Part IV The literature of Realism(1865-1918) • I. Historical Introduction: • the civil war brought about 2 results: • 1. Further industrialization, mechanization, urbanization, development of transportation and communication. • 2. Westward movement, Homestead Act, by 1890, the last of the first 48 states were settled. II. Literary Characteristics • 1. Feminist movement. Emily Dickinson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Sarah Orne Jewett, Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton, Ellen Glasgow, Willa Cather. • 2. Decline of American Romanticism, Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass. • 3. Appearance of American realism • 4. Appearance of American naturalism. American Realism(1870-1890) • 1. Reasons: civil war, social development. People sought to describe the wide range of American experience and to present the subtleties of human personality, to portray characters who were less simply all good or all bad. • 2. Realism originated in France. A literary doctrine that called for “reality and truth” in the depiction of ordinary life. • 3. American realism, different from European realism, is more varied and individualistic. American Realism • 4. Development of American realism: first appear in the literature of local color, arbiter: William Dean Howells. He defined realism as “nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material”. • 5. Important writers: Henry James, Mark Twain. Realism • a mode of writing that gives the impression of recording or reflecting faithfully an actual way of life. The term refers, both to a literary method based on detailed accuracy of description and to a more general attitude that rejects idealization, escapism, and other extravagant qualities of romance in favor of recognizing soberly the actual problems of life. Realism is not a direct or simple reproduction of reality but a system of conventions producing a lifelike illusion of some real world outside the text, by processes of selection, exclusion, description or manners of addressing the reader. American Naturalism: pessimistic realism • 1. Naturalism came from France. • 2. Reasons: civil war, social upheavals, Darwinism, hypothesized that over the millennia, man had evolved from lower forms of life. Human were special, not because God had created them in His image, as the Bible taught, but because they had successfully adapted to changing environmental conditions and had passed on their survivalmaking characteristic genetically. Men were dominated by the irresistible forces of evolution. Men were conceived as more or less complex combination of inherited attributes and habits conditioned by social and economic forces, by heredity and environment. American Naturalism • 3. Features of naturalist writing: A. naturalist writers turned literary creation into a mechanical record of society, in a way of attempting to achieve extreme objectivity and frankness. They never made comments on the characters and their behaviors. B. The characters were often figures of low social and economic classes, with animal desire, some physically strong but weak-willed figures. There were also some healthy and lofty persons, but their ending were miserable. C. the viewpoint from which the writers understood problems was amoral, or non-moral. They stressed men had no free will, their lives were controlled by heredity and environment. D. their material was infinite. American Naturalism • 4. American Naturalist writers: Stephen Crane, Frank Norris, Jack London, Henry Adams, Theodore Dreiser. Poetry • Poetry is an art of transforming an intensely personal moment /experience /emotion (subjective, inward) into an impersonal and communicable image (objective, outward) through language, with a certain form and context, line-length, rhyme- scheme, regular meter. • A poem is a verbal device that would preserve an experience indefinitely by reproducing it in whoever read the poem. (Philip Larkin) Characteristics of Poetry • Concentration and intensity are two of the qualities that distinguish the poetic treatment of a subject from its treatment on prose. • Poetry is characterized by the following elements: a musical effect created by rhythm and sounds, a precise and fresh imagery, and multiple levels of interpretation suggested by the connotation of the closer words and allusions. (the ultimate aim of a poet, is to integrate all of these elements in order to produce a verbal statement in which everything form overall shape to individual word- choice is organically related in the most precise way possible.) • Imagery and Tone • 1. Imagery is the use of descriptive language to re-create sensory experiences. An image is a verbal picture of an object, action, abstract idea, or sensation. It is often created by using figures of speech. There are ways making an idea or picture come closer into focus by relating the idea or experience to another that may be more