SMALL MAMMALS by kinganc88

VIEWS: 567 PAGES: 39

									SMALL MAMMALS
The Small Mammals section includes individual chapters for
Ferrets, Rabbits, Small Rodents (rats, mice, gerbils, hamsters),
Guinea Pigs, Special Rodents (chinchillas, prairie dogs, degus,
duprasi), Hedgehogs, Marsupials (sugar gliders, brushtail
possums, ringtail possums, short-tailed possums, Tammar
wallaby, Bennett’s wallaby) and Exotic Carnivores (skunks). The
topics listed below in this introductory chapter apply generally
to all animals in this section.

CONTENTS
Radiographic Positioning in Small Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Intraosseous Catheter Placement in Small Mammals . . . . . . . 2
Small Exotic Mammal References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Sources of Ferret Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Selected Rodent Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Sources of Hedgehog Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Wildlife Rehabilitation Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Pocket Pet Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Infectious Diseases of Small Exotic Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

In all chapters, printed hematologic and biochemistry reference
values represent ranges derived from the literature. Individual
practitioners should strive to establish their own “normals”
with their own laboratory.

Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of
the information presented herein (particularly drug doses), the
clinician is responsible for the use of any therapeutic recommen-
dations. Most drugs used in exotic companion species are
considered extra-label and few pharmacokinetic studies have
been conducted; therefore, the clinician must critically evaluate
the information provided.



                                                                                            98
FERRETS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of ferrets and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Ferret Free Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quick Facts -- Physiologic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quick Facts -- Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Geriatric Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Blood Collection Sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hematologic and Biochemistry Reference Values . . . . . . . . . . 7
Additional Serum Chemistry Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Hematology Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Radiographic Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Special Notes and Resources for Ferrets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Common Emergencies and Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Rule Out Chart for Ferrets Based on Clinical Signs. . . . . . . . . 12
Formulary for Ferrets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Antineoplastic Regimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Chemotherapy Protocol for Lymphosarcoma . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
New Anesthetic Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Flea Products for Ferrets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
                                                                                                           98
RABBITS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of rabbits and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Breeds and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Restraint and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quick Facts -- Physiologic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Quick Facts -- Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Composition of Milk for Orphan Rabbits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Formula Requirement by Age
   for Total Daily Replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Oral Medicating, Oral Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Hematologic and Biochemistry Reference Ranges. . . . . . . . . . 9
Selected Biochemistry Values Separated by Sex . . . . . . . . . . 10
Urinalysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Radiographic Technique Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Normal Radiographic Appearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Special Notes and Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Viruses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Common Emergencies and Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Differential Diagnosis for Rabbit Inappetence . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Differential Diagnosis for Rabbit Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Some Causes of Gastrointestinal Disease in Rabbits . . . . . . . 14
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Assessing The Gastrointestinal Status of the Sick Rabbit . . . 15
Rule Out Chart for Rabbits Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . 16
Formulary for Rabbits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

                                                                                                           98
GUINEA PIGS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of guinea pigs and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Breeds and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Restraint of Guinea Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Sexing of Guinea Pigs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Hematologic and Biochemistry
Reference Ranges - Guinea Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Common Clinical Conditions in Guinea Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Rule Out Chart for Guinea Pigs Based on Clinical Signs . . . . 11
Formulary for Guinea Pigs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18




                                                                                                           98
SMALL RODENTS
The Small Rodents chapter includes individual segments on rats,
mice, gerbils and hamsters. The introductory topics listed below
apply generally to all animals in this chapter.


