Document Sample
  The World of English in the
       Senior School

        by Joslyn Fox
    There are many different genres of
      writing used in Senior School
    English. Some examples include:
   Analytical writing
   Expository Writing
   Narrative Writing
   Descriptive Writing
   Recount Writing
           What is the purpose?
To inform or demonstrate knowledge about a
 particular topic.

    For example:
   Rick Deckard – hero or villain? What techniqes
    does Ridley Scott use to blur the lines between
    the two?
   What techniques does Kazuo Ishiguro use to
    convey his opinion regarding genetic
How do I organize my material?




Sentence-outlining your topic
 Always begin your paragraph with a topic
  sentence. Make it clear what the whole
  paragraph is about.
For example:
 “There is no doubt that authors often present
  similar ideas in different ways.”
 “The death of Tom Robinson can clearly be
  linked to three people.”
Now develop your argument
 by explaining your point of
     X = Example
Give an example from the
 text to support your answer.
Finish each paragraph by
 making a clear link back to
 the question.
           3 POINT APPROACH
   Select the question you are going to answer.
   Write a rough plan for your essay basing it around
    3 main points – these will form the basis of your
   Incorporate these 3 points into your introduction
    to give the initial structure to your essay.
   Now plan at least 3 paragraphs, one per point.
   In your conclusion repeat these 3 points again in a
    different way.
        Exemplar #1
Single Text: Never Let Me Go

What techniques does the author of
 a prescribed text use to influence
 the reader to take a particular
 position concerning the issues
 explored in the text?
Kazuo Ishiguro in his text Never Let Me Go uses a
  number of techniques to influence the reader to
  share his concerns regarding genetic engineering.
  Characterization, use of language and symbolism
  are all devices used by Ishiguro to force the
  reader to understand that with all the advances
  made in medical science, careful thought must
  be given to ethical boundaries.
             3 MAIN POINTS
             used in this essay

1.   Characterization
2.   Use of Language
3.   Symbolism
        Exemplar #2
Single Text: Never Let Me Go

How does the author of a prescribed
 text use repetition as a technique to
 emphasis ideas?
Kazuo Ishiguro in his text Never Let Me Go uses
  the technique of repetition to emphasize the
  idea that genetic engineering without boundaries
  is a dangerous path to follow. Repetition of the
  title as a major theme, the recurring symbol of
  The Gallery and the repeated de-humanisation
  of the protagonists all combine to create an
  imaginary world in which medical science
  appears to have advanced at the expense of
  human compassion.
             3 MAIN POINTS
             used in this essay

1.   Repetition of the title as a main theme
2.   Recurring symbol of The Gallery
3.   Repeated de-humanisation of the protagonists
 Remember    that you are being
 marked on your ability to
 intelligently discuss HOW your
 texts are crafted, NOT what they
 are all about.
This means using terms such as:
 Characterisation
 Setting
 Themes
 Symbolism
 Narrative voice
 Imagery
 Use of Language
 Remember    that the characters in
 your texts are not real people –
 they are devices of the author that
 help craft the text.
   Never include a quotation for its own sake…
    always integrate them into your own writing
    with some kind of context. For example:
   He could easily see his own mortality reflected
    “twisted and anguished” in the pale water.
   He could easily see his own mortality reflected
    in the pale water. “Twisted and
                  Analytical Essay Rubric
      A                 B                 C                 D                 E
Thorough          Very good         A sound           A superficial     Significant
knowledge &       knowledge &       knowledge &       knowledge &       inaccuracies or
perceptive        understanding     understanding     understanding     gaps in
understanding     of the text       of the text       of the text,      knowledge &
of the text                                           often limited     understanding
                                                      to retelling of   of the text
                                                      the plot
Excellent         A very good       Some              Limited           Little or no
understanding     understanding     understanding     understanding     understanding
of the            of the            of the            of the            of the role of
characteristics   characteristics   characteristics   characteristics   the author, the
of text types     of text types     of text types     of text types     characteristics
                                                                        of text types
                                                                        or textual
    Exemplars of Analytical Essays
For Year 12 English, exemplars on the SACE
 Board website are a good starting point
    This approach works well for
responses to all text types including:
   Paired Text Essays
   Single Text Essays
   Poetry Essays
   Extra things to keep in mind for
       paired text / poetry essays:
 Integrate your discussion of texts
  within EACH paragraph – don’t write
  half your essay on the first text and
  the other half on the second.
 In the case of poetry essays integrate
  at least two poems per paragraph
 The aim is to compare and contrast as
  you go.
      Joslyn Fox
  Clare High School
What is the purpose of an expository
   An expository essay attempts to explain a
    subject to an audience.
   The writer usually demonstrates some authority
    or a detailed knowledge of a specific subject.
   Expository writing argues a
 particular point of view from a
 range of facts, information and
opinions or presents the case for
    both sides of a particular
   Expository writing usually
addresses a controversial subject
  about which there are many
opinions, and it usually requires
        some research.
       What are the main features of
           expository writing?
   It should clearly state your opinion
   It should include relevant and accurate data (this
    can include facts, statistics, examples and
    comments from experts)
   It should logically argue a point (sometimes two
    points of view if you are asked to present the
    case for and against a proposition)
   It should arrive at a satisfying conclusion
What is the structure of an expository
Expository essays follow a three part structure:
 Introduction (establishing your opinions)

