The Seven Types of Intelligence - DOC by sofiaie


									What are my Learning Strengths?
Research shows that all human beings have at least eight different types of intelligence.
Depending on your background and age, some intelligences are more developed than
others. This activity will help you find out what your strengths are. Knowing this, you
can work to strengthen the other intelligences that you do not use as often.

        Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence          Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
    ___I enjoy telling stories and jokes      ___I really enjoy my math class

    ___I have a good memory for trivia        ___I like logical math puzzles or brain
    ___I enjoy word games (e.g. Scrabble &
       puzzles)                            ___I find solving math problems to be
    ___I read books just for fun
                                           ___If I have to memorize something I
    ___I am a good speller (most of the       tend to place events in a logical
       time)                                  order

    ___In an argument I tend to use put-      ___I like to find out how things work
       downs or sarcasm
                                            ___I enjoy computer and any math
    ___I like talking and writing about my     games
                                            ___I love playing chess, checkers or
    ___If I have to memorize something I       Monopoly
       create a rhyme or saying to help me
       remember                             ___In an argument, I try to find a fair
                                               and logical solution
    ___If something breaks and won't work,
       I read the instruction book first    ___If something breaks and won't work,
                                               I look at the pieces and try to figure
    ___For a group presentation I prefer to    out how it works
       do the writing and library research
                                            ___For a group presentation I prefer to
                                               create the charts and graphs

          Visual/Spatial Intelligence          Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence
    ___I prefer a map to written directions ___My favourite class is gym since I
                                               like sports
    ___I daydream a lot
                                            ___I enjoy activities such as
    ___I enjoy hobbies such as photography     woodworking, sewing and building
___I like to draw and create
                                         ___When looking at things, I like
___If I have to memorize something I        touching them
   draw a diagram to help me
   remember                              ___I have trouble sitting still for any
                                            length of time
___I like to doodle on paper whenever I
   can                                  ___I use a lot of body movements when
___In a magazine, I prefer looking at
   the pictures rather than reading the ___If I have to memorize something I
   text                                    write it out a number of times until I
                                           know it
___In an argument I try to keep my
   distance, keep silent or visualize   ___I tend to tap my fingers or play with
   some solution                           my pencil during class

___If something breaks and won't work ___In a argument I tend to strike out
   I tend to study the diagram of how it    and hit or run away
                                         ___If something breaks and won't work
___For a group presentation I prefer to     I tend to play with the pieces to try
   draw all the pictures                    to fit them together

                                         ___For a group presentation I prefer to
                                            move the props around, hold things
                                            up or build a model

   Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence               Interpersonal Intelligence
___I enjoy listening to CD's and the     ___I get along well with others
                                         ___I like to belong to clubs and
___I tend to hum to myself when             organizations
                                         ___I have several very close friends
___I like to sing
                                         ___I like helping teach other students
___I play a musical instrument quite
   well                                  ___I like working with others in groups

___I like to have music playing when     ___Friends ask my advice because I
   doing homework or studying               seem to be a natural leader

___If I have to memorize something I ___If I have to memorize something I
   try to create a rhyme about the event ask someone to quiz me to see if I
                                         know it
___I an argument I tend to shout or       ___In an argument I tend ask a friend or
   punch or move in some sort of             some person in authority for help
                                          ___If something breaks and won't work
___I can remember the melodies of            I try to find someone who can help
   many songs                                me

___If something breaks and won't work ___For a group presentation I like to
   I tend to tap my fingers to a beat    help organize the group's efforts
   while I figure it out

___For a group presentation I prefer to
   put new words to a popular tune or
   use music

       Intrapersonal Intelligence              Naturalist Intelligence
___I like to work alone without anyone ___I am keenly aware of my
   bothering me                           surroundings and of what goes on
                                          around me
___I like to keep a diary
                                       ___I love to go walking in the woods
___I like myself (most of the time)       and looking at the trees and flowers

___I don't like crowds                    ___I enjoy gardening

___I know what I am good at and what I ___I like to collect things (e.g., rocks,
   am weak at                             sports cards, stamps, etc)

___I find that I am strong-willed,        ___As an adult, I think I would like to
   independent and don't follow the          get away from the city and enjoy
   crowd                                     nature

___If I have to memorize something I      ___If I have to memorize something, I
   tend to close my eyes and feel the        tend to organize it into categories
                                          ___I enjoy learning the names of living
___In an argument I will usually walk        things in our environment, such as
   away until I calm down                    flowers and trees