familiar to the reader. • 2. Tone is inferred by the reader through the word choice, the connotation of those words, the verse form, the rhyme, the figurative language and the allusions. Poet and Reader • The relationship between poet and reader is like an infinitely renewable contract, wherein each meets the other on the shared ground of language. • The task for the reader is to minimize the loss and distortion of meaning during the process of transmission from the poet’s private world to the public domain where there are limitless possibilities for misunderstanding. Meters of English poetry • There are 3 basic types of meters: Accentual meter (the number of syllables per line is variable, the number of accents per line is not), Syllabic meter (there is a fixed number of syllables per line, the number of accents is variable), Accentual— syllabic meter (combination of these types is characterized by a regular pattern in the number of both syllables and stresses in each line). Feet: combination of stressed and unstressed syllables There are 5 basic types of metrical foot. Iambic foot/iamb: unstressed syllable + stressed syllable, repeat Trochaic foot/trochee: stressed syllable + unstressed syllable, never Anapestic foot/anapest: two unstressed syllables+ a stressed syllable, interrupt Dactylic foot/dactyle: a stressed syllable + 2 unstressed syllables , possible Spondaic foot/spondee: 2 successive stressed syllables, heartbreak Pyrrhic foot/pyrrhic: 2 successive unstressed syllables, the top of the morning • Emily Dickinson • Previewing Questions: • 1.preview “I heard a Fly buzz” and “Because I could not stop for death”. • 2. What is the symbolic meaning of the fly? • 3. How does she feel when dying? • 4. What is the theme of the poem? • 5. What do the carriage and drive symbolize? Who is “He”? What is he like? • 6. What is the theme of the poem? • 7. What are the features of Emily’s poem? Emily Dickinson: America’s best-known female poet • I. Life story (1830-1886) • II. Works:1800 poems, the definitive edition of her poetry were published in 1955: The Poetry of Emily Dickinson. (Her weakness is a reliance on rhythmic cadences and meters from hymns and popular jingles. Her modernity is her articulation of psychological experience and skeptical desire for faith.) Emily Dickinson • Sources: Dickinson • Themes: wholly enjoyed the Bible, original, from her English writers personal experiences, Shakespeare, Milton, love, nature, Dickens, Browning, friendship, death, Keats, George Herbert, immortality, war, god, George Eliot, Thomas religious belief, humor, Carlyle. literature, music, art. Artistic features • Abundant use of • Short poetic lines, dashes, irregular and condensed by using idiosyncratic intense metaphors and punctuation and by extensive use of capitalization. Clear- ellipsis. cut, delicately original • Conventional meters, imagery, precise and iambic tetrameter, off- simple diction, rhymes. fragmentary and • Visual and audible enigmatic metrical effects, great imagina- pattern. tion, sincere emotions. On Poetry • She thought that poetry should be powerful and touching. The inspiration of the poet came from his inner world or intensity of his emotions and the past literary traditions and the noble heroes. Like Emerson, she thought that only the real poet could understand the world. Truth, virtue and beauty are all the one thing. The most dignified beauty was embodied by the active, affirmative dignity. Poetry should express ideas through concrete images. It was the poet’s duty to express abstract ideas through vivid and fresh imagery. She was against the restriction of the traditional doctrines and argued for the depiction of one’s inner world. On nature • Dickinson observed nature closely and described it vividly but never with the feeling of being lost in it, or altogether part of it, nor was she surprised when its creatures also kept their distance. She thought that nature was both kind and cruel, which was similar to Tennyson. On Death • She wrote about nearly 600 poems on death. Her attitude toward immortality was contradictory.. It is clear always that for Dickinson life and consciousness are inseparable. To be transmuted into grass or transcendentally made one with the ocean or the over-soul are as irrelevant and meaningless to this individualist as the idea would have been to her puritan ancestors. Because I could not stop for death • She attempts to image some sort of being after death develops the deceptively trivial metaphor of death as a gentleman taking a lady for a drive. He and his passenger are clearly presented but perhaps the carriage also holds “immortality”. In a few compact lines the drive rapidly becomes one’s passage through a lifetime. Although it ends unambiguously at the grave there is still a bare hint of some inconceivable but possible continuing consciousness. Mark Twain (1835-1910) • Realistic novelist, humorist, first