 Body (paragraphs containing your arguments for
  and/or against the topic in detail including
  examples to support your opinion)
 Conclusion (summarising your final weighing of
  the evidence)
What language is used in expository
   The language is usually formal and may include
    technical or specialist vocabulary.
   Expository writing aims to
persuade the audience to share a
    particular point of view.
This means that persuasive
language is very important.
The most common types of
 persuasive language are:
              Biased Language
   This has positive and negative feelings
    associated with it.
   Words and expressions can be used in an
    offensive way to indicate prejudice and influence
    the audience in a negative way.
   It is similarly possible to portray issues in a
    positive and romantic manner to influence the
    audience in a positive way.
            Emotive Language
   This language arouses specific emotions such as
    anger, fear, sympathy and so on.
   This is language that exaggerates for effect.
            Inclusive Language
   This type of language encourages the audience
    to feel they are on the same side as the writer.
   Words like “we” and “our” are used and it is a
    form of second peerson narration.
           Figurative Language
   This is language that uses similes and metaphors
    to create images in the reader’s mind.
   These are numerical facts, often concerning
    things like population, income and costs.
   Statistics may imply research and knowledge of
    the topic.
   They lend a scientific authenticity to whatever is
    being discussed.
            Appeals to Experts
   This technique uses the views of people who are
    assumed to know a great deal about the subject
    (eg. Professors, Doctors, Scientists etc.)
   This is where the author aims to show a
    relationship with something else in order to
    suggest that whatever is true for one will be true
    for the other.
            Ridicule and Abuse
   This language attempts to persuade the reader of
    an argument by putting down the opposition.
           Rhetorical Questions
   This is where the author asks a question that
    really doesn’t need an answer to reinforce their
    opinion (eg. Do you want this for your
Certain features of expository writing
            are essential:
   Begin with a strong introduction
   Keep your intended audience in mind when you
    are writing
   State your points confidently (decide in which
    order they will go to make the strongest impact)
   Begin each paragraph with a clear topic sentence
   Include relevant and accurate data taken from
    various sources (this might include statistics,
    examples, quotations and opinions)
   Logically argue your point
   Arrive at a satisfying conclusion that leaves the
    reader in no doubt as to your opinion
        What are some examples of
           expository writing?
   Newspaper editorials
   Letters to the Editor
   Some types of advertisements
   Opinionative articles
   Letters of complaint
   Speeches
   Recipes/Instruction manuals
 The aim of narrative writing is to tell a
 Narratives usually present characters
 involved in some action or conflict
 which engages the reader.
 Narrative writing aims to entertain but
 can also seek to inform or challenge
 the reader.
 Narrative writing can be imagined,
 factual or a combination of the two.
 The  language used may be casual or
 It can be written in first, second or
  third person perspective.
 The story can be linear, use
  flashbacks or include multiple plots.
  The narrative task I set my Year
 Your task is to write a narrative of
 between 400-1500 words. The topic is
 very flexible – somewhere within your
 narrative you must mention a red
 ipod. It may be the focus of your
 story, or it may just make a brief
 appearance at some point.
 The aim of the assignment is to create
 an anthology for publication using a
 narrative example from every member
 of the class. The symbol of the red
 ipod is the connecting link between
 each essay.
 Good  writers are able to paint word
 pictures of people, scenes and
 experiences for us and we, in turn,
 respond to the pictures their words
 have created in our minds.
      The task I set my Year 11s…
   Your task is to write a description of a person who is
    very important to you. It may be a grandparent, a
    neighbour, a friend, a parent – anyone who you hold in
    high regard.
   Imagine all the details about this person that make
    them so memorable. This should not just be a physical
    description (although that is often a good place to
    start); you could also describe the influence they have
    had on your life and include some memorable
   Remember that this is a descriptive essay, so
    you must focus on describing rather than just
    telling a story.
Year 11 Oral Task
Student examples using the
 Photostory programme…

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