorial Atlantic (the PIRATA network) collecting surface and subsurface ocean data and meteorological data; (v) Coastal and island tide gauges operating under the GLOSS programme; (vi) Overflying satellites measuring a wide range of properties; (vii) Profiling (Argo) floats collecting subsurface temperature and salinity data. 2.3 Capacity Building as a critical tool to address environmental crisis and Development issues in Africa ROOFS-AFRICA will of course start by capitalising on existing systems such as those listed above. Analysing what is currently available shows that some considerable work will be required to achieve the goals of ROOFS-AFRICA. A consultative mission carried out in East Africa and the offshore islands by WMO demonstrated that the standard of marine activities varies significantly from country to country and is at times very low. Meteorology tends to have developed to support mainly aviation. Despite past attempts to build capacity through (rather ad hoc) training programmes, the level of expertise is still uneven. Institutional arrangements too are underdeveloped, but the necessary expertise and equipment is also often lacking. Similar surveys of country profiles on marine institutions by IOC/UNESCO indicate that much the same situation occurs throughout Africa, with local exceptions. In some places the human skills are evident at a very high level, but there is clearly the need for human and institutional capacity building to enable ROOFS-AFRICA to deliver. As far as the actual capacity building and observing systems are concerned, the various in situ observing platforms listed above are only weakly developed or completely absent around most of Africa. In addition, systematic and sustained ocean measurements in African coastal seas are rare. And although there is a network of some 35 sea level stations around Africa as part of the international Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) network, many of these stations are either no longer working or are not providing data to the global data centre. In some countries even where there are meteorological stations they may be too far inland to be useful for understanding coastal problems. As far as the satellite data are concerned it appears to be difficult for African scientists to access all the satellite data that they need for understanding and forecasting the coastal ocean, even when it may be available from overseas. In part this is a communication problem, as large amounts of satellite data can only be accessed through communications systems with high band-with. Similarly, the lack of high bandwidth communications systems means that distributing data and information in near real-time, as is required for early warnings, is likely to be difficult. These analyses of the current situation show (a) why ROOFS-AFRICA is needed, and (b) why it is likely to grow at a modest rate in the first instance. Without a ROOFS-AFRICA the ability to make accurate forecasts will continue to be severely degraded from what it could be. Capacity needs to be built to provide the services required. To address this broad spectrum of needs, the GOOS-AFRICA community, meeting in Nairobi on 19-23 November 2001, began developing the ROOFS-AFRICA proposal, which was submitted to and endorsed by the African Process during the WSSD meeting in Johannesburg in summer 2002, and which has since been adopted as a core project of NEPAD. The ROOFS-AFRICA proposal for NEPAD has been refined during the Johannesburg workshop of October 27-30, 2003, and the revised version forms the present document. The initial Capacity Building Vision underpinning the implementation of the Regional Ocean Observing and Forecasting System in Africa (ROOFS-AFRICA) is summarized in Figure 1 below. In this Figure, the Drivers are the following: (i) Near real time satellite data are acquired either by direct reception from satellites or via international Internet connectivity. (ii) Delayed mode data are acquired by DVD-ROM, CD or Tape sent by a data provider to a Regional data Processing Center (RPC). (iii) In situ data are obtained both within the African region and also from international oceanographic data centers and the GTS. Data are assimilated using model systems to derive metocean data products. These are packaged in an appropriate format prior to dissemination via telecommunications systems to the users. 10 (iv) Genuine and holistic approach to Capacity Building as a foundation for Sustainable Development. Figure 1. GOOS-AFRICA Vision and Strategy for Capacity Building in support of NEPAD Environment Initiative and Development Programmes 2.4 Relevance to Socio-economic Goals. The following tables illustrate the linkages between ROOFS-AFRICA and the NEPAD, the WSSD and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). 2.4.1 Table 1. Relevance to NEPAD Goals: No. NEPAD Project Area ROOFS-AFRICA contribution 1 Microbial resources/dry land Through the studies of ocean-land interactions and biodiversity climate change 2 Trans-boundary natural Key contribution to understanding physical controls on resources/ ecosystems mgmt resources and ecosystems 3 Marine and coastal ecosystems ROOFS-AFRICA is the unique Pan-African project integrating all aspects of Marine and Coastal Ocean Observations, Monitoring and Management with a focus on endogenous capacity building. (Key contribution) 4 Wetlands mgmt Improved forecasts of floods, droughts, storms, surges 5 Pollution, global warming and Key contribution climate 6 Forests and plant genetic Through rainfall forecasts resources 7 Desertification and land Improved forecasts, especially of rainfall degradation 8 Invasive species Indirect impact through climate variability and pollution 2.4.2 Table 2. Relevance to the WSSD Goals: No. WSSD-IP Goal ROOFS-AFRICA contribution 30 Sustainable development of the Key contribution oceans 32 Conservation of biodiversity Key contribution (through information to LMEs) 33 Assessment of coastal and marine Key contribution (through information to LMEs) ecosystems 37 Disaster management Development of early warnings 38 Climate change Predictions 44 Sustainable biodiversity Key contribution (through information to LMEs) 52 Decreasing the digital divide Significant through transfer of technology 54 Diminishing health threats Key contribution through improved preparedness of health care system 58 Small island development Key contribution 62 African sustainable development Key contribution 65 Early warnings Key contribution (as 37, above) 105 Technology for early warnings Key contribution (as 65, above) 106 Technology transfer Key contribution 108 R & D partnerships Key contribution through networks 109 Links to policy makers Key contribution through stakeholder network 132 Using remote sensing Key contribution (improvement in access and use) 12 2.4.3 Table 3. Relevance to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) No. MDG Goal ROOFS-AFRICA contribution 1 Poverty alleviation Key contribution: Improved forecasts will increase the efficiency of economic activities, creating wealth and improving food supplies 2 Primary education Initiation to environmental education and knowledge 3 Gender equality Job creation opportunities 4 Child mortality Improved forecasts will improve availability of supplies of food and water 5 Maternal health in child-bearing Improved forecasts will improve preparedness in health care 6 Reducing spread of diseases Improved forecasts will improve preparedness in health care 7 Increasing sustainability Improved forecasts will improve all aspects 8 Working through partnerships Key contribution Will address special needs, and will improve ICT (information/communication technology) 2.4.4 Relevance to Health and Wealth Creation Forecasts are extremely relevant and necessary for the efficient and effective conduct of the many different sectors of the economy, including: energy supply, water supply, tourism and leisure, health, construction, transport and finance. Forecasts are needed, for instance in the: (i) Health sector, for the spread of toxins and pollutants and for disease vectors controlled by floods and droughts; (ii) Transportation sector, for ship routing optimisation and planning, port security, and trucking industry logistics; (iii) Tourism and leisure sector for planning new construction, for seasonal planning, for hazard and risk management; (iv) Energy supply sector (hydro), for anticipating changes in energy loading; (v) Fishing sector, for fish finding and for planning for regime shifts when stocks may disappear for a while; (vi) Agriculture sector, for planting strategies; (vii) Offshore oil and gas sector, for platform scheduling and wave heights; (viii) Construction sector, for sustainable housing and building materials. Forecasting Systems contribute to reduce environmental uncertainty in Energy Operations. Costs of load imbalances can be severe, leading to loss of income through oversupply, or to blackouts because of undersupply. A study for US Government by the US/National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) indicated that the benefits of reducing forecasting error by 50% for 2 to 7 days is US$20-25 million/year for a regional transmission authority and US$1-2 million per year for a major distribution utility. Forecasts with different lead times are also used within various economic sectors including recreation and tourism, agriculture, and fisheries. Environmental information may also be used by different sectors within the value chain of an individual major company such as an Oil Company. The steps in making forecasts into management tools, using the health sector as an example, are: (i) making an improved weather/climate forecast; (ii) making the weather and health connection; (iii) converting the weather forecast into a health forecast; and (iv) converting the health forecast into a management tool for the healthcare providers. Making forecasts valuable for business requires connecting with business stakeholders, assessing business needs, and carrying out industry trials of environmental forecasts. 