II American literature

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					      Part IV The literature of
• I. Historical Introduction:
• the civil war brought about 2 results:
• 1. Further industrialization, mechanization,
  urbanization, development of transportation
  and communication.
• 2. Westward movement, Homestead Act, by
  1890, the last of the first 48 states were
    II. Literary Characteristics
• 1. Feminist movement. Emily Dickinson,
  Harriet Beecher Stowe, Sarah Orne Jewett,
  Kate Chopin, Edith Wharton, Ellen
  Glasgow, Willa Cather.
• 2. Decline of American Romanticism, Walt
  Whitman, Leaves of Grass.
• 3. Appearance of American realism
• 4. Appearance of American naturalism.
  American Realism(1870-1890)
• 1. Reasons: civil war, social development. People
  sought to describe the wide range of American
  experience and to present the subtleties of human
  personality, to portray characters who were less
  simply all good or all bad.
• 2. Realism originated in France. A literary
  doctrine that called for “reality and truth” in the
  depiction of ordinary life.
• 3. American realism, different from European
  realism, is more varied and individualistic.
           American Realism
• 4. Development of American realism: first
  appear in the literature of local color, arbiter:
  William Dean Howells. He defined realism
  as “nothing more and nothing less than the
  truthful treatment of material”.
• 5. Important writers: Henry James, Mark
• a mode of writing that gives the impression of
  recording or reflecting faithfully an actual way of
  life. The term refers, both to a literary method
  based on detailed accuracy of description and to a
  more general attitude that rejects idealization,
  escapism, and other extravagant qualities of
  romance in favor of recognizing soberly the actual
  problems of life. Realism is not a direct or simple
  reproduction of reality but a system of
  conventions producing a lifelike illusion of some
  real world outside the text, by processes of
  selection, exclusion, description or manners of
  addressing the reader.
          American Naturalism:
           pessimistic realism
• 1. Naturalism came from France.
• 2. Reasons: civil war, social upheavals, Darwinism,
  hypothesized that over the millennia, man had evolved
  from lower forms of life. Human were special, not because
  God had created them in His image, as the Bible taught,
  but because they had successfully adapted to changing
  environmental conditions and had passed on their
  survivalmaking characteristic genetically. Men were
  dominated by the irresistible forces of evolution. Men were
  conceived as more or less complex combination of
  inherited attributes and habits conditioned by social and
  economic forces, by heredity and environment.
           American Naturalism
• 3. Features of naturalist writing: A. naturalist writers
  turned literary creation into a mechanical record of society,
  in a way of attempting to achieve extreme objectivity and
  frankness. They never made comments on the characters
  and their behaviors. B. The characters were often figures
  of low social and economic classes, with animal desire,
  some physically strong but weak-willed figures. There
  were also some healthy and lofty persons, but their ending
  were miserable. C. the viewpoint from which the writers
  understood problems was amoral, or non-moral. They
  stressed men had no free will, their lives were controlled
  by heredity and environment. D. their material was infinite.
       American Naturalism
• 4. American Naturalist writers: Stephen
  Crane, Frank Norris, Jack London, Henry
  Adams, Theodore Dreiser.
• Poetry is an art of transforming an intensely
  personal moment /experience /emotion (subjective,
  inward) into an impersonal and communicable
  image (objective, outward) through language, with
  a certain form and context, line-length, rhyme-
  scheme, regular meter.
• A poem is a verbal device that would preserve an
  experience indefinitely by reproducing it in
  whoever read the poem. (Philip Larkin)
        Characteristics of Poetry
• Concentration and intensity are two of the qualities that
  distinguish the poetic treatment of a subject from its
  treatment on prose.
• Poetry is characterized by the following elements: a
  musical effect created by rhythm and sounds, a precise and
  fresh imagery, and multiple levels of interpretation
  suggested by the connotation of the closer words and
  allusions. (the ultimate aim of a poet, is to integrate all of
  these elements in order to produce a verbal statement in
  which everything form overall shape to individual word-
  choice is organically related in the most precise way
              Imagery and Tone
• 1. Imagery is the use of descriptive language to re-create
  sensory experiences. An image is a verbal picture of an
  object, action, abstract idea, or sensation. It is often created
  by using figures of speech. There are ways making an idea
  or picture come closer into focus by relating the idea or
  experience to another that may be more familiar to the
• 2. Tone is inferred by the reader through the word choice,
  the connotation of those words, the verse form, the rhyme,
  the figurative language and the allusions.
             Poet and Reader
• The relationship between poet and reader is like an
  infinitely renewable contract, wherein each meets
  the other on the shared ground of language.