CONTENTS
Order Rodentia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Common Clinical Conditions in Small Rodents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Zoonotic Potential of Small Rodents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Composition of Small Rodent Milk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Formulary for Small Rodents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Rats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Mice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Gerbils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Hamsters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47




                                                                                                         98
RATS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of companion rats and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Strains and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Breeding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Pregnancy and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Restraint of Rats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Sexing of Rats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Hematology Reference Ranges - Rats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Protein Reference Ranges - Rats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Biochemistry Reference Ranges - Rats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Common Clinical Conditions in Rats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Rule Out Chart for Rats and Mice Based on Clinical Signs . . 29




                                                                                                          98
MICE
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medial topics of companion mice and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Breeds and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Breeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Pregnancy and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Restraint of Mice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Sexing of Mice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Hematologic and Biochemistry Reference Ranges - Mice . . . 27
Common Clinical Conditions in Mice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Rule Out Chart for Rats and Mice Based on Clinical Signs . . 29




                                                                                                          98
GERBILS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medial topics of gerbils and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Species and Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Restraint of Gerbils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Sexing of Gerbils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Hematologic and Biochemistry
Reference Ranges - Gerbils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Common Clinical Conditions in Gerbils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Rule Out Chart for Gerbils Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . 44




                                                                                                          98
HAMSTERS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medial topics of hamsters and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Species, Breeds and Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Breeding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Pregnancy and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Restraint of Hamsters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Sexing of Hamsters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Hematologic and Biochemistry
Reference Ranges - Hamsters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Common Clinical Conditions in Hamsters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Rule Out Chart for Hamsters Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . 57




                                                                                                          98
SPECIAL RODENTS
Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Prairie Dogs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Degus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Duprasi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33




CHINCHILLAS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of chinchillas and is not intended
to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chinchilla - Quick Facts
  Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
  Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Restraint of Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Sexing of Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hematologic Reference Ranges - Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Biochemical Reference Values - Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Normal Urinalysis - Chinchillas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Emergencies in Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Common Clinical Conditions in Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Surgical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Rule Out Chart for Chinchillas Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . 9
Formulary for Chinchillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                                                                                                           98
PRAIRIE DOGS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of prairie dogs and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Hematologic and Biochemical
Reference Ranges - Prairie Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Common Clinical Conditions in Prairie Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Rule Out Chart for Prairie Dogs Based on Clinical Signs . . . . 22
Formulary for Prairie Dogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25




                                                                                                          98
DEGUS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of degus and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Selected Hematologic Values for Degus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Formulary for Degus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31




                                                                                                          98
DUPRASI
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of duprasi and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Formulary for Duprasi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36




                                                                                                          98
HEDGEHOGS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of hedgehogs and is not intended
to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Species and Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Restraint of Hedgehogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Sexing of Hedgehogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Blood Collection Sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Dental Care for Hedgehogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Radiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Common Clinical Conditions in Hedgehogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Hematologic and Biochemistry
Reference Ranges - Hedgehogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Rule Out Chart for Hedgehogs Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . 10
Formulary for Hedgehogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12




                                                                                                          98
MARSUPIALS
The Marsupials section includes individual chapters for Sugar
Gliders, Brushtail Possums, Ringtail Possums, Short-tailed
Opossums, Tammar Wallabies and Bennett’s Wallabies. The
topics listed below in this introductory chapter apply generally
to all animals in this section

CONTENTS
Characteristics of Marsupials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Dentition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Marsupial Bones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Pouch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Shoulder Girdle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Comparative Anatomy of the Digestive Tract . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Anatomy of the Marsupial Reproductive Tract . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Temperature Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Physiologic Parameters of Marsupials and Eutherians . . . . . . 6
Marsupial Housing Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Common Infectious Diseases of Marsupials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Dental Formulae of Marsupials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Antibiotic Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Allometric Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Formulary for Herbivorous Marsupials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