___If something breaks and won't work, ___In an argument I tend to compare
   I wonder if it's worth fixing up       my opponent to someone or
                                          something I have read or heard
                                          about and react accordingly
    ___For a group presentation I like to  ___If something breaks down, I look
       contribute something that is           around me to try and see what I can
       uniquely mine, often based on how I    find to fix the problem

                                                  ___For a group presentation I prefer to
                                                     organize and classify the
                                                     information into categories so it
                                                     makes sense

                              TOTAL SCORE
    _______Verbal/Linguistic        _______Musical/Rhythmic
    _______Logical/Mathematical     _______Interpersonal
    _______Visual/Spatial           _______Intrapersonal
    _______Bodily/Kinesthetic       _______Naturalist

                      The Seven Types of Intelligence

 Psychologist Howard Gardner identified the following distinct types of intelligence. They are
listed here with respect to gifted / talented children.

1. Linguistic
         Children with this kind of intelligence enjoy writing, reading, telling stories or doing
         crossword puzzles.
2. Logical-Mathematical
         Children with lots of logical intelligence are interested in patterns, categories and
         relationships. They are drawn to arithmetic problems, strategy games and experiments.
3. Bodily-Kinesthetic
         These kids process knowledge through bodily sensations. They are often athletic,
         dancers or good at crafts such as sewing or woodworking.
4. Spatial
         These children think in images and pictures. They may be fascinated with mazes or
         jigsaw puzzles, or spend free time drawing, building with Leggos or daydreaming.
5. Musical
         Musical children are always singing or drumming to themselves. They are usually quite
         aware of sounds others may miss. These kids are often discriminating listeners.
6. Interpersonal
         Children who are leaders among their peers, who are good at communicating and who
         seem to understand others' feelings and motives possess interpersonal intelligence.
7. Intrapersonal
         These children may be shy. They are very aware of their own feelings and are self-

8. Naturalist recognition and classification of objects in the environment
Naturalist intelligence allows people to distinguish among, classify, and use features of the
environment. Farmers, gardeners, botanists, geologists, florists, and archaeologists all
exhibit this intelligence, as do students who can name and describe the features of every
make of car around them.

Linguistic – well developed in people who are good with words, who like to write and
read a lot.

Obvious examples are authors, journalists, poets, orators and comedians.

Mathematical/Logical — well developed in people who are good with numbers and
appreciate step-by-step, logical explanations.

Obvious examples are engineers, economists, scientists, lawyers and accountants.

Visual/Spatial — well developed in people who are good at art, visualising, navigating.

Obvious examples are architects, photographers, painters, strategic planners, and

 Musical — well developed in people who are good at music and rhyme, and who have
natural rhythm.

Obvious examples are composers, musicians and recording engineers.

Bodily/Physical — well developed in people who are good at sport, dance, and

Obvious examples are athletes, sportspersons, carpenters, surgeons, builders.

Interpersonal — well developed in people who are good at persuading and selling or at
teaching others and who can read other people's moods well.

Obvious examples are teachers, trainers, politicians, religious leaders and sales people.

Intra-Personal or Reflective — well developed in people who are good at self-analysis
and reflection, drawing conclusions from their own experience (and mistakes!), setting
goals and making plans.

Obvious examples are philosophers, psychologists, therapists.

Naturalistic – well developed in people who like and respect nature and are interested in
subjects like astronomy, evolution and the environment.

Obvious examples are farmers, vets, biologists, gardeners and environmentalists.

Results for: Anita Sybesma

       ACT                                        X                           REF
              11   9    7     5    3    1   1     3     5    7    9    11
                                       <-- -->

       SEN         X                                                          INT
              11   9    7     5    3    1   1     3     5    7    9    11
                                       <-- -->

       VIS              X                                                     VRB
              11   9    7     5    3    1   1     3     5    7    9    11
                                       <-- -->

       SEQ                              X                                     GLO
              11   9    7     5    3    1   1     3     5    7    9    11
                                       <-- -->


      Active learners tend to retain and understand information best by doing something
       active with it--discussing or applying it or explaining it to others. Reflective
       learners prefer to think about it quietly first.
      "Let's try it out and see how it works" is an active learner's phrase; "Let's think it
       through first" is the reflective learner's response.
      Active learners tend to like group work more than reflective learners, who prefer
       working alone.
      Sitting through lectures without getting to do anything physical but take notes is
       hard for both learning types, but particularly hard for active learners.