14 3. PROJECT DESCRIPTION ROOFS-AFRICA is designed to provide in a timely fashion the high quality information about the marine environment and coastal meteorology that is needed by governments, industry and the public for management and decision making in support of sustainable development, wealth creation, and poverty alleviation. ROOFS-AFRICA focuses on: (i) Building an African network of in situ ocean observing systems, including sea-level records, for monitoring coastal zones and global change (ii) Facilitating access to and training in the use of remotely sensed data from satellites; (iii) The integration of these data, through numerical models and GIS, into products such as maps of present conditions and forecasts of future conditions that would be useful to decision makers; (iv) The development of an information delivery system. The project will reinforce existing environmental initiatives and institutions in Africa including (a) the African Centre for Meteorological Applications for Development (ACMAD), which will allow ROOFS-AFRICA to benefit from ACMAD‟s last ten year experience in capacity building in rural communication (RANET-AFRICA)(www.ranet2000.org/); (b) the national meteorological and hydrological services that have the capability to collect and manage Met data and produce the requisite products and services; (c) the Large Marine Ecosystems Projects around Africa and (d) the IOC‟s ODINAFRICA project that has built a network of ocean data centres across Africa, and which will manage some of the required data streams and produce some of the resulting products and services. National oceanographic and meteorological centres will provide the backbone of the project. However, recognising the vital importance of integrating information from a wide region, plus the need to consider trans-boundary issues, combined with the fact that expensive numerical modelling equipment cannot be provided everywhere; Regional Ocean Centres will be key elements of ROOFS-AFRICA. The objective is to reinforce and transform selected existing centres into Regional Reference Ocean Centres to take responsibility for: (i) collecting, managing and exchanging ocean data relevant to the coastal environments of Africa; (ii) providing appropriate training in the use of the new technologies; (iii) providing a common platform of services to the region, those services including the capacity building (training and technology transfer) essential for the proper development, management and protection of the socio-economically important coastal and marine environment of Africa.; and (iv) evaluating the performance of the overall system through dialogue with the users. ROOFS-AFRICA will take advantage of the scientific advances already made in weather and marine forecasts using numerical model development at the global level (at resolutions of down to around 16km) to provide boundary conditions for nested regional models with resolutions of 5- 10km and higher resolution coastal models at resolutions from 5 to 0.5 km, as dictated by user demands. While the more advanced modelling will be done at designated regional centres, much local coastal modelling can be done using desktop PCs. Where available, free-ware software will be accessed to minimise the cost of such activities (e.g. use of the publicly available WAM wave forecasting models). The ROOFS-AFRICA community will work with the modellers in the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE), to capitalise on the latest techniques for integrating satellite and in situ data and assimilating them into state-of-the-art models to produce “user-friendly” outputs. It is this integration and assimilation, and the use of different outputs together through Geographical Information Systems (GIS) that will provide the greatest “added value” to the original measurements for the benefit of decision makers. Professional capacities will be enhanced through appropriate specialised and advanced training courses, seminars and publications. Institutional capacities will be enhanced through improved networking and collaboration at the regional level, and the creation of links between data and information suppliers and users. Technological capacities will be improved through the acquisition of relevant observing, modelling, and data management and communication technologies. It is expected that the level reached by participating countries should enable them to ensure self- sustainability by the end of the project. 4. PROJECT OUTCOMES At the general level, the achievement of the project objectives will lead to the following main deliverables by the end of the project: Established and strengthened capabilities in national and regional oceanographic and meteorological centres and reinforced networking among relevant centres; An expanded cadre of trained professionals in oceanography, meteorology and appropriate technologies in the relevant sciences; Establishment of a comprehensive integrated ocean and coastal modelling and forecasting network; An upgraded in-situ ocean observations and measurements system; Improved access to and use of satellite remote sensing environmental data; Improved near real-time acquisition and exchange of ocean observations and satellite remote sensing data; Appropriate products such as regional coastal sensitivity maps (e.g. pollution, coastal erosion, etc; produced and updated regularly); and extreme event warnings (flooding, drought, storms, surges; extreme high waves), produced and distributed in a timely way through the electronic and mass media including rural communication systems; Increased awareness by the stakeholders, especially politicians and local communities, of the socio-economic importance and sensitivity of the coastal ocean; Improvements in the livelihood of local communities, of safety in coastal and offshore working environments, and of preparedness for natural disasters (including improved preparedness for climate related disease outbreaks). These deliverables contribute to the national goals of: Preserving healthy coastal environments, Promoting sustainable uses of marine resources; Supporting offshore industries; Mitigating the impact of natural hazards; Ensuring safe and efficient maritime operations; Safeguarding economic development; Safeguarding security and life of fishermen at sea; Protecting human health; Detecting and predicting the effect of climate change. 16 5. PROJECT STRATEGIES AND ARRANGEMENTS Project Work packages: Crosscutting Approach for Project Management and Implementation: For reasons of flexibility, the project will be carried out in (6) complementary work packages or modules (described below), the value of which will be greatest where all are integrated. Each work package comprises a rationale, key objectives, key tasks, and a list of output results and deliverables. The integration and coherence of the work packages in support of capacity building is provided in the figure 1 above. A project Director will be responsible for the overall management of the Project and will lead the project Office. Team Leaders responsible for specific work packages will be selected and will assist the Project Director. Table 4: Project Work packages: Work Title Packages WP1 The African network of in situ ocean observing and monitoring systems including sea level records for monitoring coastal zones and impacts of global change in Africa WP2 Remote Sensing and Satellite Applications to Marine and Coastal Environment WP3 Modelling and Forecasting based on In situ and Satellite data WP4 Effective Involvement of Different Stakeholders at different stage of Project Implementation, and Development of End-User Interactive Communication and Information Delivery System WP5 Industry and Business Partnerships towards reinforcing a Regional Ocean Forecasting System for Africa WP6 Project Management, Integration and Coordination 5.1 Work package 1 (WP1): The African network of in situ ocean observing and monitoring systems including sea level records for monitoring coastal zones and impacts of global change in Africa. In-situ ocean measurements are key elements of any coastal ocean observation system for Africa. These measurements must be made for the long term so as to provide the underpinning for accurate understanding and forecasting of water levels and water quality that are essential for a wide variety of users including port managers, shippers, fisheries, tourism, offshore installations, coastal installations and coastal erosion. This basic information is essential for the mitigation of natural disasters and the management of marine coastal resources on land and offshore, including fish stocks. In practical terms we envisage emplacing a series of coastal tide gauges for measuring water level. Each will be equipped with sensors for measuring water properties. Other coastal stations will be designated solely for water properties. A suite of wave buoys will be emplaced to monitor wave conditions (essential for understanding and forecasting coastal erosion). A suite of offshore oceanographic and meteorological buoys will be emplaced to complement the PIRATA buoys in the equatorial Atlantic and the Indian and Japanese buoys in the equatorial Indian Ocean, so as to improve knowledge of the open ocean conditions that ultimately control what happens in the coastal seas. The offshore and wave buoys will need regular servicing and maintenance by surface ships, which may be rented. The network of in-situ ocean measurements and observation around Africa has demonstrated its value in the past with the provision of tidal predictions, particularly in support of safe ship movements in commercial harbours. Now the network is barely operational in Africa in general and in West Africa in particular. The network is in need of an urgent injection of funds to take advantage of new technologies to extend its capabilities into flood warnings and sea-level rise, and to improve communication speeds. Measurements of sea level and other ocean parameters provide a vital component of oceanographic observation programmes needed for immediate operational requirements of ships, navigation, and storm surge forecasting, to long-term monitoring and prediction of global sea level changes due to climate variations. In particular, tidal information is needed for addressing the following: i) Coastal erosion ii) Flooding iii) Salt water intrusion iv) Sea-level topographic map production with satellite calibration v) Assessment of ecosystem health vi) Marine navigation and transportation vii) Oil exploration and exploitation activities viii) Marine pollution and oil spill mitigation ix) Early warning system Sea level measurements in the African region began recently (the longest available record covers about 20 years). Long-term monitoring of sea level is crucial to ensure that Africa is not caught unawares in the case of flooding and other impacts caused by sea level rise. 18 Sea-level data from tide gauges is also needed for calibration of satellite altimeters (see Work Package 2), and to validate output from numerical models (see Work Package 3). Sea-level data and related oceanographic and marine meteorological data are being used as important tools to forecast the occurrence of cyclical events associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole, the Tropical Atlantic Dipole, and the Circum-Antarctic Wave, all of which affect the climate of Africa and therefore its agricultural, water, health and energy needs. In-situ sea level data are at present inadequate for these purposes in the Indian Ocean (Eastern Africa) as well as in the Atlantic Ocean (West Africa). In order to build a positive synergy with existing programmes, the GOOS-AFRICA community is working closely with the ODINAFRICA–III project to ensure that ocean in-situ data are generated for national oceanographic data centers in Africa. However, the limited size of the budget available for the ODINAFRICA-III Project, and its limitation to coastal installations, does not fill all of the existing data gaps that are covered by the ROOFS-AFRICA proposal. Existing marine and coastal projects in the region such as the Large Marine Ecosystems projects in the Guinea and Benguela Current regions and the ODINFRICA-III require long-term observations and measurements. ROOFS-AFRICA will provide a unique platform for systematic long-term observations and measurements for these projects. Table 5: Work plan for the Work package 1- Actions, Tasks, Outcomes and Deliverables. Key Actions Tasks Output Results and Deliverables Objective 1 Upgrading and expanding the 1.1. Interaction and joint activities with D1.1 Status on existing present African network for in- other Work packages (Remote Sensing, sites, sensor situ measurements, observation Modelling and forecasting, specifications, formats, and monitoring of ocean Stakeholders involvement and End- potential suppliers and parameters: (physical, chemical users Delivery Systems) prices, presentation biological and biogeochemical) 1.2. Installation of 12 tidal gauge software available (D4.1). including currents, winds, stations, adding other metocean sensors D1.2 Specifications waves, sea-level, temperature, as far as possible. (sensor, sites, formats) salinity, nutrients, etc. 1.3. Installation of wind and wave developed. measuring systems (e.g. WAMOS) D1.3 WAMOS based on marine radars on adequate implemented. lighthouses along African coast D1.4 suppliers identified. 