• The task for the reader is to minimize the loss and
  distortion of meaning during the process of
  transmission from the poet’s private world to the
  public domain where there are limitless
  possibilities for misunderstanding.
       Meters of English poetry
• There are 3 basic types of meters: Accentual
  meter (the number of syllables per line is variable,
  the number of accents per line is not), Syllabic
  meter (there is a fixed number of syllables per line,
  the number of accents is variable), Accentual—
  syllabic meter (combination of these types is
  characterized by a regular pattern in the number of
  both syllables and stresses in each line).
 Feet: combination of stressed and unstressed
  There are 5 basic types of metrical foot.
 Iambic foot/iamb: unstressed syllable + stressed syllable,
Trochaic foot/trochee: stressed syllable + unstressed syllable,
 Anapestic foot/anapest: two unstressed syllables+ a stressed
   syllable, interrupt
Dactylic foot/dactyle: a stressed syllable + 2 unstressed
   syllables , possible
 Spondaic foot/spondee: 2 successive stressed syllables,
Pyrrhic foot/pyrrhic: 2 successive unstressed syllables, the
   top of the morning
           Emily Dickinson
• Previewing Questions:
• 1.preview “I heard a Fly buzz” and “Because I
  could not stop for death”.
• 2. What is the symbolic meaning of the fly?
• 3. How does she feel when dying?
• 4. What is the theme of the poem?
• 5. What do the carriage and drive symbolize? Who
  is “He”? What is he like?
• 6. What is the theme of the poem?
• 7. What are the features of Emily’s poem?
   Emily Dickinson: America’s
    best-known female poet
• I. Life story (1830-1886)
• II. Works:1800 poems, the definitive edition
  of her poetry were published in 1955: The
  Poetry of Emily Dickinson. (Her weakness
  is a reliance on rhythmic cadences and
  meters from hymns and popular jingles. Her
  modernity is her articulation of
  psychological experience and skeptical
  desire for faith.)
            Emily Dickinson
• Sources: Dickinson     • Themes: wholly
  enjoyed the Bible,       original, from her
  English writers          personal experiences,
  Shakespeare, Milton,     love, nature,
  Dickens, Browning,       friendship, death,
  Keats, George Herbert,   immortality, war, god,
  George Eliot, Thomas     religious belief, humor,
  Carlyle.                 literature, music, art.
              Artistic features
• Abundant use of            • Short poetic lines,
  dashes, irregular and        condensed by using
  idiosyncratic                intense metaphors and
  punctuation and              by extensive use of
  capitalization. Clear-       ellipsis.
  cut, delicately original   • Conventional meters,
  imagery, precise and         iambic tetrameter, off-
  simple diction,              rhymes.
  fragmentary and            • Visual and audible
  enigmatic metrical           effects, great imagina-
  pattern.                     tion, sincere emotions.
                 On Poetry
• She thought that poetry should be powerful and
  touching. The inspiration of the poet came from
  his inner world or intensity of his emotions and
  the past literary traditions and the noble heroes.
  Like Emerson, she thought that only the real poet
  could understand the world. Truth, virtue and
  beauty are all the one thing. The most dignified
  beauty was embodied by the active, affirmative
  dignity. Poetry should express ideas through
  concrete images. It was the poet’s duty to express
  abstract ideas through vivid and fresh imagery.
  She was against the restriction of the traditional
  doctrines and argued for the depiction of one’s
  inner world.
                On nature
• Dickinson observed nature closely and
  described it vividly but never with the
  feeling of being lost in it, or altogether part
  of it, nor was she surprised when its
  creatures also kept their distance. She
  thought that nature was both kind and cruel,
  which was similar to Tennyson.
                On Death
• She wrote about nearly 600 poems on death.
  Her attitude toward immortality was
  contradictory.. It is clear always that for
  Dickinson life and consciousness are
  inseparable. To be transmuted into grass or
  transcendentally made one with the ocean
  or the over-soul are as irrelevant and
  meaningless to this individualist as the idea
  would have been to her puritan ancestors.
  Because I could not stop for death
• She attempts to image some sort of being after
  death develops the deceptively trivial metaphor of
  death as a gentleman taking a lady for a drive. He
  and his passenger are clearly presented but
  perhaps the carriage also holds “immortality”. In a
  few compact lines the drive rapidly becomes one’s
  passage through a lifetime. Although it ends
  unambiguously at the grave there is still a bare
  hint of some inconceivable but possible continuing
     Mark Twain (1835-1910)
• Realistic novelist, humorist, first American
  writer who used the American vernacular
• Life story: he has been printer, steamboat
  pilot, volunteer soldiers, silver miner,
  reporter, writer, lecturer.