Everybody is active sometimes and reflective sometimes. Your preference for one
category or the other may be strong, moderate, or mild. A balance of the two is desirable.
If you always act before reflecting you can jump into things prematurely and get into
trouble, while if you spend too much time reflecting you may never get anything done.

How can active learners help themselves?

If you are an active learner in a class that allows little or no class time for discussion or
problem-solving activities, you should try to compensate for these lacks when you study.
Study in a group in which the members take turns explaining different topics to each
other. Work with others to guess what you will be asked on the next test and figure out
how you will answer. You will always retain information better if you find ways to do
something with it.

How can reflective learners help themselves?
If you are a reflective learner in a class that allows little or no class time for thinking
about new information, you should try to compensate for this lack when you study. Don't
simply read or memorize the material; stop periodically to review what you have read and
to think of possible questions or applications. You might find it helpful to write short
summaries of readings or class notes in your own words. Doing so may take extra time
but will enable you to retain the material more effectively.


      Sensing learners tend to like learning facts, intuitive learners often prefer
       discovering possibilities and relationships.
      Sensors often like solving problems by well-established methods and dislike
       complications and surprises; intuitors like innovation and dislike repetition.
       Sensors are more likely than intuitors to resent being tested on material that has
       not been explicitly covered in class.
      Sensors tend to be patient with details and good at memorizing facts and doing
       hands-on (laboratory) work; intuitors may be better at grasping new concepts and
       are often more comfortable than sensors with abstractions and mathematical
      Sensors tend to be more practical and careful than intuitors; intuitors tend to work
       faster and to be more innovative than sensors.
      Sensors don't like courses that have no apparent connection to the real world;
       intuitors don't like "plug-and-chug" courses that involve a lot of memorization
       and routine calculations.

Everybody is sensing sometimes and intuitive sometimes. Your preference for one or the
other may be strong, moderate, or mild. To be effective as a learner and problem solver,
you need to be able to function both ways. If you overemphasize intuition, you may miss
important details or make careless mistakes in calculations or hands-on work; if you
overemphasize sensing, you may rely too much on memorization and familiar methods
and not concentrate enough on understanding and innovative thinking.

How can sensing learners help themselves?

Sensors remember and understand information best if they can see how it connects to the
real world. If you are in a class where most of the material is abstract and theoretical, you
may have difficulty. Ask your instructor for specific examples of concepts and
procedures, and find out how the concepts apply in practice. If the teacher does not
provide enough specifics, try to find some in your course text or other references or by
brainstorming with friends or classmates.

How can intuitive learners help themselves?

Many college lecture classes are aimed at intuitors. However, if you are an intuitor and
you happen to be in a class that deals primarily with memorization and rote substitution
in formulas, you may have trouble with boredom. Ask your instructor for interpretations
or theories that link the facts, or try to find the connections yourself. You may also be
prone to careless mistakes on test because you are impatient with details and don't like
repetition (as in checking your completed solutions). Take time to read the entire question
before you start answering and be sure to check your results


Visual learners remember best what they see--pictures, diagrams, flow charts, time lines,
films, and demonstrations. Verbal learners get more out of words--written and spoken
explanations. Everyone learns more when information is presented both visually and

In most college classes very little visual information is presented: students mainly listen
to lectures and read material written on chalkboards and in textbooks and handouts.
Unfortunately, most people are visual learners, which means that most students do not get
nearly as much as they would if more visual presentation were used in class. Good
learners are capable of processing information presented either visually or verbally.

How can visual learners help themselves?

If you are a visual learner, try to find diagrams, sketches, schematics, photographs, flow
charts, or any other visual representation of course material that is predominantly verbal.
Ask your instructor, consult reference books, and see if any videotapes or CD-ROM
displays of the course material are available. Prepare a concept map by listing key points,
enclosing them in boxes or circles, and drawing lines with arrows between concepts to
show connections. Color-code your notes with a highlighter so that everything relating to
one topic is the same color.

How can verbal learners help themselves?

Write summaries or outlines of course material in your own words. Working in groups
can be particularly effective: you gain understanding of material by hearing classmates'
explanations and you learn even more when you do the explaining.