American writer who used the American vernacular language. • Life story: he has been printer, steamboat pilot, volunteer soldiers, silver miner, reporter, writer, lecturer. Main Works • The Celebrated Jumping • The Adventures of Frog of Calaveras County Huckleberry Finn 1885, 1865 • A Connecticut Yankee in • The Innocents Abroad King Arthur’s Court 1889, 1869,. • Pudd’s Head Wilson • Roughing It 1872, 1894,. • The Adventures of Tom • Personal Recollections of Sawyer 1876, Joan of Arc 1896, • A Tramp Abroad 1880,. Following the Equator, • The Prince and Pauper 1897 1881, • The Man that Corrupted • Life on the Mississippi Hadleyburg 1900 1881, • What is Man 1906 • . • The Mysterious Stranger Style • Broad, often irreverent • His earlier works are light, humor or biting social humorous, optimistic. satire, realism of place • His later works become darker and more obscure, and language, showing his discontent memorable characters, and disappointment hatred of hypocrisy toward the social reality. and oppression. His last works shows his • Simple and plain acute pessimism, despair, skepticism determinism. diction, precise, direct. Artistic Features • First, he possessed utter clarity of style. He evolved a style so clear and economical that other contemporary styles seemed slightly archaic, rusty, and redundant. • Second, he had a supreme command of vernacular American English. Before him there had been only American dialect; after him there was an American language. American dialect had been used very well by some other writers, but in their hands it was surrounded and conditioned by a “literary” language that wittingly or unwittingly patronized it. Mark Twain removed the surrounding frame. Artistic features • Third, there was Mark Twain’s humor, which resists explanation. In Twain’s time, humor, though it was seen as greatly valuable, remained clearly subordinate in the value system of the 19th century. The function of humor was to entertain, but it was not expected to participate in the high seriousness that Matthew Arnold and his age asked of literature. But Twain liberated humor, raising it to high art—a liberation that parallels his creation of vernacular American English. Instead of subduing his humor to seriousness, twain invaded the citadels of seriousness and freed the humor held captive there. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer • a story of his seeking for freedom, fame, fortune, love, manhood. The novel reveals the American values: one is hero complex, the other is American dream. His adventures is the realization of American dream. On the other hand, the book record the rising Age of American Bourgeois system. It also bears the irony and satire toward the religion and by-then popular rigid, didactic children education, which curbed the imagination of children and their innate nature for freedom and adventures and molded them into a stereotype of lifeless man. significance • He portrayed uniquely American subjects in a humorous and colloquial, yet poetic, language. His success in creating this plain but evocative language precipitated the end of American reverence for British and European culture and for the more formal language associated with those traditions. His adherence to American themes, settings, and language set him apart from many other novelists of the day and had a powerful effect on such later writers Henry James (1843-1916) • Psychological realistic writer, short-story writer, playwright, critic, essayist, 22 novels and over 100 short stories and some critical commentaries. • I. Life story • II. Main works: 3 stages • 1. 1865-1881, international novel. Watch and Ward 1871, Roderick Hudson, 1875, The American 1877, Daisy Miller, 1878, The Portrait of a Lady, 1881. Main works • 2. 1885-1897, more English, focusing on realistic social life. The Bostonians 1886, (a satire account of female emancipation in Boston), The Princess Casamassima, 1886, (richly observed novel of anarchists and aristocrats in London) The Tragic Muse, 1890. • 3. 1895-1916, Major phase: on international theme, develop mature and formidable style, on people’s psychology when confronted with ethical problems. The Wings of the Dove 1902, The Ambassadors, 1903, The Golden Bowl 1904. International Theme • Conflicts between New and Old world, traditional, innocent, honest American and complex, sophisticated, snobbish, arrogant, vain Europeans, American freshness of impulse, moral integrity, candor of heart, complexity deviousness of the European mentality. Style and Subject Matter • Refined, subtle, intricate, later obscure, costive, with long and complex sentences. detailed psychological depiction capable of reproducing every nuances of the fine moral intelligence or expressing the subtlest meanings. Single point of view, scenic progression. • He describes upper-class unmarried women involved in various courtship rituals and marriage rites with upper-class