                 Main Works
• The Celebrated Jumping     • The     Adventures     of
  Frog of Calaveras County     Huckleberry Finn 1885,
  1865                       • A Connecticut Yankee in
• The Innocents Abroad         King Arthur’s Court 1889,
  1869,.                     • Pudd’s   Head Wilson
• Roughing It 1872,            1894,.
• The Adventures of Tom      • Personal Recollections of
  Sawyer 1876,                 Joan of Arc 1896,
• A Tramp Abroad 1880,.        Following the Equator,
• The Prince and Pauper        1897
  1881,                      • The Man that Corrupted
• Life on the Mississippi      Hadleyburg 1900
  1881,                      • What is Man 1906
• .                          • The Mysterious Stranger
• Broad, often irreverent     • His earlier works are light,
  humor or biting social        humorous, optimistic.
  satire, realism of place    • His later works become
                                darker and more obscure,
  and language,
                                showing his discontent
  memorable characters,         and disappointment
  hatred of hypocrisy           toward the social reality.
  and oppression.               His last works shows his
• Simple and plain              acute pessimism, despair,
                                skepticism determinism.
  diction, precise, direct.
            Artistic Features
• First, he possessed utter clarity of style. He
  evolved a style so clear and economical that other
  contemporary styles seemed slightly archaic, rusty,
  and redundant.
• Second, he had a supreme command of vernacular
  American English. Before him there had been only
  American dialect; after him there was an
  American language. American dialect had been
  used very well by some other writers, but in their
  hands it was surrounded and conditioned by a
  “literary” language that wittingly or unwittingly
  patronized it. Mark Twain removed the
  surrounding frame.
              Artistic features
• Third, there was Mark Twain’s humor, which
  resists explanation. In Twain’s time, humor,
  though it was seen as greatly valuable, remained
  clearly subordinate in the value system of the 19th
  century. The function of humor was to entertain,
  but it was not expected to participate in the high
  seriousness that Matthew Arnold and his age
  asked of literature. But Twain liberated humor,
  raising it to high art—a liberation that parallels his
  creation of vernacular American English. Instead
  of subduing his humor to seriousness, twain
  invaded the citadels of seriousness and freed the
  humor held captive there.
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
• a story of his seeking for freedom, fame, fortune,
  love, manhood. The novel reveals the American
  values: one is hero complex, the other is American
  dream. His adventures is the realization of
  American dream. On the other hand, the book
  record the rising Age of American Bourgeois
  system. It also bears the irony and satire toward
  the religion and by-then popular rigid, didactic
  children education, which curbed the imagination
  of children and their innate nature for freedom and
  adventures and molded them into a stereotype of
  lifeless man.
• He portrayed uniquely American subjects in a
  humorous and colloquial, yet poetic, language. His
  success in creating this plain but evocative
  language precipitated the end of American
  reverence for British and European culture and for
  the more formal language associated with those
  traditions. His adherence to American themes,
  settings, and language set him apart from many
  other novelists of the day and had a powerful
  effect on such later writers
     Henry James (1843-1916)
• Psychological realistic writer, short-story
  writer, playwright, critic, essayist, 22 novels
  and over 100 short stories and some critical
• I. Life story
• II. Main works: 3 stages
• 1. 1865-1881, international novel. Watch
  and Ward 1871, Roderick Hudson, 1875,
  The American 1877, Daisy Miller, 1878,
  The Portrait of a Lady, 1881.
                Main works
• 2. 1885-1897, more English, focusing on realistic
  social life. The Bostonians 1886, (a satire account
  of female emancipation in Boston), The Princess
  Casamassima, 1886, (richly observed novel of
  anarchists and aristocrats in London) The Tragic
  Muse, 1890.
• 3. 1895-1916, Major phase: on international theme,
  develop mature and formidable style, on people’s
  psychology when confronted with ethical
  problems. The Wings of the Dove 1902, The
  Ambassadors, 1903, The Golden Bowl 1904.
         International Theme
• Conflicts between New and Old world,
  traditional, innocent, honest American and
  complex, sophisticated, snobbish, arrogant,
  vain Europeans, American freshness of
  impulse, moral integrity, candor of heart,
  complexity deviousness of the European
       Style and Subject Matter
• Refined, subtle, intricate, later obscure, costive,
  with long and complex sentences. detailed
  psychological depiction capable of reproducing
  every nuances of the fine moral intelligence or
  expressing the subtlest meanings. Single point of
  view, scenic progression.
• He describes upper-class unmarried women
  involved in various courtship rituals and marriage
  rites with upper-class men at the private level, and
  records the social splits that separate males from
  females in the nation’s public life.