      Sequential learners tend to gain understanding in linear steps, with each step
       following logically from the previous one. Global learners tend to learn in large
       jumps, absorbing material almost randomly without seeing connections, and then
       suddenly "getting it."
      Sequential learners tend to follow logical stepwise paths in finding solutions;
       global learners may be able to solve complex problems quickly or put things
       together in novel ways once they have grasped the big picture, but they may have
       difficulty explaining how they did it.
Many people who read this description may conclude incorrectly that they are global,
since everyone has experienced bewilderment followed by a sudden flash of
understanding. What makes you global or not is what happens before the light bulb goes
on. Sequential learners may not fully understand the material but they can nevertheless do
something with it (like solve the homework problems or pass the test) since the pieces
they have absorbed are logically connected. Strongly global learners who lack good
sequential thinking abilities, on the other hand, may have serious difficulties until they
have the big picture. Even after they have it, they may be fuzzy about the details of the
subject, while sequential learners may know a lot about specific aspects of a subject but
may have trouble relating them to different aspects of the same subject or to different

How can sequential learners help themselves?

Most college courses are taught in a sequential manner. However, if you are a sequential
learner and you have an instructor who jumps around from topic to topic or skips steps,
you may have difficulty following and remembering. Ask the instructor to fill in the
skipped steps, or fill them in yourself by consulting references. When you are studying,
take the time to outline the lecture material for yourself in logical order. In the long run
doing so will save you time. You might also try to strengthen your global thinking skills
by relating each new topic you study to things you already know. The more you can do
so, the deeper your understanding of the topic is likely to be.

How can global learners help themselves?

If you are a global learner, it can be helpful for you to realize that you need the big
picture of a subject before you can master details. If your instructor plunges directly into
new topics without bothering to explain how they relate to what you already know, it can
cause problems for you. Fortunately, there are steps you can take that may help you get
the big picture more rapidly. Before you begin to study the first section of a chapter in a
text, skim through the entire chapter to get an overview. Doing so may be time-
consuming initially but it may save you from going over and over individual parts later.
Instead of spending a short time on every subject every night, you might find it more
productive to immerse yourself in individual subjects for large blocks. Try to relate the
subject to things you already know, either by asking the instructor to help you see
connections or by consulting references. Above all, don't lose faith in yourself; you will
eventually understand the new material, and once you do your understanding of how it
connects to other topics and disciplines may enable you to apply it in ways that most
sequential thinkers would never dream of.,1156,1-12410,00.html
To help you learn, it is important to identify your learning style. Once you have
figured out the way you learn, you will need to use specific strategies to fit into
your way of learning. For example, if you are a visual learner, you could use a
highlighter when reading a text book. The bright color would appeal to your
artistic sense and help you concentrate on the reading.

Here are some more practical suggestions pertaining to each learning style:

Visual Learners:

      use visual materials such as pictures, charts, maps, graphs, etc.
      have a clear view of your teachers when they are speaking so you can
       see their body language and facial expression
      use colour to highlight important points in text
      take notes or ask your teacher to provide handouts
      illustrate your ideas as a picture or brainstorming bubble before writing
       them down
      write a story and illustrate it
      use multi-media (e.g. computers, videos, and filmstrips)
      study in a quiet place away from verbal disturbances
      read illustrated books
      visualize information as a picture to aid memorization

Auditory Learners:

      participate in class discussions/debates
      make speeches and presentations
      use a tape recorder during lectures instead of taking notes
      read text out aloud
      create musical jingles to aid memorization
      create mnemonics to aid memorization
      discuss your ideas verbally
      dictate to someone while they write down your thoughts
      use verbal analogies, and story telling to demonstrate your point

Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners

      take frequent study breaks
      move around to learn new things (e.g. read while on an exercise bike,
       mold a piece of clay to learn a new concept)
       work at a standing position
       chew gum while studying
       use bright colors to highlight reading material
       dress up your work space with posters
       if you wish, listen to music while you study
       skim through reading material to get a rough idea what it is about before
        settling down to read it in detail.

       Learning Styles Test                   Unlock Your Learning Potential!
   This test is to find out something about your preferred learning method. Research on
the left/right brain differences and also on learning personality differences suggest that
each person has a preferred way to receive and communicate information. Choose the
answer that best explains your preference and mark the letter (V, R, A, or K). If only a
single answer does not match your perception, please indicate the second or third choices.

1. You are about to give directions to a person. She is staying in a hotel in town
and wants to visit your house. She has a rental car. Would you:
V. draw a map on paper?
R. write down the directions (without a map?
A. tell her the directions?
K. collect her from the hotel in your car?

2. You are staying in a hotel and have a rental car. You would like to visit a friend
whose address/location you do not know. Would you like them to:
V. draw you a map?
R. write down the directions (without a map)?
A. tell you directions?
K. collect you from the hotel in their car?