men at the private level, and records the social splits that separate males from females in the nation’s public life. Theory on Fiction, The Art of Fiction 1884 • Novel:an art form of penetrating analysis of individual, confronting society, chronicles of the psychological perceptions that James himself defined as the highest form of experience. “The only obligation to which in advance we may hold a novel is that it be interesting. A novel, in its broadest definition, is a personal, direct impression of life… that, to begin with, constitutes its value, which is greater or less according to the intensity of the impression. But here will be no intensity at all, and therefore no value, unless there is freedom to feel and say.” The reason for the existence of novel is that it tries to show life. the artistic field should include all life, all emotions, all experiences, all interpretation. Reality is the biggest merit of novel. On Novelist • Novelists should have absolute freedom in creating. They must be good at experiencing life. They must predict the unknown future from the known reality. They must acquire a certain knowledge of the flexibility of novel. He points out that contents must be in harmony with form and compared their close relationship to that thread and needle. • Novelist and world. He also advocates insight and depiction of men’s inner world and advised writers to catch the complexity of psychological activities, arguing it’s not enough to describe the outside details. “There is one point at which the moral sense and the artistic sense lie very near together; Novelist • Novelist and work. That is in the light of the very obvious truth that the deepest quality of a work of art will always be the quality of the mind of the producer. No good novel will ever proceed from a superficial mind.” • Terms invented: sensibility, donne, execution, point of view. Significance • Henry James was regarded as the forefather of literature of “Stream of Consciousness” and “modern novel criticism”. Together with Howells, Mark Twain, James contributed to American realistic novels. He is the first theorist of fiction. The Portrait of a Lady • Previewing questions: • 1. Why did Isabel choose Osmond? • 2. Why did she decide to return to her unhappy marriage at the end of the novel? • 3. Isabel’s characters. • 4. How did James show the conflicts between American and European cultures? • 5. Features in style. • 6. Meaning of the title. • 7. Themes of the novel. Individualism • The novel is about how an American girl lose her naivety gradually, influenced by sophisticated European life. It is a rich and subtle study of what it would mean for a woman to practice the absolute self-determination, based on a completely individual nonconformist personal judgment, which Emerson had preached. This exploration of transcendental individualism as a guide to life may be compared with Melville’s exploration of the same idea in his creation of captain Ahab. There Melville examined the effect such conduct might have when adopted by a powerful and ruthless man. James,is much more concerned with the effect such an attitude may have on his heroine herself. Isabel Archer’s impact on the world around her is comparatively unimportant but the result in her own life is as devastating as Ahab’s, though not as violent, or perhaps, as final. Evil • Madame Merle, Gilbert Osmand are James’ personification of aspects of evil. This belatedness of Evil, this understanding of it as a matter of texts and letters, ultimately became James’ great contribution to the imagination of evil. It leads James to the strategy of reasserting its importance by questioning it, challenging it actively, not asserting flatly its existence but making it a competitor in a world acknowledged to be skeptical of it. Freedom • The work is based on Milton’s epic “Paradise Lost”. This is a novel of the fortunate fall. Just like in Milton’s poem, everything is pointed toward a defining of freedom. The novel certainly concerns the unexpectedly far-reaching consequences of a character’s inadequacies of perception. But here we have a full development of necessity and freedom, circumstances and free will, in which each, bewilderingly, may take on the appearance of the other. And here alone, until James’ very last works will this freedom be achieved, precisely because a character will learn the deep comprehension of necessity. Part V. Twentieth-Century Literature • 1920s, Jazz Age. • I. Historical Background: WWI, peace-making period/boom time. • Politically, USentered WWI in 1917 for purity and democracy. The period of peace-making ended with general disillusionment about the value of war: only a sense of the failure of political leaders and a belief in the futility of hope. No abiding solutions to the world’s problems was found. And the resurgence of nationalism and the rise of new totalitarianism produce a second world war. 20s, Jazz