1.4. Sea surface temperature D1.5 Network developed. measurements from entire African coastline 1.5. Extension of existing or considered mooring network (PIRATA, I-MAP/IOMAP): No: 8 Objective 2 Improve data communication 2.1. Identify requirements for D2.1 Requirements Communication and power supply specified. 2.2. Implement communication systems D2.2 Suppliers of communication equipments identified (D1.4) D2.3 Communication equipments installed (as D1.5). Objective 3 Real time data quality control 3.1 Build local (institutional level) quality D3.1 Procedures for QA control systems including remedial actions (local and regional levels) 3.2 Regional quality control system using developed. models and remote sensing data D3.2 quality control procedures refined. Web-based presentation systems in place. Objective 4 Real time data presentation 4.1 Explore available software Specs (1.1) 4.2 Supply appropriate hardware D4.1 Hardware and 4.3 Develop appropriate software software installed. Objective 5 Capacity building (technical and 5.1 Identify needs for technical support and D5.1 Training scientific) training (local and regional) specification developed. 5.2 Training (exchange/courses) 5.3 Regional workshops (exchange of D5.2 Local maintenance ideas and experience) centres reinforced. 5.4 Presentations at international conferences Objective 6 Data storage and archiving 6.1 Work with existing institutions e.g. D6.1 Servers for (WMO, JCOMM, IMO, UNEP, UNIDO, databases are defined. FAO, national met and marine services) D6.2 Metadata base and projects e.g. Guinea and Benguela developed. Currents Large Marine Ecosystems, BENEFIT, ODINAFRICA and national met or marine projects. 6.2 Develop a metadata base Objective 7 Equipment maintenance 7.1 Identify needs D7.1 Maintenance plan 7.2 Maintenance plan implemented. 7.3 Maintenance coastal sites D7.2 Maint. Rep. buoys 7.4 Maintenance offshore D7.3 Maint. Rep. Coast 20 5.2 Work package 2 (WP2): Remote Sensing and Satellite Applications to Marine and Coastal Environment Satellite data, obtained synoptically every day from a number of different sensors together with in situ data necessary to establish sensor dependent error statistics, constitute a vital component of an integrated Regional Ocean Observing and Forecasting Systems (ROOFS) for Africa. This is the only way in which the vast oceanic coastal zone of the African continent ocean and can be adequately sampled. In addition, these data are required to constrain, force and initialise ocean model systems. Sea surface temperature, ocean colour (and derivative water quality parameters), surface wind speed, rain rates and distributions, solar radiation, sea surface height and state are priority data sets that should be ingested and archived in an operational manner to serve and foster the ROOFS for Africa. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and aircraft remote sensing measurements are also required for events (e.g., HAB, oil spill) requiring a rapid response. But, it is the application of valued-added metocean parameters that provide the drive and focus for the generation and dissemination of innovative products that are tuned to diverse user requirements. Remote sensing alone will not provide adequate answers to marine and coastal problems. Before remote sensing application can be realized to its full potential in Africa, the following objectives must be reached: Effective networking of African remote sensing organizations to capitalize on existing capabilities and infrastructure must be strong. There is already established cooperation with the African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment (AARSE) to reinforce this network A variety of Metocean parameters (e.g. SST, SSH, Wind/Wave) must be first observed and then processed in a near real time to provide products tailored to user requirements. Long-term mutually beneficial partnerships must be established between all marine and coastal zone activities and centers as a matter of urgency to minimize the wasteful threat of activity duplication within the African region. A marine and coastal remote sensing industry, driven by a user community, must be developed strategically within Africa. Sustainability of marine and coastal environment services and data products can only be achieved against this vision. There is already a large number of activities, centers and services already functioning within the African continent at various levels from small-scale private enterprises providing daily image data sets to a small client community, to the operational downlink, processing archive of satellite data at regional centers with considerable international importance. Mutually beneficial partnerships between these activities and centers must be established as a matter of urgency to minimize wasteful duplication of activities within the African region. Partnerships between these activities and centers founded on the strength of synergy must be nurtured, empowered and sustained but without compromising the long-term sustainability of the competitive industrial arena. ROOFS provides a unique framework for Africa to create, educate and serve a wide-base marine and coastal user community, but capacity must be found to implement the system across the following sectors: Capacity building with a particular emphasis on human capabilities Networked hard and soft-infrastructure Development and operation of remote sensing processing systems (Level 0 to Level 2/3. Derivation and validation of appropriate algorithms for the retrieval of geophysical data products. Secure data archive facilities Integration (assimilation) of remote sensing data within ROOFS Formatting of appropriate data products (Metocean products) for use within ROOFS- AFRICA applications Dissemination of data products in a timely manner. . 22 Table 6: Work plan for Work package 2-- Actions, Tasks, Outcomes and Deliverables. Key Actions Tasks Output results and Deliverables Objective 1 1. Set up a Pan-African Coastal and Marine Remote Sensing Steering Committee (PACMaRS) in 1.1 Terms of Reference for collaboration with AARSE PACMaRS issued. and the IOC. PACMaRS will foster the development 1.2 Members of PACMaRS are of an integrated African selected. network of remote sensing users, scientists, 1.3 PACMaRS Secretariat is technologists and established in a regional remote operational specialists. sensing institution (1/4 time junior GOOS-AFRICA staff) Coordinating Committee in cooperation with AARSE should draw up Terms of Reference. 2. PACMaRS to 2.1 Report of existing capacity in commission a review of Africa (inventory) is produced in existing remote sensing cooperation with the AARSE, the organizations (University, ECA, and the NEPAD Secretariat Institutional, Government and regional specialised and private sector) institutions (first quarter of 2004). capabilities in Africa with a 2.2 A comprehensive strategy A network of excellence potential to contribute to produced for a long-term for Remote Sensing in Coastal and marine remote partnership to meet the objectives Africa PACMaRS sensing. of ROOFS-AFRICA. should commission a comprehensive review 3. A series of 3-day of existing Workshops should be held organizations and on a regular basis. The aim The 3 PACMaRS Workshops are capabilities of the first workshop is to organised (1 initial and 2 biannual) bring the marine and Workshop proceedings published. coastal remote sensing Marine and Coastal Remote community in Africa Sensing Group is established within together and identify the the AARSE to sustain an African key players in the remote Marine and Coastal Remote Sensing sensing community and Network. establish a network of Web pages within the AARSE specialists for the exchange Web site for PACMaRS created with of information, knowledge content suitable for delivery by both and strengthen remote Internet and RANET including sensing capacity. dynamic maps of current expertise and activities. Subsequent workshops will Information brochure for the consolidate partnerships AARSE/PACMaRS Group published (user, scientific, and mailed to all potential Pan- technological, public and African remote sensing institutes. private) within the African remote sensing network. 4. Strengthen links with existing Environmental Good methods and best practices Information Systems in for user applications and feedback are Africa. developed. Access to European Space Agency (ESA) ENVISAT ocean data using the announcement of opportunity (AO) mechanism (http://eopi.esa.int). (Proposal/MoU) 5. Establish institutional Access to Japanese Aeronautical links to gain access to Exploration Agency (JAXA) data. passive and active remote (Proposal/MoU) sensing data. Access to National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA) data. (Proposal/MoU) Access to Indian Space Agency (ISA) data. (Proposal/MoU) Access to Radarsat International (RSI). (Proposal/MoU) Internet capabilities at key data centres in Africa are reinforced for near real time operational requirements (target throughout 1000 Kb/s). Working partnership established with the regional specialised institutions e.g. CSIR Satellite Applications Centre (SAC), RECTAS, etc. Reliable delayed mode delivery and exchange of data (e.g., CD, DVD, tape) from data providers (e.g. SAC) established. RANET is reinforced with a 6. Develop the technical potential for exchanging remote capability to access- sensing data products (scaled to 8-bit passive and active remote data depth). Objective 2 sensing data. Reliable data access established with the GODAE High Resolution Collection and SST pilot Project; European Regional processing of data Data Assembly Centre (RDAC, ESA Med project) and Global Data analysis Centre (GDAC, http://www.US-GODAE.org) by creating an African RDAC. NIGERIASAT-1 and ALSAT-1 evaluated for their performance and potential contribution to applications of the coastal zone. A scientific and technical proposal is developed in collaboration with the IOCCG for the selection of appropriate bands for ocean colour channels aboard ZASAT-1&2. An archive of oceanographic and meteorological data streams available on the GTS network via national meteorological agencies. Access to existing in-situ ARGO observations in African waters established with the international ARGO data centres: European CORIOLIS data centre and Canadian 7. Calibration and MEDS data centre. Validation of remote Accuracy for each data stream is sensing data streams. developed through validation activities including field campaigns, use of operational in-situ oceanographic instrumentation (moored and drifting buoys) and inter- comparison of satellite sensors. An archive of in-situ observations matched to satellite data available for African marine waters on a regular basis. 