  Theory on Fiction, The Art of Fiction 1884
• Novel:an art form of penetrating analysis of individual,
  confronting society, chronicles of the psychological
  perceptions that James himself defined as the highest form
  of experience. “The only obligation to which in advance
  we may hold a novel is that it be interesting. A novel, in its
  broadest definition, is a personal, direct impression of
  life… that, to begin with, constitutes its value, which is
  greater or less according to the intensity of the impression.
  But here will be no intensity at all, and therefore no value,
  unless there is freedom to feel and say.” The reason for the
  existence of novel is that it tries to show life. the artistic
  field should include all life, all emotions, all experiences,
  all interpretation. Reality is the biggest merit of novel.
                   On Novelist
• Novelists should have absolute freedom in creating. They
  must be good at experiencing life. They must predict the
  unknown future from the known reality. They must acquire
  a certain knowledge of the flexibility of novel. He points
  out that contents must be in harmony with form and
  compared their close relationship to that thread and needle.
• Novelist and world. He also advocates insight and
  depiction of men’s inner world and advised writers to
  catch the complexity of psychological activities, arguing
  it’s not enough to describe the outside details. “There is
  one point at which the moral sense and the artistic sense lie
  very near together;
• Novelist and work. That is in the light of the
  very obvious truth that the deepest quality
  of a work of art will always be the quality
  of the mind of the producer. No good novel
  will ever proceed from a superficial mind.”
• Terms invented: sensibility, donne,
  execution, point of view.
• Henry James was regarded as the forefather
  of literature of “Stream of Consciousness”
  and “modern novel criticism”. Together
  with Howells, Mark Twain, James
  contributed to American realistic novels. He
  is the first theorist of fiction.
         The Portrait of a Lady
• Previewing questions:
• 1. Why did Isabel choose Osmond?
• 2. Why did she decide to return to her unhappy
  marriage at the end of the novel?
• 3. Isabel’s characters.
• 4. How did James show the conflicts between
  American and European cultures?
• 5. Features in style.
• 6. Meaning of the title.
• 7. Themes of the novel.
• The novel is about how an American girl lose her naivety
  gradually, influenced by sophisticated European life. It is a
  rich and subtle study of what it would mean for a woman
  to practice the absolute self-determination, based on a
  completely individual nonconformist personal judgment,
  which Emerson had preached. This exploration of
  transcendental individualism as a guide to life may be
  compared with Melville’s exploration of the same idea in
  his creation of captain Ahab. There Melville examined the
  effect such conduct might have when adopted by a
  powerful and ruthless man. James,is much more concerned
  with the effect such an attitude may have on his heroine
  herself. Isabel Archer’s impact on the world around her is
  comparatively unimportant but the result in her own life is
  as devastating as Ahab’s, though not as violent, or perhaps,
  as final.
• Madame Merle, Gilbert Osmand are James’
  personification of aspects of evil. This belatedness
  of Evil, this understanding of it as a matter of
  texts and letters, ultimately became James’ great
  contribution to the imagination of evil. It leads
  James to the strategy of reasserting its importance
  by questioning it, challenging it actively, not
  asserting flatly its existence but making it a
  competitor in a world acknowledged to be
  skeptical of it.
• The work is based on Milton’s epic “Paradise
  Lost”. This is a novel of the fortunate fall. Just like
  in Milton’s poem, everything is pointed toward a
  defining of freedom. The novel certainly concerns
  the unexpectedly far-reaching consequences of a
  character’s inadequacies of perception. But here
  we have a full development of necessity and
  freedom, circumstances and free will, in which
  each, bewilderingly, may take on the appearance
  of the other. And here alone, until James’ very last
  works will this freedom be achieved, precisely
  because a character will learn the deep
  comprehension of necessity.
     Part V. Twentieth-Century
• 1920s, Jazz Age.
• I. Historical Background: WWI, peace-making
  period/boom time.
• Politically, USentered WWI in 1917 for purity and
  democracy. The period of peace-making ended
  with general disillusionment about the value of
  war: only a sense of the failure of political leaders
  and a belief in the futility of hope. No abiding
  solutions to the world’s problems was found. And
  the resurgence of nationalism and the rise of new
  totalitarianism produce a second world war.
               20s, Jazz Age
• Economically, because of the war, American
  industry developed fast. The nation is full of
  bouncing ebullience, fearful of nothing, confident
  smug isolationism.
• Socially, decline of idealism. Patriotism became
  cynical disillusionment. Unity of family weakened.
  There appeared the revolt of the Younger
  Generation. They escaped responsibility and
  assumed immorality.