SUGAR GLIDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
BRUSHTAIL POSSUMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
RINGTAIL POSSUMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
SHORT-TAILED OPOSSUMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
WALLABIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
  TAMMAR WALLABY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
  BENNETT’S WALLABY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
                                                                                                        98
SUGAR GLIDERS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of sugar gliders and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
  Sugar Glider Diet 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
  Sugar Glider Diet 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
  Sugar Glider Diet 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
  Sugar Glider Diet 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Sugar Gliders - Quick Facts
  Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
  Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Hematologic and Biochemistry Reference Ranges. . . . . . . . . 22
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Documented Parasites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Client Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
                                                                                                          98
BRUSHTAIL
POSSUMS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of Brushtail possums and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Restraint and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Brushtail Possums - Quick Facts
  Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
  Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Hematologic Reference Ranges for Brushtail Possums . . . . . 28
Blood Chemistry Values for Brushtail Possums . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Blood Gasses of Brushtail Possums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Parasites of Brushtail Possums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
                                                                                                          98
RINGTAIL
POSSUMS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of Ringtail possums and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Ringtail Possum - Quick Facts
  Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
  Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Restraint and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34




                                                                                                          98
SHORT-TAILED
OPOSSUMS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of short-tailed opossums and is
not intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
First Visit/Annual Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Restraint and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Short-tailed Opossums - Quick Facts
  Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
  Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38




                                                                                                          98
WALLABIES
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of wallabies in general, and for
the Bennett’s wallaby and Tammar wallaby in particular, and is
not intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Cross Section of Tail of Macropod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Orphan Care for Wallabies and Kangaroos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Medicating Joeys in the Pouch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Hematology Reference Values for Wallabaies . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Most Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
“Lumpy Jaw” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Parasites of Wallabies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43




                                                                                                          98
TAMMAR WALLABY
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of Tammar wallabies and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Tammar Wallaby - Quick Facts
  Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
  Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Hematology Reference Values for Tammar Wallaby . . . . . . . 47
Serum Chemistry Reference Values for Tammar Wallaby . . . 47




                                                                                                     98
BENNETT’S WALLABY
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of Bennett’s wallabies and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Bennett’s Wallaby - Quick Facts
 Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
 Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Hematology and Blood Chemistry
 Reference Ranges of Bennett’s Wallaby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51




                                                                                                     98
EXOTIC CARNIVORES
Skunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1



SKUNKS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of skunks and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Species and Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Quick Facts - Physiologic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Restraint of Skunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Neutralizing Skunk Musk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Demusking Surgery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Hematologic Reference Ranges I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Hematologic Reference Ranges II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Blood Chemistries - Spotted Skunk. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Common Clinical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Client Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Infectious Disease Conditions of Captive Skunks. . . . . . . . . . 10
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

                                                                                                           98
BIRDS
This section includes individual chapters for Psittacines, Passerines &
Softbills, Pigeons, Poultry & Waterfowl, Raptors and Ratites. The topics
listed below in this introduction apply generally to all birds in this
section. Updates were provided by Storm Hudelson, DVM, Dipl ABVP-
Avian, Paul Hudelson and Donald Zantop, DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian.



Contents
Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Radiographic Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Blood Collection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Bone Marrow Collection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Barium Sulfate Transit Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Supportive Care:
   Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   Gavage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Treatment for Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Treatment for Non-specific Ingested Toxins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Euthanasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Professional Associations for the Avian Practitioner. . . . . . . . . . . 6
Selected Avian References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Conversion Factors: SI units/Gravimetric units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Avian Formulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Injectable Anesthetics for Birds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
PSITTACINES
The information presented here has been compiled from the literature. It
is intended for use as a quick guide to selected husbandry and medical
topics of psittacine birds and is not intended to replace comprehensive
reference material. Updates were provided by Storm Hudelson, DVM,
Dipl ABVP-Avian Practice, Greg J. Harrison, DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian
Practice, Dipl ECAMS and Donald Zantop, DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian
Practice.