24 SST profile produced from processing chain for AVHRR data. Regionally tuned water quality 8. Processing of satellite indicators produced from processing data to derive geophysical chain for ENVISAT MERIS L1 b products from L1 b data data. sets. Regionally tuned water quality indicators, SST and Aerosol optical depth (AOD) produced from processing chain for MODIS data. Data management team at regional data centres reinforced (Capacity building) Appropriate hardware and software archive systems are in place. Data management and archive 9. Establish and operate system operations are developed archive facilities for the according to internationally agreed secure long term custody of procedures and standards (ISO 11908, Marine XML FDGC etc.) remote sensing data Appropriate user interface to data archive suitable for secure Internet access, RANET and media copy orders created. A helpdesk to cater for user enquiries and data support established. ROOFS-AFRICA module within the Bilko system focusing on African Ocean and marine and coastal issues is developed. An African Workshop on Satellite Oceanography to evaluate and refine Objective 3 lesson materials including Bilko 10. Distance learning of products is organised. Education and training Image processing A ROOFS-AFRICA Bilko module in remote sensing on DVD-ROM and as a hard copy booklet published. ROOFS-AFRICA module widely disseminated. New training courses for in-situ observations at remote sensing centres organised. 2-week workshop on advanced Satellite oceanography and on the application of advanced image processing software e.g., IDL/MATLAB/ ERDAS organised. 11. Local learning of Capacity building reinforced: Remote sensing tools, extensive academic training in the techniques and application of remote sensing data in infrastructure the coastal and marine environment at Under-graduate, Masters and PhD levels, and exchange of students with institutes both within and external to the African continent. Marine and coastal remote sensing document centre established as an archive of all relevant training materials including a language translation service. 12. Training for IT and Training courses reinforced. Hardware support Hardware installation and associated with operating a Maintenance courses developed. satellite ground segment. Exchange program between international, regional and national ground segment facilities developed. Pan African expertise in remote sensing and satellite engineering is developed. 13. Further planning for Phase-0 feasibility studies Training in remote sensing conducted for a number of dedicated and satellite engineering. marine resource micro-satellite(s) as part of the African Resource Management Constellation with a high-resolution multi-spectral ocean colour, Synthetic Aperture Radar and thermal infrared data. 14. Build an integrated Early warning systems and Rapid system combining satellite- response for oil spills with operational receiving stations, regional delivery of maps (e.g., SST) in Objective 4 data processing centres, existing communication channels (e.g. telecommunications internet, Ranet, telephone) are capabilities (e.g., RANET, developed. Provide timely Internet, mobile and 3 Development Projects including information to terrestrial telephone Offshore industrial applications, stakeholders systems) and innovative Fisheries and ecosystems and Coastal user interfaces to provide management are implemented useful and timely demonstrating and assessing the value environmental information of environmental information services to the end users. for end-users. 26 5.3 Work package 3 (WP3): Modelling and Forecasting based on In situ and Satellite Data Numerical modelling and forecasting based on in situ and satellite data constitute the basis for many services that provide forecasts or assessments useful to decision-makers working in the public or private sector in the marine and coastal environment. The development of modelling and forecasting products and services requires advanced technological and human capability; major acquisition of new data assimilation and analysis equipment; and intensive skills training on numerical techniques, software development and forecasting applications. This capability is likely to develop only slowly at a few of the identified Regional Reference Ocean Centres and Regional Meteorological Centres. However, the importance of the modelling capability for benefiting ROOFS-AFRICA as a whole has given it an urgent priority. The regional activities proposed in this work package will initially be based at the following three locations: South Africa (through BCLME, UCT and the South Africa Weather Service), West Africa (through the Guinea Current LME, ACMAD), and East Africa (Kenya Meteorological Department). It is expected that regional modelling capacity will be developed in all participating countries in due course. Its success will be a crucial test for the modular approach of ROOFS-AFRICA. The main goal is to create and sustain modelling and forecasting systems for coastal protection and better management of: coastal erosion; pollution; marine transportation; fisheries; tourism; and pristine ecosystems. Table 7: Work Plan for Work package 3 - Actions, Tasks, Outcomes and Deliverables. Key Actions Tasks Output Results & Deliverables Objective 1 Task 1 Deliverable 1 Creation of basic 1.1 1.1 Modelling and (a) Identify centres & research teams (a) List of programmes and products Forecasting Network capable of participating in atmosphere of relevant institutions established. in Africa and ocean modelling & forecasting (b) List & activities of all the activities. network members established. (b) Consolidate the network of national (c) Regional workshops organised & regional capacities in coastal ocean (d) Virtual discussion Forum modelling & forecasting. established. 1.2 1.2 Strengthen the existing regional and (a) List of global models products of national centres to make the best use of relevance to regional modelling for regional products. Africa established. (b) List of products developed by the centres using the regional models. 1.3 1.3 Specialised training to be carried out to (a) Increased number and regional build the capacity & provide the distribution of professionals/ necessary expertise in the field of researchers trained and specialised in modelling. this field. (b) Training curriculum and material developed. (c) Training systems (workshop, distance learning) developed. 1.4 1.4 Improve global data exchange (a) List of the relevant data & source dissemination & processing (GDPS) established. (b) Data processing systems are built and operational. 1.5 1.5 Provide the National Centres adequate (a) List of National Centres eligible infrastructure & operating conditions. for model operations established. (b) List of operational requirements by identified centres established. (c) Necessary equipment including communication links e.g., VSAT in place. OBJECTIVE 2 Activities 2 Deliverables 2 Evaluation of 2.1 2.1 suitable ocean and Enhance current state and capacity for Workshop organised and proceedings atmospheric models. using coastal ocean and atmospheric published. models. 2.2 2.2 Identification of accessible coastal List of accessible models published. ocean models. 28 2.3 2.3 Assessment of actual coastal ocean Assessment report of COMs models (COMs) performance over published. African sub-region/sub-economic groupings. 2.4 2.4 Assessment of socio-economic impacts Assessment report of impacts value of the coastal ocean models on published. the African sub-regions 2.5 2.5 Identification and assessment of the (a) Assessment report of bio- contribution of the bio-chemical models chemical models published. to the better assessment of the African (b) Website created & discussion coastal and marine environment. Forum established. OBJECTIVE 3 Activities 3 Deliverables 3 Implementation of 3.1 3.1 Regional & Local Building up of capacities to develop & (a) African capacity needs coastal ocean operate regional and limited area established. models numerical models in Africa. (b) Implementation of Pilot project models conducted in one sub- region/economic grouping. (c) Plan to establish the sub-region & national capacities adopted by stakeholders. 3.2 3.2 Development of adequate collaboration (a) Protocol for exchange of data & with sister HOME institutions to ensure product negotiated. the adequate flow/exchange of the (b) Data exchange system relevant global data to run the coastal established. ocean models. 3.3 3.3 Identification of the adequate observing Study conducted & Workshops network for optimum performance of Recommendation proceedings the COMs. published 3.4 3.4 Development of Applications from the (a) Model outputs (applications) for Coastal Ocean Models the different socio-economic (warnings and advisory) sectors and coastal-ocean environment protection produced routinely to address mainly coastal erosion, pollution, ecosystems, tourism, & living marine resources. (b) Communication system with coastal ocean community established. Objective 4 Activities 4 Deliverables 4 Validation of Comparing output of numerical models Validated model outputs and numerical model with in-situ observations forecasts. outputs and forecast. 