                 Jazz Age
• After WWI, people found that the war which cost
  millions of lives failed to provide an abiding
  solutions to the world’s problems, that the war
  was just the traps of political leaders. Such a
  disillusionment about the value of war,
  accompanied by the booming of American
  economy drove people to cynical hedonism.
  People experiment with new amusements. They
  restlessly pursued stimulus and pleasures, wallow
  in heavy drinking, fast driving and casual sex. By
  these, they hoped to seek relief from serious
                Lost Generation
• refers to those writers who were devoid of faith, values and
  ideals and who were alienated from the civilization the
  capitalist society advocated. It includes the writers such as
  (Hemingway, F.S. Fitzgerald, Thomas Wolfe, and Louis
  Bromfield) and poets (like Malcolm Cowley, E. E.
  Cummings, Archibald Macleish, and Ezra Pound), who
  rebelled against former values and ideas, but replaced them
  only by despair or a cynical hedonism. They were totally
  frustrated by the WWI and returned from that “Great War”
  to their own country only to find the grim reality that the
  social values and civilization were hollow and affected if
  compared to the cruel realities of the battleground. They
  felt alienated from American civilization, which was
  conveyed in their lives of exile and expatriation.
                Lost Generation
• They had cut themselves off from their past and old values
  in America and yet unable to come to terms with the new
  era when civilization had gone mad. They wandered
  pointlessly and restlessly, enjoying things like fishing,
  swimming, bullfight and beauties of nature, but they were
  aware all the while that the world is crazy and meaningless
  and futile. Their whole life was undercut and defeated.
  They cast away all past concepts and values in order to
  create new types of writing, which was characterized by
  disillusionment with ideals and further with civilization the
  capitalist society advocated. They painted the post-war
  western world as a waste land, lifeless and hopeless due to
  ethical degradation and disillusionment with dreams.
                II. Literature
• Poetry: T. S. Eliot The Wasteland.
• Novel: Sinclair Lewis Main Street 1920
• Theodore Dreiser     An American Tragedy 1925,
• F. S. Fitzgerald    The Great Gatsby 1926,
• Ernest Hemingway,        The Sun Also Rises 1926,  A
  Farewell to Arms, 1929,
• William Faulkner     The Sound and the Fury, 1929,
• Drama: Eurgene O’Neill, The Emperor Jones, 1920,
  Anna Christie, 1921, The Hairy Ape 1922,
• Harlem Renaissance.
        1930s, Great Depression
• I. Historical Background: under the attack of the grave
  world economic crisis, all contradictions inherent in the
  capitalist system intensified. slow recovery, social
  upheavals, the world drifted toward another great war. The
  bounce gone, the populace terrified. They lost confidence
  in everything.
• II. Literature of political and social criticism. The
  novels mirrored the threats to democratic thought and a
  strong ideological countercurrent which caused great
  ideological confusion into Americans.
• Novels: John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath 1939.
               Post-WWII, 50s,
• I. Historical Background:
• After the WWII, the nuclear time had unmistakably
  claimed itself and Americans were suddenly brought to
  face a completely new world in which old rules and
  guidelines turned out to be helpless. The united States got
  even more involved in the international affairs.
• 50s, America’s rival with another big power of war
  victor—the Soviet Union—resulted in the initial of the
  Cold War. As much as the escalation of the Cold War a
  series of major incidents occurred to the attention of the
  world. as Truman’s containment to East Asia faltered,
  Korean War broke out in June 1950. This was the first war
  that American had ever fought without victory. This
  unbalance and lost war tarred the prestige of Americans as
  heroes of the second World War and shed a dark shadow
  on the mind of Americans.
        II. Literature in the 50s.
• A new generation of American authors appeared
  writing in the skeptical, ironic tradition of the
  earlier realists and naturalists. The writers used a
  prose style modeled on the works of Ernest
  Hemingway, and F. S. Fitzgerald, narrative
  techniques of William Faulkner, psychological
  insights of Sigmund Freud. In the 1950s, the “Beat”
  writers, in expression of disaffection with “official”
  American life, were brutally and directly dominant.
  The so-called “Beat Generation,” though not
  expatriate like the Lost Generation, were
  alienated—feeling like foreigners in their own
Beat Generation
                Main Works
• Jack Kerouac, On the Road,              poet Allen
  Ginsberg, Howl,
• Jewish Writer Saul Bellow, Seize the Day, 1956,
• Black Writer Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man 1956,
• Norman Mailer, The Man Who Studied Yoga,
• J. D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye, 1951.