Contents
Common Species and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Examples of Sexually Dimorphic Psittacines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Blood Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Hematology Reference Ranges
 for Selected Psittacine Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Biochemistry Reference Ranges
 for Selected Psittacine Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Heart and Respiratory Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Electrocardiogram Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Incubation Periods for Selected Psittacines in Aviculture . . . . . 15
Sample Weights of Selected
 Hand-Raised Psittacine Chicks and Adults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Egg Weight Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Common Clinical Disorders of Psittacine Chicks . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Common Clinical Disorders of Psittacine Adults . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Zoonotic Potential of Bacteria from Psittacine Birds . . . . . . . . . . 21
Rule Out Chart for Psittacines Based on Clinical Signs. . . . . . . 22
PASSERINES and
SOFTBILLS
The information presented here has been compiled from the literature. It
is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected husbandry and
medical topics of passerines and softbills and is not intended to replace
comprehensive reference material. Updates for Canaries and Finches
were provided by Storm Hudelson, DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian Practice.
Updates for Mynahs and Ramphastids were provided by Amy Worell,
DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian Practice.

Contents
Diagnostic Sampling in Passerines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Fecal Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Crop Swabs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Bacteriology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Breeding Characteristics of Selected Passerine Birds . . . . . . . . . 4
General Rule Out Chart for Passerines
 Based on Clinical Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Therapeutics via Soft Food or Water
 for Flock Treatment of Small Passerines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CANARIES:            Common Species and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
                     Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
                     Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
                     Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
                     Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
                     Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
                     Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
                     Hematology Reference Ranges for Canaries . . . 12
                     Biochemistry Reference Ranges for Canaries . . . 13
                     Therapy Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                     Common Clinical Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                     Rule Out Chart for Canaries
                      Based on Clinical Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FINCHES:             Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
                     Common Species and Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
                     Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2        EXOTIC     COMPANION               MEDICINE             HANDBOOK               2 0 0 5


                    Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
                    Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
                    Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
                    Restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
                    Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
                    Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
                    First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
                    Common Clinical Disorders in Finches . . . . . 22
                    Rule Out Chart for Finches
                     Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
MYNAHS:             Common Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
                    Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
                    Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
                    Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
                    Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
                    Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
                    Common Clinical Disorders in Mynahs . . . . . 28
                    Rule Out Chart for Mynahs
                     Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
RAMPHASTIDS: Common Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
                    Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
                    Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
                    Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
                    Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                    Restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                    Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
                    Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
                    Common Clinical Disorders in Toucans . . . . 34
                    Hematologic and Biochemical
                     Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
                    Rule Out Chart for Toucans and
                     Toucanets Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . 35
PIGEONS
The information presented here has been compiled from the literature.
It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected husbandry and
medical topics of pigeons and is not intended to replace comprehensive
reference material. Updates were provided by David Rupiper, DVM.



Contents
Common Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Special Notes About Racing Pigeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Breeding and Raising Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Hematologic Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Common Clinical Disorders of Pigeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Biochemistry Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Electrocardiogram Values in Pigeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Rule Out Chart for Pigeons Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . . . 8
Formulary for Pigeons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
POULTRY and
W A T E R FOWL
The information presented here has been compiled from the literature.
It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected husbandry and
medical topics of poultry, other gallinaceous birds and captive waterfowl
and is not intended to replace comprehensive reference material.
Updates were provided by Gwen B. Flinchum, DVM. For drug doses,
please refer to the Avian Formulary under the “Birds” introductory section.

Contents
POULTRY:   Families and Subfamilies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
           Common Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
           Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
           Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
           Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
           Restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
           Breeding and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
           Incubation Period and Clutch Size . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
           Hematologic Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
           Biochemistry Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
           Common Diagnostic Tests for Galliformes . . . . . 8
           Vaccines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
           Diseases of Gallinaceous Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
           Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
           Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
WATERFOWL: Subfamilies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
           Common Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
           Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
           Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
           Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
           Hospitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
           Restraint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
           Body Weight, Eggs/Nest and
            Incubation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
           Breeding and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
           Gas Anesthetic Parameters
            in Pekin Ducks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
           Hematologic Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
           Biochemistry Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
           Rule Out Chart for Waterfowl
            Based on Clinical Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
RAPTORS
The information presented here has been compiled from the literature.
It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected husbandry and
medical topics of raptors and is not intended to replace comprehensive
reference material. Updates were provided by Storm Hudelson, DVM,
Dipl ABVP-Avian Practice.



