Rethinking the US “Textile Industry

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					                             Rethinking the U.S.
                              “Textile Industry”
                   Subhash K. Batra
            NCRC, NCSU, Raleigh, NC, USA
             HCTAR, Cambridge, MA, USA
                   David Brookstein
       Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, USA
             HCTAR, Cambridge, MA, USA

Batra & Brookstein,  2002           Autex II       1
The Problem
         Public Image: “Textile industry is in demise.”
         View supported by many economic studies.

         Kiekens (AUTEX I) discussed the impact on textile
          education; offered “European Strategy”
         U.S. Response: Continually Evolving
               1.      TC*TC (1979 NSF study, 1981, DoC, labor unions, industry)
               2.      HCTAR (1990, Sloan Foundation)
               3.      NCRC (1991, NSF, NC, Industry)
               4.      NTC (1992, DoC…)
               5.      DoD initiatives, etc.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002                 Autex II                                2
Some Basic Questions
    What is “fiber?” “textile?”
    Fiber (fibra, ca. 1540): a unit of matter…flexibility, fineness, high
     length/thickness (e.g. T I – broad agreement).
           Min. length for spinnability requirements (e.g. ASTM) wood pulp
            fiber, monofilaments, wires?
    Textile (textilis, ca. 1626): a woven or knit cloth; fiber, filament, or
     yarn used in making cloth (MW);…generally applied to: (1)
     staple fibers and filaments…for conversion to or use as yarns, or
     for…nonwoven fabrics, (2) yarns…from natural or manufactured
     fibers, (3) fabrics and other…products made from fibers…, and
     from yarns, and (4) garments and other articles…from one or
     more of the above…, and…when the products retain the
     flexibility and drape of the original fabrics.” And, as an adjective
     the definition is: “of or pertaining to textiles.” (ASTM)

Batra & Brookstein,  2002             Autex II                               3
…even among the learned, no unanimity on definition nor clarity on
  what final products to include.

Why? The burden of history:
 Weaving (basketry)…Neo. cultures of 5000 BC
 Cotton, silk, wool, and flax fibers woven in Egypt, cotton in India
  and silk in China by 3000 BC [EB]
 Strings, ropes, nets, laces, knits followed.
 Cottage industry – few tools much labor.
 I R (1760-1840, England) ushered in steam power, factory
  system, technological inventions…birth of the textile industry.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002       Autex II                               4
    Before WWII: 1. Raw material from natural sources; 2. All fiber
     and end products consumed largely in clothing and furnishings.
    Ergo: fibers included in the definition of textiles…nowhere else
     to go.
    Was the farming sector part of the textile industry? No.
    Post WWII: chemical industry – regenerated-modified-
     synthesized polymeric fiber industry.
    Output focus: substitution market in textiles – inclusion in the
     textile industry.
    Post WWII, consolidation and expansion of the industry
     …emergence of large multi-divisional conglomerates, etc.
    Success of the manufactured fibers…broader range of
     products/markets…inclusion under the ever expanding “textile
     umbrella.” Ergo: complexity.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002       Autex II                           5
 Self-Perception (NAE 1983)

                                              Agriculture               Chemical

                                                     Fiber Production                                Fiber
                   Non Textile
                   Uses                                                                              Fiber
                                           Natural                          Man Made                 Imports

                                                            Yarn Production

                    Textile                            Fabric Production                             Yarn
                    Mills                                                                            Exports

                                                Weaving Knitting Non-Woven                           Yarn

                                                     Dyeing and Finishing

                                 Apparel             Home                              Industrial   Exports
                                                     Furnishings (H. F.)

                                                       Domestic Distribution
                                                       Wholesalers, Retailers


Batra & Brookstein,  2002                                       Autex II                                      6
    Acquisition of political clout (Rose 2000)
    Protection from international competition
       A. Import tariffs (1961…) STA, LTA
       B. Bilateral quota control MFA, etc.