• I. Historical Background:The Cuban missile crisis took
  place in Oct, 1962. Vietnam War (1965-73) was another
  stage of the Cold War. The U. S. continuous slaughter
  proved little military efficiency. The War in Vietnam
  seemed to Americans a life-swallow machine without end
  and victory in sight. Disillusionment spread throughout the
  United States. Anti-war movement grew in size and
  militancy. More than 500,000 soldiers were deserted
  during the Vietnam years. This unjust war ended in
  Americans’ humiliating withdrawal of their exhausted
  troops from “a small unimportant country” in 1973. The
  war left a permanent scar in the memory of Americans.
      II. Literature in the 1960s.
• 1. The writes turned to experimental techniques, to
  absurd humor, to mocking examination of the
  irrational and the disordered. The black humor
  featured the 1960s.
• Joseph Heller, Catch-22, 1961,
• John Barth, The Sot-Weed Factor, 1961, Ken
• One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 1962,
• Thomas Pynchon, Gravity’s Rainbow 1973.
Black humor
          Literature in the 60s
• It was a decade when literature began to diverse in
  style and form. Various themes and different ways
  of exploration of the meaning of life were
• Psychological realistic novels:
• John Updike, Rabbit Run, 1960,
• Wright Morris, Ceremony in Lone Tree, 1960,
• John Cheever, The Wapshot Scandal, 1984,
• Truman Capote, In Cold Blood, 1966,
• Joyce Carol Oates, A Garden of Earthly Delights
• Saul Bellow,     Herzog 1964,
• Issac Bashevis Singer, The Manor, 1967.
        Literature in the 60s
• Southern novels:
• William Faulkner, The Receivers 1962,
• Flannery O’Conner,     The Violent Bear it
  Away, 1960,
• Poetry: Robert Lowell, Allen Ginsberg.
• Drama: Arthur Miller, Edward Albee,
  Tennessee Williams.
• I. Historical Background.
• II. Literature. The 1970s was a stage on which all kinds
  of literary art were performed. The Southern fiction,
  Jewish fiction, Psychological fiction, African-American
  Fiction, Science fiction, feminist fiction, etc., completed
  interrelatedly to present themselves, which displayed a
  prosperous panorama of literature. Jewish novelists Saul
  Bellow and Issac Singer were separately awarded the
  Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976 and in 1978. Bellow
  was ranked as one of the most important novelists of the
  20th century American literature after the WWII.
           Literature in the 70s
• Black Literature: Richard Wright, Native Son,
  1940, Ellison, Invisible Man, 1952, Alex Haley,
  Malcolm X, Alice Walker, Toni Morrison.
• Poetry: poets urged by upheavals of the post-war
  period participated actively all kinds of political or
  literary movement with their pens, to express their
  views, to utter their uneasiness about the uses of
  social power and industrial power, in poems.
• Theodore Roethke, Robert Lowell, Richard
  Wilbur, Richard Eberhart, Allen Ginsberg, Gary
  Snyder, Sylvia Plath, Delmore Schwarts.
              Plays after WWII
• Plays after WWII survived under the squeeze of movies
  and especially television. Old playwrights like Eugene
  O’Neill continued to produce sensational plays. New and
  young playwrights were struggling to broaden the ways
  and forms of theatrical language in the narrowing art space.
  The influence of Europe’s “Theater of the Absurd,
  “ Eugene O’Neill’s combination of naturalism,
  expressionism and Greek tragedy, and Broadway’s
  commercialization all pushed modern drama to emerge in
  new faces: “Middle Drama”, “Off-Broadway”, “Off-Off-
  Broadway”, Black Theater and other experimental forms.
  Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, Edward Albee.
  Imagist Movement 1909-1917
• Imagist movement is a movement of English and
  American poets in revolt from romanticism, seeking clarity
  of expression through the use of precise images. Its first
  anthology: Des Imagistes, published in 1914, edited by
  Pound. The principles of the imagist manifesto were laid
  down by Pound in 1913. the official credo was prepared
  the 1915 anthology: Some Imagist Poets, edited by Amy
• As a broad movement, imagism signals the beginning of
  English and American modernism, and a definite break
  with the Romantic-Victorian tradition. As a particular
  school, les imagists are the heritages of T. E. Hulme’s
  1909 group of impressionist poets who experimented with
  brief visual poems in the Oriental manner.
              Imagist Movement
• It shares the penchant/tendency for sculptural hardness and
  immaculate craftsmanship, the accent on pure poetry to the
  exclusion of all extrapoetic content, the practice of
  irregular, free verse. It is a laconic/brief complex in which
  “painting or sculpture seems as if it were just coming over
  into speech.” 4Iits significance resides in its revaluation of
  Romanticism and 19th century which, with few exceptions,
  it dismissed as a sentimental, blurry, manneristic period; its
  insistence on the functional, rather than the merely
  ornamental, potentiality of the poetic image, and the
  latter’s capacity for conveying the concrete and definite.