CONTENTS
Common Free-ranging and Captive Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Raptor Considerations in the Clinic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Preventive Care for Long-term Patients/Captives . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Common Clinical Disorders Seen in Raptors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Selected Hematologic Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Selected Biochemistry Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Rule Out Chart for Raptors Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . . . 5
Formulary for Raptors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
RATITES
The information presented here has been compiled from the literature.
It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected husbandry and
medical topics of ratites and is not intended to replace comprehensive
reference material. Updates were provided by Bob Doneley, BVSc,
MACVSc (Avian Health).

Contents
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Venipuncture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Breeding and Hatchery Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Preventive Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Common Clinical Disorders in Ratites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Hematologic and Biochemistry Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
OSTRICHES:                 Common Subspecies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
                           Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
                           Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
                           Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
                           Sexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
                           Breeding and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
EMUS:                      Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
                           Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                           Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
                           Breeding and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CASSOWARIES: Species. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
                           Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
                           Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
                           Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
RHEAS:                     Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
                           Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
                           Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
                           Breeding and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
KIWIS:                     Species. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                           Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                           Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                           Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                           Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                           Breeding and Raising Young. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
                           Rule Out Chart for Ratites
                             Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
REPTILES
The Reptiles section includes individual chapters for Snakes,
Turtles & Tortoises, and Lizards. The topics listed below in the
introductory chapter apply generally to all animals in this
section. Printed hematologic and biochemistry reference values
represent ranges derived from the literature. Individual
practitioners should strive to establish their own “normals”
with their own laboratories.

Although every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of
the information presented herein (particularly drug doses), in all
chapters the clinician is responsible for the use of any pharma-
ceuticals. Most drugs used in exotic companion species are
considered extra-label and few pharmacokinetic studies have
been conducted; therefore, the clinician must critically evaluate
the information provided and stay informed of
recommendations in the literature. All reptiles must be well
hydrated before and during administration of all medications.

CONTENTS
Orders and Suborders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Hematologic Reference Ranges for Selected Reptiles . . . . . . . 2
Whole Body Radiographic Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Guidelines for Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Guidelines for Gavage Assisted Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Guidelines for Pre-surgical Fasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Anesthetic Monitoring in Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Zoonotic Potential of Reptiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Recommendations for Preventing Transmission
of Salmonella from Reptiles to Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Reptile References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Reptile Formulary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6




                                                                                               98
SNAKES
The information presented here has been compiled from the lit-
erature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of snakes and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Families of Serpentes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Common Snakes in Captivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Food Preferences of Selected Snake Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Feeding Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Environmental Requirements of Some Snake Species . . . . . . . 4
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Physical Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Oral Access for Examination and Medicating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Radiographic Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Reproductive Parameters for Some Species of Snakes . . . . . . 6
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Common Clinical Conditions of Snakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Special Resources for Snakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Rule Out Chart for Snakes Based on Clinical Signs. . . . . . . . . . 8




                                                                                                        98
TURTLES AND
TORTOISES
The information presented here has been compiled from the litera-
ture. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected hus-
bandry and medical topics of turtles and tortoises and is not
intended to repleace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Chelonian Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet Preferences of Selected Chelonians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Environmental Preferences of Selected Chelonians . . . . . . . . 2
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Incubation Parameters for Three Turtle Species . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Blood Collection and Intravenous Injection Sites. . . . . . . . . . . 5
Hematology Reference Ranges for Tortoises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hematologic/Biochemistry
Reference Values in Selected Turtles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Radiographic Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Radiographic Anatomy of Chelonians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Common Emergency and Clinical Conditions in Chelonians . 8
Supportive Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Fluid Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Shell Repair Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Large Tortoise Shell Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Rule Out Chart for Chelonians Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . 11




