Women in 1920

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					WOMEN IN 1920
Women have always been enjoying lesser rights and privileges as compared to men. Formerly, the only 2 professions that a woman was entitled to, were, being a wife and being a mother and thus she were confined to the walls of her home. The second and the last option that was left open to a woman to earn a living herself was by being a seamstress or keep boarding houses. They would be regarded as the weaker sex and therefore not encouraged in the corporate world. But as time elapsed women realized that they too shall avail of the dignity and the honor that men enjoy in the society. This could be only done through education where in, a woman could raise up her standard and prove herself to be equal and even superior to men. The limitations did not end even when women broke open the shackles of bondages and started working. They were not permitted to work in the other fields. There were only some jobs that they could undertake. They were factory labor, house-hold work, writing and teaching. All the prestigious jobs were left open to men. Women were also not allowed to work in the field of medicine. They were even exempted from being nurses in the nursing homes. This can be clearly illustrated by the fact that women were even barred or stopped from entering the American Medical Association. Therefore the women stepped ahead and established the female medical college of Pennsylvania for themselves. Women now took a great leap forward: women became doctors. The status of women was by now improved in other professions. As time passed by, the proportion of women who worked as lawyers and judges also increased from 2% to 22%. Now there were women who were also engineers. There was a decrease in the number of women in the agricultural sector. On the other hand, there was tremendous increase in the number of women in the field of teaching. But even in the teaching section, higher positions were

still occupied by men. Women now also served in offices and worked there as clerks, secretaries, book-keepers, typists, etc. They also worked as waitresses, cleaning women, cooks, hairdressers and hospital attendants. Connecticut was a state that was leading in the manufactures of arms, ammunitions and firearms. A great number of women were employed in Connecticut. Women's Bureau was also started. It’s function was to prepare standards and policies which would promote the betterment of wage-earning women, make their working conditions better, raise their to formulate standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage-earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their efficiency, and develop their opportunities for commercial employment. Women also made an impact in the field of medicine and there were some who were regarded as the best of the scientists that the U.S ever had. Women also studied geologists and there were a number of women geologists who sprang in the U.S. But the most arresting fact is that the women even proved themselves to be true nationalists by serving in the army during the World War II. Some 300,000 women served in the army as typists, clerks, attendants, helpers and some even took part in the difficult tasks like underground resistance movement. Women, by the 19th century comprised of more than 45 percent of employed individuals in the United States. But still they were denied the higher positions. Inspite of the implication of the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women were as usual paid much lesser as compared to men .They were paid about 45% lesser for the same jobs they shared with the men .Promotions were also denied to them and men were given more preference. They were even distinguished from the man stating that they were either married or most likely to get married. But the fact was that women continued to work even after they got

married. A number of elderly women also started working in factories as labors. But the number of working women kept on increasing irrespective of the various limitations that were imposed on them. Women were allowed to cast their votes in the year 1920 but their role in politics was very minor. This period was further regarded as the best period in the economic point of view.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: REFERED TO SITES LIKE WWW.YAHOO.COM AND WWW.GOOGLE.COM (WIKIPEDIA)

THE STRUGGLE OF WOMEN
In the 19th century, American women surely won the right to vote, but did not acquire authorized equal opportunity with men in the other areas. Since 1920, women have won many other rights as

well, but, Inspite of this there are arguments held now that women have still not attained equality. Women were considered as prisoners in their own homes. But a low preference was given to the demands of women for equal rights because it was studied by the politicians and other political bodies, that women, Inspite of the 19th amendment being sanctioned in the year 1920 did not agree and vote as an union like men did. Initially, women did not even cast their votes in great numbers .therefore a strong “female vote” did not take place. At this, the women’s rights activists felt disheartened that their hard-work had gone to waste. They even claimed that women. Are still in each and every way inferior to men in all aspects and most importantly before the law .In many cases women even were not considered capable of taking their own decisions. The federal courts too had ruled that the 14th amendments surety of “equal protection of the laws” was not applicable to women. .Therefore several efforts were made by the women’s rights activists to provide women with equal rights and privileges that the men enjoyed. Petitions were made to the Congress to form a new amendment that would guarantee equal rights to women. Therefore an amendment regarding the equal rights of women was put forth. It constituted the following things: The amendment stated that there shall be no discrimination made on the basis of sex. That is women shall not be distinguished from men. The amendment also demanded equal pay scales for men and women. The right to serve on juries To remove the ban that was set on the number of hours a woman could put into work The right to work at late night The so- called protective laws that prevented a woman from performing dangerous tasks and undertaking risky professions like mining. Due to these laws the women were exempted from goodpaying jobs. Now the issue that created waves was regarding the equal pay.

After the entry of the United States into the World War II, millions of women rushed into jobs to replace men in various fields. . The protective laws were barred. But there were still some differences that prevailed.. There were also some more appeals made to the government regarding the rights of the women. These rights included: drafting mothers into the military forces, eliminating rape as a crime, backing abortions with taxpayer currency, starting unisex civic restrooms, integrating women into men’s athletic teams. Appeals regarding the authorization of homosexuality were being made. They further appealed that such marriages shall be allowed, and the adoption of children by these couples also shall be legally approved. . There were improvements made in the rights of women in the areas of work, education and facilities like pensions. Women were also allowed to join non-traditional jobs like police force, corporate jobs and the medical jobs. Although the average earnings of men and women got closer due to the various amendments and laws that were passed, there were still complaints from the women advocates that they were paid very less as compared to the men. There was still a wage gap that existed. But there were certain arguments that were put forward by the critics regarding the wage gap. They stated that. It is not evident that the women are paid lesser as compared to men for the same job. But it is merely the proportion of men’s to women’s standard yearly earnings. Education Amendments Act further barred the sex discrimination in schools and other educational institutions that were run by the federal funds. Therefore women participated in athletics and other sports events that were previously only open to men. With the various amendments, laws and acts passed women were considered equal in all the fields and most importantly at home. They were more likely to be dominant in the homes and were not pressurized with the house hold work because men too now helped

them in the household chores. Work was equally distributed all thanks to the women activists and the other social reforms which struggled for the upliftment of women. BIBLIOGRAPHY: SITES REFFERED: WWW.GOOGLE.COM WWW.YAHOO.COM National Center for Policy Analysis: The Wage Gap Myth
“Understanding the Arizona constitution” by Toni McClory The history of women’s history by Borgina Brunner

In the 19th century cardinal virtues for women: 1. 2. Piety--Advocates believed that women were far more religious and spiritual in nature than men. Purity--America's women were supposed to be pure of heart, mind, and, of course, body, not engaging in sexual intercourse until marriage, and even then not enjoying it. A popular poem of the day expressed pride in the exceptional purity of American daughters:


				
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Description: Show the troubles which women faced in early times