       Principles of Imagism
• 1. Direct treatment of the “thing” whether
  subjective or objective.
• 2. To use absolutely no word that does not
  contribute to the presentation.
• 3. As regarding rhythm: to compose in
  sequence of the musical phrase, not in
  sequence of the metronome.
     Robert Frost (1874-1963)
• unofficial poet laureate, 4 Pulitzer Prize, read
  poem at a presidential inauguration.
• I. Life Story.
• II. Main Works.
• A Boy’s Will 1913, North of Boston, 1914,
• Mountain Interval, 1916, New Hampshire 1923,
• West-Running Brook 1928, A Further Range 1936,
  A Witness Tree 1942, Steeple Bush, 1947, In the
  Clearing 1962
• Themes: Nature, Men’s relations to the natural
  world, men’s relations to each other.
• 1 rejected the revolutionary poetic principles of
  his contemporaries, choosing the old-fashioned
  way to be new.
• 2 employ the plain speech of rural New
• 3 use the simple, short, traditional forms of lyrics
  and Narrative, can probe mysteries of darkness
  and irrationality in the bleak and chaotic
  landscapes of an indifferent universe where man
  stand alone, unaided and perplexed.
• 1 He is very much aware of the concrete setting in
  which his people live. He is able to present it
  vividly by selecting significant details.
• 2 The people themselves are less interesting since
  Frost sees them as representative types rather than
  as individuals. It makes readers get much more
  sense of their social matrix and of older New
  England life in general.
• 3 He used a carefully selected and reconstructed
  New England as a symbolic microcosm of the
  natural world in which every man must, sooner or
  later, learn to do with a diminished thing.
         The Road Not Taken
• 1. What do I do when faced with 2 diverged roads?
• 2. What is my reason for choosing the other? What
  do you think of the reason? Sound or not? What
  does “grassy” indicate?
• 3. What kind of person do you think I am from my
• 4. What does these 2 lines of the 2nd stanza
• 5. What does “Leaves no steps had trodden black”
        The Road Not Taken
• 6. What do I think of before I step on this
• 7. How do you judge the last 2 lines? Is it
  natural to think so? How is the choice? Is it
  rational or sound?
• 8. What message does it convey?
• 9. What tone is it?
• 10. What is the theme of the poem?
• 11. What is the image?
        After Apple-Picking
• 1. What is the meaning of the title?
• 2. What have I been doing?
• 3. What do I want to do after done with
• 4. What is the essence of winter sleep?
• 5. What form was my dream to take? Why?
• 6. What was I to dream?
         After Apple-Picking
• 7. What will trouble my dream?
• 8. What do the last few lines indicate?
• 9. Tell about the poem in a sentence.
• 10. What kind of life does the poem
• 11. Can you sense the poet’s boundless love
  toward the idyllic life in New England area?
• 12. Theme, tone, image.
 Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)
• I. Life story. Born in Oak Park, near Chicago. His
  father is a physician. His mother is a domineering
  woman, a singer.
• In 1917, he graduated from high school and
  worked as a reporter. Rejected for army service in
  WWI, he volunteered to serve as a driver for an
  American ambulance unit in France, then to Italian
  front, where he was seriously wounded. After the
  war, he worked as a reporter abroad. He got
  married in 1921. In 1927, he left his first wife and
  son, for a wealthy young woman.
                  Life story
• In 1937, he became a foreign correspondent
  covering the Spanish civil war. He met a young
  reporter and they got married in 1940. His third
  marriage was troubled from the beginning. He
  resented Martha’s devotion to her career. In 1944,
  in anticipation of the allied landing in France,
  Hemingway secured a job of reporter. He landed
  in France in Aug, 1944 and advanced to Paris. In
  London at the end of 1945, Hemingway and
  Martha met there. He was more than ready to fall
  in love again, this time with another young
  journalist. They were married in 1944.
                  Life story
• In the early 1950s, Hemingway showed some
  symptoms of physical deterioration. In 1954, he
  was awarded the Nobel Prize. But he was too ill to
  go to Stockholm but sent a message there. Finally
  in 1960, there was a real breakdown. At the end of
  Nov, 1960, he was hospitalized and at the end of
  June, 1961, he was released and returned to
  Ketchum, Idaho. Early next morning he killed
  himself with his favorite shotgun.