5.4 Work package 4 (WP4): Effective involvement of different stakeholders at different stages of project implementation and Development of End-User Interactive Communication and Information Delivery System. This work package is a crosscutting package with the others. The main objective is to build up an end-user interactive information delivery system derived from active stakeholder participation in all stages of applications development and dissemination (from data gathering, to the packaging of information in forms that facilitate people making decisions, which improve the life of societies). This requires information dissemination and user feedback through formal and informal channels, in active partnership with institutions, organisations and community groups. As a first step the project aims to capitalise on the existing information and communication systems of the national meteorological and oceanographic agencies. In addition, there is clearly an opportunity to utilise the WMO information system, and the information dissemination and communication network opportunities offered continent wide by EIS-Africa. The ACMAD Communication System is the Quantum Leap in closing the information gap providing missing links in the chain of development: ACMAD has developed a communication system (Radio and Internet – RANET) that involves uploading information to the AFRISTAR satellite from „editors‟ such as ACMAD, downlink via solar powered receivers to local solar powered FM stations for rebroadcasts in local languages, with local interpretation to holders of wind up radios in rural villages. This system has virtually unlimited possibilities for transferring information to ultimate users. By combining the Radio and Internet system with the new generation of GSM cell-phones, high quality information including images may be provided to the right people at the right time. To achieve the project aims, the RANET will be substantially expanded, and local coordinators appointed to oversee the efficient running of the transmitter stations, and to act as editors and local contact points for end-users. Training is an important component of this work package. UNESCO has developed Bilko - a free, easy to use image processing and viewing software, and associated teaching modules for the application of remote sensing data to environmental management. Institutions participating in ROOFS-AFRICA in collaboration with end-user groups will produce new teaching modules. Coordinators at a central and national level will play a key role in the implementation of the communications strategy. This will be achieved through appointing coordinators to act as links between the end-users and the partner institutions in ROOFS-AFRICA. It is also essential that the information server be situated in Africa. Therefore ACMAD will host the mirrored web servers and the central coordination staff of 2 coordinators and 2 web-editors/designers. This work package also includes the socio-economic impact assessments at the beginning and at the end of the period of project implementation period. Integrating user needs and the availability of suitable environmental information is essential for the success of the whole project. The Work package will monitor this process throughout. ROOFS-AFRICA will take advantage of the experience of EIS-Africa to develop a methodological approach for assessing and monitoring the impacts of the ROOFS-AFRICA products at a continental level. Just imagine the difference in casualties in natural disasters in Africa if ROOFS- AFRICA/RANET were wide spread enough to warn local villagers ahead of storm damage arrival using environmental information generated by ROOFS-AFRICA. 30 Table 8: Work plan of Work package 4-- Actions, Tasks, Outcomes and Deliverables. Key Actions Tasks Output results and deliverables Objective 1 1.1 Draw on the experience of 1.1 List of end user groups with ACMAD (RANET), EIS- initial summary of their needs Consolidate what is Africa, the LMEs, ODIN- and suggested strategies for already known about AFRICA and other communicating this information potential end user organisations with experience established. groups and their needs. of identifying end users to draw up a list of formal and informal user groups, on regional, national and local basis. 1.2 Identify the needs of these end users. 1.3 Identify ways in which end users can provide observations and other information of use to ROOFS-AFRICA Africa. Objective 2 2.1 Appoint and train coordinators 2.1 Coordinators appointed and at regional central and national trained. Sensitise stakeholders and levels. and end users to secure 2.2 GOOS-AFRICA RANET their effective 2.2 Develop GOOS-Africa widely spread; radio and TV involvement in AFRICA/RANET in programmes developed. drawing up a collaboration with ACMAD, communication TV and local radio 2.3 Newsletters, posters and strategy for programmes. brochures published, with disseminating popular use by stakeholders information and 2.3 Produce newsletters, posters and brochures and supply 2.4 Website, CD-ROM, electronic developing ROOFS- fora in place. AFRICA products. articles for EIS-Africa and other newsletters. 2.5 Information needed by different 2.4 Create a web site and utilise end user groups identified. existing websites, such as 2.6 Bilko integrated into the AARSE and EIS-Africa. ACMAD / RANET system. 2.5 In partnerships with regional, national and local organisations and institutions develop information centres where users can access GOOS- Africa AFRICA products and provide feedback on products. 2.6 Organise a series of end user meetings on regional, national and local level to disseminate information and obtain feedback on how the products match their needs. 2.7 Disseminate information through formal and informal channels 2.7 Integrate Bilko into the ACMAD / RANET system to communicate remote sensing information useful for the ROOFS-Africa AFRICA programme. Objective 3 3.1 Transfer of the end-products to 3.1 Availability of the products to Servicing the needs of the users in a timely fashion each user community the end users. 3.2 User assessment of the 3.2 Feedback from user products. communities on product satisfaction Objective 4 4.1 Exchange information between 4.1 Availability of data, newsletters different stakeholder groups, and other information to other Create information through conferences and other stakeholder groups. exchange networks for fora, including meetings of the ROOFS-Africa AARSE, EIS-Africa, Africa 4.2 User feedback on ROOFS- AFRICA programme. GIS, and others. Africa AFRICA products available to other partners in the 4.2 Exchange information between programme. stakeholders and institutions involved in GOOS and GCOS programmes. Objective 5 5.1 Comparative socio-economic analysis of the needs and 5.1 Report on the socio-economic Assess the socio- availability of the impact of the ROOFS-Africa economic impact of the environmental information at AFRICA products during the ROOFS- AFRICA the beginning of the project project implementation period. products. implementation. 5.2 Comparative socio-economic analysis of the needs and availability of the environmental information at the end of the project implementation. 5.3 Assess the socio-economic impact of the ROOFS-Africa products 32 5.5 Work package 5: Industry and Business Partnerships towards reinforcing a Regional Ocean Forecasting System for Africa Background: Overall Goals and Drivers The overall goal of this work package is to enhance the transfer of metocean information from the data providers to the users through establishing and fostering working partnerships between governments and industry. These partnerships will roadmap the role of metocean information in the industry and business decision process and will establish the economic value of the information to the operational efficiency, reliability, ethical governance and financial return of the sector. The objective is to raise awareness and build capacity in the major market sectors of the African Industry and Business Community for the assimilation and use of observing system information products. An equally important role will be the transfer of the requirements specification to the Observing system design teams to enable them to configure the systems for economies as well as for resource management, public services, environmental needs and research. The end result will be the improvement of societies by increasing economic competitiveness of the African Industry and Business community through the enhanced uptake of observing systems information products. This work package will serve as well to garnish an industry voice or advocacy for the production and enhancement of metocean products. It will aim at preparing the business community to be able to ingest the new products whenever they become available. Specifically, there are the following major goals: To enhance the transformation of information from observing system technology into business decision tools to guide sustainable business management practices and governance To enhance the economic competitiveness of the African Industry and Business community through the provision and infusion of metocean information products from the global observing systems To demonstrate the value of these products to the triple bottom line of major market segments of the regional economies To create industry decision making tools and management practices based on sound science products and understanding To coordinate an Industry Advocacy Group to create a “voice” to the ministries for the development and use of new observing system products To bring two diverse communities together for mutual awareness raising in order to overcome the “cultural” differences between the science, Industry and business mindsets. To deliver user requirements specifications to the provider community to enable them to make decisions about the optimal configuration of the future observing systems and model output. To promote Africa as a model for industry and business capacity building for the “uptake” of observing system products. The Drivers for Industry and Business Partnerships There are four development and philosophical drivers for this activity: (i) The NEPAD goals as exemplified in their existing projects (ii) The WSSD goals as outlined in Africa (Johannesburg, South Africa) one year ago; (iii) The Millennium Development Goals of the United Nations, particularly for the alleviation of poverty; and (iv) The Global Business Governance goals on sustainability as outlined in the “Triple Bottom Line” principles. Aligning Industry and Business Partnerships with each of these goals can ensure the fulfilment of the sustainability mission. APPROACH The implementation of the project will begin by formalizing the process of connecting the Providers with the Users through a partnership process. This process will help interpret users needs and sensitise market research. The work package will roadmap the metocean information trail from the sensor: Through the models, to the forecasts (as provided by the Global Ocean and Climate Observing Systems programs and the National meteorological services); Through to the user uptake and conversion into industry and business knowledge through use in their models and decision process. 