Age • Economically, because of the war, American industry developed fast. The nation is full of bouncing ebullience, fearful of nothing, confident smug isolationism. • Socially, decline of idealism. Patriotism became cynical disillusionment. Unity of family weakened. There appeared the revolt of the Younger Generation. They escaped responsibility and assumed immorality. Jazz Age • After WWI, people found that the war which cost millions of lives failed to provide an abiding solutions to the world’s problems, that the war was just the traps of political leaders. Such a disillusionment about the value of war, accompanied by the booming of American economy drove people to cynical hedonism. People experiment with new amusements. They restlessly pursued stimulus and pleasures, wallow in heavy drinking, fast driving and casual sex. By these, they hoped to seek relief from serious problems. Lost Generation • refers to those writers who were devoid of faith, values and ideals and who were alienated from the civilization the capitalist society advocated. It includes the writers such as (Hemingway, F.S. Fitzgerald, Thomas Wolfe, and Louis Bromfield) and poets (like Malcolm Cowley, E. E. Cummings, Archibald Macleish, and Ezra Pound), who rebelled against former values and ideas, but replaced them only by despair or a cynical hedonism. They were totally frustrated by the WWI and returned from that “Great War” to their own country only to find the grim reality that the social values and civilization were hollow and affected if compared to the cruel realities of the battleground. They felt alienated from American civilization, which was conveyed in their lives of exile and expatriation. Lost Generation • They had cut themselves off from their past and old values in America and yet unable to come to terms with the new era when civilization had gone mad. They wandered pointlessly and restlessly, enjoying things like fishing, swimming, bullfight and beauties of nature, but they were aware all the while that the world is crazy and meaningless and futile. Their whole life was undercut and defeated. They cast away all past concepts and values in order to create new types of writing, which was characterized by disillusionment with ideals and further with civilization the capitalist society advocated. They painted the post-war western world as a waste land, lifeless and hopeless due to ethical degradation and disillusionment with dreams. II. Literature • Poetry: T. S. Eliot The Wasteland. • Novel: Sinclair Lewis Main Street 1920 • Theodore Dreiser An American Tragedy 1925, • F. S. Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby 1926, • Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises 1926, A Farewell to Arms, 1929, • William Faulkner The Sound and the Fury, 1929, • Drama: Eurgene O’Neill, The Emperor Jones, 1920, Anna Christie, 1921, The Hairy Ape 1922, • Harlem Renaissance. 1930s, Great Depression • I. Historical Background: under the attack of the grave world economic crisis, all contradictions inherent in the capitalist system intensified. slow recovery, social upheavals, the world drifted toward another great war. The bounce gone, the populace terrified. They lost confidence in everything. • II. Literature of political and social criticism. The novels mirrored the threats to democratic thought and a strong ideological countercurrent which caused great ideological confusion into Americans. • Novels: John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath 1939. Post-WWII, 50s, • I. Historical Background: • After the WWII, the nuclear time had unmistakably claimed itself and Americans were suddenly brought to face a completely new world in which old rules and guidelines turned out to be helpless. The united States got even more involved in the international affairs. • 50s, America’s rival with another big power of war victor—the Soviet Union—resulted in the initial of the Cold War. As much as the escalation of the Cold War a series of major incidents occurred to the attention of the world. as Truman’s containment to East Asia faltered, Korean War broke out in June 1950. This was the first war that American had ever fought without victory. This unbalance and lost war tarred the prestige of Americans as heroes of the second World War and shed a dark shadow on the mind of Americans. II. Literature in the 50s. • A new generation of American authors appeared writing in the skeptical, ironic tradition of the earlier realists and naturalists. The writers used a prose style modeled on the works of Ernest Hemingway, and F. S. Fitzgerald, narrative techniques of William Faulkner, psychological insights of Sigmund Freud. In the 1950s, the “Beat” writers, in expression of disaffection with “official” American life, were brutally and directly dominant. The so-called “Beat Generation,” though not expatriate like the Lost Generation, were alienated—feeling like foreigners in their own country. Beat Generation Main Works • Jack Kerouac, On the Road, poet Allen Ginsberg, Howl, • Jewish Writer Saul Bellow, Seize the Day, 1956, • Black Writer Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man 1956, • Norman Mailer, The Man Who Studied Yoga, 1952, • J. D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye, 1951. 