And yet,
           …deficit continues to grow.
           (ATMI 2002) $60.76B in 2000, $62.46B in 2001; 5-6% textile, the
            rest is clothing.
           Enormous socio-economic impact – sad.

So what’s next?

Batra & Brookstein,  2002             Autex II                               7
Bad News/Good News
Bad News:
 The imperative: continuing improvement in global human well being –
   more even distribution of the economic pie – the international trade
   disputes will continue – the U.S. textile industry, as we know it, will
   continue to face competition…sheer market size of U.S. a strong

Good News:
 Per capita fiber consumption continues to grow: U.S. 88 lbs. (2000);
  World average about 19 lbs. (2000); PRC about 14 lbs. (2000)
 U.S. apparent fiber cons.: 24.3B lbs. (2000); mill fiber cons.: was
  about 16B lbs. (Feb. 2000). [52%, apparel and furnishings (not c & r);
  48% in c & r plus “industrial,” was 44% in 1995]

Data conservative…no glass, aramids, metal, fiber-optic, ceramic and
other specialty fibers.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002         Autex II                                  8
More Good News…
1.        Dr. Aneja has made a compelling case for the
          manufactured fiber industry.
2.        Fibers can be engineered to “meet” specs.
3.        Using them, products can be engineered to meet specs.

Evolution of fibers as engineering materials.

Looked at this way, the market for engineered fiber-based
products in 2000 was [Rigby 2002]:
      Americas ~ 5.08MM tons (3.4% p.a. to 2010)
      Global ~ 16.69MM tons (3.8% p.a. to 2010)

Batra & Brookstein,  2002      Autex II                      9
To gain a healthier perspective for
 the future, we need a paradigm

         The new paradigm:
      We are in the business of
   fibers and converting them into
      products useful to society.
Batra & Brookstein,  2002   Autex II   10
In the New Paradigm:
(Product vs. Technology)

                             Fiber Industry

       “Textile Industry”

                                  Engineering with Fibers,
                               Fiber-Based Products Industry
Batra & Brookstein,  2002           Autex II                  11
Fiber Industry
    Agriculture
           Plants/Trees
                  Seed (cotton, kapok, coconut)
                  Stem/trunk (wood pulp, bast fibers, Manila hemp)
                  Leaves (sisal, henequen, …)
           Animal hair (wool, cashmere, mohair, …)
    Manufactured (MF)
           Organic/Polymeric
                  Regenerated cellulose & derivatives (rayon, acetate, …)
                  Synthetic:
                            Aramids                 Nylons (N6, N66,…)
                            Acrylics/Modacrylics    Polyesters
                            Polyolefins             Carbon/Graphite
                            Elastomeric             PLA, etc.
           Inorganic
                  Glass (fiberglass, optical glass)
                  Metals (steel, copper, alloys…)
                  Ceramics
Batra & Brookstein,  2002                          Autex II                 12
                 EwF: Nonwovens (Fiberwebs, etc.)            EwF: Floor &              EwF: Ropes,
                                                             Wall Coverings            Cordage, Fishline

                 EwF: Reinforced “rigid” matrix                      EwF: Paper            EwF:
                 composites                                                                Communication

                 EwF: Flexible Reinforced
                 Rubber Composites

                                                       Fiber                      EwF: Engineered/Structured
                                                                                  Fibrous Pre-Forms
                   EwF: Pneumatic
                                                       Industry                   (Yarns/Wovens/ Knits/Braids
                                                                                  for Comm. Apparel, Interiors
                   Tires/Tyres                                                    & other Structural Use)

                                   “Textiles:” Wovens, Knits, Braids, etc. for Consumer Apparel
                                   & Residential Interiors