34 Methodology Providers Users NEPAD Push Pull Added Value Data Knowledge Partnership Information -Interpret user Needs -Sensitize Market research National Met GOOS Africa Research Government Services Resource Management Industry/Business Figure 2. Connecting Industry/Business Partners with the NEPAD Development Goals: A bridge between Information Providers and Users The broad user community of GOOS-AFRICA and National Meteorological Services can be segmented into four user groups: (i) Research/academic community; (ii) Governments or Public Sector; (iii) Natural Resource Managers; and (iv) Industry/Business user community. This work package will focus on the Industry and Business segment, which includes: (i) Energy, (ii) Water, (iii) Tourism and leisure, (iv) Health, (v) Construction and transport, (vi) Financial services; and (vii) Defense industry. There are four steps to make a metocean process into an Industry/business decision tool. The first is tailoring a forecast for the operational scale of the industry/business. The second is to make the metocean forecast and business connection such as correlating the relationships between malaria, mosquito populations and rainfall. The third is understanding how a metocean forecast is used as one of many input parameters in the business operational forecast models and what the sensitivity of those models is to forecast accuracy. For example, in the utilities industry, weather and climate forecast information is a critical input parameter in the neural net-based energy demand forecast models, in essence a Business forecast. This can be used to create management tools for the industry, which are used to purchase power, price electricity, schedule dispatch to the grid and schedule power plant maintenance cycles, and so forth. Thus if the metocean forecast is inaccurate, the impact displays itself in poor management of the power supply which may under extreme condition, lead to major electricity failure over a region. 36 Table 9: Work plan for Work package 5- Actions, Tasks, Outcomes and Deliverables Tasks Deliverables Objectives Objective 1: 1.1 Create family of business 1. Charter Establish Industry and plans/value proposition Business plans Organization Business Partners for 1.2 Create Business plan established & Marketing ROOFS-AFRICA Communications Services: products developed. website, newsletter, manuals, guidebooks 1.3 Create Business Advisory Services 1.4 Create Industry Partners Advocacy Group as a Voice. Objective 2. 2.1 Create presentations for 2.1 Market Segment and Identify and engage Business Segments brochures are developed.2.2 user, 2.2 Presentations to business Association/industry stakeholders/Awareness councils, professional business presentations Raising societies, chambers of commerce, Stakeholder roundtables, trade assoc, and Individual discussions. businesses 2.3 Convene CEO Roundtables & Operational managers Discussion groups 2.4 Make Presentations to International Business fora, S & T assoc. 3.1 Situational 3.1–3.4 Portfolio of Stakeholder Objective 3 Assessment, Vulnerability Benchmarking studies for major Assessment/ sensitivity to market segments. Business Decision metocean processes 3.2 Gap Requirements Needs Assessment and Analysis Scenario Creation documentation for presentation Requirements & Options to Provider community. Documentation Analysis Requirements development 3.3 Cost/benefit analysis 3.4 Case study documentation of the Benchmarking Objective 4. 4.1 Make metocean/business 4.1-4.2 Portfolio of Valuation Industry Trials or domain connection documentation across Information 4.2 Tailor the metocean forecast sectors; Documentation of Performance 4.3. Roadmap metocean data “replicatable” Road mapping Assessment through business model & Process decision process 4.3 Routine Business briefings 4.4 Minimize the impact 4.5 Inform the decision makers 5.1.Optimize Business models to 5. 1 New business models and Objective 5 accept metocean data decision tools 5.2 Enhance the decision tools 5.2 New business plans Business Process 5.3 Reconfigure the decision (strategic and Reengineering- BPR process operational) 5.3 New Benchmarking(Providers 5.4 Create plans for capacity metocean products Capability and Users) building and skills transfer Building (Regional assessments) A major task associated with the first Action would be to create the Charter and a family of business plans for engaging the industries and businesses; create Business Communications Services as well as a structure for managing the 5 work package elements of this program. The tasks would then turn to creating an Industry Partners Advocacy Group as a Voice as well as Business Sector “Desks” to liase between the industry and the providers. The deliverable from this will include a charter, set of business plans for the financing, management, organization and marketing of the Business partners program. Action 2 will identify and engage the stakeholder community through Presentations to Industry/Business councils, professional Industry/Business societies, chambers of commerce, trade associations, and Individual businesses. It will also Convene Chief Executive Officers‟ Roundtables and Operational managers Discussion groups, and make presentations to international Organisations including the UNESCO and its IOC, WMO, UNEP, UNIDO, The World Bank, GEF, UNDP and science professional organizations. The deliverables will be: Market Segment BrochuresAssociation/industry presentationsStakeholders‟ roundtables and discussion groups. Action 3 will begin the process of the Industry/Business sector needs assessments on a regional basis. This will consist of: (i) Situational Assessments; (ii) Vulnerability Assessment/sensitivity to metocean processes; (iii) Information Gap Analyses; (iv) Scenario Creation and Options Analysis; (v) Requirements development; (vi) Cost/benefit analysis; and (viii) Case study documentation of the Benchmarking process. Deliverables for this phase will include a portfolio of stakeholder benchmarking studies for major market segments and a set of Requirements documentation for presentation to Provider community to evaluate in their examination of Observing system and model improvement design. Action 4 will begin the most valuable aspects of the Industry/Business Partnership process- that of performing “industry trials” to demonstrate the true economic value of the information from observing systems. A three-way partnership between the provider partner, the host industry and Industry/Business Partnership for Regional Ocean and Forecasting Systems, it will create a connection between the metocean and business domain; tailor the metocean forecast to the user need; roadmap metocean data through business model and decision process; monitor the impact; and inform the decision makers of the value. This will be carried out initially in 3-market segments with the anticipation of expansion to all the markets. 38 The deliverables will be a Portfolio of economic valuation documentation across sectors; documentation of a “replicatable” Road mapping Process that can be transferred to any location; and a series of routine Business Briefings to industry. 5.6 Work Package 6 (WP 6): Project Management, Integration and Co-ordination 5.6.1 Objectives The main objective of this work package is to ensure that the work programme is implemented as anticipated, producing expected deliverables in a timely manner with respect to the agreed time frame and roadmap. Co-ordination of activities and sharing responsibilities within the Project Management Team and the Project Steering Committee, optimisation of human and technological resources, building up of a strong co-operative and co-ordinated network are critical to ensure the success and sustainability of the project. Therefore a coherent and strong management structure is required to coordinate the project activities at the level of the continent. 5.6.2 Project Management Structure To ensure effective and practical implementation of the project, several levels of management must be distinguished: national and regional level. 22.214.171.124 National Project Management Structure: National Project management Team (NPT) At national level, National Project management Teams will be created for the project implementation. Each team will include oceanographers, meteorologists, environmentalists and experts in environmental Conventions and laws and socio-economy. National focal points for Abidjan and Nairobi Conventions for Co-operation and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment, respectively of the West and Central, and Eastern Africa would be de facto Members of the NPT. A highly qualified and experienced expert in marine sciences or meteorology will coordinate the activities of the NPT. National Experts responsible for carrying out scientific activities will assist the national co-ordinator. 126.96.36.199 Pan-African Project Management Structure ROOFS-AFRICA Project Management Office A project Director or Chief Technical Adviser will lead the project Office in close collaboration with the Secretariat of the NEPAD Steering Committee. ROOFS-AFRICA being a core project of NEPAD, he/she should ensure that his activities reinforce as well the NEPAD Secretariat in environmental and development fields. The Project Director will: - Organise general, review and screening meetings - Coordinate the activities of the leaders of the project work packages. - Ensure co-ordination, maintain and strengthen contacts between partners Report and disseminate information on the project activities. Task 1: Management and on-line control: Integration and harmonisation of the network activity (i) The ROOFS-AFRICA Project Management Office will ensure the strengthening and linkages between partners and with the users community. The project Director will monitor the project target; synergy and co-ordination with the other regional or international projects and link with the Project Steering Committee. He/she will prepare and submit the annual report to the Project Management Committee and the Steering Committee. (ii) Management of the Work packages: Team Leaders, experts in the fields of specific Work packages will be selected and will work under the supervision of the Project Director. They will: Organise meetings related to their work package in close cooperation with the Project Director. Manage the progress of their WP and report to the Project Director. Assist the Project Director in preparing the progress and annual reports, the financial statements for the funding agencies, partners and for the Steering Committee of the project. Task 2: Building trust The Project Office will ensure information flow within the consortium and outside with identified stakeholders. The Secretariat should promote visiting scientist programmes on equal opportunity basis and offer on job training opportunities to specialists. Task 3: Quality control and Quality Assurance: ROOFS-AFRICA Advisory board Five independent experts will be selected on the basis of their merit and long-standing experience in the field of operational oceanography, meteorology, environmental sciences, and economics, social and societal issues. The Advisory board will assess the performance of the project. Task 4: Support to the NEPAD Secretariat: The ROOFS-AFRICA project Office should provide sound scientific and technical advices to the NEPAD Steering Secretariat in relevant fields. Regional Steering Committee. Membership will be drawn from: - Coordinator of the National Project Management Team - Chairperson and Co-ordinator of the GOOS-AFRICA Co-ordinating Committee - Representatives of selected international partners and donors - Representative of NEPAD Steering Secretariat - Representatives of selected regional organisations and Development Banks. - Co-ordinators of Sub regional project such as the LMEs, GEF/MSP, etc… 40 - Representatives of relevant regional NGOs and professional associations - Representative of the African Private Sector Group. 