1960s • I. Historical Background:The Cuban missile crisis took place in Oct, 1962. Vietnam War (1965-73) was another stage of the Cold War. The U. S. continuous slaughter proved little military efficiency. The War in Vietnam seemed to Americans a life-swallow machine without end and victory in sight. Disillusionment spread throughout the United States. Anti-war movement grew in size and militancy. More than 500,000 soldiers were deserted during the Vietnam years. This unjust war ended in Americans’ humiliating withdrawal of their exhausted troops from “a small unimportant country” in 1973. The war left a permanent scar in the memory of Americans. II. Literature in the 1960s. • 1. The writes turned to experimental techniques, to absurd humor, to mocking examination of the irrational and the disordered. The black humor featured the 1960s. • Joseph Heller, Catch-22, 1961, • John Barth, The Sot-Weed Factor, 1961, Ken Kesey, • One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 1962, • Thomas Pynchon, Gravity’s Rainbow 1973. Black humor Literature in the 60s • It was a decade when literature began to diverse in style and form. Various themes and different ways of exploration of the meaning of life were experienced. • Psychological realistic novels: • John Updike, Rabbit Run, 1960, • Wright Morris, Ceremony in Lone Tree, 1960, • John Cheever, The Wapshot Scandal, 1984, • Truman Capote, In Cold Blood, 1966, • Joyce Carol Oates, A Garden of Earthly Delights 1967, • Saul Bellow, Herzog 1964, • Issac Bashevis Singer, The Manor, 1967. Literature in the 60s • Southern novels: • William Faulkner, The Receivers 1962, • Flannery O’Conner, The Violent Bear it Away, 1960, • Poetry: Robert Lowell, Allen Ginsberg. • Drama: Arthur Miller, Edward Albee, Tennessee Williams. 1970s • I. Historical Background. • II. Literature. The 1970s was a stage on which all kinds of literary art were performed. The Southern fiction, Jewish fiction, Psychological fiction, African-American Fiction, Science fiction, feminist fiction, etc., completed interrelatedly to present themselves, which displayed a prosperous panorama of literature. Jewish novelists Saul Bellow and Issac Singer were separately awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976 and in 1978. Bellow was ranked as one of the most important novelists of the 20th century American literature after the WWII. Literature in the 70s • Black Literature: Richard Wright, Native Son, 1940, Ellison, Invisible Man, 1952, Alex Haley, Malcolm X, Alice Walker, Toni Morrison. • Poetry: poets urged by upheavals of the post-war period participated actively all kinds of political or literary movement with their pens, to express their views, to utter their uneasiness about the uses of social power and industrial power, in poems. • Theodore Roethke, Robert Lowell, Richard Wilbur, Richard Eberhart, Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, Sylvia Plath, Delmore Schwarts. Plays after WWII • Plays after WWII survived under the squeeze of movies and especially television. Old playwrights like Eugene O’Neill continued to produce sensational plays. New and young playwrights were struggling to broaden the ways and forms of theatrical language in the narrowing art space. The influence of Europe’s “Theater of the Absurd, “ Eugene O’Neill’s combination of naturalism, expressionism and Greek tragedy, and Broadway’s commercialization all pushed modern drama to emerge in new faces: “Middle Drama”, “Off-Broadway”, “Off-Off- Broadway”, Black Theater and other experimental forms. Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, Edward Albee. Imagist Movement 1909-1917 • Imagist movement is a movement of English and American poets in revolt from romanticism, seeking clarity of expression through the use of precise images. Its first anthology: Des Imagistes, published in 1914, edited by Pound. The principles of the imagist manifesto were laid down by Pound in 1913. the official credo was prepared the 1915 anthology: Some Imagist Poets, edited by Amy Lowell. • As a broad movement, imagism signals the beginning of English and American modernism, and a definite break with the Romantic-Victorian tradition. As a particular school, les imagists are the heritages of T. E. Hulme’s 1909 group of impressionist poets who experimented with brief visual poems in the Oriental manner. Imagist Movement • It shares the penchant/tendency for sculptural hardness and immaculate craftsmanship, the accent on pure poetry to the exclusion of all extrapoetic content, the practice of irregular, free verse. It is a laconic/brief complex in which “painting or sculpture seems as if it were just coming over into speech.” 