      * EwF: Reinforced “Rigid” Composites: As defined by FEB in 66 b. *EwF: Ropes, Cordage, Fishline,
  etc. As defined by FEB in 70 but include all ropes including marine ropes. *EwF: Floor & Wall Coverings: As
  defined by FEB in 51,52. *EwF: Pneumatic Tires: As defined by FEB in 63. *EwF: Flexible, Reinforced
  Rubber Composites: As defined by FEB in 64, 65.         *EwF: Paper: Wetlaid wood pulp.      * “Textiles:”
  Fabrics made by weaving, knitting, braiding, etc. (not nonwovens) for consumer apparel & accessories and
  residential furnishings. *EwF: yarns/wovens/knits/braids for engineered structural use, commercial interiors &
  apparel designed to meet strict, objectively measurable (engineering or performance) specifications. *Flexible,
  Reinforced Rubber Composites: As defined by FEB 64, 65. * Reinforced “Rigid” Composites: Relatively
  hard matrix reinforced by fibers, and/or precursor EwF structures, and/or Nonwovens.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002                                Autex II                                               13
Existence of independent trade unions, expressing divergent interests.

1.        INDA is trade association of the nonwovens industry.
2.        TAPPI is association for professionals working in the pulp and paper
          industry; it also often serves as a trade association.
3.        IFAI is a broad umbrella organization with the following divisions:
                      American Casual Furniture Fabric Association
                      Automotive Textiles, Plastics and Coatings Association
                      Banner & Flag Association
                      Geo-synthetic Materials Association
                      Marine Fabricators Association
                      Narrow Fabrics Institute
                      Professional Awning Manufacturers Association
                      Safety & Protective Products Division
                      Tent Rental Division
                      Truck Cover & Tarp Association
                      United States Industrial Fabrics Institute

Batra & Brookstein,  2002                        Autex II                      14
Justification?                       (continued)

4.        ATMI…represents “mill firms which operate machinery in the United
          States for the manufacture or processing of textile products (except
          those who produce man-made fibers and yarn by a chemical
5.        AFMA “is the trade association for U.S. companies that manufacture
          synthetic and cellulosic fibers.”
6.        Carpet and Rug Institute “is the national trade association
          representing the carpet and rug industry.”
7.        Dalton Floor Covering Market Association is an “association who’s
          goal is to market industry member services to the world.”
8.        The National Cotton Council and Cotton Incorporated, semi-
          governmental organizations devoted to the promotion of cotton and
          protecting interests of the cotton farmers.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002             Autex II                              15
    The schema recognizes fibers as engineering materials.

    Broadens the scope of the “Fiber Industry.”

    Restricted definition of “Textiles,” recognizes the economic
     importance of the other fiber-based products industries or
     “Engineering with Fibers Industry” and frees them from the
     instabilities and turmoil of the “textile-apparel” connection.

    Could facilitate better understanding of the supply chain
     relationships and strategic planning.

    Could provide educational institutions a better paradigm view for
     developing appropriate & focused programs to meet the human
     resource needs of the selected segments of the industry.

Batra & Brookstein,  2002         Autex II                           16
   Could facilitate development of the relevant design science…to
    gain competitive advantage in the market place.

   Need: a great deal more study and debate.

   Lead vs. follow.

   Join us.

   (;

Batra & Brookstein,  2002       Autex II                            17
    “Nothing will ever be attempted if all possible objections must be first
     overcome.” (Samuel Johnson)

    “Truth is ever to be found in the simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and
     confusion of things.” (Sir Isaac Newton)

    “A man with a new idea is a crank – until he succeeds.” (Mark Twain)

    “Thus, the task is, not so much to see what no one has yet seen; but to
     think what nobody has yet thought, about that which everybody sees.”
     (Erwin Schrodinger)

    “There must be no barriers to freedom on inquiry. There is no place for
     dogma in science. The scientist is free, and must be free to ask any
     question, to doubt any assertion, to seek for any evidence, to correct
     any errors.” (J. Robert Oppenheimer)

Batra & Brookstein,  2002             Autex II                                 18