                                                                                                        98
LIZARDS
The information presented here has been compiled from the lit-
erature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of lizards and is not intended to
replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Common Lizards in Captivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Diet - Herbivorous Lizards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Converting a Herbivorous Lizard to a Good Diet . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Diet - Omnivorous Lizards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Diet - Carnivorous Lizards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Environmental Requirements for Some Lizard Species. . . . . . 5
Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Humidity and Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Quick Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
First Visit/Annual Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Physical Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Blood Collection Sites. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Hematologic & Biochemistry Reference Ranges . . . . . . . . . . 10
Hematology Reference Values for Iguanas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Radiographic Positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Radiographic Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Radiographic Contrast Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Common Emergency and Clinical Conditions in Lizards. . . . 12
Rehydration and Fluid Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Euthanasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Rule Out Chart for Lizards Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . 14
                                                                                                          98
AMPHIBIANS
The information presented here has been compiled from the lit-
erature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of amphibians and is not intend-
ed to replace comprehensive reference material.
CONTENTS
Classification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Common Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet - General. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet - Salamanders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet - Frogs & Toads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Diet - Tadpoles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Preventive Care. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Restraint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Quick Facts - Biological . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Quick Facts - Reproductive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Physical Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Blood Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Clinical Pathology Sample Collection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Radiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Radiographic Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Hematologic Reference Ranges for Selected Frog Species . . . 6
Injection Sites and Medicating Routes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Common Clinical Conditions in Amphibians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Zoonotic Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Surgery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Euthanasia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Amphibian References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Anesthesia in Amphibians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Rule Out Chart for Amphibians Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . 9
Formulary for Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

                                                                                                        98
INVERTEBRATES
Tarantulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1



TARANTULAS
The information presented here has been compiled from the
literature. It is intended to be used as a quick guide to selected
husbandry and medical topics of pet tarantulas and is not
intended to replace comprehensive reference material.

CONTENTS
Common Species and Variations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Basic Anatomy and Physiology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Dorsal View of a Hairy Mygalomorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Ventral View of a Hairy Mygalomorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Anatomy of the Spider Leg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Schematic of the Male Pedipalp with the Cymbium . . . . . . . . 5
Internal Anatomy of a Hairy Mygalomorph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Circulatory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Cuticle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Extremities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Urticating Hairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Molting (Ecdysis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Sense Organs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Digestive Flora . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Developmental Data on Selected Tarantulas Species . . . . . . 11
Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                                                                                                          98
                                                                                           continued
     2                                                     EXOTIC COMPANION MEDICINE HANDBOOK

     Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     Disinfection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     Sexing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     Male Reproductive Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     Female Reproductive Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     Care of the Egg Sac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     Number of Eggs Laid in Egg Sac and Time
       Elapsed Between Laying and “Hatching”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     Restraint and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     Physical Examination. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     Therapy and Injection Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     Fluid Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     Rule Outs for Tarantulas Based on Clinical Signs . . . . . . . . . . 20
     Common Clinical Conditions in Tarantulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     Special Notes on Tarantula Parasites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     Theraphosidae and Their Parasitoid Taxa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     Anesthesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26




98
APPENDIX
The following selected resources are provided only for the
convenience of the avian and exotic animal practitioner and are
not considered recommendations or endorsements.
CONTENTS
Appendix I. Medical Support
   Diagnostic and Consultation Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
   Directory of Diagnostic Facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Appendix II. Veterinary Information Sources
   Veterinary Hotlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
   Internet Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Appendix III. Selected Products
   Hospital Equipment and Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Laboratory Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
   Imaging Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   Surgical Equipment and Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
   Animal Husbandry and Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   Compounding and Customized Rx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Sources of Companion Avian Vaccines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   Client Education Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Appendix IV. Diets for Companion Exotic Animals
   Formulated Diets for Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Formulated Diets for Ferrets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Formulated Diets for Other Small Exotic Mammals. . . . . 12
   Formulated Diets for Reptiles and Amphibians . . . . . . . . 12
   Miscellaneous Sources of Food. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   Woodland Park Zoo Hedgehog Diet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   Selected Foods Containing High Levels of Vitamin A . . . 13
   Selected Foods Containing High Levels of Calcium . . . . . 13




                                                                                            98

								
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