3. You have just received a copy of your intinerary for a world trip. This is of
interest to your friend. Would you:
A. call her immediately and tell her about it?
R. Send her a copy of the printed intinerary?
V. show her a map of the world?

4. You are going to cook a dessert as a special treat for your family. Do you:
K. cook something familiar without the need for instructions?
V. thumb through a cookbook looking for ideas from the pictures?
R. refer to a specific cookbook where there is a good recipe?
A. ask for advise from others?

5. A group of tourists has been assigned to you to find out about national parks.
Would you: them to a national park?
V. show them slides and photographs?
R. give them a book on national parks?
A. give them a talk on national parks?

6. You are about to purchase a new stereo. Other than the price, what would most
influence your decision?
A. a friend talking about it?
K. listening to it?
R. reading the details about it?
V. its distinctive, upscale appearance?

7. Recall a time in your life when you learned how to do something like playing a
new board game. Try to avoid choosing a very physical skill, i.e. riding a bike. How
did you learn best? By:
V. visual clues-pictures, diagrams, charts?
R. written instructions?
A. listening to somebody explain it?
K. doing it?

8. Which of these games do you prefer?
A. Pictionary?                 R. Scrabble?                           K. Charades?

9. You are about to learn how to use a new program on a computer. Would you:
K. ask a friend to show you?
R. read the manual which comes with the program?
A. telephone a friend and ask questions about it?

10. You are not sure whether a word should be spelled "dependent" or
"dependant". Do you:
R. look it up in a dictionary?
V. see the word in your mind and choose the best way it looks?
A. sound it out?
K. write both versions down?

11. Apart from price, what would most influence your decision to buy a particular
K. using a friends copy?
R. skimming parts of it?
A. a friend talking about it?
V. it looks OK?
12. A new movie has arrived in town. What would most influence your decision to
go or not go?
A. friends talking about it?
R. you read a review about it?
V. You saw a preview of it?

13. Do you prefer a lecturer/teacher who likes to use:
R. handouts and/or a textbook?
V. flow diagrams, charts, slides?
K. field trips. labs, practical sessions?
A. discussion, guest speakers?

   Now go back and count how many V's, A's, R's, and K's you circled. Whichever letter
you have circled most indicates your preferred learning style. If you have a "tie" or two
letters are about equal you probably have more than one preferred learning style. Click on
the letter that you circled most to find out what you should do in class, when you're
studying and during exams to complement your learning style.

V's :

You have been identified as a Visual Learner. Follow these simple tips to assist you in
learning more efficiently.

In Class You Should:

       Underline
       use different colors
       use symbols, charts, arrangements on a page

When Studying You Should:

       use the "In Class" method
       reconstruct images in different ways
       redraw pages from memory
       replace words with symbols and initials

During Exams You Should:

       recall the pictures of the pages
       draw, use diagrams where appropriate
       practice turning visuals back into words

A's :
You have been identified as an Aural Learner. Follow these simple tips to assist you in
learning more efficiently.

In Class You Should:

       attend lectures and tutorials
       discuss topics with students
       explain new ideas to other people
       use a tape recorder
       describe overheads, pictures, and visuals to somebody that was not there.
       leave space in notes for later recall

When Studying You Should:

       understand you may take poor notes because you prefer to listen
       expand your notes
       put summarized notes on tape and listen
       read summarized notes out load
       explain notes to another Aural person

During Exams You Should:

       listen to your voices and write them down
       speak your answers
       practice writing answers to old exam questions.

R's :

You have been identified as a Reading/Writing Learner. Follow these simple tips to assist
you in learning more efficiently.

In Class You Should:

       use list, heading
       use dictionary and definitions
       use handouts and textbooks
       read
       use lecture notes

When Studying You Should:

       write out the words again and again
       reread notes silently
       rewrite ideas into other words
       organize diagrams into statements

During Exams You Should:

       practice with multiple choice questions
       write out lists
       write paragraphs, beginnings, endings

K's :

You have been identified as a Kinesthetic Learner. Follow these simple tips to assist you
in learning more efficiently.

In Class You Should:

       use all of your senses
       go to lab, take field trips
       use trial and error methods
       listen to real life examples
       use hands-on approach

When Studying You Should:

       understand you may take notes poorly due to topics not seeming relevant
       put examples in note summaries
       use pictures and photos to illustrate
       talk about notes with another Kinesthetic person

During Exams You Should:

       write practice answers
       role-play the exam situation in your room

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