4Iits significance resides in its revaluation of Romanticism and 19th century which, with few exceptions, it dismissed as a sentimental, blurry, manneristic period; its insistence on the functional, rather than the merely ornamental, potentiality of the poetic image, and the latter’s capacity for conveying the concrete and definite. Principles of Imagism • 1. Direct treatment of the “thing” whether subjective or objective. • 2. To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation. • 3. As regarding rhythm: to compose in sequence of the musical phrase, not in sequence of the metronome. Modernism Robert Frost (1874-1963) • unofficial poet laureate, 4 Pulitzer Prize, read poem at a presidential inauguration. • I. Life Story. • II. Main Works. • A Boy’s Will 1913, North of Boston, 1914, • Mountain Interval, 1916, New Hampshire 1923, • West-Running Brook 1928, A Further Range 1936, A Witness Tree 1942, Steeple Bush, 1947, In the Clearing 1962 • Themes: Nature, Men’s relations to the natural world, men’s relations to each other. Styles • 1 rejected the revolutionary poetic principles of his contemporaries, choosing the old-fashioned way to be new. • 2 employ the plain speech of rural New Englanders. • 3 use the simple, short, traditional forms of lyrics and Narrative, can probe mysteries of darkness and irrationality in the bleak and chaotic landscapes of an indifferent universe where man stand alone, unaided and perplexed. Features • 1 He is very much aware of the concrete setting in which his people live. He is able to present it vividly by selecting significant details. • 2 The people themselves are less interesting since Frost sees them as representative types rather than as individuals. It makes readers get much more sense of their social matrix and of older New England life in general. • 3 He used a carefully selected and reconstructed New England as a symbolic microcosm of the natural world in which every man must, sooner or later, learn to do with a diminished thing. The Road Not Taken • 1. What do I do when faced with 2 diverged roads? • 2. What is my reason for choosing the other? What do you think of the reason? Sound or not? What does “grassy” indicate? • 3. What kind of person do you think I am from my choice? • 4. What does these 2 lines of the 2nd stanza suggest? • 5. What does “Leaves no steps had trodden black” suggest? The Road Not Taken • 6. What do I think of before I step on this way? • 7. How do you judge the last 2 lines? Is it natural to think so? How is the choice? Is it rational or sound? • 8. What message does it convey? • 9. What tone is it? • 10. What is the theme of the poem? • 11. What is the image? After Apple-Picking • 1. What is the meaning of the title? • 2. What have I been doing? • 3. What do I want to do after done with apple-picking? • 4. What is the essence of winter sleep? • 5. What form was my dream to take? Why? • 6. What was I to dream? After Apple-Picking • 7. What will trouble my dream? • 8. What do the last few lines indicate? • 9. Tell about the poem in a sentence. • 10. What kind of life does the poem describe? • 11. Can you sense the poet’s boundless love toward the idyllic life in New England area? • 12. Theme, tone, image. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) • I. Life story. Born in Oak Park, near Chicago. His father is a physician. His mother is a domineering woman, a singer. • In 1917, he graduated from high school and worked as a reporter. Rejected for army service in WWI, he volunteered to serve as a driver for an American ambulance unit in France, then to Italian front, where he was seriously wounded. After the war, he worked as a reporter abroad. He got married in 1921. In 1927, he left his first wife and son, for a wealthy young woman. Life story • In 1937, he became a foreign correspondent covering the Spanish civil war. He met a young reporter and they got married in 1940. His third marriage was troubled from the beginning. He resented Martha’s devotion to her career. In 1944, in anticipation of the allied landing in France, Hemingway secured a job of reporter. He landed in France in Aug, 1944 and advanced to Paris. In London at the end of 1945, Hemingway and Martha met there. He was more than ready to fall in love again, this time with another young journalist. They were married in 1944. Life story • In the early 1950s, Hemingway showed some symptoms of physical deterioration. In 1954, he was awarded the Nobel Prize. But he was too ill to go to Stockholm but sent a message there. Finally in 1960, there was a real breakdown. At the end of Nov, 1960, he was hospitalized and at the end of June, 1961, he was released and returned to Ketchum, Idaho. Early next morning he killed himself with his favorite shotgun. Main works • Three Stories and Ten Poems, 1923, • To Have and Have not, 1937 (change attitude • In Our Time, 1925 and style) • The Sun also Rises, 1926 • For Whom the Bell Tolls, • Men without Women, 1940 1927 • Across the River and into • A Farewell to Arms, 1929 the Wood, 1950 • Death in the Afternoon, • The old Man and the Sea, 1932, 1952, A Moveable Feast, • Winner Take Nothing, 1962, Islands in the 1933 Stream, 1970. • Green Hills of Africa, 1935, Style • tight, terse, spare, reporter prose, lean, reduce the sentences to its essential, functional components. Yet muscular and efficient, convey its emotional insights clearly and with sharp impact, combine a desired objectivity with an authorial selectivity. • Vernacular, Simple sentence structure, restricted vocabulary, precise imagery, an impersonal dramatic tone, avoid expressing feeling directly, prefer to express feeling between the lines, with some symbols. Avoid abstract words, (complex sentences for he feels embarrassed by these words such as glory, honor, courage, ) Reasons • 1. Hemingway’s lean style first was influenced by Ezra Pound. “use no superfluous word, no adjective which does not reveal something.” “the proper and perfect symbol is the natural object.” • 2. journalism: A brief apprenticeship as a reporter taught him economy and directness. • 3. the art of painting. Cecelia Tichi credits Hemingway with bringing engineering values into prose style. “His style was essentially the achievement of the engineer’s aesthetic of functionalism and formal efficiency. He reduced the sentence to its essential, functional components. Themes • War, death (physical, emotional and psychic death), courage (man’s grace under pressure, faced with the threat of one’s values.), life values. • Hemingway’s view on life: life is one of perpetual annihilation. The aura of mortality had been a noticeable feature of his work. Hemingway’s view on War • The shock of WWI was to Hemingway, at 20, not so much a shock of surprise as one of recognition. War is the continuation of policy by other means. The utter senselessness, ugliness, waste and brutality he found on the Italian front in 1917 and in the Near East in 1922, he immediately felt them to be the real essence of life he had known in Chicago, Toronto. Honesty, decency, tenderness, dignity, humanity itself, were occasionally practiced by individuals but they had no essential place in the society he knew or its institutions. Religion, science and statesmanship exposed themselves more rapidly and completely in war, but their true nature could have been sensed by a sufficiently perceptive observer even before. He had a negative commentary on a modern world filled with sterility, failure and death. View on War • He sensed that his was an epoch of wars and revolutions. There was to be no peace in his world. his preoccupation with danger, death and defeat may have seemed pessimistic on the first armistice days. Having endured the great calamity of WWI, Hemingway found that he could no longer accept those values that previously dominated all of American merits. He began to look for a new system of values, he searched for some principles based upon sense of order and discipline that would endure in any particular situation. • Value of a certain kind of sense experience. Courage, Solidarity. Code hero • He is sensitive, intelligent. He is a man of action and of few words. He is alone even when with other people. He is somewhat an outsider, keeping emotion under control, stoic and self-disciplined in a dreadful place when one can not get happiness. In a world which is essentially chaotic and meaningless, a Hemingway hero fights a solitary struggle against a force he does not even understand. The awareness that it must end in defeat, no matter how hard he strives, engenders a sense of despair, but Hemingway hero possesses a kind of despairing courage. It is this courage that enables a man to behave like a man, to assert his dignity in face of adversity. This is the essence of a code of honor in which all of Hemingway’s heroes believe. Iceberg Theory • If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. the dignity of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. (Death in the Afternoon, p192) • The emphasis on submerging information is the most revolutionary part of Hemingway’s theory f the short story. Hemingway had a great deal to say about America. The autobiographical impulse was major in him. His way is exclusion. The form came by what he would choose to leave out. A Farewell To Arms • The novel shows the filth, meaningless, calamity of war and disillusionment of people. Henry is completely disillusioned. He has been to the war, but has seen nothing sacred and glorious. He is determined to say farewell to arms. But the adversity, threat of death still foreshadows his life. at last the death of his wife and baby makes him taste and experience the death, the nothingness of life, the disillusionment with future, hope and love, happiness.