                 Main works
• Three Stories and Ten
  Poems, 1923,               • To Have and Have not,
                               1937       (change attitude
• In Our Time, 1925
                               and style)
• The Sun also Rises, 1926
                             • For Whom the Bell Tolls,
• Men without Women,           1940
                             • Across the River and into
• A Farewell to Arms, 1929     the Wood, 1950
• Death in the Afternoon,    • The old Man and the Sea,
  1932,                        1952, A Moveable Feast,
• Winner Take Nothing,         1962, Islands in the
  1933                         Stream, 1970.
• Green Hills of Africa,
• tight, terse, spare, reporter prose, lean, reduce the sentences
  to its essential, functional components. Yet muscular and
  efficient, convey its emotional insights clearly and with
  sharp impact, combine a desired objectivity with an
  authorial selectivity.
• Vernacular, Simple sentence structure, restricted
  vocabulary, precise imagery, an impersonal dramatic tone,
  avoid expressing feeling directly, prefer to express feeling
  between the lines, with some symbols.
  Avoid abstract words, (complex sentences for he feels
  embarrassed by these words such as glory, honor, courage, )
• 1. Hemingway’s lean style first was influenced by
  Ezra Pound. “use no superfluous word, no
  adjective which does not reveal something.” “the
  proper and perfect symbol is the natural object.”
• 2. journalism: A brief apprenticeship as a reporter
  taught him economy and directness.
• 3. the art of painting. Cecelia Tichi credits
  Hemingway with bringing engineering values into
  prose style. “His style was essentially the
  achievement of the engineer’s aesthetic of
  functionalism and formal efficiency. He reduced
  the sentence to its essential, functional
• War, death (physical, emotional and psychic
  death), courage (man’s grace under pressure,
  faced with the threat of one’s values.), life
• Hemingway’s view on life: life is one of
  perpetual annihilation. The aura of mortality
  had been a noticeable feature of his work.
      Hemingway’s view on War
• The shock of WWI was to Hemingway, at 20, not so much
  a shock of surprise as one of recognition. War is the
  continuation of policy by other means. The utter
  senselessness, ugliness, waste and brutality he found on the
  Italian front in 1917 and in the Near East in 1922, he
  immediately felt them to be the real essence of life he had
  known in Chicago, Toronto. Honesty, decency, tenderness,
  dignity, humanity itself, were occasionally practiced by
  individuals but they had no essential place in the society he
  knew or its institutions. Religion, science and
  statesmanship exposed themselves more rapidly and
  completely in war, but their true nature could have been
  sensed by a sufficiently perceptive observer even before.
  He had a negative commentary on a modern world filled
  with sterility, failure and death.
               View on War
• He sensed that his was an epoch of wars and
  revolutions. There was to be no peace in his world.
  his preoccupation with danger, death and defeat
  may have seemed pessimistic on the first armistice
  days. Having endured the great calamity of WWI,
  Hemingway found that he could no longer accept
  those values that previously dominated all of
  American merits. He began to look for a new
  system of values, he searched for some principles
  based upon sense of order and discipline that
  would endure in any particular situation.
• Value of a certain kind of sense experience.
  Courage, Solidarity.
                      Code hero

• He is sensitive, intelligent. He is a man of action and of
  few words. He is alone even when with other people. He is
  somewhat an outsider, keeping emotion under control,
  stoic and self-disciplined in a dreadful place when one can
  not get happiness. In a world which is essentially chaotic
  and meaningless, a Hemingway hero fights a solitary
  struggle against a force he does not even understand. The
  awareness that it must end in defeat, no matter how hard he
  strives, engenders a sense of despair, but Hemingway hero
  possesses a kind of despairing courage. It is this courage
  that enables a man to behave like a man, to assert his
  dignity in face of adversity. This is the essence of a code of
  honor in which all of Hemingway’s heroes believe.
              Iceberg Theory
• If a writer of prose knows enough about what he is
  writing about he may omit things that he knows
  and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough,
  will have a feeling of those things as strongly as
  though the writer had stated them. the dignity of
  an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being
  above water. (Death in the Afternoon, p192)
• The emphasis on submerging information is the
  most revolutionary part of Hemingway’s theory f
  the short story. Hemingway had a great deal to
  say about America. The autobiographical impulse
  was major in him. His way is exclusion. The form
  came by what he would choose to leave out.
          A Farewell To Arms
• The novel shows the filth, meaningless, calamity
  of war and disillusionment of people.
 Henry is completely disillusioned. He has been to
  the war, but has seen nothing sacred and glorious.
  He is determined to say farewell to arms. But the
  adversity, threat of death still foreshadows his life.
  at last the death of his wife and baby makes him
  taste and experience the death, the nothingness of
  life, the disillusionment with future, hope and love,