6. Linkages to other national or regional activities/transboundary aspects (i) National Programmes: Many national programs related to HOME can benefit from ROOFS-AFRICA, which can in turn benefit from them. (ii) Regional Programmes and Conventions ROOFS-AFRICA will work interactively with relevant regional programmes such as the Regional Large Marine Ecosystems (LME) Programmes including the Guinea Current and Benguela Current LMEs. The LME projects provide scientific and technical assistance to African countries in the area of trans-boundary environmental and resource-use issues related to the degradation of coastal environments and losses in biodiversity and food security from overexploitation of fish populations. ROOFS-AFRICA will provide a tool for aspects of each GEF/LME project, providing appropriate value added products and relevant data, in return using data from the LME projects to enhance ROOFS-AFRICA products and services. ROOFS-AFRICA will provide observing and data systems required for the management initiative of the GEF/MSP, which is one of the activities within the framework of the African Process on Co- operation for the Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment, to assist selected countries in conducting root causes analysis of environmental degradation and identification of hot spots to aid formulation of management measures. ROOFS-AFRICA incorporates elements of the Abidjan and Nairobi Conventions work programmes, and will be a tool for achieving the goals of the Conventions, thus helping to ensure the revitalisation of these conventions, through cooperation with UNEP. ROOFS-AFRICA will work in close cooperation with the ODINAFRICA programme, which manages the national ocean data centres through the IOC‟s International Ocean Data and Information Exchange programme (IODE). Phase III of ODINAFRUCA is already soliciting funds from the Government of Flanders to fund some of the tide gauges listed as needed in the ROOFS- AFRICA proposal. ROOFS-AFRICA will work closely with the Western Indian Ocean Marine Applications Project (WIOMAP), which aims to improve marine forecasting in the western Indian Ocean region, provided that funds can be obtained from donor organisations. Some of the goals of ROOFS- AFRICA for the eastern African region will be addressed if WIOMAP is funded. (iii) International Programmes and Conventions ROOFS-AFRICA will work with the UNESCO Crosscutting project: “Application of Remote Sensing to the Integrated Management of Ecosystems and Water Resources in Africa” which will assist in gaining access to and training in the use of remotely sensed data in 11 African countries. ROOFS-AFRICA will work with the UNESCO BILKO Project for training in the use and interpretation of remotely sensed data, and with other providers of such training, to develop education and training packages suitable for capacity building in ROOFS-AFRICA. ROOFS-AFRICA will work with CLIVAR-AFRICA, an international programme sponsored by the IOC, WMO and the ICSU under the World Climate Research Programme with a particular focus on African climate variability. ROOFS-AFRICA will work with the EUMETSAT/WMO PUMA Initiative: Preparation for the Use of Meteosat Second Generation in Africa to make the best use of the capability of MSG to be launched in 2002. ROOFS-AFRICA will work with PIRATA (The Pilot Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic), an international network of in situ met-oceanic buoys observing various parameters of the energy transfer between the atmosphere and the mixed layer (to 500m of depth). Such time series observatories will make a key contribution to achieving the goals of ROOS-AFRICA. ROOFS-AFRICA will work with UNEP GIWA –Global International Water Assessment, which has a special focus on water resources management in Africa. ROOFS-AFRICA will work with AMMA -African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses - a scientific programme to further improve African capacity to understand and forecast of the African monsoon. AMMA and ROOFS-AFRICA would both benefit from a better understanding of Ocean- Atmosphere-Land interaction. ROOFS-AFRICA will work closely with ACMAD, which is developing synergy with oceanography and working on the network for „HOME‟, which will be a virtual forum for further interaction between Hydrologists, Oceanographers, Meteorologists and Environmentalists. GOOS and ROOFS-AFRICA will benefit from ACMAD‟s main on-going activities in technology (AMEDIS), numerical weather forecast, climate database and prediction, rural communication (RANET) and Meteorological Research/Application (FIRMA). ROOFS-AFRICA will work with appropriate space agencies and the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites (CEOS) to facilitate access to and training in the use of remotely sensed data. ROOFS-AFRICA will cooperate with JCOMM, GOOS, and GOOS Regional Alliances (IOGOOS, MedGOOS) in developing plans for ocean observations. ROOFS-AFRICA will establish and maintain linkages with other relevant ongoing sub-regional and regional programmes, where cooperation will provide a mutual benefit. ROOFS-AFRICA will provide sound scientific and technical tools for Africa to implement global Conventions and Agreements including the Convention on Biodiversity, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). 7. RISKS AND SUSTAINABILITY Quality of electronic communication among the participating centres. Communication links and band-with problems exist. However, the various countries have adopted national plans to 42 upgrade their telecom infrastructures. In addition ACMAD/RANET program would facilitate the exchange of information in the short term. Difficulties could arise through attempts to convert this integrated proposal into narrower traditional sectoral projects by dividing them up into separate mini-projects. This risk will be minimised through a strong effective co-ordination unit. The significance and effectiveness of this package of project proposal components are based on an integrated and holistic approach. Africa starts from a severe lack of capacity in infrastructure and a shortage of personnel with current training in the technical areas needed to fully implement this proposal. The project is designed to help Africans build the capacity needed for integrated management of their coastal and marine environment in the perspective of sustainable development. Achievement of the project goals within the set time frame will depend on resources being made available at an appropriate level. Achievement on project goals will also depend on the willingness of different agencies in each country to work together (e.g. meteorological and oceanographic and fisheries agencies), and indeed on their willingness to engage in the project; Achievement of project goals will also depend on the ability to engage industry in the project. The project aims to build regional structures that will involve all the countries in the region and provide benefits to both the public and private sectors. It includes a link with the regional economic communities, emphasising the socio-economic benefits expected to accrue to the region from the successful operation of ROOFS-AFRICA. Annex 1. Budget tables Table 10: Budget plan for Work package 1 Year Activity Budget Total $US1000=K Year 1 Status on measurements, formats, etc 10K Kick-off 100K Establish sites 10K Specifications formulation 10K Procurement of 10 computers and software 50K Procurement and Installation of 6 tide gauges 150K Procurement and installation of met/ocean sensors 250K Procurement and installation of 4 buoys 500K Procurement and installation of 5 WAMOS 400K Training 100K 1580K Year 2 Maintenance buoys 500K Maintenance coastal stations 120K Training (Capacity Building) 50K 770K Project Meeting 100K Year 3 Maintenance buoys 500K Maintenance coastal stations 120K Regional workshop (See Budget-Work package 2) 100K Procurement of 10 computers and software 50K Procurement and Installation of 6 tide gauges 150K Procurement and installation of met/ocean sensors 250K Procurement and installation of 4 buoys 500K 44 Procurement and installation of 5 WAMOS 400K Training 100K 2170K Year 4 Training 20 K Maintenance Buoys 500K Maintenance Coastal Stations 250K 770K Year 5 Final Meeting 100K Maintenance buoys 500K Maintenance Coastal Stations 180K 780 6070K Total Table 11: Budget Plan for Work package 2 Cost Output results and Deliverables US$1000=1K Issue Terms of Reference for PACMaRS. 1.1 and 1.2: 0.75K Selection of PACMaRS members. 1.3: 6.25K x 5 (31.25K) Establish a PACMaRS Secretariat to be located in an African regional remote sensing institution (1/4 time junior staff) TOTAL: 32K Review report of existing capacity in Africa (inventory) in cooperation with the AARSE, the ECA, the NEPAD Secretariat and regional specialised 5K institutions. The report should be completed during the first quarter of 2004. A comprehensive strategy for a long-term partnership to meet the TOTAL: 5K objectives of ROOFS-AFRICA. Host PACMaRS workshops (3: 1 initial 2 biannual) Workshop proceedings for each workshop. 3.1: 105K x 2 (210K) Develop a coastal and marine subgroup within the AARSE to sustain an 3.2: 5K x 3 (15K) African Marine and Coastal Remote Sensing Network. 3.3: 3K (Admin) Create pages within the AARSE for PACMaRS with content suitable for 3.4: 5K delivery by both Internet and RANET including dynamic maps of current 3.5: 5K expertise and activities. Produce a brochure for the AARSE/PACMaRS group explaining its role and purpose. The brochure should be mailed to all potential Pan-African TOTAL: 238K remote sensing institutes. 4.1 See 1.3 and 3.4 Provide a good method for user applications and feedback. Establish a dedicated ROOFS-AFRICA Web site. Access to European Space Agency (ESA) ENVISAT ocean data using the announcement of opportunity (AO) mechanism (http://eopi.esa.int). 5.1: 2K (Proposal/MoU) 5.2: 2K Access to Japanese Aeronautical Exploration Agency (JAXA) data. 5.3: 2K (Proposal/MoU) 5.4: 2K Access to National Aeronautical and Space Agency (NASA) data. 5.5: 2K (Proposal/MoU) Access to Indian Space Agency (ISA) data. (Proposal/MoU) TOTAL: 10K Access to Radarsat International (RSI). (Proposal/MoU) 46 Specification of technical requirements to strengthen the Internet capability at key data centres in Africa to external and internal data providers to a level for near real time operational requirements (target throughout 1000 Kb/s). Establish working partnership with the CSIR Satellite Applications Centre (SAC): MOU 6.1: 15K Establish reliable delayed mode delivery and exchange of data (e.g., 6.2: 3K (travel) CD, DVD, tape) from data providers (e.g. SAC). 6.3: 2K Establish RANET capability to deliver and exchange remote sensing 6.4: 35K data products (scaled to 8-bit data depth). (Cost for generation and 6.5: 10K/yr x 5 (50K) dissemination of appropriate products suitable for RANET) 6.6: 5K Establish reliable data access to the GODAE High Resolution SST pilot 6.7: 10K Project; European Regional Data Assembly Centre (RDAC, ESA Med project) and Global Data analysis Centre (GDAC, http://www.US- TOTAL: 120K GODAE.org) by creating an African RDAC. NIGERIASAT-1 and ALSAT-1 should be evaluated for their performance and potential contribution to applications of the coastal zone. A scientific and technical proposal justifying the selection of appropriate bands for ocean colour channels aboard ZASAT-1&2. This should be written in collaboration with the IOCCG. An archive of oceanographic and meteorological data streams available 7.1: 100K on the GTS network should be established via national meteorological agencies. (Cost for database development, maintenance and operations) 7.2: See Work package 1 Access to existing in-situ ARGO observations in African waters should be established with the international ARGO data centres: European 7.3: 100K x 5 (500K) CORIOLIS data centre and Canadian MEDS data centre. (Costs for data (Jointly with work transmission) package 1) Establishment of accuracy for each data stream through validation activities including field campaigns, use of operational in-situ 7.4: 70K oceanographic instrumentation (moored and drifting buoys) and inter- comparison of satellite sensors. (Costs: 1 cruise per year $100K per year) An archive of in-situ observations matched to satellite data should be TOTAL: 670K established for African marine waters on a regular basis. 8.1: 100K Processing chain for AVHRR data to produce SST. 8.2: 100K Processing chain for ENVISAT MERIS L1 b data to produce regionally 8.3: 100K tuned water quality indicators. Processing chain for MODIS data to produce regionally tuned water TOTAL: 300K (including quality indicators, SST and Aerosol optical depth (AOD). personnel) 9.1: 0.5K Appoint data management team at regional data centres (link to 9.2: 175K Objective 3 Capacity building) Procure and install an appropriate hardware and software archive 9.3: 50K/yr (person) x2 systems. (100K) Operate data management and archive system according to internationally agreed procedures and standards (ISO 11908, Marine XML 9.4: 50K FDGC etc.) Create appropriate user interface to data archive suitable for secure 9.5: 50K/yr (person) x2 internet access, RANET and media copy orders (100K) Establish a helpdesk to cater for user enquiries and data support. TOTAL: 425.5K 10.1: 50K 10.2: 50K Develop a ROOFS-AFRICA module within the Bilko system focusing 10.3: 30K (IBST and on African Ocean and marine and coastal issues. African experts peer 1 African Workshop on Satellite Oceanography to evaluate and refine review and editing costs) lesson materials including Bilko products. Publish a ROOFS-AFRICA Bilko module on DVD-ROM and as a hard 10.4: 30K copy booklet. 10.5: 100K Disseminate ROOFS-AFRICA module. (Jointly with work Commence a new training course for in-situ observations at remote package 1) sensing centres. TOTAL: 260K 2-week workshop based on advanced Satellite oceanography and on the 11.1: 100K application of advanced image processing software e.g., 11.2: 30K x 6 (180K) IDL/MATLAB/ERDAS 11.6: 100K Academic training in the application of remote sensing data in the coastal and marine environment: Under-graduate, Masters and PhD), and exchange of students with institutes both within and external to the African continent: GOOS-AFRICA Fellowships: 1 year @30K Establish a marine and coastal remote sensing document centre as an archive of all relevant training materials. This should include a language TOTAL: 380 translation service. 12.1: 105K x 5 (525K) 5 x 1 week training courses 12.2: 105K x 5 (525K) 5 x 1 hardware installation and maintenance courses 12.3: 15K x 5 (75K) Establish an exchange program between international, regional and national ground segment facilities. (5 exchanges for 6 months each) TOTAL: 1125K 48 Establish a pan African project for the development of a University managed African micro-satellite to develop expertise and capacity in satellite technology development. Phase-0 feasibility studies should be conducted for a number of dedicated marine resource micro-satellite(s) as part of the African Resource TOTAL: 100K Management Constellation to deliver high-resolution multi-spectral ocean colour, Synthetic Aperture Radar and thermal infrared data. Technical implementation plan for the integration of environmental information services (e.g. early warning systems, rapid response for oil 14.1: 5K spills, operational delivery of maps (e.g., SST) in existing communication 14.2: 500K x 3 (1500K) channels (e.g. Internet, Ranet, telephone). Application: Implementation of projects demonstrating and assessing TOTAL: 1505 the value of environmental information services for end-users. 3 Projects Gross Total: 5170.5 K including Offshore industrial applications, Fisheries and ecosystems and Coastal management. Table 12: Budget plan for Work package 3. Years Objective 1 Objective 2 Objective 3 Objective 4 TOTAL Year 1 75K (Communication 185K Infrastructure e.g., VSAT at the 3 sites) 60K (Communication- Recurrent at 20K per site) 50K (Joint Workshop) Year 2 60K 80K (40K salary 290K (Communication- for two Ocean Recurrent at 20K per Modeller post site) docs at ACMAD & KMD) 150K (National Workshop) Year 3 60K 240K (80K one- 2685K (Communication- time equipment Recurrent at 20K per cost at each site) site) 90K (30K running cost per site) 80K (40K salary for two Ocean Modeller post docs at ACMAD & KMD) 60K (Training of local forecasters at the 3 sites) 75K (25K for 3 IT Engineers at ACMAD, KMD, & UCT) 1300K (One time cost for providing improved communication facilities at National Centers e.g., VSAT: 25K x 52 countries) 520K (Communication- Recurrent at 10K per country) 260K (Training of National Modelling personnel at 5K per trainee) Year 4 60K Communication- 90K (30K 300K (100K 1445K Recurrent) Running cost per per site for site) model output 80K (40K salary validation for two Ocean activities) Modeller post docs at ACMAD & KMD) 60K (Training of local forecasters at the 3 sites) 75K (25K for 3 IT Engineers at ACMAD, KMD, & UCT) 520K 50 (Communication- Recurrent at 10K per country) 260K (Training of National Modelling personnel at 5K per trainee) Year 5 60K 90K (30K 300K (100K 1445K (Communication- Running cost per per site for Recurrent) Center) model output 80K (40K salary validation for two Ocean activities) Modeller post docs at ACMAD & KMD) 60K (Training of local forecasters at the 3 sites) 75K (25K for 3 IT Engineers at ACMAD, KMD, & UCT) 520K (Communication- Recurrent at 10K per country) 260K (Training of National Modelling personnel at 5K per trainee) TOTAL 425K 230K 4795K 600K 6050K Table 13: Budget plan for Work package 4 RANET Repairs/ Training Consumables Salary for 4 transmitter Maintenance Coordinators stations (100) including the Computers 2 Web Printers editors software 2 Servers Costs 2000K 800K 500K 1000K 700K Total: 5000K 52 Table 14: Budget plan for work package 5 Period of Contribution implementation $US1000=1K Year 1 1000 K Year 2 1000 K Year 3 1000K Year 4 1000 K Year 5 1000 K Total 5000K Table 15: Budget for work package 6: Integration and Coordination Responsibilities/activities Cost: $US1000= K 1 Project Director: Chief 4,908K x12x5yr =294, 480K Technical Advisor: P5 1 Junior Professional: P2 2,841K x12x5 = 170,460K Team Leader WP1: P4: 4,157K x 12x5 = 249,420K Team Leader WP2: P4: 4,157K x12 x 5 = 249,420K Team Leader WP3: P4: 4,157K x12x 5 = 249,420K Team Leader WP4: P4 4,157K x12 x5 = 249,420K/2= 124,710 K ½ time Team Leader WP5: P4 4,157K x12x5= 249,420K/2= 124,710 K ½ time 1Administrative Assistant 1K x12x5 = 60K Meeting/Project 2K x 8 x5= 80K Management Committee 5 days/8 persons Project Management cost: 5K x 5 = 25 K Director Project Management cost: 3K x5x5 = 75K 5 Team Leaders Project Management cost: 100K IOC: Project Management cost 100K NEPAD Steering Secretariat: Official travel 3k x 6 x 5 = 90K Office furniture: 5K Equipments: 6 lap tops: 2K x 6= 12K 1 x5 Leaders Project Secretariat: 1 lap top 3 desktop computers 1,5K x3= 4.5K 2 Printers 0,5K x2=1K 1 scanner 0,5K Total 2015.62K 54 Table 16. Major Workshop Coordination Conferences Nature of Conference Cost: $US 1000= 1K Kick-off Conference 150K Mid project progress Conference 150K Final Conference 150K Total 450K Table 17: Budget Summary for the whole project: WP.1. Ocean In situ measurements and observations 6070.11K WP.2 Remote Sensing 5170.5K WP.3 Modeling and Forecasting 6050K WP.4 Stakeholders involvement 5000K WP.5 Industry and business partnership 5000K WP6. Integration and coordination 2090.62K Major Project Conferences 450K Total 29,831.23K= 30,000K Annex 2. List of Acronyms 1-African Institutions AU: African Union NEPAD: The New Partnership For Africa‟s Development ECOWAS: Economic Commission of the West African States SADC: South African Development Community STRC/AU: Scientific and Technical Research Committee of the African Union COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa UEMOA: Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine ADB: African Development Bank BOAD: Banque Ouest Africaine de Développement ACMAD: African Centre for Meteorological Applications for Development AARSE: African Association of Remote Sensing of the Environment 2- United Nations Agencies UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization IOC/UNESCO: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations WB: The WORLD BANK UNDP: United Nations Development Programme UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme ECA: Economic Commission of Africa WMO: World Meteorological Organization 3- Bilateral Partners 4-Multilateral partners USAID: United Sates Agency for International Development JICA: Japan International Co-operation Agency EU: The European Union DANIDA: Danish Agency for International Development SIDA: Swedish International Development agency SAREC: Swedish Agency for Research Co-operation with Developing Countries 4-International Specialised Agencies: EUMETSAT: European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites ESA: The European Space Agency NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (USA) NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (USA) ITC : International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation CNES : Centre National des Etudes Spatiales IFREMER : Institut Français pour l‟Exploration de la Mer IRD: Institut Français pour la Recherche en Développement GTZ: Agency for Technical Co-operation, (Deutsche Gesellschaft Für Technical Zusammenarbeit- Germany) CNRS : Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique- France 56 ICSU: International Council for Scientific Union.